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Sample records for araguaiana tocantins brasil

  1. Ensemble flood forecasting on the Tocantins River - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Collischonn, Walter; Jiménez, Karena; Sorribas, Mino; Buarque, Diogo; Siqueira, Vinicius

    2014-05-01

    The Tocantins River basin is located in the northern region of Brazil and has about 300.000 km2 of drainage area upstream of its confluence with river Araguaia, its major tributary. The Tocantins River is intensely used for hydropower production, with seven major dams, including Tucuruí, world's fourth largest in terms of installed capacity. In this context, the use of hydrological streamflow forecasts at this basin is very useful to support the decision making process for reservoir operation, and can produce benefits by reducing damages from floods, increasing dam safety and upgrading efficiency in power generation. The occurrence of floods along the Tocantins River is a relatively frequent event, where one recent example is the year of 2012, when a large flood occurred in the Tocantins River with discharge peaks exceeding 16.000m³/s, and causing damages to cities located along the river. After this flooding event, a hydrological forecasting system was developed and is operationally in use since mid-2012 in order to assist the decision making of dam operation along the river basin. The forecasting system is based on the MGB-IPH model, a large scale distributed hydrological model, and initially used only telemetric data as observed information and deterministic rainfall forecasts from the Brazilian Meteorological Forecasting Centre (CPTEC) with 7-days lead time as input. Since August-2013 the system has been updated and now works with two new features: (i) a technique for merging satellite TRMM real-time precipitation estimative with gauged information is applied to reduce the uncertainty due to the lack of observed information over a portion of the basin, since the total number of rain gages available is scarce compared to the total basin area; (ii) rainfall ensemble forecasts with 16-days lead time provided by the Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFs), from the 2nd Generation of NOAA Global Ensemble Reforecast Data Set, maintained by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-NOAA) of the United States, are added in the system as additional inputs. This system is one of the first operational ensemble forecasting systems in Brazil, and it is also one of the first based on mixed satellite-telemetric data. This work presents the Tocantins forecasting system and some hindcasting analysis of how recent floods could have been predicted with the use of the ensemble forecasts.

  2. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  3. [Leprosy trends in Tocantins, a hyperendemic State in the North of Brazil, 2001-2012].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Brito, Aline Lima; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-05-01

    Leprosy is hyperendemic in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze trends in leprosy indicators in Tocantins from 2001 to 2012, based on analysis of data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), including incident cases living in Tocantins. The study calculated leprosy indicators and analyzed time trends using polynomial regression. There was a significant downward trend in overall case detection (R2 = 0.40; p < 0.05) and proportion of paucibacillary cases (R2 = 0.81). Detection rates remained stable in individuals < 15 years (R2 = 0.48; p > 0.05) and cases with grade 2 physical disability (R2 = 0.37; p > 0.05), as did the proportion of grade 2 cases (R2 = 0.49; p > 0.05). There were significant increases in the proportions of cases with grade 1 disability (R2 = 0.82; p < 0.05) and multibacillary cases (R2 = 0.81; p < 0.05). Tocantins has regions with high transmission and late diagnosis of leprosy, indicating heterogeneous dissemination of the disease in the time trend analysis. PMID:26083172

  4. Ichthyofauna, fish supply and fishermen activities on the mid-Tocantins River, Maranhão State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garavello, J C; Garavello, J P; Oliveira, A K

    2010-08-01

    This article concerns an inventory of the ichthyofauna from the main channel of the mid-Tocantins River and studies on fisheries in this region including an evaluation of activities from Colônia de Pesca Z-35 of Estreito and Carolina in Tocantins and Maranhão States, Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. This study includes taxonomy and fishery data obtained from field collections and from interviews with the fishermen, carried out in March and July of 2001. The systematic record and fishery data were obtained from the most common species of the ichthyofauna of the mid-Tocantins River. A critical examination of fish resources from this area allows us to conclude that the large commercial species have decreased in number and are qualitatively reduced in that area of Tocantins. This fact may be a result of breaking the main channel of Tocantins, first by the hydroelectric power dam of Tucurui, twenty years ago, followed by the formation of the hydroelectric reservoirs of Lageado, Peixe Angical and Serra da Mesa, that transformed the main channel of Tocantins into a successive cascade of reservoirs. Those events may perhaps modify the profile of the fish community in that area. The obtained data also permit an examination of fisheries in the area, providing an appraisal on forthcoming problems that will be faced by fishermen of Colônia de Pesca Z-35. PMID:20730344

  5. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males. PMID:26287270

  6. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  7. Rhinolekos capetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9th vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24–28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekos capetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekos capetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1–13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  8. C and O isotope analysis of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic dolomitic limestones from Natividade Group - Tocantins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Isabela

    2015-04-01

    Natividade Group outcrops in southeastern Tocantins, a state in Brazil. Geologically, it corresponds to one of the sedimentary sequences that sets the Brasília fold and thrust belt. It represents a fining-upward sequence, where conglomerate prevails on the base, siltstones and limestones on the top. Initially, Natividade Group was believed to have been deposited in intracontinental rift environment, developed after a Rhyacian orogeny. This interpretation was supported by the fact that Natividade Group lays discordantly over the Rhyacian granitic basement and by existence of coeval and vicinal rocks from Araí Group. Araí Group is a well described rift-sequence, dated Staterian by volcanic intercalations. Natividade Group, on the contrary, has no intercalation of volcanic rocks and was recently interpreted as a platformal sequence by other authors. C and O isotope data from dolomitic limestones directly in contact with granitic basement were obtained in laminated and massif samples and corroborate this hypothesis. Samples are from a small hill called Morro do Mutum. Results found show δ18OV -SMOWvalues from+19.51 to +23.85 (δ18OV -PDB between -11.01 and -6.63) and values of δ13CV -PDB are between -0.94 and +2.99. These data are coherent with values expected for marine carbonates, which δ13CV -PDBsignature is around zero, or slightly positive. Similarly, δ18OPDB resultsare also consistent with values observed in marine carbonates, although δ18OPDB data are more ambiguous, knowing its variation is wide in the various reservoirs. Differences between Natividade and Araí Gorups are important to estimate the paleogeography of the region. While the former corresponds to a platformal deposit, the latter filled rifts within the continent. This continent is the São Francisco craton, one of the landmasses that would collide in the Neoproterozoic, forming fold and thrust belts. Brasília belt is one of them.

  9. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  10. A new variety of Declieuxia cucuminis (Rubiaceae) from the state of Tocantins, Brazil, and a review of the varieties recognized in the species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new variety of Declieuxia cacuminis Mll. Arg. is described and illustrated, D. cacuminis var. tocantinensis Delprete & J.H. Kirkbr. The new variety is endemic to the Brazilian state of Tocantins, and has been reported from cerrado vegetation in the southeastern corner of the state....

  11. Molecular variability in Brycon cf. pesu Müller and Troschel, 1845 (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Araguaia-Tocantins Basin.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Júlio, H F; Agostinho, C S; Prioli, L M

    2008-01-01

    Brycon pesu is a small-sized fish distributed throughout the Amazon and Orinoco Basins and other coastal basins of northeastern South America. Brycon cf. pesu specimens from the Araguaia-Tocantins Basin are currently separated into two morphotypes, Brycon sp1 and Brycon sp2, owing to different coloration of their anal fin. Brycon sp2 has a reddish margin stripe on the anal fin which morphologically distinguishes it from Brycon sp1. In the present research, nuclear and mitochondrial markers were used to test the hypothesis that the Brycon sp1 and Brycon sp2 morphotypes are distinct species. Specimens from the two morphotypes were collected from the Lajeado Hydroelectric Plant and the Palmas River in the Araguaia-Tocantins Basin. Thirty-five loci obtained by the amplification of five inter-simple sequence repeat primers were analyzed but no species-specific bands were detected. Electrophoretic profiles obtained from 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer amplification failed to show any differentiation in morphotypes. These results were corroborated by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mtDNA control region, in which 24 polymorphic nucleotide sites, representing a polymorphism rate of only 5%, were detected. The low rates of polymorphism detected by inter-simple sequence repeat, non-transcribed spacer and mtDNA D-loop markers strongly reject the hypothesis that the two morphotypes Brycon sp1 and Brycon sp2 represent distinct species within Brycon cf. pesu. Further studies are needed to obtain conclusive data on the notion that the coloration of the anal fin is an intraspecific polymorphism, possibly related to environmental factors. PMID:18273825

  12. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  13. Phlebotomine Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of Leishmaniases in Impacted Area by Hydroelectric Plant, State of Tocantins, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although leishmaniases are regarded as serious public health issues in the State of Tocantins, as consequence of the impact of environmental changes, small advances in taxonomic and ecological studies of Phlebotominae fauna are taking place in this state. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge about the sand flies, as well as about the aspects of the bioecology of leishmaniases vectors from Porto Nacional, a city that was directly impacted by the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant (HEP – Lajeado). Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were collected monthly using CDC light traps and Shannon traps for a period of 40 consecutive months, at different monitoring stations, where 7162 specimens were collected and 48 species were detected. Among the species found, 22 are first records in the state and seven are considered important vectors of leishmaniases. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) showed higher frequency in urban compared to rural areas, and Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), predominated in rural areas. The frequency and habits of sand fly vectors are discussed considering environmental characteristics and climatic factors. Conclusions/Significance The construction of dams requires a great amount of labor, therefore attracting people from elsewhere. Increased migration, without adequate structure, leads to bad living conditions in new and unplanned settlements. It also leads to deforestation associated with environmental impacts, which can facilitate the spread of leishmaniases. This study discusses the importance of Lu. longipalpis and Ny. whitmani on the transmission cycles of leishmaniases in Porto Nacional and the record of Bi. flaviscutellata in periurban area of the city. PMID:22163271

  14. Current situation of the ichnological locality of São Domingos from the Corda Formation (Lower Cretaceous), northern Tocantins state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Valais, S.; Candeiro, C. R.; Tavares, L. F.; Alves, Y. M.; Cruvinel, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the 80's, Leonardi treated the presence of a vertebrate ichnological locality from the Barremian Corda Formation, Parnaíba Basin, on the left bank of the Tocantins river, near of the São Domingos town, Itaguatins, State of Tocantins, Brazil. Originally, the record was composed of at least seven in situ trackways, accounting for fifty six tracks. Since 2011, the Hydroelectric Power Plant do Estreito has begun to work, causing the development of a water reservoir 160 km upstream to the ichnological site, causing periodic and highly energetic floods over the footprints-bearing level and altering it. The imprints are poorly to moderate preserved, but it is possible to distinguish the general morphology and the spatial arrangement of the footprints. The specimens are represented by pes imprints, mostly circular to subcircular, with no digital and claw impressions. No distinguishable manus imprints are present. The trackways are relative narrow with respect to the size of the tracks, so they are considered into the Parabrontopodus-like category. The São Domingos tracks have been originally assigned to iguanodontid dinosaurs, and posteriorly related to a sauropodian origin. This idea is herein accepted, particularly to a basal sauropod, basal macronarians, or diplodocoids. Up to date, the tracks from the São Domingos locality are the only vertebrate fossil record from the Corda Formation, meaning an important contribution to the Cretaceous ichnofauna from South America.

  15. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T. gondii in the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PMID:26558622

  16. Description of a New Phlebotomine Species of the Brazilian Cerrado from Sandstone Caves in Tocantins State, Brazil: Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) elizabethrangelae sp. nov. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Vilela, M L; Azevedo, A C R; Godoy, R E

    2015-07-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) elizabethrangelae sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the morphological characters of male and female specimens captured in sandstone caves in the municipality of Palmeirpolis, in the southern region of Tocantins state. The samples were collected as part of an entomological vector-monitoring project during the construction of the Peixe Angical Hydroelectric Plant. Based on the morphological characters of the new species, we believe this species can be included in the subgenus Lutzomyia. This species is closely related to two others, Lutzomyia forattinii Galati et al. 1985 and Lutzomyia almerioi Galati and Nunes 1999. The new species can be distinguished from Lutzomyia forattinii and Lutzomyia almerioi by the morphological characteristics of the male genitalia and the female cibarium. PMID:26335465

  17. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

  18. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  19. Recent results with radioactive ion beams in Brasil (RIBRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Descouvemont, P.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. Pampa; Assunção, M. M.; Scarduelli, V.; Gasques, L. R.; Zamora, J. C.

    2012-10-01

    The RIBRAS facility (Radiactive Ion Beams in Brasil) is installed next to the 8 MV Pelletron Tandem of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo. It consists of two superconducting solenoids with maximum magnetic field of B=6.5T. Light radioactive ion beams are produced through transfer reactions, using solid or gaseous production targets of Be, LiF, 3He etc. The solenoids make a magnetic rigidity selection and the use of the two solenoids with a degrader between them allows the production of quite pure secondary beams. Beams of 6He, 8Li, 7Be, 10Be, 8B, 12B are currently produced and used to study elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions on a variety of light, medium mass and heavy secondary targets. Some examples of reactions recently studied are presented below.

  20. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila M A; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008-10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012-14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  1. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  2. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Avana Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avana Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avana Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avana Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  4. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  5. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  6. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013. PMID:22234482

  7. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  8. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  9. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

  10. Seasonal variation in black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) taxocenoses from the Brazilian Savannah (Tocantins, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ronaldo; Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Monteiro, Ricardo F

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of blackfly larvae on a mesohabitat scale atfour different breeding sites in the Brazilian savannah "Cerrado." A total of 2,385 larvae of 12 different species were collected, and three of the sampling sites revealedspecies richness and diversity peaks in April. A principal components analysis was performed to reduce abiotic data into a smaller set of independent variables, such as precipitation and river size, and subsequent linear regressions showed that Simulium subpallidum was positively correlated with precipitation. This species, along with S. nigrimanum, was negatively correlated withriver size, whereasS. perflavum was negatively correlated with precipitation. Beta diversity was negatively correlated withprecipitation, and black fly taxocenoses were markedly different between wet and dry seasons, as shown through nonmetric multidimensional scaling, suggesting that precipitation playsa major role in structuring these communities, probably because of enhanced drift and the dendritic nature of lotic metacommunities. PMID:25424261

  11. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Myrcia Sellowiana in Tocantins, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred forty six isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from leaves and branches of the medicinal plant, Myrcia sellowiana, in Brazil. All isolates were purified on PDA and the strains were grouped into 51 morphotypes. Each isolate was tested for production of volatiles and agar diffusib...

  12. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  13. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay. PMID:21516642

  14. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  15. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  16. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  17. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  19. Evaluation of CO2 flux modification as a function of aerosol optical depth at Bananal Island, Tocantins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghiere, Renato K.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bananal Island is a flooded ecotonal area between the Amazon rain forest and the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). It is the largest fluvial island in the world and an ecological protected area. However, the surrounding areas are burned to expand agricultural and cattle farmer productions. During the dry season, large amounts of aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere interacting with solar radiation. The diffuse part of the light can penetrate better into complex canopies enhancing the ecosystem productivity, a phenomenon known as "The Diffuse Fertilization Effect". Considering a time frame of one year, the ecosystems productivity is mainly controlled by meteorological variables like temperature, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), etc, and by the natural cycles of vegetation (circadian cycles). The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) technique was used in this study to determinate the influence of smoke on CO2 flux at this site.

  20. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea from Peixe Angical dam, Tocantins, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Environmental changes from water resource developmental projects affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases, as well as malaria and schistosomiasis. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Peixe Angical hydroelectric dam, a survey has been conducted over four years (2004-2008). The study has revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker) in all municipalities surrounding the lake. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using 35 populations of B. straminea, descendants of specimens obtained from that area and three strains of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon) (BH, CM and CMO). The main results are as follows: (i) among the 1,314 specimens used, eight had been infected (infection index of 0.6%) with only the BH strain, (ii) for B. straminea populations, the mortality index was 6.8% and, depending on the strain used, the indexes were 4.6%, 8.49% and 19% with BH, CM and CMO strains, respectively, (iii) the infection indexes varied according to the B. straminea populations, ranging from 0-12.5% and (iv) the duration of the precercarial period varied from 25-49 days. These results, in addition to environmental and social changes that took place in the Peixe Angical dam region, indicate the possibility of B. straminea emerging as a schistosomiasis vector in this area. PMID:20721496

  1. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies. PMID:26585750

  2. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  3. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Härter Griep, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors suggest night work as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the inconclusive data on gender differences in the associations. PMID:26731697

  4. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  5. Acute suicidal ideation in middle-aged adults from Brazil. Results from the baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Brunoni, André R; Nunes, Maria A; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-02-28

    Suicidal ideation represents an important burden worldwide. However, little is known about it in low-/middle-income countries. We investigated this issue in a large cross-sectional of Brazilian civil servants (ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Health Longitudinal Study, n=15,105). Logistic univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the strength of association (odds ratio, OR) between clinical and sociodemographic variables with acute life-weariness (tiredness of life) and suicidal thoughts. The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (CMDs), stressful life-events (SLEs) and poor self-perceived physical health was also collected. MDD and CMDs were strongly associated with suicidal ideation in univariate and multivariate analyses. For life-weariness thoughts, a modest, consistent association was found for female gender, being single, non-White ethnicity and poor education. SLEs and poor self-perceived physical health were also associated with suicidal ideation. Espiritism-Kardecism, but not other religions or Atheism/Agnosticism, was associated with lower rates of life-weariness and suicidal thoughts. To conclude, suicidal ideation does not differ in Brazil compared to developed countries, being primarily associated with psychiatric disorders and, to a lesser but significant extent, to social disadvantage, SLEs, poor self-perceived health and being single. PMID:25510906

  6. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  7. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  8. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  9. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  10. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  11. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis. PMID:25978631

  12. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  13. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  14. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  15. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  16. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this association was not mediated by these factors, suggesting that other pathways might play a role, especially among men. PMID:25309988

  17. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  18. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, Física e Astronomia. Tal panorama histórico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreensão sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a memória do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país. Entendemos que o histórico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

  19. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  20. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  1. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  2. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;

  3. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  4. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  5. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  6. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

  7. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  8. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su formación. Aparte de eso, los datos levantados en este trabajo apuntan para un número bajo de afiliados a la SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) en los cursos investigados. Se verificó que tener astrónomos en una institución no implica tener una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía en el curso de licenciatura en Física. Este artigo é o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a formação básica em Astronomia nos cursos de Licenciatura em Física que fizeram o exame nacional ENADE 2011. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar se há disciplinas de Astronomia nesses cursos, se ela é obrigatória ou optativa/eletiva, qual a sua carga horária e o período em que é oferecida. Pesquisou-se também a relação entre astrônomos, cursos de Licenciatura em Física e disciplinas de Astronomia. Para realizar essa pesquisa utilizamos os dados do ENADE 2011 e também do censo da Astronomia brasileira. Como resultado, se observa que em apenas 15% dos cursos existe uma disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia e que há uma grande probabilidade de que 85% dos professores de Física formados em 2011 não cursaram nenhuma disciplina de Astronomia durante a graduação. Além disso, os dados levantados nesse trabalho apontam um baixo número de filiados à SAB nos cursos pesquisados. Identifica-se que ter astrônomos na instituição não implica em disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia no curso de Licenciatura em Física.

  9. Rivers, refuges and population divergence of fire-eye antbirds (Pyriglena) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Coelho, M; Blake, J G; Silveira, L F; Batalha-Filho, H; Ricklefs, R E

    2013-05-01

    The identification of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that might account for the elevated biotic diversity in tropical forests is a central theme in evolutionary biology. This issue is especially relevant in the Neotropical region, where biological diversity is the highest in the world, but where few studies have been conducted to test factors causing population differentiation and speciation. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine the genetic structure within white-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) populations along the Tocantins River valley in the south-eastern Amazon Basin, and we confront the predictions of the river and the Pleistocene refuge hypotheses with patterns of genetic variation observed in these populations. We also investigated whether these patterns reflect the recently detected shift in the course of the Tocantins River. We sampled a total of 32 individuals east of, and 52 individuals west of, the Tocantins River. Coalescent simulations and phylogeographical and population genetics analytical approaches revealed that mtDNA variation observed for fire-eye populations provides little support for the hypothesis that populations were isolated in glacial forest refuges. Instead, our data strongly support a key prediction of the river hypothesis. Our study shows that the Tocantins River has probably been the historical barrier promoting population divergence in fire-eye antbirds. Our results have important implications for a better understanding of the importance of large Amazonian rivers in vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics. PMID:23442128

  10. SSR characterization of Oryza glumaepatula populations from the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Rosa, Thalita Marra; Borba, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The level and distribution of the genetic variability in 18 natural populations of Oryza glumaepatula that were collected from two Brazilian states were estimated using a set of 23 highly informative SSR markers. Samples comprising 78 and 117 individuals from populations of the states of Tocantins and Roraima, respectively, were evaluated in order to integrate and support previous studies that were carried out with populations of O. glumaepatula from Brazil. A total of 189 alleles were identified with an average of 8.22 alleles per locus. The 11 populations from Roraima presented, in combination, a higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.245) compared with that of the seven populations from Tocantins (HE = 0.212). All of the populations showed high and significant inbreeding values (mean f = 0.59); however, the mean was higher in Tocantins populations, indicating a higher gene flow in Roraima populations. The overall coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations was high and significant (0.59) and was higher in Tocantins due to the isolation of each population, in contrast to Roraima, where gene flow occurred more frequently. The SSR panel used in this work resulted to be informative (polymorphism information content = 0.201) for assessing genetic structure in O. glumaepatula populations. PMID:25944782

  11. Does offshore crustal taper control an onshore topographic displacement gradient in SE Brasil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn

    2015-04-01

    The SE Brasilian Serras da Mantiqueira and do Mar topographic envelopes exhibit coast-parallel displacement gradients typical of linked normal faults in extending terrain. Between southern Curitiba and Cabo Frio, coast-perpendicular profiles show the distance from the maximum escarpment elevation to the likely location of the extended margin's flexural/rheological coupling point (Taper Break, or TB) is inversely correlative to the height of the escarpment. The correlation is similar to previously-published scaling relationships derived from Scandinavian and global datasets. Although Precambrian ductile shear zones guided brittle phase faulting during Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic margin uplift, the primary control governing fault reactivation and source-to-sink evolution of the SE Brasilian rifted margin seems rooted in crustal thinning. We see two lines of interest for petroleum exploration: Preferential reactivation of high angle faults at sharply-tapered margin sectors is expected to guide onshore to offshore sediment routing along margin-parallel corridors, and (should the TB-escarpment correlation be better validated with proposed analyses of high-quality marine geophysical datasets) a partial constraint upon architectural end member interpretations of deep crustal structure may be contemplated.

  12. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  13. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  14. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  15. New observations on seuratoid nematodes parasitic in fishes of the Paraná River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Kohn, A; Fernandes, B M

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes of the superfamily Seuratoidea collected from fishes of the Paraná River, southern Brazil, in 1992-1995. The following species were recorded: Neoparaseuratum travassosi Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1992, Spectatus sp., Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae, Cucullanus brevispiculus Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993, C. pinnai pinnai Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, C. pinnai pterodorasi subsp. n., C. rhamphichthydis sp. n., C. zungaro Vaz et Pereira, 1934, and Dichelyne pimelodi sp. n. C. pinnai pterodorasi (type host Pterodoras granulosus) differs from C. p. pinnai in the shape of the oesophagus and in the position of the nerve ring. C. rhamphichthydis (only females) (type host Rhamphichthys rostratus) is characterized mainly by the postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids, complex structure of the cuticular lining of oesophastome and by markedly narrow body, whereas D. pimelodi (one male) (type host Pimelodus sp.) by the length of spicules (1.46 mm), postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids and by the arrangement of genital papillae. Most species are briefly described (females of C. brevispiculus and Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae for the first time) and illustrated and some problems concerning their taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. PMID:9332979

  16. Astrometry and numerical methods for the solar heliometer at Observatorio Nacional in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Boscardin, S.; Penna, J.; Sigismondi, C.; Reis Neto, E.; d'Avila, V.

    2015-08-01

    Started its regular, daily operational phase in 2011, the results so far obtained show that the Heliometer from Observatorio Nacional (O.N.) fulfilled its planed performance of single measurement to the level of few tens of mas, freely pivoting around the heliolatitudes without systematic deviations or error enhancement. Such fruition led to evaluate high order terms that are commonly neglected in other solar astrometric observations. Namely, these are: the constancy of the basic heliometric angle, the dependence to meteorological and pointing conditions, the second order terms for diurnal aberration and parallax, the accounting of the Earth's ellipticity of the orbit, and the second order atmospheric refraction. We present and discuss these astrometric additions that are seldom required on ground base astronomic programs.

  17. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  18. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  19. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  20. Microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) bioaccumulation in fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay (Brasil, RJ).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, V F; Marinho, M M; Domingos, P; Oliveira, A C; Costa, S M; Azevedo, L O; Azevedo, S M F O

    2003-09-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria in water bodies cause serious environmental problems and the occurrence of toxic strains are also related with the human health. Aquatic animals could bioaccumulate microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) and so, beyond water, the ingestion of contaminated food represents a human health risk. Recently, WHO recommended a maximum concentration of microcystins (MCYSTs) in drinking water and established the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for consumption of cyanobacteria products contends MCYSTs (0.04 microg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)). Sepetiba Bay is located in the municipal districts of Rio de Janeiro, Mangaratiba and Itaguai; being an important place of fishing activity. Due to the industrial development in the area, this bay is submitted to different environmental impacts, increasing the organic and industrial pollution. A strain of the nanoplanktonic cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis f. aquatilis that produce MCYSTs was already isolated. In this study, we verified MCYSTs presence in muscle tissue of fish and crustaceans, which were harvested monthly in Sepetiba Bay during 11 months, in order to evaluate the potential risk of their ingestion. MCYSTs were analyzed by immunoassay techniques using the ELISA Microcystin Plate Kit (ENVIROLOGIX INC) and the concentration were expressed as microcystin-LR equivalent. The analyses of seston samples, water, muscle tissues showed the presence of this cyanotoxin in all samples and it was verified that 19% of the animals' samples were above the limit recommended by WHO for human consumption. The maximum value found was of 103.3 microg kg(-1) (TDI 0.52 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) and the minimum, was 0.25 microg kg(-1) in crabs muscle tissue (TDI of 0.001 microg kg(-1) day(-1)). Such data demonstrate that, although in low concentrations, there is already a contamination of fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay. We highlight that the recommended limit refers to healthy adult. PMID:14559080

  1. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  2. Revalidation of Saguinus ursula Hoffmannsegg (Primates: Cebidae: Callitrichinae).

    PubMed

    Gregorin, Renato; De Vivo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we review the taxonomy of Saguinus niger (É. Geoffroy) and revalidate Saguinus ursula Hoffmannsegg as a distinct species. The revalidation is based on pelage coloration, and the pattern of morphological divergence is corroborated by molecular data. Samples from the east bank of the Tocantins River (S. ursulus) were distinct from specimens of S. niger from the west bank in having mid-dorsal hair with an wide (5.0-55 mm) intermediary band of bright and golden buffy color; long (ca. 23-26 mm) dorsal hair at the inter-scapular region; and naked (not noticeably haired) face, hands and fingers. Saguinus ursulus and S. niger are allopatric, and Tocantins River is putatively acting as an effective barrier for gene flow. A lectotype to S. ursulus from syntypes was designated. PMID:26120667

  3. A discussion about the causes of the intraplate seismicity in the Central Brazil from P-wave travel-time tomography results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres Rocha, M.; Azevedo, P. A. D.; Schimmel, M.; Fuck, R. A.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The study of the intraplate seismicity is very important to help the understanding of the neotectonic processes. We present a discussion of the possible causes of intraplate seismicity in the region of Tocantins Province in Brazil from recent P- and S-wave seismic tomography results. The regional stress field in South America (SA) is dominated by compressions in east-west direction (Zoback, 1992). The origin of this system of tensions is mainly related to the formation of the South American plate from the mid-Atlantic ridge, and resistive forces exerted by the subduction of Caribbean and Nazca plate (Mendiguren & Richter, 1978; Coblentz & Richardson, 1996). Assumpção et al. (2004) that high seismicity regions in SA is due to the weakness of the lithosphere with his thinning. This hypothesis is based on the coincidence between seismic tomographic low-velocity anomalies and events locations, which could be indicate regions of lithospheric thinning. According to this model, stresses would be concentrated uniformly in depth along the lithosphere. In regions with thicker lithosphere, the intensity of the focused stress would be smaller than the thinner regions. Thus, the crust in regions of thinner lithosphere concentrates more intense stresses promoting a higher seismicity. We observed in the Tocantins Province, in Central Brazil, the same pattern observed in the work of Assumpção et al. (2004). The region of low velocity in the Tocantins Province center is usually accompanied by a high concentration of seismic events following the direction of the Transbrasiliano Lineament. Thus, this lineament could be reactivated by stresses accumulated in the crust due to thin lithosphere. Assumpção & Sacek (2013) proposed that flexural stresses from uncompensated lithospheric loads are high enough to explain the seismic zone, which continues for the northern part of the Tocantins Province. The improvement of the tomography results suggest that lithospheric thinning is still important to explain intraplate seismicity in the Central Brazil.

  4. Spatial patterns of leprosy in a hyperendemic state in Northern Brazil, 2001-2012

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Brito, Aline Lima; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial patterns of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. METHODS This study was based on morbidity data obtained from the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN – Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System), of the Ministry of Health. All new leprosy cases in individuals residing in the state of Tocantins, between 2001 and 2012, were included. In addition to the description of general disease indicators, a descriptive spatial analysis, empirical Bayesian analysis and spatial dependence analysis were performed by means of global and local Moran’s indexes. RESULTS A total of 14,542 new cases were recorded during the period under study. Based on the annual case detection rate, 77.0% of the municipalities were classified as hyperendemic (> 40 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Regarding the annual case detection rate in < 15 years-olds, 65.4% of the municipalities were hyperendemic (10.0 to 19.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants); 26.6% had a detection rate of grade 2 disability cases between 5.0 and 9.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was a geographical overlap of clusters of municipalities with high detection rates in hyperendemic areas. Clusters with high disease risk (global Moran’s index: 0.51; p < 0.001), ongoing transmission (0.47; p < 0.001) and late diagnosis (0.44; p < 0.001) were identified mainly in the central-north and southwestern regions of Tocantins. CONCLUSIONS We identified high-risk clusters for transmission and late diagnosis of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. Surveillance and control measures should be prioritized in these high-risk municipalities. PMID:26603352

  5. Combined use of the centroid and matched filtering spectral magnetic methods in determining thermomagnetic characteristics of the crust in the structural provinces of Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, S. N. P.; Ravat, D.; Hamza, V. M.

    2014-06-01

    Spectral analysis of data acquired in twelve different aeromagnetic surveys of central Brazil has led to new insights in the magnetic characteristics of the lithosphere in the structural provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco. Since centroid-based spectral magnetic methods do not model the spectrum explicitly, they are used for the first time in conjunction with the matched filtering spectral modeling method to verify that appropriate slope segments are fit when determining source depths. The Tocantins province is characterized by subdued variations in the thickness of magnetized layers, most of which may be associated with structural discontinuities and subcrustal intrusions. In contrast, variations in thickness of magnetized crustal layers are more prevalent in the São Francisco province. The depths to the bottom of magnetized crust in the Tocantins province are, in general, less than 30-35 km, whereas they reach depths greater than 40 km in the São Francisco province. In parts of São Francisco craton, the depths to the bottom of magnetized crust are greater than the crustal thickness determined from seismic refraction and receiver function studies. However, these are indistinguishable in terms of resolution of the two methods. Analysis of heat flow data and results of thermal modeling indicate depths of Curie isotherms consistent with estimates from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. Hence the possibility that the uppermost part of mantle under the São Francisco craton may be ferromagnetic cannot be dismissed.

  6. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  7. Spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brasil, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C D; Assunção, R M; Reis, I A; Proietti, F A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present spatial analysis of the association between all incidents cases of human Visceral Leishmaniasis and seropositive dogs, from 1994 to 1997 in Belo Horizonte, a large Brazilian city. We geocoded 158 human cases and 11,048 seropositive dogs and compared canine prevalence rates with Human Bayesian Incidence rates in the same areas. We also used Knox's test to evaluate the hypothesis of space-time clustering of human cases in the period. Additionally, we used Kernel's maps for seropositive dogs distribution and located the human cases in the resulting smooth maps. We concluded that human and dog rates are correlated. Also, the Visceral Leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte spread quickly, but apart from the rates' magnitude, it has kept the same spatial pattern through time. We believe it is possible to use this technique to choose areas to implement control measures against Visceral Leishmaniasis in a more efficient way. PMID:11679897

  8. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  9. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mrio Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cndido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastio Venncio; Barreto, Francisco Cndido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mrio Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  10. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a Sister Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir Reis; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a sister species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group. PMID:26787157

  12. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-11-01

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.

  13. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment. PMID:26617112

  14. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  15. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  16. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  17. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  18. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  19. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  20. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  1. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lemos, Sara P; Passos, Valria Maria A; Brant, Luisa C C; Bensenor, Isabela J M; Ribeiro, Antnio Luiz P; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association.We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (??=?0.05, P?=?0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors.We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable. PMID:26287431

  2. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

  4. Physical demands during the hauling of fishing nets for artisan fishing using rafts in beach of Ponta Negra, Natal--Brasil.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Anelena; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba

    2012-01-01

    The current article aims to analyse the activity and the repercussions in the health of the artisan fishermen who use rafts in the urban Beach of Ponta Negra in Natal - RN, with emphasis on the physical demands at the step of hauling the nets from the ocean. It has been taken as a reference the methodology of Work Ergonomic Analysis-WEA. 21 fishermen participated in the study (50% of the population). It was used applying observational techniques and methodologies (open and sistematic observations and simulations) interactional ( social and economic questionnaire, conversational actions, verbalizations, self confrontations and collective analysis) and health assessment (static postural assessment, movement flexibility of flexo extension of the shoulder and the ischiotibial muscle, lumbar region and hang grip. Applying the diagram of painful areas and the Nordic Questionnaire of mucleskeletal symptoms). The results were submeted to restitutions and validations with the raftmen. The hauling of the nets represents a high muscleskeletal risk, joining physical effort, adopting forced postures with the rotation of the spine and movement repetition, mainly flexo extension of vertebral spine, aggravated by the demand of strength fo the stabilizing muscles of the human body to keep the poise. The impacts of the activity of the fisherman of Ponta Negra, related to postures and strength demand were observed in the postural assessment and are related to the activity. PMID:22316760

  5. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  6. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and SoPaulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flvia Batista; Campos, Mnica Rodrigues; Gonalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL. PMID:26910157

  7. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  8. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants. PMID:24741469

  9. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions. PMID:21153639

  10. Genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Gomes, V N; Júlio, H F; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Boni, T A; Prioli, L M

    2012-06-01

    The genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus from four Neotropical hydrographic basins was assessed using the hypervariable domain of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Plagioscion squamosissimus is native to the neighbouring hydrographic basins of the Parnaíba and Amazon Rivers, and the latter includes the Araguaia-Tocantins drainage, but it is invasive in other basins due to introductions. The mtDNA nucleotide polymorphism supported the hypothesis that the Amazon and Parnaíba populations constitute the same species and are separated into two independent evolutionary lineages. Absence of nucleotide polymorphism was observed within and among P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the uppper and middle Paraná River basins. Nucleotide divergence was null or low comparing the Paraná invasive populations with the populations native to the Parnaíba River basin, whereas it was significantly high compared to Tocantins populations. These results ascertain that P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and to the middle Paraná River basin downstream of the Itaipu dam are derived from the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented are potentially useful to assist further studies on P. squamosissimus taxonomic and geographic distribution, development of ecological guidelines for managing populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and for preservation of native fish diversity. PMID:22650426

  11. Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, U. G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

  12. A New Cryptic Species of South American Freshwater Pufferfish of the Genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), Based on Both Morphology and DNA Data

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Cesar R. L.; Brito, Paulo M.; Silva, Dayse A.; Carvalho, Elizeu F.

    2013-01-01

    The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected. PMID:24040239

  13. Diversity and microdistribution of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) assemblages in the tropical savanna streams of the Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-05-01

    We describe the abiotic factors affecting the distribution of black flies at a microhabitat scale, rather than at the regional scale usually present in the literature on the Neotropics. Black fly larvae were sampled from the Tocantins River and three tributaries, located in the Brazilian savanna (state of Tocantins, Brazil) during six bi-monthly sampling periods from October 2004-August 2005. At each sampling site, 15 random quadrats (30 x 30 cm) were sampled each period and for each quadrat were determined mean water velocity, predominant substrate type (rocks, riffle litter or riparian vegetation) and depth detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to determine associations with current velocity, whereas correspondence analysis (CA) was used to estimate site specific current velocity associations. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to identify general microhabitat associations. The CCA showed that most species had a trend towards riffle litter, except for Simulium nigrimanum associated with rocky substrate and Simulium cuasiexiguum associated with riparian vegetation. The DCA showed a well defined pattern of water velocity associations. The CA revealed that the species showed different speed associations from one site to another, suggesting different competitive pressures resulting in the occurrence of different realized niches. PMID:22510832

  14. Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  15. Population genetic structure of the blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae: Aves) based on nuclear microsatellite loci: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Leite, K C E; Seixas, G H F; Berkunsky, I; Collevatti, R G; Caparroz, R

    2008-01-01

    The blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) is a widely distributed Neotropical parrot and one of the most captured parrots in nature to supply the illegal trade of wild animals. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the genetic structure of A. aestiva to identify management units and support conservation planning and to verified if A. aestiva populations have undergone a recent bottleneck due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. The genetic structure was accessed by analyzing six microsatellite loci in 74 individuals of A. aestiva, including samples from the two subspecies (A. a. aestiva and A. a. xanthopteryx), from five populations: four in Brazil and one in Argentina. A significant genetic differentiation (theta = 0.007, p = 0.005) could be detected only between the most distant populations, Tocantins and Argentina, localized at the northeast and southwest limits of the sample sites, respectively. There was no evidence of inbreeding within or between populations, suggesting random mating among individuals. These results suggest a clinal distribution of genetic variability, as observed for variation in plumage color of the two A. aestiva subspecies. Bottleneck analysis did not show a recent reduction in population size. Thus, for the management and conservation of the species, the populations from Argentina and Tocantins should be considered as different management units, and the other populations from the center of the geographical distribution as another management unit. PMID:18949701

  16. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado. PMID:25590705

  17. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-11-28

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado. PMID:25424041

  18. Poisson ratio map of Brazil: Data compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G.; Bianchi, M.; Pavo, C.; Moreira, L. P.; Farrapo Albuquerque, D.; Peres Rocha, M.; Marotta, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a Poisson ration map of Brazil based on a compilation of data published in the literature as well as new measurements. We only used Poisson ration derived from receiver function analyses deep seismic refraction experiments . Our compilation shows that the crust in the stable continental area onshore has an Poisson ratio of 0.24 +- 0.03. The Poisson ratio highest is found along boundary with three provinces; Sao Francisco craton, Tocantins belt and Parana basin. Prelimary results have not clear difference can be observed between low altitude, intracratonic sedimentary basins, NeoProterozoic foldbelts and cratonic aeas. Although sparse in data coverage, we expect the resulting Poisson ratio map to be useful for future studies of isostasy, constraint, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the country.

  19. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)). PMID:21478396

  20. Genetic characterization of native and invasive Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) populations in Brazilian hydrographic basins.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Júlio, H F; Oliveira, A V; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Prioli, L M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) from the Paraná, Parnaiba and Araguaia-Tocantins river basins was assessed by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genetic data confirmed the hypothesis of low genetic variability within and among P. squamosissimus populations introduced in the upper Paraná River basin, and indicated that they likely originated from a common ancestor. Moreover, the data demonstrated that, in agreement with available historical records, the P. squamosissimus populations established in the Paraná River basin were derived from a population native to the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented here are of potential future application for the management of the invasive P. squamosissimus populations and for the preservation of the genetic legacy of native fish. PMID:26600490

  1. Three new species of Fufius Simon, 1888 (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae) from Brazil with the redescription of Fufius funebris Vellard, 1924 and description of the female of Fufius lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Diego Ribeiro Migueis; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Motta, Paulo Cesar; Bertani, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mygalomorph neotropical genus Fufius Simon, 1888 comprises ten species, distributed from Guatemala in Central America to southeastern Brazil, in South America. Most of the species were described from northern South America, in the Amazonian region. Only F. funebris Vellard, 1924 and F. lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004 are known from regions more to the south of the continent. Herein we describe three new Brazilian species, Fufius minusculus sp. n. and F. jalapensis sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, and F. candango sp. n. from Distrito Federal. The female of F. lucasae is described for first time and the male and female of F. funebris are redescribed based on specimens collected at the type locality. PMID:24294093

  2. Social Impacts of Brazil's Tucuru Dam.

    PubMed

    Fearnside

    1999-11-01

    / The Tucuru Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Par, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucuru reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucuru offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.KEY WORDS: Tucuru Dam; Amazonia; Hydroelectric dams; Brazil; Reservoirs; Mercuryhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n4p483.html

  3. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L

    2002-06-01

    The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

  4. Migration among individuals with leprosy: a population-based study in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Murto, Christine; Ariza, Liana; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Chichava, Olga André; Oliveira, Alexcian Rodrigues; Kaplan, Charles; Silva, Luciana Ferreira Marques da; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates social and clinical factors associated with migration among individuals affected by leprosy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among those newly diagnosed with leprosy (2006-2008), in 79 endemic municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (N = 1,074). In total, 76.2% were born in a municipality different from their current residence. In the five years before diagnosis 16.7% migrated, and 3.6% migrated after leprosy diagnosis. Findings reflect aspects associated with historical rural-urban population movement in Brazil. Indicators of poverty were prominent among before-diagnosis migrants but not after-diagnosis migrants. Migration after diagnosis was associated with prior migration. The association of multibacillary leprosy with migration indicates healthcare access may be an obstacle to early diagnosis among before-diagnosis migrants, which may also be related to the high mobility of this group. PMID:24714939

  5. [Occurrence and biological characteristics of parasitoid phorids (Diptera: Phoridae) of the leaf-cutting ant Atta laevigata (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Porto Nacional, TO, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bragança, Marcos A L; Medeiros, Zodja C S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of parasitism in Atta laevigata (Smith) by phorids in Porto Nacional, Tocantins, Brazil and to evaluate some biological characteristics of those flies. From October/2002 to September/2003, at 15-day intervals, 22 samplings were carried out (149.5 +/- 82.9 workers each) comprising 3,704 ants. In the laboratory, the ants were distributed in groups of five individuals per petri dish and maintained at temperature of 25 +/- 1 masculineC and 80 +/- 5% of RH. They were fed daily with a 50% honey solution until death. The total of 106 workers (2.8%), collected with or without load (plant fragment), were parasitized by phorids: 72 workers (68%) were parasitized by Apocephalus vicosae Disney, 28 individuals (26.4%) by Neodohrniphora erthali Brown, and six (5.6%) by Apocephalus attophilus Borgmeier. The higher parasitism rates by A. vicosae (3.9-5.4%) were observed during the dry season (June-August), while the parasitism by N. erthali was lower than 2.3% throughout the year. The bigger workers were parasitized by bigger parasitoid N. erthali or by parasitoid with larger number of larvae A. attophilus. The occurrence of three phorid species in Tocantins broadens the distribution of these flies in Brazil. The development of A. vicosae larva within the thorax of the host as well as the rupture between the ant pronotum and propleuron so that the emergence of the fly can take place are characteristics not yet described on parasitism of leaf-cutting ants by phorids. PMID:18575704

  6. The northernmost record of Catagonus stenocephalus (Lund in Reinhardt, 1880) (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilla, Leonardo S.; Müller, Lisiane; Gasparini, German M.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Absolon, Bruno; Pêgo, Frederico Bonissoni; Silva, Rafael C.; Kinoshita, Angela; Graciano Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-03-01

    During fieldwork carried out in January 2009 at Aurora do Tocantins (Tocantins State, northern Brazil), we recovered a fragmentary right maxilla (UNIRIO-PM 1006) of Catagonus stenocephalus from a sedimentary deposit of presumed late Pleistocene age in a karstic cave. This paper aims to: (1) provide the first record of C. stenocephalus in the northern region of Brazil (and consequently, also the northernmost one); (2) update the geographic distribution of C. stenocephalus; (3) present a date for the specimen; and (4) discuss the palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical implications of the finding. The species C. stenocephalus (Lund) is known from the Bonaerian (middle Pleistocene) and Lujanian (late Pleistocene to earliest Holocene) ages in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia. The new record presented here extends the geographical distribution of C. stenocephalus more than 1000 km north from the former northernmost record (caves of Lagoa Santa region). Peccaries of the genus Catagonus have several morphological features associated with cursorial habits in relatively open and dry environments. The new distributional range of C. stenocephalus is coincident with the Chacoan subregion, characterized by dry climates and open areas. As the studied material comes from the top of the carbonate layer, this may suggest that the deposition of the C. stenocephalus remains described here is synchronous with the onset of a wetter climate phase. This argument is also in accordance with the datation results, around 20 ky BP, just after the last glacial maximum. This increasingly wet climate, which may also be related to the climatic changes that occurred during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, could be a factor in the extinction of C. stenocephalus in South America.

  7. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from four hydrographic basins in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, R S P; Gomes, V N; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, R A; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M; Agostinho, C S; Prioli, A J

    2010-01-01

    Brycon is one of the main genera of Neotropical freshwater fish. In Brazil, Brycon species have been found in many hydrographic basins, such as the Amazon, Paraná, Paraguay, and Araguaia-Tocantins basins. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among the species Brycon orbignyanus, B. hilarii, B. cf. pesu, B. cephalus, B. falcatus, and B. gouldingi, using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. Specimens of B. orbignyanus were collected in the Paraná River. Specimens of B. hilarii were collected in the Manso River. Specimens of B. cephalus were obtained from a fish farm, and specimens of B. cf. pesu, B. falcatus and B. gouldingi were sampled in the Araguaia-Tocantins basin. DNA extraction was carried out using the phenol/chloroform method. Molecular polymorphism studies of Brycon species were carried out with the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique, using the total DNA of six specimens of each species. In DNA amplification of B. cf. pesu, eight specimens were used. The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were used directly in sequencing reactions. Each ISSR primer produced from 7 to 14 scorable and reproducible bands. The (GGAC)(3)A and (GGAC)(3)C primers produced the greatest number of species-specific bands. A 264-bp fragment, corresponding to the partial region of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b, was sequenced and used for analysis. According to the phylogenetic tree obtained from the data, these Brycon species can be divided into two clades: one comprised only B. cf. pesu, and the second comprised the remaining Brycon species. We conclude that ISSR primers can be used for the identification of species-specific bands in fish, such as Brycon spp. PMID:20449799

  8. Diversity of nutcracking tool sites used by Sapajus libidinosus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Francisco Dyonísio C; Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Izar, Patrícia; Villar, Daniell Nunes A; Marquezan, Rogério F

    2015-05-01

    Cracking nuts with tools is a behavior documented in a small number of populations of tufted capuchins, mainly in semi-arid Caatinga and Caatinga-Cerrado transitional environments of northeastern Brazil. Only one of these populations inhabits the less arid Cerrado in Central Brazil, where environments are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of fields, savannas and forest formations. We conducted surveys in 10 of 20 localities where nutcracking by capuchins was reported by the local inhabitants in the Cerrrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins. Our purpose was to evaluate nutcracking sites (anvils and associated hammers and nuts) based on indirect evidence of extensive pounding of nuts and seeds. Nutcracking was confirmed at all 10 surveyed localities. A total of 270 sites were identified. Surveyed localities included areas that were ecologically similar to those where capuchins crack nuts in Caatinga, as well as less arid localities with more typical Cerrado habitat. Anvils and hammers were made of materials including quartz, limestone, sandstone and wood, and displayed a wider range of sizes (i.e., 60-3,750 g for hammers' weight) than reported at previously studied localities. Nuts of seven genera were found in association with anvils and hammers. We conclude that nutcracking by capuchins are not restricted to arid environments and argue that the occurrence and diversity of nutcracking tool sites result from complex interactions of environmental variables (e.g., availability of food and mineral resources, density of canopy cover) and social variables (e.g., spatial cohesiveness and tolerance among group members) that need to be examined through long-term research of habituated groups. Localities in the Cerrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins vary considerable in the ecological conditions faced by wild groups, and therefore offer the opportunity to examine these interactions. PMID:25676549

  9. Population dynamics of Aceodromus convolvuli (Acari: Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) on spontaneous plants associated with Jatropha curcas in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir V; Rodrigues, Diego M; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-11-01

    Spontaneously growing plants are commonly considered competitors of cultivated plants. Owing to the lack of specificity of many arthropods, spontaneous plants may be attacked by the same arthropods that attack cultivated plants and they may also harbor natural enemies of organisms harmful to cultivated plants. Aceodromus convolvuli Muma (Blattisociidae) has been reported recently in relatively large numbers in Tocantins state, central Brazil, mostly on Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth (Malvaceae). Very little has been reported about the population dynamics of blattisociid mites under field conditions. The objective of this work was to study the population dynamics of A. convolvuli in Gurupi, Tocantins state, to evaluate its possible interaction with associated mites. Monthly samples were taken from leaves of the 11 most abundant and frequent spontaneous plants in a Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) plantation. About 96.5 % of the specimens of A. convolvuli were collected in the rainy season. The patterns of variation of the population of A. convolvuli and of predators belonging to the family Phytoseiidae were similar, but A. convolvuli was much more numerous than all phytoseiid specimens combined. Highly significant correlations were observed between A. convolvuli densities and relative humidity or diversity of spontaneous plants. When only mites on H. guazumifolia were considered, highly significant correlation was also observed between densities of A. convolvuli and of mites of the family Tetranychidae. The results suggested that A. convolvuli could be a predator of tenuipalpid and/or tetranychid mites. Studies about its biology are needed to determine its preferred food sources and potential as biological control agent. PMID:24943489

  10. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  11. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  12. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  13. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance

  14. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies by... notice (FR Doc. 2011-15233) published on pages 35893 and 35894 of the issue for Monday June 20, 2011. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia,...

  15. A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rangel, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus, endemic to Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, is described. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. differs from its congeners in color pattern and anal-ray counts. A recent study shows a close relationship between H. brasil sp. n. and H. fissicornis. This new species is recorded from 3 to 15 m depth, solitary or in small groups (up to 10 individuals), always in small holes or associated with sea-urchins and sponges on the rocky reefs. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. is the eleventh recognized species of Hypleurochilus and the third species of this genus reported from the Brazilian Province. PMID:26240899

  16. Physiochemical characterisation of biomass burning plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different areas of Brazil. This included two extensive areas of burning, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single area of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the burned area was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 μg m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 μg m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass burning aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.

  17. Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost all dry years occurred when the NTA index was positive. Annual streamflows were regressed on climatic indexes NINO 3.4 and NTA. At 95% level of significance, NINO3.4 and NTA indexes are significant variables in predicting streamflows at the Amazon (p=0.01% for NINO3.4 and p=0.30% for NTA) and at the Parana river basins (p=0.23% for NINO3.4 and p=1.11% for NTA). The values of R2 were significant high, 0.59 for Amazon and 0.26 for Parana, compared to very low values for Xingu (0.10), Araguaia-Tocantins (0.06) and Sao Francisco (0.04) river basins. The low correlation at central basins can be explained from the regression coefficients values. The coefficients for NTA index are all negative (except for Xingu river), indicating that negative NTA implies in greater streamflow and vice-versa. However, coefficients for NINO3.4 are negative at the Amazon and positive at Parana which means that negative anomalies (La Nina years) implies in greater streamflows at Amazon and lower streamflows at Parana and vice-versa. Opposite effects of El Nino/La Nina on north and south river basins seems to be neutralized in the central river basins so the correlation gets weaker: during El Nino (La Nina) events, the reduction (increasing) in rainfall at north is counter balanced by the enhancement (reduction) of rainfall at south associated with cold fronts.

  18. Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and Parnaiba intracontinental syneclises with almost continuous traces. Main direction is N45E, connected with splays of E-W and N-S secondary lineaments. Magnetic lineaments developed dominantly along the borders of crustal/lithospheric blocks, determining their limits. Magnetic Euler deconvolution preliminary results indicates depths up to 5 km. The magnetic lineaments continue below the intracratonic Phanerozoic basins, where brittle fault zones characterize several tectonic reactivation events from the Cambrian up to the Cenozoic. These results stress the outstanding role of the Transbrasiliano lineament in the tectonic framework of the Brazilian continental crust/lithosphere and the relevance of its set of faults in the infilling and evolution of large intracontinental Phanerozoic syneclises.

  19. Flexural Stresses are a Major Factor to Enhance Intraplate Seismicity in Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.; Sacek, V.

    2012-12-01

    Explaining intraplate seismic activity has been a challenging task. Several different models have been proposed combining weak crustal zones and mechanisms of stress concentration. Here we propose that stress concentration due to flexural deformation is one of the most important factors to explain seismicity in Central Brazil, especially the SW-NE oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons, called "Goiás-Tocantins Seismic Zone" (GTSZ). This activity has been usually associated with the TransBrasiliano Lineament (TBL), a major Paleozoic transcontinental feature. However, two observations cast doubt on a direct relationship with the Lineament. First, the seismic activity in the Tocantins province is parallel but not coincident with the TBL; secondly, the continental scale TransBrasiliano Lineament shows no seismic activity further to the NE (beneath the Parnaíba basin), while to the SW, the seismic activity follows an E-W and then N-S direction, not coincident with the TBL. On the other hand, the seismic zone coincides exactly with the trend of high isostatic gravity anomalies (above -20 mGal), which were interpreted as due to high-density mantle rocks beneath a belt of thin crust (roughly beneath the Goiás Magmatic Arc and the Central Massif). Upper crustal stresses due to flexural deformation were calculated with finite-element methods assuming a visco-elastic lithosphere overlying a very soft asthenosphere. The lithospheric load due to the shallow, high-density mantle rocks produces compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide GTSZ. Regional compressive stresses from plate boundary forces combine with the local flexural stresses to reach seismogenic levels in the GTSZ. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses (related to the peripheral bulge) balance the regional compression, which explains the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters (the N-S belt along the Eastern border of the Amazon craton near Carajás, the cluster of seismicity at the northern border of the Parecis Basin (Porto dos Gauchos Seismic Zone), and the active Pantanal Basin overlying the Paraguay foldbelt) are also located in areas of predominantly positive isostatic anomalies. For this reason we propose that similar compressional flexural stresses enhance the regional, plate-wide stresses up to seismogenic levels in other areas and are an important factor to explain the mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.

  20. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13–53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1–0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01). When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age—mercury-exposed and non-exposed—the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts. There was a weak linear correlation between tactile sensation threshold and mercury concentration in the head hair samples. No correlation was found for the other two measurements. Mercury-exposed subjects had impaired somatosensory function compared with non-exposed control subjects. Long-term mercury exposure of riverside communities in the Tapajós river basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population. PMID:26658153

  1. Seismic waveforms inversion of earthquakes in the Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayao, E. A.; Barros, L. V.; Maffia, N.; Schmidt, K.; Quintero, R.

    2013-05-01

    In the central region of Brazil, Tocantins (TO) province, the distribution of tectonic stresses are not well known; there is only a measurement of stress and no data from focal mechanisms.To understand the processes that occur during an earthquake, it is necessary to have a precise knowledge of the earthquake source parameters. This work shows that the focal mechanism of an earthquake can be obtained in reliable way using only information contained in its band-pass-filtered waveforms registered at a few stations.The inversion for the focal mechanism was made using the package ISOLA (Zahradnik et al., 2005, Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008) and MATLAB. The seismicity is associated with the Goiás -Tocantins (GO-TO) Seismic Range (SR) that crosses the central part of Brazil in a NE-SW direction. The obtained focal mechanisms are in agreement with the results obtained by Barros et al. (2012) for 5.0 mb earthquake in this region.The Green functions were calculated using the 1-D velocity model determined by Soares et al (2006) for a model of point source located above and below the hypocenter. Ten hypocenters were tested, 5 above and 5 below to the given hypocenter. All seismograms were corrected for instrument response, band-pass-filtered, integrated to obtain displacement, and finally inverted for the DC (double couple) focal mechanism. The optimal solution produced the best correlation between the observed and synthetic seismograms, in one of the 10 points tested. However, a new search was attempted for each point source located on a plane passing through the hypocenter's optimal previous solution. This plane is divided into a rectangular grid, whose separation depends on the physical dimensions of the source investigated. The centroid (center of gravity of the fault displaced), corresponds to the solution that produces the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations. the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations.

  2. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as detailed spatial and temporal inputs to computer models and data analysis of tropospheric chemistry over the tropical region.

  3. [Health politics in Brazil: historical reconstruction and current perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bertolozzi, M R; Greco, R M

    1996-12-01

    Authors presents an evolution of the public health's politics in Brasil through a critical review of the historical process. Besides this they call to the importance of this issue in the undergraduate curricular in nursing. PMID:9016155

  4. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-02-01

    The Parnaba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic Brasiliano-Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36-40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and So Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  5. Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: A case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Gunski, Ricardo José; Cunha, Isabel Souza; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Ledesma, Mario; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2013-01-01

    Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil), in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13th pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks. PMID:24130442

  6. Identification and Biological Characterization of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis Isolated from a Patient with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Goiás, a Nonendemic Area for This Species in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Alause da Silva; Borges, Arissa Felipe; Cappellazzo Coelho, Adriano; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Pereira, Ledice Inacia de Araújo; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Pelli de Oliveira, Milton Adriano; de Matos, Grazzielle Guimarães; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.; Uliana, Silvia Reni B.; Lima, Glória Maria Collet de Araújo; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize clinical field isolates of Leishmania spp. obtained from patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) who live in Goiás state, Brazil. The presumed areas of infection were in Goiás, Tocantins, and Pará states. Three isolates of parasites were identified as L. (Viannia) braziliensis and one as L. (V.) guyanensis. The in vitro growth profiles were found to be similar for all parasites. Nevertheless, in C57BL/6 mice, L. (V.) guyanensis infection was better controlled than L. (V.) braziliensis. Yet in C57BL/6 mice deficient in interferon gamma, L. (V.) guyanensis lesions developed faster than those caused by L. (V.) braziliensis isolates. In BALB/c mice, the development of lesions was similar for isolates from both species; however, on the 11th week of infection, amastigotes could not be observed in macrophages from L. (V.) guyanensis-infected mice. Thus, L. (V.) guyanensis can be circulating in Goiás, a state where autochthonous cases of this species had not yet been reported. Considering the difficulties to differentiate L. (V.) guyanensis from L. (V.) braziliensis at the molecular, morphological, and clinical (human and murine models) levels, the presence of L. (V.) guyanensis infections is possibly underestimated in several regions of Brazil. PMID:26583102

  7. Uvá complex, the oldest orthogneisses of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Hardy; Junior, Farid Chemale; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dussin, Ivo Antônio

    2013-11-01

    The Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil is an exotic and allochthonous part of the Tocantins Province, a large Brasiliano/Pan-African orogen of the South American Platform formed during the Brasiliano orogeny. The terrane amalgamated to the province during the late stages of the orogeny as a crustal segment consisting of six Archean orthogneiss complexes and five low-grade metamorphic, in part Paleoproterozoic (Rhyacian) greenstone belts. The Uvá complex is the southernmost orthogneiss association of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS data from zircon crystals show that the complex formed at least during two magmatic stages. The older consists of polydeformed tonalite and granodiorite batholitic and diorite stock protoliths with igneous age of 3040 Ma to 2930 Ma. The youngest comprises tonalite, monzogranite and granodiorite tabular bodies formed between 2876 and 2846 Ma. As compared to the orthogneisses of the northern portion of the terrane, both the oldest and youngest granitogenesis stages of the Uvá complex are, in average, about 150 Ma older. This suggests that the northern and southern orthogneisses formed during different times as independent crustal segments, but when and why they amalgamated is still under investigation.

  8. Two new species of Leporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, and redescription of Leporinus striatus Kner 1858.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Britski, H A

    2013-11-01

    Two new species of Leporinus are described from tributaries of the Rio Amazonas in Brazil. One species is known from the Jari and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of a gas bladder reduced in size, a dark midlateral stripe on the body, dark transverse bars on the dorsum, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 16 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. The second new species is known from the Tocantins, Xingu and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of three dark longitudinal stripes on the body, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 12 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. In addition, Leporinus striatus is redescribed based on type and additional specimens from the Río de La Plata, Amazonas, Orinoco, Atrato, Magdalena and Sinu River basins. Leporinus striatus is identified on the basis of four dark longitudinal stripes on the body, a subterminal mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 16 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. PMID:24580659

  9. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    PubMed

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla. PMID:26250196

  10. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Wemerson J.; Santos, F. Eroni P.; Cisneros, Juan C.; da Silva, João H.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.

    2015-01-01

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks.

  11. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago. PMID:27071805

  12. Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

  13. A New Species of River Dolphin from Brazil or: How Little Do We Know Our Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Hrbek, Tomas; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Dutra, Nicole; Gravena, Waleska; Martin, Anthony R.; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2014-01-01

    True river dolphins are some of the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates. They comprise relict evolutionary lineages of high taxonomic distinctness and conservation value, but are afforded little protection. We report the discovery of a new species of a river dolphin from the Araguaia River basin of Brazil, the first such discovery in nearly 100 years. The species is diagnosable by a series of molecular and morphological characters and diverged from its Amazonian sister taxon 2.08 million years ago. The estimated time of divergence corresponds to the separation of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin from the Amazon basin. This discovery highlights the immensity of the deficit in our knowledge of Neotropical biodiversity, as well as vulnerability of biodiversity to anthropogenic actions in an increasingly threatened landscape. We anticipate that this study will provide an impetus for the taxonomic and conservation reanalysis of other taxa shared between the Araguaia and Amazon aquatic ecosystems, as well as stimulate historical biogeographical analyses of the two basins. PMID:24465386

  14. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo Clementino; Pinto, Raimundo Nonato Leite; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  15. Chromosomal evolution in the Brazilian geckos of the genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic rain forest: evidence of Robertsonian fusion events and supernumerary chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, K C M; dos Santos, R M L; Rodrigues, M T; Laguna, M M; Amaro, R C; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomes of the South American geckos Gymnodactylus amarali and G. geckoides from open and dry areas of the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes in Brazil, respectively, were studied for the first time, after conventional and AgNOR staining, CBG- and RBG-banding, and FISH with telomeric sequences. Comparative analyses between the karyotypes of open areas and the previously studied Atlantic forest species G. darwinii were also performed. The chromosomal polymorphisms detected in populations of G. amarali from the states of Goiás and Tocantins is the result of centric fusions (2n = 38, 39 and 40), suggesting a differentiation from a 2n = 40 ancestral karyotype and the presence of supernumerary chromosomes. The CBG- and RBG-banding patterns of the Bs are described. G. geckoides has 40 chromosomes with gradually decreasing sizes, but it is distinct from the 2n = 40 karyotypes of G. amarali and G. darwinii due to occurrence of pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning. NOR location seems to be a marker for Gymnodactylus, as G. amarali and G. geckoides share a medium-sized subtelocentric NOR-bearing pair, while G. darwinii has NORs at the secondary constriction of the long arm of pair 1. The comparative analyses indicate a non-random nature of the Robertsonian rearrangements in the genus Gymnodactylus. PMID:20215729

  16. [Leprosy diagnosis in municipalities other than the patients' place of residence: spatial analysis, 2001-2009].

    PubMed

    Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais de; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Sena Neto, Sebastião Alves de; Murto, Christine; Alencar, Maria de Jesus Freitas de; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2012-09-01

    The study analyzed the flow of persons with leprosy from their municipality (county) of residence to that of their diagnosis in a highly endemic area in Brazil. The study was based on data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2009 in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins, and Piauí. Of the 373 municipalities, 349 (93.6%) had at least one resident with leprosy that had been diagnosed in a different municipality (4,325 cases, or 5.2% of the total). The municipalities with the most cases reported elsewhere were Timon (248) and São José de Ribamar (201), Maranhão State. The municipalities that received the most exogenous cases for diagnosis were São Luís (719), capital of Maranhão, and Teresina (516), capital of Piauí. Goiânia (146), capital of Goiás, and the Federal District (42) also reported numerous cases, even though they are located more than 1,000 km from the endemic area. The flow indicates gaps in the decentralization of comprehensive care for persons with leprosy and calls attention to the difficulties associated with patient monitoring during and after multidrug therapy. PMID:23033184

  17. A new species of river dolphin from Brazil or: how little do we know our biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hrbek, Tomas; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Dutra, Nicole; Gravena, Waleska; Martin, Anthony R; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2014-01-01

    True river dolphins are some of the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates. They comprise relict evolutionary lineages of high taxonomic distinctness and conservation value, but are afforded little protection. We report the discovery of a new species of a river dolphin from the Araguaia River basin of Brazil, the first such discovery in nearly 100 years. The species is diagnosable by a series of molecular and morphological characters and diverged from its Amazonian sister taxon 2.08 million years ago. The estimated time of divergence corresponds to the separation of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin from the Amazon basin. This discovery highlights the immensity of the deficit in our knowledge of Neotropical biodiversity, as well as vulnerability of biodiversity to anthropogenic actions in an increasingly threatened landscape. We anticipate that this study will provide an impetus for the taxonomic and conservation reanalysis of other taxa shared between the Araguaia and Amazon aquatic ecosystems, as well as stimulate historical biogeographical analyses of the two basins. PMID:24465386

  18. Henneguya paraensis n. sp. (Myxozoa; Myxosporea), a new gill parasite of the Amazonian fish Cichla temensis (Teleostei: Cichlidae): morphological and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Michele; Videira, Marcela; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Matos, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Matos, Edilson

    2016-05-01

    The present study describes light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular analyses of a myxosporid found parasitizing the gill region of the teleost fish Cichla temensis, collected from the Tocantins River, near Cametá, Pará State, Brazil. The prevalence of infection was 60 %. The spore-containing cysts that were located in the gill lamellae were oval and whitish. The spores had a mean length of 42.3 ± 0.65 μm; fusiform body, 12.8 ± 0.42-μm long and 8.6 ± 0.32-μm wide; each of the two valves exhibited a tapering tail of 29.5 ± 0.73 μm length. The spores had two polar capsules, 7.4 ± 0.16-μm long by 2.6 ± 0.08-μm wide, containing a polar filament with 5-7 twists. The spores differ from the species previously described, and phylogenetic analysis based on spore morphology and molecular aspects indicated that the fish parasite Henneguya sp. has a strong trend to form clades mainly based on the environment and host order/family. Thus, we conclude that the species belongs to the family Myxobolidae, genus Henneguya, which comprises a new species: Henneguya paraensis n. sp. PMID:26847632

  19. Prevalence and parasitemia of Haemogregarina sp. in Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Amanda Maria; de Carvalho, Aluísio Vasconcelos; Viana, Lúcio André; Malvasio, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-five turtles Podocnemis expansa in the Brazilian Amazon were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites. Samplings were performed in three study areas in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Twenty-five specimens were sampled per study area (a commercial breeding facility, an indigenous subsistence breeding facility and a wild population of the Javaés River). Hemoparasites of the genus Haemogregarina were found in 66% (50/75) of the turtle specimens, and the infections were restricted to the commercial breeding facility and to the wild population of the Javaés River. The mean level of parasitemia was 54/2,000 erythrocytes (2%). There was no correlation between the body condition index of the chelonians and the level of parasitemia, with no significant difference between genders. No leeches were observed during the physical exams in any of the study areas, but the specimens from the commercial breeding facility were in poor physical condition with shell deformities and the presence of a relatively high amount of skin ulcerations, most likely caused by fungi and bacteria. This was the first study to record the occurrence of hemogregarines on a population scale in P. expansa and helps to increase knowledge about hemoparasites in chelonians in Brazil. PMID:26154958

  20. Genetic and morphological diversity of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Characiformes: Characidae) populations in the tributaries of the Araguaia River, Brazil: implications for taxonomy and conservation.

    PubMed

    Domingos, T J; Moraes, L N; Moresco, R M; Margarido, V P; Venere, P C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic assessments that consider ecological information, in addition to endogamy levels, genetic diversity, and the genetic differentiation among species and populations, are particularly important for the conservation of biological diversity. Prime candidates for conservation genetic review are those subject to human use, including harvests for the ornamental fish trade. Colorful South American tetra, such as Moenkhausia oligolepis and M. forestii, are good examples of fish species that are widely collected and exported worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the population-specific characteristics of M. oligolepis and M. forestii by comparing morphometric and molecular analyses based on ISSR markers, to provide information that would facilitate the sustainable management of these 2 species. Seventy-two specimens were collected from the Araguaia-Tocantins and Paraguay River Basins in Brazil. All specimens were measured and analyzed using ISSR markers. Population-exclusive bands were found among the 86 detected bands, while morphometric clusters reflected the geographical distribution of individuals. Correlated genetic and morphological variation supported the presence of 3 distinct groups from tributaries of the Araguaia and Mortes Rivers. Using the same techniques, all M. oligolepis populations were isolated from M. forestii. This study on Moenkhausia presents an interesting example that could be used to construct a framework of South American ichthyodiversity, and reinforces the necessity of habitat conservation to prevent the loss of biological diversity. PMID:25299113

  1. Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.

    PubMed

    Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

  2. Sampling plan for Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Della Lucia, Terezinha M C; Semeão, Altair A

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the best technique, sampling unit, and the number of samples to compose a conventional sampling plan for the cucurbit borers, Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber. This research was carried out in 10 commercial cucumber crops fields from July to December 2000 in Tocantins, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (21 degrees 11' 15" S; 42 degrees 03' 45" W; altitude 363 m). The sampling methods studied were beating on a tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection. Three sampling units also were studied: leaves from a branch located in the apical, median, or basal third of the canopy. The best sampling systems, which included the best technique and sampling unit, were determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision of the sampling. Once the best sampling systems were established, the numbers of samples to compose the conventional sampling plans were determined. The more suitable sampling system for the larvae of Diaphania spp. in cucumber plants was beating a leaf of the median third of the canopy on a plastic tray. One leaf must be sampled for every 50 plants in a crop. The more suitable sampling system for hymenopteran parasitoids in cucumber plants was to directly count the adults on one leaf of the median third of the canopy. One leaf must be sampled for every 74 plants in a crop. PMID:17195691

  3. Purplish-red almandine garnets with alexandrite-like effect: causes of colors and color-enhancing treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambrock, K.; Guimarães, F. S.; Pinheiro, M. V. B.; Paniago, R.; Righi, A.; Persiano, A. I. C.; Karfunkel, J.; Hoover, D. B.

    2013-07-01

    Fine gem-quality, purplish-red garnets from the Tocantins State, Brazil, were investigated for their crystal chemistry and optical properties by several spectroscopic techniques, including electron microprobe analysis, Mössbauer, Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption. Although most garnets are purplish-red, some specimens show color zoning, with deep red color in the core and purple in the outer parts. Electron microprobe analysis showed that these garnets are principally almandine-pyrope solid solution at the rim. However, at the red core, they contain also up to 7 % of spessartine. Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals that the iron content is predominantly Fe2+ (>99 %) in the natural garnets. The optical absorption spectra are dominated by spin-allowed and unusual high-intense spin-forbidden transitions from eightfold coordinated Fe(II) in the near infrared and visible spectral region, respectively. For the red core, in addition, three sharp bands centered in the blue part of the visible spectral range and a broad charge transfer band in the near-UV region are observed. All garnets with purplish colors show also a remarkable color-changing effect from purple in daylight light to red in incandescent light called alexandrite-like effect. Heat treatments in the 700-900 °C temperature range in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres lead to reversible and irreversible color changes which are discussed based on the microscopic changes in the Fe ion coordination and valence states.

  4. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Clementino Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo; Leite Pinto, Raimundo Nonato; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  5. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  6. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; Chambrier, Alain de; Scholz, Tomas; Luque, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Frezella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Frezella vaucheri sp. n. from poorly known auchenipterid fish, Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro), from the Xingú River, one of the principal tributaries of the lower Amazon River in Brazil. The new genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because of the medullary position of the testes, ovary (yet some follicles penetrate to the cortex on the dorsal side), vitelline follicles and uterus. It differs from other proteocephaline genera in the morphology of the scolex, which includes a metascolex composed of two distinct zones: anterior, strongly wrinkled part posterior to the suckers, and posterior, sparsely folded zone. Frezella can also be differentiated by having the internal longitudinal musculature hypertrophied laterally on both sides, the presence of some ovarian follicles in the cortex on the dorsal side and the presence of additional pair of tiny, thin-walled osmoregulatory canals situated slightly dorsomedian to ventral canals. Frezella vaucheri is the first helminth parasite reported from T. piresi, which occurs in the lower reaches of the Amazon and Tocantins River basins in Brazil. PMID:25960550

  7. Attributes of primary health care provided to children/adolescents with and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Fernando Rodrigues Peixoto; Stein, Airton Tetelbom

    2015-08-01

    This study sought to compare the attributes of the Primary Health Care (PHC) provided by caregivers of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) to children and adolescents with and without physical disabilities in Palmas (State of Tocantins, Brazil). This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. For data collection, the PCA Tool-Brazil (child version) was applied to caregivers of children and adolescents residing and registered in family health teams. The attributes of primary care were evaluated through scores measured according to the criteria of the instrument. The results indicated that three attributes had scores above the cutoff point for the physically disabled population and two attributes for the population without disabilities. Overall, the data showed no significant differences between children with and without disabilities from the standpoint of caregivers. The general score also showed a below satisfactory score in both groups. The evaluation of the attributes of the PHC was characterized as low-quality care to children and adolescents, be they physically challenged or not, which highlights the fact that the biggest challenges lie in ensuring health care to children and adolescents. PMID:26221811

  8. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  9. Chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) and feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds of the Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enout, Alexandre Magno Junqueira; Lobato, Débora Nogueira Campos; Diniz, Francisco Carvalho; Antonini, Yasmine

    2012-10-01

    The association of chewing lice and feather mites with wild birds of riparian forest was investigated in the Cerrado biome, Tocantins State, Brazil. The birds were captured with mist nets between July 2008 and March 2009. Ectoparasites were collected by the dust-ruffling technique. Infestation rates were determined by the sampling prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of ectoparasites. A total of 1,479 chewing lice were collected that were distributed in 3 families and 18 genera, of which 15 taxa were identified to the species level. Sixteen genera of feather mites were found, and 10 species were identified. A high prevalence rate of chewing lice and feather mites was found in non-Passeriformes (66.7 and 50.0%) and Passeriformes (57.8 and 75.6%) birds. New host-parasite associations were registered for two species of chewing lice and for four species of feather mites, thus expanding the geographical distribution in Brazil of six chewing lice species. This is the first study of the ectoparasites of wild birds to be conducted in this region of Brazil. PMID:22773045

  10. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity. PMID:24068089

  11. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  12. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional

  13. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  14. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    The main Precambrian terrains recognized in Brazil comprise the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de la Plata cratons, surrounded by Neoproterozoic Brasiliano fold belts, making up the Borborema, Mantiqueira and Tocantins provinces. The Amazonian craton comprises an Archean core, surrounded by Paleoproterozoic terrains (Maroni-Itacaiunas, Ventuari-Tapajós, Rio Negro-Juruena), which southwestwards give way to the Mesoproterozoic Rondoniano-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts, the latter thought to be related to the Grenville belt of North America. The São Francisco craton comprises several Archean blocks (Gavião, Serrinha, Jequié) amalgamated by the Paleoproterozoic high-grade Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen. The Rio de la Plata craton, largely covered by Phanerozoic strata, is made of Paleoproterozoic basement gneiss and several Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts. Other cratonic blocks are hidden below large Phanerozoic basins, like the Paranapanema and Parnaíba blocks below the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, respectively. Several smaller Archean/Paleoproterozoic blocks appear within the Brasiliano provinces: some were strongly reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogenic events (São José do Campestre, Pernambuco-Alagoas, Goiás, Guanhães, Juiz de Fora, Curitiba), others were only marginally affected (São Luiz, Rio Apa, Luís Alves). The Brasiliano provinces are the result of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic orogenic events within the framework of West Gondwana amalgamation. The Mantiqueira Province extends from eastern Brazil to southern Uruguay and includes the Araçuaí, Ribeira and Dom Feliciano fold belts, bordering the São Francisco, Paranapanema and Rio de la Plata cratons and surrounding the Luís Alves craton. The Tocantins province in central Brazil includes the Araguaia, Paraguay and Brasília fold belts, the former bordering the Amazonian craton, the second bordering both the southern Amazonian craton and the Rio Apa block, and the last established on the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  15. Crustal thickness map of Brazil: Data compilation and main features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpo, Marcelo; Bianchi, Marcelo; Juli, Jordi; Dias, Fbio L.; Sand Frana, George; Nascimento, Rosana; Drouet, Stphane; Pavo, Csar Garcia; Albuquerque, Diogo Farrapo; Lopes, Afonso E. V.

    2013-04-01

    We present a crustal thickness map of Brazil and adjacent areas based on a compilation of data published in the literature as well as new measurements. We used crustal thicknesses mainly derived from seismic datasets such as deep seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion velocities. Crustal thicknesses derived from modelling gravity anomalies commonly depend on assumptions, such as constant density contrast across the Moho interface, which are not always easily verifiable and were considered only along the continental shelf to fill large gaps in the seismic data. Our compilation shows that the crust in the stable continental area onshore has an average thickness of 39 5 km (1-? deviation) and that no clear difference can be observed between low altitude, intracratonic sedimentary basins, NeoProterozoic foldbelts (except for the Borborema Province), and cratonic areas. The thinnest crust is found in the Borborema Province of NE Brazil (30-35 km) and along a narrow belt within Tocantins Province (35 km), roughly parallel to the Eastern border of the Amazon craton, while the thickest crust is found in the Amazon and So Francisco cratons (41 4 km), and the Paran Basin (42 4 km). Both the Ponta Grossa and the Rio Grande Arches are areas of thinned crust, and the western border of the Brazilian platform, near the sub-Andean region, seems to be characterized by a crustal thickness of less than 40 km. Although sparse in data coverage, we expect the resulting crustal thickness map to be useful for future studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the country.

  16. Land water storage change from satellite altimetry and GRACE; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cretaux, J.

    2009-12-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 6-year time span (mid-2002 to mid-2008) using satellite altimetry and space gravimetry data from GRACE. Satellite altimetry allows determination of surface water volume change while GRACE data provide vertically-integrated water storage change. The 32 largest river basins are considered as well as lakes not included in the 32 basins (Caspian and Aral seas). We focus on the year to year variability and construct a combined water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The mean trend in total water storage adjusted over this 6-year time span is positive and amounts to 114 +/- 24 km3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Orinoco, Ob, Nile, Niger, Zambezi, Tocantins and Volga. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Yukon, Eyre, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Eyre, Murray and Mekong basins. Lakes volume change is slightly negative over the 2002-2008 time span (~ -16 km3/yr). Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2008 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.27 +/- 0.07 mm/yr. The time series for each basins clearly show that year to year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. Another interesting results of the study is the significant correlation (0.7) between (detrended) year-to- year variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion) and GRACE-based land water storage contribution.

  17. Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

  18. Checklist of aquatic and marshy Monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin, Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Araguaia River basin runs through the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins, and Pará, covering 373,000 Km2, mostly within the Brazilian Cerrado. The region has a wide variety of wetlands. The climate is characterized by high temperatures and strongly seasonal precipitation. There are two well defined seasons: the dry season (winter-spring) and the rainy season (summer- fall). The Araguaia River basin is dominated by plinthosoils that are found in low flat areas, poorly drained and prone to flooding, yielding wetland habitats of high plant diversity. Since the 1970s, human activities have led to reduction in both the diversity and area of wetlands. The construction of the Belém-Brasília highway and hydroelectric dams, as well as the expansion of agricultural and mining activities, have had major impacts on the region. New information The flora diversity data of the Araguaia River basin was developed through field work, herbarium research, and use of a database (Species Link). The resulting checklist of 162 aquatic and marshy monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin represents 20 families and 50 genera. Cyperaceae (51 spp.), Poaceae (39 spp.), and Eriocaulaceae (16 spp.) are the most representative families. Life form analysis indicates that helophytes predominate (98 spp.; 60.5%). One hundred one species are native to tropical and/or subtropical America and twenty one are endemic to Brazil. Ninety-three species are new occurrences for the Araguaia River basin. Among them, three species are reported in the Brazilian Cerrado for the first time. This work contributes to the understanding of aquatic plant diversity in the Cerrado and other savanna-like vegetation physiognomies; environments and habitats poorly understood taxonomically and undercollected generally. PMID:27099550

  19. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  20. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rogério, J P; Santos, M A; Santos, E O

    2013-11-01

    For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission. PMID:24789391

  1. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  2. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  3. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  4. Molecular phylogeny and diversification of a widespread Neotropical rainforest bird group: The Buff-throated Woodcreeper complex, Xiphorhynchus guttatus/susurrans (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Tainá C; Sequeira, Fernando; Aleixo, Alexandre; Rêgo, Péricles S; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    The genus Xiphorhynchus is a species rich avian group widely distributed in Neotropical forests of Central and South America. Although recent molecular studies have improved our understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity in some species of this genus, most are still poorly known, including their taxonomy. Here, we address the historical diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the X. guttatus/susurrans complex, using data from two mitochondrial (cyt b and ND2) and one nuclear (β-fibint7) genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with both gene trees and a Bayesian-based species tree under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). With exception of the nuclear β-fibint7 gene that produced an unresolved tree, both mtDNA and the species tree showed a similar topology and were congruent in recovering five main clades with high statistical support. These clades, however, are not fully concordant with traditional delimitation of some X. guttatus subspecies, since X. g. polystictus, X. g. guttatus, and X. g. connectens are not supported as distinct clades. Interestingly, these three taxa are more closely related to the mostly trans-Andean X. susurrans than the other southern and western Amazonian subspecies of X. guttatus, which constitutes a paraphyletic species. Timing estimates based on the species tree indicated that diversification in X. guttatus occurred between the end of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene, likely associated with the formation of the modern Amazon River and its main southern tributaries (Xingu, Tocantins, and Madeira), in addition to climate-induced changes in the distribution of rainforest biomes. Our study supports with an enlarged dataset a previous proposal for recognizing at least three species level taxa in the X. guttatus/susurrans complex: X. susurrans, X. guttatus, and X. guttatoides. PMID:25683049

  5. Upper-mantle seismic structure beneath SE and Central Brazil from P- and S-wave regional traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Schimmel, Martin; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We present models for the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath SE and Central Brazil using independent tomographic inversions of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals (including core phases) from teleseismic earthquakes. The events were recorded by a total of 92 stations deployed through different projects, institutions and time periods during the years 1992-2004. Our results show correlations with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. All interpretations are based on robust anomalies, which appear in the different inversions for P- and S-waves. The resolution is variable through our study volume and has been analyzed through different theoretical test inversions. High-velocity anomalies are observed in the western portion of the São Francisco Craton, supporting the hypothesis that this Craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate (San Franciscan Plate). Low-velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning, which is consistent with the good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low-velocity anomalies in this region. Our results show that the basement of the Paraná Basin is formed by several blocks, separated by suture zones, according to model of Milani & Ramos. The slab of the Nazca Plate can be observed as a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Paraná Basin, between the depths of 700 and 1200 km. Further, we confirm the low-velocity anomaly in the NE area of the Paraná Basin which has been interpreted by VanDecar et al. as a fossil conduct of the Tristan da Cunha Plume related to the Paraná flood basalt eruptions during the opening of the South Atlantic.

  6. Seismic studies of the Brasília fold belt at the western border of the São Francisco Craton, Central Brazil, using receiver function, surface-wave dispersion and teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; An, Meijian; Bianchi, Marcelo; França, George S. L.; Rocha, Marcelo; Barbosa, José Roberto; Berrocal, Jesús

    2004-09-01

    The Tocantins Province in Central Brazil is composed of a series of SSW-NNE trending terranes of mainly Proterozoic ages, which stabilized in the Neoproterozoic in the final collision between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. No previous information on crustal seismic properties was available for this region. Several broadband stations were used to study the regional patterns of crustal and upper mantle structure, extending the results of a recent E-W seismic refraction profile. Receiver functions and surface wave dispersion showed a thin crust (33-37 km) in the Neoproterozoic Magmatic Arc terrane. High average crustal Vp/Vs ratios (1.74-1.76) were consistently observed in this unit. The foreland domain of the Brasília foldbelt, on the other hand, is characterized by thicker crust (42-43 km). Low Vp/Vs ratios (1.70-1.72) were observed in the low-grade foreland fold and thrust zone of the Brasília belt adjacent to the São Francisco craton. Teleseismic P-wave tomography shows that the lithospheric upper mantle has lower velocities beneath the Magmatic Arc and Goiás Massif compared with the foreland zone of the belt and São Francisco craton. The variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocities observed with the broadband stations correlate well with the measurements along the seismic refraction profile. The integration of all seismic observations and gravity data indicates a strong lithospheric contrast between the Goiás Massif and the foreland domain of the Brasília belt, whereas little variation was found across the foldbelt/craton surface boundary. These results support the hypothesis that the Brasília foreland domain and the São Francisco craton were part of a larger São Francisco-Congo continental plate in the final collision with the Amazon plate.

  7. Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.

    PubMed

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-03-01

    The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity. PMID:23634590

  8. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). PMID:25910991

  9. Thin lithosphere between the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons, in central Brazil, revealed by seismic P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, Paulo Araújo; Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Soares, José Eduardo Pereira; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-04-01

    Results of P-wave traveltime seismic tomography in central Brazil unravel the upper-mantle velocity structure and its relationship with the tectonic framework. Data were recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 16 stations distributed over the study area, and were added to the database used by Rocha et al. to improve the resolution of anomalies, and to image the surrounding regions. The main objective was to observe the upper-mantle boundary zone between the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons, represented by mobile belts, inside the Tocantins Province, and to study the lithosphere related to the collision between these two cratons during the Neoproterozoic. A set of low-velocity anomalies was observed crossing the study area in the NE-SW direction, in agreement with the main trend of the Transbrasiliano lineament. The region where the anomalies are located was interpreted as the zone separating the Amazonian and São Franciscan palaeoplates. There is a good correlation between the low-velocity anomalies and the high seismicity of this region, suggesting that it is a region of weakness, probably related to lithospheric thinning. High velocities were observed under the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons. A model is proposed for the lithospheric subsurface in central Brazil, emphasizing the boundary zone between the main palaeoplates in the study area. After merging both databases, the low-velocity anomalies in the central part of the study area suggest tectonic partitioning of the lithosphere. Synthetic tests show that the tomography results are robust.

  10. [Human exposure to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: a historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Aguinaldo; Gonçalves, Neusa Nunes da Silva e

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present article was to present the most important data generated by a multicentric study carried out by Brazilian researchers who, with the support of national and international institutions, worked during the 1990s to describe human exposure to mercury in gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Three sets of procedures were followed with residents of the Tocantins and Xingu river basins: (1) clinical examination, based on a standardized protocol and performed by a single researcher, in order to identify five basic levels of contamination; (2) determination of mercury levels in blood, hair, and urine, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Xingu Project); and (3) investigation of genotoxicity by using four cytogenetic indicators. During the first stage, 41 individuals were studied. Mercury was found in miners and their family members. Contamination was significantly associated with occupation and showed a differential correlation with genotoxicity indicators. After that, the Xingu project, which encompassed 625 individuals, focused on 417 Kayapó natives from the Gorotire and Djudjetiktire villages; 142 miners; and 66 riverine individuals (ribeirinhos). The highest levels of methylmercury in hair and total mercury in blood and urine were found among the Indian population. Contamination with inorganic forms of mercury was also observed in the blood, hair, and urine of Indians. Following a specific recommendation from the World Health Organization, special attention was given to pregnant Gorotire and Djudjetiktire women, who, although not directly exposed to mercury vapors, showed considerable levels of mercury intoxication. Despite this worrisome scenario, a number of social achievements in the 1990s point to new standards of dignity in health care and of social ethics in Brazil that could benefit everyone, including the victims of environmental injury. PMID:15673484

  11. Genetic structure of red-handed howler monkey populations in the fragmented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation, caused by flooding of the Tucuruí reservoir, on the genetic structure of Alouatta belzebul in eastern Amazonia. The analysis included two populations sampled in 1984, representing both margins of the Tocantins river, and three populations sampled 18 years later. Minimal differences in the diversity levels between present-day (Ho = 0.62-0.69 and AR = 6.07-7.21) and pre-flooding (Ho = 0.60-0.62 and A R = 6.27-6.77) populations indicated there was no significant loss of genetic variability, possibly because of successful management strategies applied during the flooding. The changes observed were limited to shifts in the composition of alleles, which presumably reflect the admixture of subpopulations during flooding. Given this, there were significant differences in the Rst values (p = 0.05) in all but one between-site comparison. Both present-day and original populations showed a deficit of heterozygotes, which suggests that this may be typical of the species, at least at a local level, perhaps because of specific ecological characteristics. The relatively large number of private alleles recorded in all populations may be a consequence of the Wahlund effect resulting from population admixture or a process of expansion rather than the loss of rare alleles through genetic drift. Additionally, the levels of genetic variability observed in this study were higher than those reported for other species of Neotropical primates, suggesting good fitness levels in these A. belzebul populations. Regular genetic monitoring of remnant populations, especially on islands, should nevertheless be an integral component of long-term management strategies. PMID:21637590

  12. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  13. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  14. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  15. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  16. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  17. Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-15

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  18. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8557). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant..., 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12...

  19. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  20. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…

  1. Exotic Nuclei in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-08-04

    The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

  2. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministrio da Sade, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and

  3. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by

  4. [Nurses and the Mercosul regulations and control of professional practice].

    PubMed

    Vieira, A L

    1998-01-01

    A study comparing the regulation and control of the professional practice of nurses in Brasil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, delineating their particularities, differences and similarities in the perspective of the implementation of the Cone Sul Common Market, which presupposes the free circulation of workers in the workplaces of the member-countries of the Ascnsion Treaty. PMID:10776275

  5. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and…

  6. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  7. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where upland terra-firme forest develop. The youngest landsurfaces thus appear to lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion from a northward (Caribbean) outlet to a generally eastward, Atlantic Ocean outlet. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. The bird DNA data appears to confirm the role of Amazonian rivers as primary diversification barriers, and thus probably as promoters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers of apparently different ages ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

  8. Potential geodynamic relationships between the development of peripheral orogens along the northern margin of Gondwana and the amalgamation of West Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Nance, R. Damian

    2013-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian evolution of peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Avalonia, Carolinia, Cadomia) along the northern (Amazonia, West Africa) margin of Gondwana provides insights into the amalgamation of West Gondwana. The main phase of tectonothermal activity occurred between ca. 640-540 Ma and produced voluminous arc-related igneous and sedimentary successions related to subduction beneath the northern Gondwana margin. Subduction was not terminated by continental collision so that these terranes continued to face an open ocean into the Cambrian. Prior to the main phase of tectonothermal activity, Sm-Nd isotopic studies suggest that the basement of Avalonia, Carolinia and part of Cadomia was juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga within the peri-Rodinian (Mirovoi) ocean. Vestiges of primitive 760-670 Ma arcs developed upon this lithosphere are preserved. Juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga also underlies arcs formed in the Brazilide Ocean between the converging Congo/So Francisco and West Africa/Amazonia cratons (e.g. the Tocantins province of Brazil). Together, these juvenile arc assemblages with similar isotopic characteristics may reflect subduction in the Mirovoi and Brazilide oceans as a compensation for the ongoing breakup of Rodinia and the generation of the Paleopacific. Unlike the peri-Gondwanan terranes, however, arc magmatism in the Brazilide Ocean was terminated by continent-continent collisions and the resulting orogens became located within the interior of an amalgamated West Gondwana. Accretion of juvenile peri-Gondwanan terranes to the northern Gondwanan margin occurred in a piecemeal fashion between 650 and 600 Ma, after which subduction stepped outboard to produce the relatively mature and voluminous main arc phase along the periphery of West Gondwana. This accretionary event may be a far-field response to the breakup of Rodinia. The geodynamic relationship between the closure of the Brazilide Ocean, the collision between the Congo/So Francisco and Amazonia/West Africa cratons, and the tectonic evolution of the peri-Gondwanan terranes may be broadly analogous to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic closure of the Tethys Ocean, the collision between India and Asia beginning at ca. 50 Ma, and the tectonic evolution of the western Pacific Ocean.

  9. Mutual evaluation of global gravity models (EGM2008 and GOCE) and terrestrial data in Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, E. P.; Braitenberg, C.; Molina, E. C.

    2013-11-01

    The gravity observations of the satellite GOCE have a global homogeneous coverage and precision. This data set constitutes an independent new tool to control the quality of terrestrial gravity data. Terrestrial data reach higher resolution and precision, but can be affected by errors due to factors such as different vertical geodetic datums, wrong position in latitude and longitude, geodynamic effects and gravimeter drift, which tends to accumulate over long distances. Terrestrial data recover gravity signals at shorter wavelengths compared to the GOCE satellite, but the average gravity anomaly values can be compared to the GOCE derived values which are bandlimited to lower frequencies. We consider the area of the Amazon Craton, and in particular the Solimes, Amazon and Parnaiba Basins, and part of the Tocantins and So Francisco Provinces in Brazil, to estimate the systematic errors in terrestrial gravity data. We calculate the average terrestrial gravity anomaly by spatial averages applying Gaussian, inverse distance and simple averages, which allows to compare the long- and medium-wavelength part of the terrestrial gravity anomalies with the gravity field derived from GOCE. We also consider the combined satellite-terrestrial model EGM2008 up to degree and order 250 (i.e. maximum expansion from satellite GOCE). The results show that the systematic errors range from about -28.1 to 25.2 mGal with a standard deviation value of 6.4 mGal. The mean value over the study area is about zero, obtaining 0.27 mGal difference between the Gaussian average of the terrestrial gravity data and the gravity data from the GOCE satellite-only model and is smaller than the commission error associated to the geopotential model. Also, we verified that 64.8 per cent of the study area does not present systematic errors, as their difference is within the commission error of 5.1 mGal of the GOCE model in the harmonic expansion up to degree 250. The comparison of the terrestrial data with the model EGM2008 gives slightly smaller differences, which can be attributed to the fact that the EGM2008 contains terrestrial data. The results vary only slightly according to the type of averaging used, with improved values for the Gaussian average. The analysis also shows where the terrestrial data are scarce and require an improvement in data coverage in order to correctly represent the gravity field. The method we propose can be directly used to control other gravity databases and constitutes a tool for the quality assessment of terrestrial gravity observations.

  10. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Pietro L. H.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO). We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA) cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral) is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado. Moreover, PA distribution is spatially biased, and does not represent biogeographic divisions of the Cerrado. Consequently, we show that biogeographic patterns and processes are being erased at an accelerated pace, reinforcing the urgent need to create new reserves and to avoid the loss of the last remaining fragments of once continuous biogeographic regions. These actions are fundamental and urgent for conserving biogeographic and evolutionary information in this highly imperiled savanna hotspot. PMID:26252746

  11. Orosirian (ca. 1.96 Ga) mafic crust of the northwestern São Francisco Craton margin: Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of amphibolites from the Rio Preto fold belt basement, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, Fabrício de Andrade; Uhlein, Alexandre; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Stevenson, Ross; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of the Atlantic shield basement in the eastern South American platform is made of Rhyacian calc-alkaline magmatic rocks (˜2.2-2.15 Ga) affected by granulite-facies metamorphism at around 2.06 Ga, as part of a Paleoproterozoic orogenic system which joined Archean crustal fragments together. Orosirian (2050-1800 Ma) rocks, on the other hand, are scarce in all four major provinces of eastern South America (the Borborema, São Francisco, Tocantins and Mantiqueira provinces). Recently, however, sparse occurrences of Orosirian-aged rocks have been described, particularly in the northern São Francisco Craton margin and adjoining fold belts that compose the Borborema Province further north. In this paper, we present new geochemical, geochronological and isotopic data of amphibolites which compose the basement of the Rio Preto fold belt, in the northwestern São Francisco Craton margin. Geochemical data suggest tholeiitic gabbro protoliths intruded in a subduction-related setting, as suggested by tectonic discrimination diagrams and differentiation trends. U-Pb analyses of magmatic zircon crystals yielded a 1958.3 ± 16 Ma Concordia age. Slightly negative to positive ɛNd(1.96) = (-0.3 to +1.0) and ɛHf(1.96) from -0.76 to -4.55 suggest variable mixing of a depleted mantle source and older continental crust. We interpret the amphibolite body as a remnant of a subduction-related crustal fragment developed in the Orosirian, around 1.96 Ga ago, possibly in a continental back-arc setting. This crustal fragment was further reworked as part of the basement of the Rio Preto fold belt during the Brasiliano Orogeny (˜600-550 Ma). The Cristalândia do Piauí Complex gneisses further north might represent fragments of a coeval continental magmatic arc. These rocks could be the first well documented representatives of an Orosirian tectono-magmatic event which has been, up to now, broadly ignored within this portion of West Gondwana, and thus present major implications for the Proterozoic crustal evolution of South America and for Paleoproterozic supercontinent reconstructions in general.

  12. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had moderate severity (58.9%), thus requiring intervention. Type A reactions were the most common (82.1%). At least one predisposing factor was present in 79.9% of the reports examined, and the most common predisposing factor was polypharmacy. Conclusions The results obtained will contribute to the development of strategies for the pharmacovigilance service at HGP and other hospitals throughout the country, which will improve the quality of ADR reporting and ensure safer drug use in Brazilian hospitals. PMID:23298396

  13. Neoproterozoic evolution of the basement of the South-American platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito Neves, Benjamim Bley; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2013-11-01

    Neoproterozoic geologic and geotectonic processes were of utmost importance in forming and structuring the basement framework of the South-American platform. Two large domains with distinct evolutionary histories are identified with respect to the Neoproterozoic era: the northwest-west (Amazonian craton and surroundings) and the central-southeast (the extra-Amazonian domain). In the first domain, Neoproterozoic events occurred only locally and were of secondary significance, and the geologic events, processes, and structures of the pre-Neoproterozoic (and syn-Brasiliano) cratonic block were much more influential. In the second, the extra-Amazonian domain, the final evolution, structures and forms are assigned to events related to the development of a complex net of Neoproterozoic mobile belts. These in turn resulted in strong reworking of the older pre-Neoproterozoic basement. In this domain, four distinct structural provinces circumscribe or are separated by relatively small pre-Neoproterozoic cratonic nuclei, namely the Pampean, Tocantins, Borborema and Mantiqueira provinces. These extra-Amazonian provinces were formed by a complex framework of orogenic branching systems following a diversified post-Mesoproterozoic paleogeographic scenario. This scenario included many types of basement inliers as well as a diversified organization of accretionary and collisional orogens. The basement inliers date from the Archean to Mesoproterozoic periods and are different in nature. The escape tectonics that operated during the final consolidation stages of the provinces were important to and responsible for the final forms currently observed. These latest events, which occurred from the Late Ediacaran to the Early Ordovician, present serious obstacles to paleogeographic reconstructions. Two groups of orogenic collage systems are identified. The older system from the Tonian (>850 Ma) period is of restricted occurrence and is not fully understood due to strong reworking subsequent to Tonian times. The second group of orogenies is more extensive and more important. Its development began with diachronic taphrogenic processes in the Early Cryogenian period (ca. 850-750 Ma) and preceded a complex scenario of continental, transitional and oceanic basins. Subsequent orogenies (post 800 Ma) were also created by diachronic processes that ended in the Early Ordovician. More than one orogeny (plate interaction) can be identified either in space or in time in every province. The orogenic processes were not necessarily synchronous in different parts of the orogenic system, even within the same province. This particular group of orogenic collage events is known as the “Brasiliano”. All of the structural provinces of the extra-Amazonian domain exhibit final events that are marked by extrusion processes, are represented by long lineaments, and are fundamental to unraveling the structural history of the Phanerozoic sedimentary basins.

  14. How Much Do We Know about the Storage Changes in the Major River Basins of the World? Analysis of Storage Change from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Change in storage is an important component of water cycle that is often ignored in large-scale hydrologic studies due to limited data and difficulty in measurement. For the first time, this study quantifies and inter-compares storage changes in major river basins of the world. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly mass deviation in storage (MDS) data over 2003-2013 is used to compute monthly, annual and long-term change in storage (ΔS) for 51 major river basins of the world (> 200,000 km2). For each river basin, GRACE ΔS is analyzed to understand a) temporal variability in ΔS b) magnitude of ΔS at annual and decadal time scales and c) duration of storage cycle (time taken by a basin in months to return to initial storage condition). This study identified that 11, 33 and 7 out of 51 basins showed high, medium and low month to month variability in storage changes, respectively. Compared to basin precipitation, 48 out of 51 river basins showed storage to be considerable (5 - 35% of basin annual precipitation). Only 3 basins (Irrawaddy, St. Lawrence, and Brahmaputra) showed minimum variability in storage (< 5%). At long-term (decadal) time-scales, all the 51 river basins showed negligible storage changes (< 0.5%). This result emphasizes the fact that change in storage, ΔS is substantial at monthly and annual time scales but can be ignored over a decadal time scale. Analysis of storage cycle for each basin revealed that a basin can take anywhere from 5 to 12 months to restore itself. While, 14 out of 51 basins showed biannual storage cycle (≤ 6 months), six basins (Zambezi, Mekong, Orinoco, Tocantins, and Amazon) showed annual storage cycle of 12 months. Our results indicate that most basins within the tropics show positive correlation with precipitation indicating that precipitation is the main driver of storage. On the other hand, ΔS in the basins located in the higher latitudes mostly show negative correlation with precipitation. This study provides new insights into how basin storage changes in the major river basins. Future study would focus on the analysis of ΔS over large river basins within the United States. Such analysis and estimates of ΔS would help to (i) improve our knowledge of water availability and (ii) meet the goals of the WaterSMART (Sustain and Manage America's Resources for Tomorrow) project.

  15. Behavioral and environmental influences on fishing rewards and the outcomes of alternative management scenarios for large tropical rivers.

    PubMed

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F M; Juras, Anastcio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-10-15

    Identifying the factors that influence the amount of fish caught, and thus the fishers' income, is important for proposing or improving management plans. Some of these factors influencing fishing rewards may be related to fishers' behavior, which is driven by economic motivations. Therefore, those management rules that have less of an impact on fishers' income could achieve better acceptance and compliance from fishers. We analyzed the relative influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on fish catches (biomass) in fishing communities of a large tropical river. We then used the results from this analysis to propose alternative management scenarios in which we predicted potential fishers' compliance (high, moderate and low) based on the extent to which management proposals would affect fish catches and fishers' income. We used a General Linear Model (GLM) to analyze the influence of environmental (fishing community, season and habitat) and socioeconomic factors (number of fishers in the crew, time spent fishing, fishing gear used, type of canoe, distance traveled to fishing grounds) on fish catches (dependent variable) in 572 fishing trips by small-scale fishers in the Lower Tocantins River, Brazilian Amazon. According to the GLM, all factors together accounted for 43% of the variation in the biomass of the fish that were caught. The behaviors of fishers' that are linked to fishing effort, such as time spent fishing (42% of the total explained by GLM), distance traveled to the fishing ground (12%) and number of fishers (10%), were all positively related to the biomass of fish caught and could explain most of the variation on it. The environmental factor of the fishing habitat accounted for 10% of the variation in fish caught. These results, when applied to management scenarios, indicated that some combinations of the management measures, such as selected lakes as no-take areas, restrictions on the use of gillnets (especially during the high-water season) and individual quotas larger than fishers' usual catches, would most likely have less impact on fishers' income. The proposed scenarios help to identify feasible management options, which could promote the conservation of fish, potentially achieving higher fishers' compliance. PMID:23764509

  16. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Crosato, Edgard Michel; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Aggarwal, Vishal R.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of the present study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale to the Portuguese language. Material and Methods A synthesis of two independent translations done by bilingual translators whose mother tongue was the Portuguese language began the process of translation. From the synthesis of the translated version and totally blind to the original version, two different non-native English language teachers without dental knowledge translated the questionnaire back to English. The pre-final version was done by an Expert committee: the researchers, two other non-native English language teachers and one native English language speaker. The new questionnaire was then piloted among 8 patients from the target setting that were interviewed to probe it on their perceived meaning of each question. The Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale (MOPDS) thus translated was called Brasil-MOPDS and was validated in 50 patients with Orofacial pain from TMJ and Occlusion clinic ambulatory of São Paulo University School of Dentistry. The Brasil-MOPDS was administered twice by an interviewer (15 - 20 day interval) and once by a second independent interviewer. The Brazilian version of the short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS) were applied on the same day. Results Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.9), inter-observer (ICC = 0.92) and intra-observer (ICC = 0.98) correlations presented high scores. Validity of Brasil-MOPDS compared to OHIP-14 (r = 0.85) and VAS (r = 0.75) shown high correlations. Conclusions Brasil-MOPDS was successfully translated and adapted to be applied to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory internal and external reliability. PMID:24422021

  17. [Circuses and clowns. Experimental contribution to nursing methodology].

    PubMed

    Tognoni, G

    1990-01-01

    The description of a very original experience of health education in a region of Amazonia, Brasil (based on the utilization of techniques of population theater) is the occasion for a reflection on the possibilities and on the opportunity of adopting also for the nursing practice of western countries methodologically innovative approaches, which could allow a caring attention oriented not only to the problem of assistance, but more basically to the cultural components of the needs and expectations of defined populations. PMID:2112775

  18. RT-PCR DETECTION OF CITRUS LEPROSIS VIRUS IN SHRUBS AND WEED PLANTS INFECTED THROUGH Brevipalpus phoenicis (ACARI: TENUIPALPIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No Brasil são gastos anualmente cerca de US$ 80 milhões para controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor do vírus leprose dos citros (CiLV). Este ácaro possui comportamento polífago e cosmopolita, presente em inúmeras espécies de plantas junto aos pomares cítricos. Neste trabalho foi investigada a poss...

  19. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, Lília S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-01

    Bambuina bambui, um novo gênero e espécie de grilo falangopsídeo é descrito a partir de espécimes obtidos na Gruta do Centenário, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Caraça no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. PMID:24583818

  20. First record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus (Ergasilidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R K; Brandão, H; Abdallah, V D; Silva, R J

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper, we described the first record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus Thatcher and Brasil-Sato, 2008, parasite of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 in Brazil, with electron microscope observations. Fish were collected in Veados River, state of São Paulo and the crustacean Ergasilus chelangulatus being registered for the first time in this river, expanding its geographical distribution in Brazil. PMID:25166331

  1. CEN A observation at MeV-energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballmoos, P. V.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1985-01-01

    During a balloon flight with the MPI Compton telescope from Uberaba/Brasil gamma-ray emission from the direction of Cen A was observed at MeV-energies. The observed flux connects to the X-ray spectrum of Cen A beyond 0.7 MeV and has a statistical significance of 4.1. The extension beyond 3 MeV has a significance of 3.8. Possible interpretations of the energy spectrum are discussed.

  2. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.

    2010-04-15

    The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

  3. Narcolepsy with cataplexy after A/H1N1 vaccination – A case reported from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Yaimi Rosales; Meira e Cruz, Miguel Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare sleep disorder with a neurological basis which has been recently linked to H1N1 vaccination either in children or adults. Cases from Europe, United States and Brasil were registered. Authors describe a case report of a 15 years old boy who developed narcolepsy with cataplexy after H1N1 vaccination in Havana. As far as it is concerned this is the first case reported from Cuba. PMID:26483903

  4. Phytochemical and antiprotozoal activity of Ocotea lancifolia.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Guy, Isabelle; Guinaudeau, Hélène; Heinzen, Horacio

    2007-07-01

    Thirteen known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ocotea lancifolia, popularly known as < canela pilosa > in Brasil and < laurel né > by the Guarani people which means smell laurel. Their activities against the promastigote forms of three Leishmania strains and the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated, as well as their hepatocytotoxicity. Among them, the noraporphine alkaloid (-) caaverine has shown the most interesting antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania and T. cruzi parasites. PMID:17499454

  5. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  6. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  7. Brazil announces family planning programme in 1981.

    PubMed

    1980-01-16

    The Brazilian Minister of Health, Waldyr Arcoverde, announced in December that the government will implement a national family planning program in 1981. O Globo and Jornal do Brasil, the 2 main national newspapers, report that according to the information given by the Minister, the program will offer all contraceptive methods including male and female sterilizations. Sterilizations will be provided free-of-charge by INAMPS, the national hospital system. Contraceptive services are being provided in order to reduce illegal abortions, the practice of which is widespread throughout the country. PMID:12338043

  8. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse. PMID:10489588

  9. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment /LACIE/ - A summary of three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.; Moore, B. H.

    1979-01-01

    Aims, history and schedule of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) conducted by NASA, USDA and NOAA from 1974-1977 are described. The LACIE experiment designed to research, develop, apply and evaluate a technology to monitor wheat production in important regions throughout the world (U.S., Canada, USSR, Brasil) utilized quantitative multispectral data collected by Landsat in concert with current weather data and historical information. The experiment successfully exploited computer data and mathematical models to extract timely corp information. A follow-on activities for the early 1980's is planned focusing especially on the early warning of changes affecting production and quality of renewable resources and commodity production forecast.

  10. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  11. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria Jos; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Lus Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  12. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence. PMID:26013018

  13. Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simplified river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood warning thresholds, showed that the upper quantiles of the ensemble (e.g. 80th and 90th quantiles) over performed the deterministic forecast and even the ensemble mean. In most cases we observed an increase in the proportion of correctly forecasted events while keeping false alarm rates at low levels. This benefit was generally higher for higher flow thresholds and for longer lead times, which are the most important situations for flood impact mitigation. In parallel with the ensemble forecasts studies, a forecasting system platform fully coupled to a GIS tool (Mapwindow GIS) is being developed, which facilitates the system operation and interpretation of results. Currently, this system is being tested, however using only deterministic precipitation forecasts, in two large scale river basins in Brazil: the So Francisco River upstream of Pirapora (60 thousand km2) and the Tocantins River (300 thousand km2). Results obtained in the Paraopeba River are now motivating the incorporation of NWP ensemble outputs in these systems to make probabilistic predictions.

  14. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type. The youngest landsurfaces thus lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion away from a northerly orientation generally towards the east and an Atlantic Ocean outlet. The advance of megafans is best seen by the location of axial rivers such as the Orinoco and Mamore which lie against the cratonic margins furthest from the Andes, at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. If this landscape-sequence scenario is accurate, it parallels the progressive younging of the passerine lineages. The bird DNA data appears to confirm strongly the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers--as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and thus probably as facilitaters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

  15. Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry seasons. Thick mudstones and some coquinites below and above the sandy interval may represent lacustrine facies formed in probably more humid conditions. The taphonomic history of the preserved plants began with exceptional storms that caused fast-flowing high water in channels and far into the floodplains. In the eastern site region, many tree ferns only fell, thus sometimes covering and protecting plant litter and leaves from further fragmentation. Assemblages of the central and western sites suggest that the trees were uprooted and transported in suspension (floating) parallel to the flow. Heavier ends of stems (according to their form or because of attached basal bulbous root mantle or large apical fronds) were oriented to upstream because of inertial forces. During falling water stage, the stems were stranded on riverbanks, usually maintaining the previous transport orientation, and were slightly buried. The perpendicular or oblique positions of some stems may have been caused by interference with other stems or shallow bars. Rare observed stems were apparently waterlogged before the final depositional process and transported as bedload. The differences of interpreted channel orientations between the three sites are expected in a braided fluvial system, considering the very low gradients of the basin and the work scale in the order of tens of kilometers. The mean direction of the drainage probably was to east and the flows apparently became weaker downstream. This study seems to provide reliable data for paleocurrent interpretations, especially considering areas with scarce preserved sedimentary structures.

  16. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Eliane S. M.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2014-04-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in the following Brazilian regions: Northeast (NE) region and the states of Goiás (GO), Tocantins (TO), and Minas Gerais (MG). The suitability maps were generated by crossing the crop climate requirements with the interpolated climate conditions of the selected regions. The maps showed that only 22.65 % of the areas in the NE region are suitable for jatropha as a rain-fed crop. The other areas of the region are classified as marginal (62.61 %) and unsuitable (14.74 %). In the states of GO and TO, the majority of the areas (47.78 %) is classified as suitable, and in the state of MG, 33.92 % of the territory has suitability for the crop. These results prove that jatropha cannot be cultivated everywhere and will require, as any other crop, minimum climatic conditions to have sustainable performance and high yields.

  17. The evolution of organic matter along the lower Amazon River continuum - Óbidos to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N. D.; Keil, R. G.; Medeiros, P. M.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Moura, J. S.; Yager, P. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The influence of the Amazon River on global hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling is well recognized. The Amazon River provides roughly 16% of the global freshwater supply to the ocean and is a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere, outgassing 0.5 Pg C y-1 to the atmosphere--a flux roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon 'sequestered' by the Amazon rainforest (Field et al, 1998; Richey et al., 2002; Malhi et al., 2008). However, much of our understanding of the flux of matter from the Amazon River into the Atlantic Ocean (and atmosphere) is limited to measurements made at and upstream of Óbidos, 900 km upstream from the actual river mouth. Further, there are few to no observations documenting the transformation of organic matter in a parcel of water as it travels downstream of Óbidos into the ocean. Here we explore the hydrological and biogeochemical evolution of the lower Amazon River continuum, from Óbidos to the Atlantic Ocean. A suite of dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) parameters were measured during a series of five river expeditions with stations at Óbidos, the Tapajós tributary, the mouth of the Lago Grande de Curuai floodplain lake, both the north and south channels of the Amazon River mouth near Macapá, and the confluence of the Amazon and Tocantins Rivers near Belém. In addition to bulk carbon isotopic signatures, a suite of biomarkers including dissolved and particulate lignin-derived phenols were measured to trace the sources and degradation history of terrestrial vascular plant derived OM throughout the continuum. Dissolved and particulate lignin phenol concentrations both correlated positively with river discharge in the Amazon River mainstem, with variable export patterns from the tributaries and floodplains. As organic matter travels along the continuum it is degraded by microbial composition, fuelling gross respiration and CO2 outgassing. The flux of organic carbon to the ocean is chemically recalcitrant as a result of the constant biological processing of labile OM throughout the lower river. We estimate that 40% of the vascular plant-derived organic carbon sequestered by the terrestrial biosphere is degraded within soils, 55% is degraded along the river continuum, and less than 5% is delivered to the ocean (Ward et al., 2013) References Cited Field, C., M. Behrenfeld, J. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281, 237-240. Malhi, Y., Roberts, J.T., Betts, R.A., Killeen, T.J., Li, W., Nobre, C.A. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319, 169-172. Richey, J. E., Melack, J. M., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Ballester, V. M. & Hess, L. L. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416, 617-620. Ward, N.D.; Keil, R.G.; Medeiros, P.M.; Brito, D.C.; Cunha, A.C.; Dittmar, T.; Yager, P.L.; Krusche, A.V.; Richey, J.E. 2013. Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River. Nature Geoscience. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1817

  18. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eliane S M; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2014-11-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in the following Brazilian regions: Northeast (NE) region and the states of Goiás (GO), Tocantins (TO), and Minas Gerais (MG). The suitability maps were generated by crossing the crop climate requirements with the interpolated climate conditions of the selected regions. The maps showed that only 22.65% of the areas in the NE region are suitable for jatropha as a rain-fed crop. The other areas of the region are classified as marginal (62.61%) and unsuitable (14.74%). In the states of GO and TO, the majority of the areas (47.78%) is classified as suitable, and in the state of MG, 33.92% of the territory has suitability for the crop. These results prove that jatropha cannot be cultivated everywhere and will require, as any other crop, minimum climatic conditions to have sustainable performance and high yields. PMID:24691855

  19. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. This is consistent with organic aerosol mass being approximately constant when accounting for dilution both close to source and on the regional scale. However, the bulk organic aerosol composition became increasingly oxidised with distance from source. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts. Biomass burning layers were observed aloft in the free troposphere, which has potential implications for atmospheric stability profiles and cloud formation. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

  20. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, while the organic aerosol component was observed to oxidise rapidly upon advection and dilution downwind of major smoke plumes. Significant differences in the coating thickness of the BC-containing particles were observed when comparing the Rainforest and Cerrado environments. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, as well as their optical and radiative properties. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

  1. Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of episodic melting of Archean-Paleoproterozoic supracrustal gneisses related to the Svecofennian orogeny. Petrographic traverses across the boundary between widespread, foliation-parallel units of aplitic to pegmatitic pink granite and hosting biotite gneiss directly capture the process of ore formation. Dehydration breakdown of zircon-rich biotite aligned with the foliation in the gneiss is accompanied by formation of new pristine, post-deformational biotite plus sulfides, oxides, hydrothermal zircon and fluorite, all associated with microcline-dominant leucosomes. This process has profound implication for the traditional leucogranite, intrusion-related genesis attributed to the broad classification of Mo-W-Sn-base and precious metal mineralization (e.g., South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia; Okiep, Namaqualand, South Africa; Mactung, Yukon; Pogo-Liese, Tintina, Alaska; Carajás and Goiás-Rio Tocantins, Brazil; New England Batholith, NSW, Australia; Bergslagen, Sweden; Nevoria, Western Australia; Alpeinerscharte, Austria; Erzgebirge, Germany; Sardinia-Corsica Batholith). In addition to biotite, metallogenic contributions (e.g., Mo, W, Sn, U, Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni, Co, Au, Ag, Te, As, Sb, REE) in various combinations may also be controlled by breakdown of amphibole. In effect, the trace element composition of dehydrating or recrystallizing components in a gneissic rock essentially defines the local and district metallogenic suite. In the absence of focusing structures (e.g., shear zones, sheeted vein development), this process will generally form small and disconnected subeconomic deposits with erratic and unpredictable grades. Low Re content in associated molybdenite is a key indicator for a subeconomic origin by local melting of biotite gneiss (Mo-W) or muscovite schist (Sn-W).

  2. Progress Report of the New Solar Submm-Wave Telescope (SST) Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, P.; Magun, A.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.; Arzner, K.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Kämpfer, N.; Raulin, J.-P.; Rolli, E.; Silva, A. V. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Solar Sub-Millimeter wave Telescope (SST) is now in its final stage of construction and a definite schedule has been established. The 1.5 m diameter reflector has been completed and presents an excellent surface with a deviation of 18 microns (r.m.s.). The reflector construction employed the new "slumping" technique (Martin et al. 1998). The SST building, including one 3.4 m gore-tex radome and a room for optical imaging spectrographs (from IAP, Bern and OV, UFRJ, Brasil), has been completed now at El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina. Numerous electrical, electronical, mechanical tests, as well as software tests, have been performed at the IAP, Bern, Switzerland, and at Itapetinga, Brasil. The SST was assembled in Bern, consisting of the 1.5 m reflector, four 210 and two 405 GHz radiometers, the positioner, the interface box between the reflector and the radiometers, and the counter-weights. Part of the tests and integration of the SST is beeing done at Bern, with a co-participation of researchers and technicians of CRAAE and CASLEO. The shipment of the SST to El Leoncito will be in February 1999, and the final installation is scheduled for the period March-May 1999. The SST project received main financial support from the Brazilian Agency FAPESP (Proc. 93/3321-7), complemented by funds from the IAFE and CASLEO/CONICET, Argentina, and the IAP, Switzerland.

  3. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  4. Biblioteca Virtual de Salud Enfermería Regional: Trayectoria de Construcción, Fuentes de Información, Estrategias y Próximos Pasos.

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Francisco C. F.; Malvárez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen La BVS Enfermeria constituye un nuevo paradigma en enfermería una vez que o modelo representa una expansión de la cooperación técnica y ha como objetivos centrales promover la ampliación del acceso la información sobre enfermería la través del acceso universal equitativo y construir un patrimonio informacional en enfermería, ayudando la mejorar la formación y práctica de enfermería a actuar con compromiso ético-social en el área de educación, investigación y atención a la salud. Como resultado del proceso de sensibilización, verifica-se la construcción de Bibliotecas Virtuales de Enfermería en varios países (Brasil, Argentina, Bolívia y Uruguay). La expectativa es que las BVS’s nacionais convergen a un gran portal que se está construyendo en una colaboración con BIREME/OPS/OMS, de la Asesoría Regional de Enfermería de la OPS-Washington y de Ministerio de Salud del Brasil, así como instituciones líderes en la producción del conocimiento en enfermería Iberoamérica. PMID:24199093

  5. Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paran Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2010-03-01

    Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paran Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fsseis do Brasil. Boletim do Servio Geolgico e Mineralgico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paran State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

  6. Analysis of the Applicability of an Ankle-Foot Orthosis during Gait in Poststroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rafael Vital; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Corrêa, Fernanda Ishida; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop and assess the applicability of an experimental ankle-foot orthosis during gait in patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] This was a noncontrolled cross-sectional study. Ten adult patients with hemiparesis but who were capable of independent gait were included in the study. Gait assessment was performed using two platforms (EMG System do Brasil), an electromyograph (EMG System do Brasil), and a video camera. The experimental orthosis consisted of a single piece that fit over the foot and 1/3 of the distal tibia and had a steel spring. [Results] There was greater activation of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles in the stance and mid-stance phases with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis and no orthosis. Regarding spatial and temporal gait parameters, the individuals achieved an increase in stride length with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis. [Conclusion] The results of the present study demonstrate that individuals with hemiparesis achieved an improvement in the stance and mid-stance phases of gait with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis. PMID:24259903

  7. Using satellite data to study the relationship between rainfall and diarrheal diseases in a Southwestern Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Paula Andrea Morelli; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Reis, Vera Lúcia; Costa, Duarte; Brown, Irving Foster

    2016-03-01

    The North region is the second region in Brazil with the highest incidence rate of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 years old. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rainfall and water level during the rainy season principally with the incidence rate of this disease in a southwestern Amazon basin. Rainfall estimates and the water level were correlated and both of them were correlated with the diarrheal incidence rate. For the Alto Acre region, 2 to 3 days' time-lag is the best interval to observe the impact of the rainfall in the water level (R = 0.35). In the Lower Acre region this time-lag increased (4 days) with a reduction in the correlation value was found. The correlation between rainfall and diarrheal disease was better in the Lower Acre region (Acrelândia, R = 0.7) and rainfall upstream of the city. Between water level and diarrheal disease, the best results were found for the Brasiléia gauging station (Brasiléia, R = 0.3; Epitaciolândia, R = 0.5). This study's results may support planning and financial resources allocation to prioritize actions for local Civil Defense and health care services before, during and after the rainy season. PMID:26960086

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y minerales. PMID:27019240

  9. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages. PMID:24346726

  10. [Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].

    PubMed

    Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César

    2010-09-01

    Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

  11. Leaf Fluctuating Asymmetry and Herbivory of Tibouchina heteromalla in Restored and Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G W; De Oliveira, S C S; Campos, I R; Barbosa, M; Soares, L A; Cuevas-Reyes, P

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a parameter to measure developmental stability in plants, which can be altered by disturbances, pollution, and biotic factors such as herbivory. We evaluated the effects of environmental stress and herbivory on the FA levels in individuals of Tibouchina heteromalla (Melastomataceae) that occur in natural and undergoing restoration areas in rupestrian grasslands at Serra do Cipó, Brasil. Individuals were collected and measured in seven restored and five natural areas, totalizing 240 individuals. We found that individuals in restored areas had greater leaf area, higher levels of insect herbivory and FA compared to individuals that occurred in natural areas. In both environments, the proportion of individuals with leaf damage caused by herbivory was higher than the proportion of undamaged individuals. In addition, FA was positively correlated with herbivory and total leaf area in both restored and natural areas. These results suggest that more favorable conditions in the restored areas enhanced leaf growth, resulting in higher FA. PMID:26501884

  12. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  13. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of speckle runs at the 4.1 m Southern Astronomical Research telescope in 2012 and 2013. A total of 586 objects were observed. We give 699 measurements of 487 resolved binaries and upper detection limits for 112 unresolved stars. Eleven pairs (including one triple) were resolved for the first time. Orbital elements have been determined for the first time for 13 pairs; orbits of another 45 binaries are revised or updated. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. [Korotkoff sounds: development of the sphygmomanometry research at the Nursing School of the USP].

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; de Araújo, Thelma Leite; Veiga, Eugênia Veludo; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Lamas, José Luiz Tatagiba; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2007-03-01

    This article pays homage to Sergei Nicolai Korotkoff, for the centenary of the auscultatory method discovery. It refers to his discover of blood pressure auscultatory method in Russia, in 1905; presents the evidence that resulted in the development of sphygmomanometry studies in Brasil; describes the important contribution of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo to the development of blood pressure measurement research; and analyses the results of the research field of "Cuff width influence in blood pressure measurement", created at the Nursing School of The University of São Paulo, in 1974. The scientific results of doctoral studies are presented, identifying the research groups that are contributing to defying knowledge in this area. The article demonstrates the consolidation of the results related to the initial doctoral program studies developed in the area. Confirmation of hypothesis in longitudinal studies is emphasized. PMID:17542139

  15. Dedication to Manoel Pimentel Neto --1928-2010.

    PubMed

    Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Evans, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Dr Manoel Pimentel Neto's career as a researcher and adviser is recalled in this summary of his professional life. He adored his work, to which he dedicated himself fully as an exemplary public employee. In 1958, he graduated in veterinary medicine from the Rural University of Brazil (Universidade Rural do Brasil; URB), which today is the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; UFRRJ). At that time, postgraduate training in different aspects of veterinary medicine did not exist. Dr Pimentel started his activities as a veterinary surgeon at the then Ministry of Agriculture, working on cattle health, and later on transferred to the National Department of Agricultural and Livestock Research (DNPA), which was the institution that evolved into the present-day EMBRAPA. PMID:21184693

  16. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  17. Association between eating patterns and body mass index in a sample of children and adolescents in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nadya Helena Alves dos; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Silva, Luce Alves da; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female students, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. BMI was used to analyze the children's nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese). Two eating patterns, "obesogenic" and "prudent", were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018). An "obesogenic" dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI. PMID:25388325

  18. General circulation of the South Atlantic between 5 deg N and 35 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollitrault, Michel; Mercier, H.; Blanc, F.; Letraon, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter will provide the temporal mean seal level. So, secondly, we propose to compute the difference between these two surfaces (mean sea level minus general circulation dynamic topography). The result will be an estimate of the marine geoid, which is time invariant for the 5-year period under consideration. If this geoid is precise enough, it will permit a description of seasonal variability of the large-scale surface circulation. If there happens to be enough float data, it may be possible to infer the first vertical modes of this variability. Thus the main goal of our investigation is to determine the 3-D general circulation of the South Atlantic and the large-scale seasonal fluctuations. This last objective, however, may be restricted to the western part of the South Atlantic because float deployments have been scheduled only in the Brasil basin.

  19. [From the old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP) to the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca)].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tadeu Benedito

    2007-01-01

    The old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP), located on Rua do Resende #128, and the Conjunto Arquitetônico Histórico de Manguinhos da Fiocruz (Manguinhos-Fiocruz Historical Architectural Complex) are contemporary buildings built by the initiative of Oswaldo Cruz and projects by Luiz Moraes Júnior. The old DGSP is as important as the so-called Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) then, now Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) for the introduction and institucionalization of public health policies in Brasil. We describe the building project of the DGSP facilities, its evolution, transformations, and the process of becoming part of the Historic Heritage. PMID:17645147

  20. Characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from field-grown barley, oat, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Kefalogianni, Io; Argyris, Nikolaos; Liara, Georgia; Pergalis, Panagiotis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2011-08-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Avena sativa grown in various regions of Greece. One isolate, with the highest nitrogen-fixation ability from each of the eleven rhizospheres, was selected for further characterisation. Diazotrophic strains were assessed for plant-growth-promoting traits such as indoleacetic acid production and phosphate solubilisation. The phylogenies of 16S rRNA gene of the selected isolates were compared with those based on dnaK and nifH genes. The constructed trees indicated that the isolates were members of the species Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum zeae, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Furthermore, the ipdC gene was detected in all A. brasilence and one A. zeae isolates. The work presented here provides the first molecular genetic evidence for the presence of culturable nitrogen-fixing P. stutzeri and A. zeae associated with field-grown A. sativa and H. vulgare in Greece. PMID:21887633

  1. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  2. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  3. Relative leg length is associated with type 2 diabetes differently according to pubertal timing: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Chor, Dora; Vigo, Alvaro; Aquino, Estela M. L.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies from developed societies have shown that individuals with short legs relative to height have higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This has been much less explored in less developed populations where influences on relative leg length and diabetes may differ. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (in Portuguese, ELSA-Brasil) allows us to test, in a cohort born (1934–1975) and raised when undernutrition was common, whether short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes, independent of early-life factors, including birth weight, age at menarche, and young-adult BMI. Methods We used baseline, cross-sectional data from 15,105 participants aged 35–74 years participating in ELSA-Brasil. We created age-and-sex-specific Z scores for leg length index (leg length/height x 100) according to an external reference. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, fasting and 2-hour post-75g-load glucose, and A1C. Results A one-unit decrement in leg-length-index Z score was associated with 12% (8–17%) higher prevalence of diabetes in Brazilian adults, after adjustment through Poisson regression for confounders, including race, maternal education, and birth weight. This association persisted after further adjustment for menarche age, BMI (at age 20), buttocks circumference, and waist circumference. It was stronger among women with early menarche (p interaction=0.02). Leg length index was also positively associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, and A1C (p<0.05). Conclusions In contemporary Brazilian adults, short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes independent of measures of intrauterine growth, pubertal timing, young-adult adiposity. This association is stronger in women with early menarche. PMID:25327531

  4. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  5. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use throughout the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are real-time sharing of hydro-meteorological data by institutions of higher education throughout the Americas; in the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; and in the establishment of server sites that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote- access to a wide variety of datasets. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data for approximately 150 US universities for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration among Unidata, the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Collaboration between Unidata and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Regional Meteorological Training Center (RMTC) based in Barbados, has been launched to investigate the possibility of expansion of IDD data sharing throughout Caribbean RMTC member countries. Most recently, efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are being provided by Unidata through a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are provided by Unidata's Thematic Realtime Environmental Data Services (THREDDS) servers (which incorporate Open-source Project for a Network Data Access (OPeNDAP) data services), and the Abstract Data Distribution Environment (ADDE) of McIDAS. It is envisioned that the data sharing capabilities available in the IDD, IDD-Brasil, and IDD-Caribe, remote data access capabilities available in THREDDS and ADDE, and analysis capabilities available in GEMPAK, the IDV, and McIDAS will help foster new collaborations among prominent university educators and researchers, national meteorological agencies, and WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers throughout North, Central, and South America.

  6. Heat generated by Er:YAG laser in the pulp chamber of teeth submitted to removal of dental tissue and composite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Spano, Julio; Barbin, Eduardo; Marchesan, Melissa A.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge about and control of thermal energy produced by Er:YAG laser after irradiating hard dental tissues and compound resin is important because the pulp, like all vital biological tissue, has a certain capacity for supporting stimulus. The objective of this study was to analyze the thermal variation generated by Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94μm) during the preparation of a Class I cavity in the dental structure and in the removal of microhybrid Z100 (3M) compound resin. An evaluation was made of 30 maxillary human pre-molar teeth from the bank of the Endodontic Laboratory Center of Ribeirao Preto Dental School, Brasil. The sample was divided into 6 groups of 5 teeth each: Group 1, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 113 seconds); Group 2, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 81 seconds); Group 3, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 58 seconds); Group 4, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 85 seconds); Group 5, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 67 seconds); Group 6, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 258 impulses, 42 seconds). The laser used was KaVo Key 2 (Biberach, Germany), λ=2,94μm, P=3 Watts, pulse duration of 250μs, with air-water cooling. The increase in temperature during dental preparation and the removal of the compound resin was evaluated by means of a Tektronix DMM916 Thermocouple (Consitec, Brasil). The results showed that the application of laser for the removal of the hard dental tissues and for the removal of compound resins with the pulse frequencies 3, 4 and 6 Hz did not generate heating greater than 3.1°C and remained within the histopathological limits permitted for pulp tissue (5.5°C) and there was a significant statistical difference between the heat generated by the application of laser in the removal of the hard dental tissues and in the removal of compound resins (p<0.01). The average increase in temperature of the compound resin component was greater than the tooth.

  7. Crustal thinning and tectonic geomorphology: redefining the passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe Scandinavia's passive margin in terms of a hyper-extended distal margin, a variably tapered proximal margin that includes the outer onshore areas, and an upwarped, unstretched, continent-sloping hinterland that terminates against the "undeformed" cratonic interior. Two benchmark locations, defined as the taper break (TB) and the Hinterland Break in Slope (HBSL), occur at the inner boundary of the distal margin and at the transition from the continent-sloping hinterland and craton, respectively. The elevation of the seaward-facing escarpment is directly scaled to the distance between the taper break and the Hinterland Break in Slope. Scaling relationships between the taper of the crystalline crust in the direction of the distal margin and the length/dip of the hinterland backslope follow directly. The shape factors of major catchments are directly scaled to the taper of the proximal margin and drainage azimuths are parallel to the mean transport lineation recorded from a distinct population of range-bounding normal faults. Topographic expressions of the footwalls and offsets in apatite fission-track age-patterns indicate that fault movement controlled topography, locally and regionally inboard of sharp crustal tapers long after the main phase of crustal thinning. We extend our definition of the passive margin to other post-breakup margins. One particularly fine example is SE Brasil. New data (Zalan et al., 2011) suggest the direct correlation of SE Brasil's Taper Break with its escarpment elevation in a manner consistent with our Scandinavian and global observations. The Taper Hypothesis appears to hold across old and young, glaciated, and unglaciated margins. Following the stretching, thinning, and exhumation phase, an "accommodation phase" is warranted. During accommodation, the initially elevated escarpments can be eroded to very low base levels and subsequently undergo inboard rejuvenation by footwall uplift, in response to tensile stresses engendered by isostatically-induced flexure. Fault reactivation in the inner proximal margin may contribute to stabilize the location of the escarpment over time at sharply tapering margins. In this model the principal driver behind accomodation is the shifting of loads that commenced during the main phases of rifting and that has continued to present day.

  8. Brazil current eddy activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP data measurements from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, N. D.; Gabioux, M.; Guerra, L. D.; Paiva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Cape São Tomé, in the Campos Basin, is a region of intense ocean mesoscale activity where meanders and eddies are formed by instability processes of the Brazil Current. In this work seven years of ADCP current data (2006-2012) are analyzed at different depths over the continental shelf and slope of Campos Basin in order to characterize the variability and vertical struture of meanders and eddies. The present study is a continuation of Lima et al. (2010), in which two years of current meter data, taken at fewer locations and spanning a shorter depth range, were analyzed. This preliminary study suggested that eddy formation at Cape São Tomé may occur throughout the year, and that these eddies, which present a mixed barotropic and baroclinic structure, exert significant influence on the Brazil Current and on the upper portion of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current, which flows northward at intermediate depths. The longer time series of data, now available, alow us to check the validity of Lima et al. (2010) results about mesoscale activity activity, and to test their proposed conceptual model of eddy formation for other events. The ten ADCP moorings analyzed were located between 21°S and 23°S, and 41°W and 39°W. Measurements were taken from the surface down to 750 and 900 meters, and the data have different record lengths for each mooring. High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature dates (GHRSST) are also analyzed in order to provide a broader spatial view, assisting in the interpretation of the phenomena observed in the velocity data. The new results corroborate the study of Lima et al. (2010), showing that eddy formation is a reccuring phenomenon at Cape São Tomé for all the period analyzed. Eddies generate significant variability in current velocity both at the surface and at intermediate depths, changing the depth and intensity of Brasil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current system. While the average current system showed a strong baroclinic structure, the variability associated with the meandering of the stream and the eddy generation, had a significant barotropic component. Some eddies pinched off from the current, while others were reabsorbed by the Brasil Current, in accordance with the proposed conceptual model. Reference LIMA, N. D., GUERRA, L. D., PAIVA, A. M., 2010. Brazil Current eddy-activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP measurements, 2010 Meeting of the Americas, Foz do Iguaçu.

  9. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M

    2015-05-01

    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources. PMID:26132013

  10. The influence of urban effect on lightning activity: Evidence of weekly cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, W. R. G.; Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.; Naccarato, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a ten year period (1999-2008), and particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and air temperature data from the environmental agency of São Paulo State (CETESB) for the same period, were examined in order to look for the influence of urban effect and weekly cycles in lightning activity over metropolitan region of São Paulo (MRSP). The results show that there is a significant weekly cycle in PM10 over the MRSP and lightning activity (CG lightning) on the area involving the MRSP, Campinas and São Jose dos Campos regions, both with reduction on the weekend. The average number of flash per storm and air temperature in three different ranges of PM10 concentrations was also examined. For the first one, there is an increase of the average number of flash per storm from low to intermediate range and a trend to decrease from intermediate to high range. However, the air temperature tends to stay the same in all ranges. These results suggest that pollution tends to saturate the intensification of storms and lightning activity in a specific level. After that, the increase of aerosols provided by pollution tends to decrease the lightning activity.

  11. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  13. La enumeración de la soltería femenina en los censos de población: sesgo y propuesta de corrección

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Esteve, Albert; Garcia, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo investigar el efecto que la disolución de las uniones consensuales tiene en los niveles de soltería que proporciona el Censo de Población, niveles derivados de la variable estado civil. Para ello comparamos los datos censales con los de la Encuestas de Demografía y Salud (de ahora en adelante DHS) en aquellos países y años para los que disponemos de ambas fuentes en el mismo año o años adyacentes (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia y Perú). Los resultados muestran claramente que las proporciones de nunca unidas derivadas de la variable censal ’Estado civil’ son sistemáticamente más elevadas que las estimadas a partir de las DHS. La razón de esta sobreestimación obedece al hecho de que personas que estuvieron en unión libre en el pasado se declaran solteras en el momento del Censo. La elevada proporción de mujeres solteras que tienen hijos según el Censo es una prueba de ello y a su vez una solución efectiva para corregir el sesgo. PMID:25593515

  14. Marmoricola aquaticus sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Tonin, Mariana Ferreira; Silva, Leonardo José; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Destéfano, Suzete Aparecida Lanza; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2015-07-01

    A novel marine actinomycete, designated B374(T), was isolated from a marine sponge, Glodia corticostylifera, which was collected from São Paulo, Brasil. The taxonomic position of B374(T) was established by using data derived from a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Marmoricola and it formed a distinct phyletic line in the clade of the genus Marmoricola, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain B374(T) was most closely related to Marmoricola aequoreus SST-45(T) (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), but was distinguished from this strain and from the other type strains of species of the genus Marmoricola on the basis of a combination of phenotypic properties. The data obtained, therefore, indicates that isolate B374(T) ( = CBMAI 1089(T) = DSM 28169(T)) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Marmoricola, for which the name Marmoricola aquaticus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26231541

  15. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  16. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2015-08-01

    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  17. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina. PMID:21687817

  18. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3). PMID:24729565

  19. [Evaluation of the quality of propranolol and enalapril tablets supplied in the public health system in a southern Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Bianchin, Mariana Domingues; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Soares, Alessandra de Sá; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes

    2012-02-01

    The acquisition of medication by the Brazilian public health service through bidding processes based on the lowest price criterion is a source of concern with respect to the quality of the products offered to the population. The scope of this work was to evaluate the quality of Enalapril 10 mg and Propranolol 40 mg tablets bought via the bidding process and supplied by the public health system in a city in the state of Santa Catarina, Brasil, over the course of a year. The visual aspect, weight variation, friability, drug content and dissolving time were analyzed. Out of seven lots, five presented quality deviation. Irregularities were found in the visual aspect, weight variation, friability and active ingredient. The evaluation of the quality of medication, besides ensuring the quality of the products supplied by the health system and safe usage by patients, is also a tool to evaluate medical supply companies and ensure the enhancement of the bidding process. The implementation of a management system that includes the evaluation of medical supply companies, improvement of the bidding process with clear specifications about the quality of the medicines bought are all recommended to ensure product safety. PMID:22267043

  20. LOW BACK PAIN IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN A WESTERN CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Júlio Alberto Agante; Genebra, Caio Vitor dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Fiorelli, Alexandre; de Conti, Marta Helena Souza; De Vitta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain in children and its relationship with gender, age, exercise practice and sedentary activities (time on TV and on computer and/or video game). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,461 students, being 754 males and 707 females enrolled in the 5th to 8th grades of all five local elementary schools of urban Ourinhos, SP, Brasil, aged 10-14 years old, from whom sociodemographic data, time spent on sedentary activities such as TV and computer and/or video game were collected. We conducted a descriptive, bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain in the sample was 18.5%, being 15.5% in boys and 21.6% in girls. Low back pain was associated to the female gender, age range between 12-14 years and the habit of watching TV more than three times a week and over 3 hours per day. Conclusion: The students analyzed showed high prevalence of low back pain related to gender, age and habit of watching TV. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of back pain in schoolchildren. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectioning. PMID:26981028

  1. Mini-winkler extractor and pitfall trap as complementary methods to sample formicidae.

    PubMed

    Silva, F H O; Delabie, J H C; dos Santos, G B; Meurer, E; Marques, M I

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps as appropriate and complementary methods to sample ant communities in the phytophysiognomy mosaic in the Poconé Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso, Brasil. Seven units were studied for landscape, located within a 25 km(2) collection area, formed by thirty 250-m transects, at 1-km intervals in a 5 × 5 km area. Five collection points were marked in each transect at 50-m intervals, totaling 150 points. A collection was made at each sampling point with mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps. Using the mini-Winkler extractor, 1,088 individuals were collected distributed in 20 genera and 55 species, with Solenopsis invicta Buren and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 as the most frequent ants. Using pitfall traps, 2,726 individuals distributed in 24 genera and 48 species were sampled and Dorymyrmex (gr. pyramicus) sp.1 and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 were the most frequent species. A significant difference between the methods was observed in measured species number. The Principal coordinates analysis discriminated two species groups exclusively sampled by the mini-Winkler extractor and another by the pitfall methods. Therefore, it was concluded that these methods were complementary for ant diversity inventories in the Poconé Pantanal region. PMID:23949854

  2. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25772659

  3. Periodic Variations in the O - C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  4. The Nucleus of Main-belt Comet 259P/Garradd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Hsieh, Henry H.

    2012-10-01

    We present observations of the main-belt comet 259P/Garradd, previously known as P/2008 R1 (Garradd), obtained in 2011 and 2012 using the Gemini North Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and the SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachon in Chile, with the goal of computing the object's phase function and nucleus size. We find an absolute magnitude of HR = 19.71 ± 0.05 mag and slope parameter of GR = -0.08 ± 0.05 for the inactive nucleus, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of re = 0.30 ± 0.02 km, assuming an R-band albedo of pR = 0.05. We also revisit observations reported for 259P while it was active in 2008 to quantify the dust mass loss and compare the object with other known main-belt comets. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  5. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  6. Energetic oxygen precipitation as a source of vibrationally excited N/sub 2//sup +/ in emissions observed at low latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsley, B.A.; Rohrbaugh, R.P.; Sahai, Y.; Teixeira, N.R.

    1982-05-01

    Observations have been made at Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii (dip lat.approx.22/sup 0/N) and Cachoeira Paulista, Brasil (dip lat.approx.12/sup 0/S) of emissions excited by particle precipitation during periods of magnetic activity. The first negative bands of N/sub 2//sup +/ were found to have a high degree of vibrational excitation at both sites, and withi the absence of emissions attributable to hydrogen and helium, this finding leads to the interpretation that the excitation was due to a flux of precipitating oxygen atoms or ions, more plausibly the former, produced by charge exchange of ring current O/sup +/ ions with exospheric neutral constituents. More laboratory work is needed to properly interpret the data, but crude estimates of the associated energy deposition and ionization production fall in the range 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup +1/mWm/sup -2/, and 10/sup 0/-10/sup 2/ cm/sup -3/s/sup -1/ respectively.

  7. Imaging Survey of Subsystems in Secondary Components to Nearby Southern Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    To improve the statistics of hierarchical multiplicity, secondary components of wide nearby binaries with solar-type primaries were surveyed at the SOAR telescope for evaluating the frequency of subsystems. Images of 17 faint secondaries were obtained with the SOAR Adaptive Module that improved the seeing; one new 0.''2 binary was detected. For all targets, photometry in the g', i', z' bands is given. Another 46 secondaries were observed by speckle interferometry, resolving 7 close subsystems. Adding literature data, the binarity of 95 secondary components is evaluated. We found that the detection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods in the well-surveyed range from 103 to 105 days is 0.21 0.06same as the normal frequency of such binaries among solar-type stars, 0.18. This indicates that wide binaries are unlikely to be produced by dynamical evolution of N-body systems, but are rather formed by fragmentation. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Michigan State University.

  8. SAOZ balloon profiles for the validation of OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS at various latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutail, F.

    2005-08-01

    SAOZ is a small remote sensing instrument looking at solar occultation during the ascent of the balloon and during sunset (or sunrise) from floating altitude. It is a UV-visible spectrometer measuring O3 and NO2 and in its enhanced UV version, BrO. The vertical profiles, retrieved by onion peeling, have a typical vertical resolution of 1.5 km. Since the launch of ODIN in 2001 seventeen SAOZ balloon flights have been performed at various latitudes and seasons: a - nine flights at mid-latitudes in summer and autumn from southern France (43°N) within the BALODIN/CNES and ESABC programs and from Vanscoy (52°N) in Saskatchevan within the MANTRA 2002 and MANTRA 2004 Canadian campaigns; b - four flights in the Arctic from Kiruna in Sweden (67°N) in winter, inside and outside the polar vortex as well as in summer; c - and finally four flights in the tropics from Bauru in Brasil (22°S) in summer within the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS/VINTERSOL EU project. Comparison with coincident OSIRIS/ODIN, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and GOMOS/ENVISAT ozone, NO2 and BrO profiles are presented.

  9. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  10. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  11. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  12. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    The year 2004 signals the 400th anniversary of the birth of count Mauricio of Nassau, an important character in the history of Brazil. The present text is related to the period of Dutch domination in Pernambuco. The article attempts to rescue the beginnings of Astronomy study in the South hemisphere. Therefore, we idealized a dramatization of a fictitious interview with German astronomer Georg Marcgrave, who was the constructor of the first astronomical observatory in this hemisphere and the author of the first systematic astronomical observations using telescopes in this side of the world. Our "conversation" with Marcgrave is idealized in the old Recife scenario, a place where he lived in Mauricio of Nassau's period and gathers some fellow teachers who love the teaching of Astronomy. The story, this way, is reported in a possibly light and funny atmosphere. Nevertheless, the conceptual and historical framework presented is based on reliable bibliographical sources pointed out at the end of the text. The sources range from the original book of that scientist, in which a solar eclipse is reported, passing through some other classical texts, such as that of Professor Juliano Moreira, up to more recent sources such as the very influential work of professor John North. Other influential texts about the Dutch period in Brazil, such as the classical works of Charles Boxer, Bouman and Boogaart, among others, are also used in the construction of this pedagogical dramatization, which involves an interesting chapter of the history of Astronomy. El año 2004 marca los 400 años del nacimineto del conde Mauricio de Nassau, un importante personaje de la historia del Brasil. El presente texto está relacionado con el período del dominio holandés en Pernambuco. El artículo intenta rescatar los comienzos del estudio de la Astronomía en el hemisferio Sur. Para esto, ideamos una dramatización de una entrevista ficticia con el astrónomo alemán Georg Marcgrave, constructor del primer observatorio astronómico del hemisferio y autor de las primeras observaciones astronómicas sistemáticas utilizando telescopios de este lado del mundo. Nuestra "conversación" con Marcgrave es imaginada en el marco del Recife antiguo, lugar donde él vivió durante el período de Mauricio de Nassau, y reune algunos colegas profesores apasionados por la enseñanza de la Astronomía. La historia es contada, de esta forma, dentro de un clima ameno y hasta un poco divertido, si bien las informaciones históricas y conceptuales contenidas en ella están basadas en fuentes bibliográficas confiables, debidamente referenciadas al final del texto. Estas fuentes van desde la obra original de este científico, en la cual aparece su relato sobre la observación de un eclipse solar en Recife, pasando por obras clásicas respecto de él mismo, como la del profesor Juliano Moreira, hasta fuentes mucho más recientes como el influyente trabajo del profesor John North. Otros textos importantes referidos al período de la colonización holandesa en el Brasil, tales como las obras clásicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman y Boogaart entre otros, son también utilizados en la construcción de esta dramatización pedagógica que se refiere a un interesante capítulo de la Historia de la Astronomía. O ano de 2004 assinala os 400 anos do nascimento do conde Maurício de Nassau, um importante personagem da história do Brasil. O presente texto está relacionado com o período do domínio holandês em Pernambuco. O artigo tenta resgatar o começo do estudo da Astronomia no hemisfério Sul. Para tal, idealizamos uma dramatização de uma entrevista fictícia com o astrônomo alemão Georg Marcgrave, construtor do primeiro observatório astronômico deste hemisfério e autor das primeiras observações astronômicas sistemáticas com o uso de telescópios neste lado do mundo. Nossa "conversa" com Marcgrave é idealizada no cenário do Recife antigo, local em que ele viveu no período de Maurício de Nassau e reúne alguns colegas professores apaixonados pelo ensino da Astronomia. A história é contada, deste modo, em um clima ameno e pretensamente divertido, mas as informações históricas e conceituais nele contidas estão apoiadas em fontes bibliográficas confiáveis devidamente apontadas ao final do texto. Elas vão desde a obra original desse cientista, na qual aparece o seu relato sobre a observação de um eclipse solar no Recife, passando por obras clássicas a seu respeito, como a do professor Juliano Moreira, até fontes bem mais recentes, como o trabalho muito influente do Professor John North. Outros textos de porte sobre o período da colonização holandesa no Brasil, como as obras já clássicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman e Boogaart, dentre outras, são também utilizados na construção desta dramatização pedagógica envolvendo um interessante capítulo da História da Astronomia.

  13. A halo event created at 200 m above the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, N. M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R. H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of analysis on a cosmic-ray induced nuclear event with the total visible energy approx. = 1300 TeV which is characterized by the central (halo) part of a strong energy concentration and the outer part of a large lateral spread are presented. The event (named as P06) was detected in the 18th two-storied emulsion chamber exposed at Chacaltaya by Brasil-Japan Collaboration. As the nuclear emulsion plates were inserted at every layer of the concerned blocks in the upper and the lower chambers together with RR- and N-type X-ray films, it is possible to study the details of the event. Some results on P06 have already been reported 1 based on the general measurement of opacity on N-type X-ray films: (1) the total energy of halo is approx. = 1000 TeV; (2) the shower transition reaches its maximum at approx. 16 cu; and (3) the radius of halo is 6.5 mm (at the level of 10 to the 6th power electrons/sq.cm.). The results in more details will be described.

  14. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  15. Physical modeling in geomorphology: are boundary conditions necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    Referring to the physical experimental design in geomorphology, boundary conditions are key elements that determine the quality of the results and therefore the study development. For years engineers have modeled structures, such as dams and bridges, with high precision and excellent results. Until the last decade, a great part of the physical experimental work in geomorphology has been developed with an engineer-like approach, requiring an accurate scaling analysis to determine inflow parameters and initial geometrical conditions. However, during the last decade, the way we have been approaching physical experiments has significantly changed. In particular, boundary conditions and initial conditions are considered unknown factors that need to be discovered during the experiment. This new philosophy leads to a more demanding data acquisition process but relaxes the obligation to a priori know the appropriate input and initial conditions and provides the flexibility to discover those data. Here I am going to present some practical examples of this experimental approach in deepwater geomorphology; some questions about scaling of turbidity currents and a new large experimental facility built at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  16. Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

  17. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  18. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2008-07-15

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

  19. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  20. [The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

  1. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  2. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  3. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The miteAllopsoroptoides gallihas recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study inA. galliinfestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presentingA. galli). The infestation withA. gallidid not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galliinfestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  4. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region. PMID:16981042

  5. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of dental composites by an optical method.

    PubMed

    Weig, K M; Magalhães Filho, T R; Costa Neto, C A; Costa, M F

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for evaluating polymerization shrinkage of dental composites using an advanced video extensometer (AVE) system. This equipment measures the displacement between two points drawn on a tooth's wall without requiring physical contact with the tooth. By doing so, the polymerization process was monitored by the cusp deflection. This technique was used in human and bovine teeth, where the cavities were prepared under controlled conditions so that the volume of the composite used was the same in both types of teeth. After the cavity preparation, the specimens were acid etched, washed and dried, and then the adhesive was applied and polymerized. The composite was then inserted into the cavity. Polymerization was performed with two different light polymerizing units (LD Max and Optilight Max - Gnatus do Brasil), and the displacement curve of the tooth cusp was recorded for a period of 400 s. After a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the technique was capable of evaluating shrinkage by the deflection from the cusps and that the human and bovine teeth do not react in a similar manner towards the polymerization shrinkage of composites. PMID:25492174

  6. Inbreeding studies in Brasilian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    We present results of comparisons between consanguineous and control couples and their children in Southern Brasil. Multiple regression, t-test and chi 2 analyses were applied to the data. The following variables were investigated; Parents: structure of first cousin marriages, latitude and longitude of birthplaces, cohabitation time, rurality, marriage age, occupation, number of liveborn children, and frequency of twinning. Schoolchildren: clinical data as classified into 24 discontinuous traits, each one subdivided into two categories (number and severity), and seven continuous traits (weight, height, pulse rate, respiratory rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and temperature); nutrition indices and biotype; family names; intelligence tests and school performance; birth order, age, hair color, hair type, eye color, and skin color; twinning in the sibship, and infant mortality among sibs of the propositi. Our study showed a) nonrandomness of consanguineous marriages as detected on structural, racial, geographical, and temporal levels; b) a heavy mutational load of about 1.5 lethons acting on infant mortality; c) no inbreeding effect on morbidity in general (with a possible exception of "ear morbidity", including hearing deficit); d) a modest inbreeding depression on height (a decrease of 2 cm with an increase of 10% of inbreeding); 3) a suggestion of inbreeding depression on "intelligence". PMID:6650571

  7. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  8. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  9. [Off-label prescriptions in Brazil and in the US: legal aspects and paradoxes].

    PubMed

    Nobre, Patricia Fernandes da Silva

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this study is to review the legal aspects of off-label prescription in Brazil compared to the US regulatory environment, to verify whether or not it derives from the structure of the current administrative regulatory process. It involved a bibliographic study in English and Portuguese in public databases of legislation, articles, books and dissertations using the key words 'off-label,' 'health law,' 'health regulation,' with respective translations into English. In Brasil and the US, health surveillance institutions have no jurisdiction on medical practices and cannot restrict off-label prescriptions beyond educational campaigns. Indications of use are a recommendation of minimum safety and efficacy for product commercialization, but are not a restrictive factor in practice, which does not exonerate physicians from civil liability lawsuits. Public measures to restrict off-label prescriptions are more common in the control of the incentives and dissemination of information to the medical community. Off-label prescription is a risk-benefit assessment made by the clinician and the pros and cons are described in the literature. Brazilian legislation and its stance on the subject still lack greater investigation and subsequent measures. PMID:23546211

  10. [Preliminary study on the presence of arbovirus in the populations of Corrientes and Misiones].

    PubMed

    Hodara, V L; Jozan, M; Martínez, H; Work, T H; Juan, N J; Weissenbacher, M

    1991-01-01

    Human seroprevalence of Flavivirus was determined by hemagglutination inhibition tests on 479 sera from Misiones and 49 from Corrientes provinces. Paraná and Uruguay river bank communities from Argentina and neighbouring countries carry out frequent traffic across the rivers. With the aim of searching for a possible introduction of Dengue virus from Brasil or/and Paraguay, reactivity among people from Paraná and Uruguay river communities was compared with those from mountain communities. Two sera from Ituzaingó (Corrientes Province) were positive for Dengue 2. In Misiones, 3 sera from Oberá and 2 from Montecarlo were reactive for Dengue 2 and 1 serum from Puerto Iguazú was reactive for Dengue 1. Seroprevalence among the river population was significatively higher than among the mountain population. Likewise, populations on Paraná river showed more positive sera than those on Uruguay river; 54% of the samples possessed titers for SLE virus higher than for Dengue or Yellow fever. Anti-alphavirus (EEE and WEE) antibodies tested in sera from Misiones people showed a complementary distribution pattern to flavivirus. Seroprevalence of anti-alphavirus antibodies was higher in the mountain than in the river populations. PMID:1815271

  11. [The human life fragility/resistance in rural communities of Pantanal (MT, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Castro, Sueli Pereira

    2010-10-01

    The human life fragility/resistance taken in the ambiguous/complexity sense suggests an eye to the dynamics of life of specific groups. The study of the community around the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony of the Social Service Commerce (RPPN Sesc) Pantanal, situated in Joselndia rural district, municipality of Baro de Melgao - Mato Grosso state - Brasil, 2003 at 2005, used qualitative methods to apprehend the lifestyle of this population, articulating the explanation of the health-ill process with historical, economic and social aspects of the respective community and the singularity of the cure practices that happened on site. It was used historical records, testimonials of residents, population survey, interviews and observations. The results indicate changes in the solidarity bonds among residents at work and at food production. Popular cure practices are frequently used to reduce symptoms and diseases. The fragility/resistance of this specific group is observed while resistance based in solidarity and familiar relations and the fragility in the difficulty of access of work, health services and public equipments. PMID:21049163

  12. The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2015-10-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in both Martian and Earth environments. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds properties, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

  13. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.; Nunes, Maria A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants is freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here, we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35–74 years from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (n = 710) included stable angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, TCA use (n = 156) was associated with a twofold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n = 14,076). Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a threefold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41–6.21) and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.28–6.66). There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusion: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil. PMID:25657993

  14. Assessment of trace element concentrations and their estimated dry deposition fluxes in an urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdemir, Yücel; Kural, Can; Cindoruk, Sıddık S.; Vardar, Nedim

    2006-07-01

    Thirty-three ambient air samples were collected during spring and summer (2003) in the metropolitan area of Bursa, Turkey. All airborne samples were analyzed for crustal (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe) and anthropogenic (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) trace metals. A TSP sampler was employed using glass and quartz fiber filters to collect air samples. Average individual trace element concentrations fluctuated between 4896.3 ± 3754.3 ng/m 3 (Ca) and 0.7 ± 0.9 ng/m 3 (Cd). The measured concentrations of the trace elements were within the ranges of previously reported values obtained from different places including Turkey, Argentina, Spain, Korea, and Brasil. The concentrations were arranged according to day and night, weekend and weekdays, spring and summer samples. Concentrations were also evaluated based on the filter types used, glass fiber and quartz filters. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to identify anthropogenic versus natural emission sources of trace elements. The prevailing winds from various sectors were examined to determine the transport of metal particles from different districts. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to define the possible origins of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. The result suggested that industrial activities along with traffic emissions and suspension of street dusts have important effects on ambient air concentrations of trace metals. Dry deposition fluxes were estimated using documented dry deposition velocities in the literature and concentrations measured in this study.

  15. Ten Years of a National Oral Health Policy in Brazil: Innovation, Boldness, and Numerous Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pucca, G A; Gabriel, M; de Araujo, M E; de Almeida, F C S

    2015-10-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world to propose a universal health care system with the aim of guaranteeing delivery of all levels of health care, free of charge, to a population of over 200 million inhabitants by means of a unified health system ("Sistema Único de Saúde" [SUS]). The national policy of oral health, also known as Smiling Brazil ("Brasil Sorridente"), was implemented in 2004. Oral health was designated as 1 of the 4 priority areas of the SUS, transforming oral health care in Brazil, with the objective that the SUS achieve the integrality of care envisaged at its creation. The aim of this article is to share part of this experience in order to prompt reflection about the inclusion of oral health care in other health care systems around the world. The most significant results of Smiling Brazil can be seen in 3 areas: (1) oral health epidemiological indicators, (2) financial investment and professional development, and (3) the building of an oral health care network throughout the 10 y of the policy. The "Discovery!" article presented here portrays 10 y of evolution; however, it is important to point out that this is a process undergoing construction and that the oral health care network needs to be further expanded, refined, and solidified so that over time and through changes in the political parties in power, Smiling Brazil prevails as a perennial policy and not merely an action by a single government. PMID:26316461

  16. Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for the measurement of dust and clouds properties in the Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2014-04-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in both Martian and Earth environments. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds properties, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

  17. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  18. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.; Almeida, W. G.; Leon, V. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are the free-and-open sharing of hydro-meteorological data; the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; the establishment of server technologies that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote-access to a wide variety of datasets, and in the building of a community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. The tools and services provided by Unidata are available to the research and education community free-of-charge. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the US university community for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration between Unidata and the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Most recently, explorations of data sharing between UCAR and select countries in Africa have begun. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are available through Unidata in a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are provided by Unidata's Thematic Realtime Environmental Data Services (THREDDS) servers (which incorporate Open-source Project for a Network Data Access (OPeNDAP) data services), and the Abstract Data Distribution Environment (ADDE) of McIDAS. It is envisioned that the data sharing capabilities available in the IDD, IDD-Brasil, IDD-Caribe, and Antarctic-IDD, remote data access capabilities available in THREDDS and ADDE, and analysis capabilities available in GEMPAK, the IDV, and McIDAS will help foster new collaborations among prominent universities, national meteorological agencies, and WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers throughout North, Central, and South America, in the Antarctic research community, and eventually in Africa. This paper is intended to inform AGU 2007 Joint Assembly attendees, especially those in Mexico and Central America, of the availability of real-time data and tools to analyze/visualize those data, and to promote the free-and-open sharing of data, especially of locally-held datasets of general interest.

  19. A review of the tectonic evolution of the Sunsás belt, SW Amazonian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Wilson; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Matos, Ramiro; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Saes, Gerson; Vargas-Mattos, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The Sunsás-Aguapeí province (1.20-0.95 Ga), SW Amazonian Craton, is a key area to study the heterogeneous effects of collisional events with Laurentia, which shows evidence of the Grenvillian and Sunsás orogens. The Sunsás orogen, characterized by an allochthonous collisional-type belt (1.11-1.00 Ga), is the youngest and southwesternmost of the events recorded along the cratonic fringe. Its evolution occurred after a period of long quiescence and erosion of the already cratonized provinces (>1.30 Ga), that led to sedimentation of the Sunsás and Vibosi groups in a passive margin setting. The passive margin stage was roughly contemporary with intraplate tectonics that produced the Nova Brasilândia proto-oceanic basin (<1.21 Ga), the reactivation of the Ji-Paraná shear zone network (1.18-1.12 Ga) and a system of aborted rifts that evolved to the Huanchaca-Aguapeí basin (1.17-1.15 Ga). The Sunsás belt is comprised by the metamorphosed Sunsás and Vibosi sequences, the Rincón del Tigre mafic-ultramafic sill and granitic intrusive suites. The latter rocks yield ɛNd(t) signatures (-0.5 to -4.5) and geochemistry (S, I, A-types) suggesting their origin associated with a continental arc setting. The Sunsás belt evolution is marked by "tectonic fronts" with sinistral offsets that was active from c. 1.08 to 1.05 Ga, along the southern edge of the Paraguá microcontinent where K/Ar ages (1.27-1.34 Ga) and the Huanchaca-Aguapeí flat-lying cover attest to the earliest tectonic stability at the time of the orogen. The Sunsás dynamics is coeval with inboard crustal shortening, transpression and magmatism in the Nova Brasilândia belt (1.13-1.00 Ga). Conversely, the Aguapeí aulacogen (0.96-0.91 Ga) and nearby shear zones (0.93-0.91 Ga) are the late tectonic offshoots over the cratonic margin. The post-tectonic to anorogenic stages took place after ca. 1.00 Ga, evidenced by the occurrences of intra-plate A-type granites, pegmatites, mafic dikes and sills, as well as of graben basins. Integrated interpretation of the available data related to the Sunsás orogen supports the idea that the main nucleus of Rodinia incorporated the terrains forming the SW corner of Amazonia and most of the Grenvillian margin, as a result of two independent collisional events, as indicated in the Amazon region by the Ji-Paraná shear zone event and the Sunsás belt, respectively.

  20. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas que enfrentan dificultades en la escuela. La inclusión debe estar en todas las instituciones educacionales (formales o no). Nuestro objetivo en el trabajo de final de curso de licenciatura, fue el de presentar un relato de la experiencia de mediación a los alumnos con deficiencias visuales del Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) en el Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST) y las modificaciones y nuevas propuestas para el Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) a través de un aparato especialmente construido con el cual se puede percibir el cielo en una latitud próxima a la de Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de representantes. Sete espécies foram indicadas apenas na categoria medicinal, cinco espécies apenas relacionadas a aspectos simbólicos e quatro foram indicadas como relacionadas a ambas as categorias (medicinal e simbólica). Conclusão Os conhecimentos, crenças e práticas relacionadas à avifauna no semiárido brasileiro, seja no aspecto simbólico ou medicinal, demonstra a importância cultural que esse grupo de vertebrados representa para as populações locais, revelando um sistema de crenças que está intrinsicamente relacionado às práticas cinegéticas na região. PMID:23295130

  2. Reviving Erathostenes. (Breton Title: Revivendo Eratóstenes.) Reviviendo a Eratóstenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo Cesar R.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the commemorations of the International Year of the Physics and having as its main objective to introduce students to the scientific method, the Rio de Janeiro Planetarium Foundation, in partnership with many institutions of Brazil and Europe, coordinated the activity "Reviving Eratosthenes" whose objective was the determination of the Earth's circumference. We used the famous procedure adopted by Eratosthenes more than 2000 years ago, with some adaptations. This work considers and analyzes the method used by us, aiming the application in schools. The use of places in different meridians allows a better understanding of the abstract concepts such as geographic coordinate and time zones. We obtained reasonably precise results, which improve for pairs of distant cities. Finally, one of the most important conclusions achieved by the students involved is the importance of the cooperation (international in this case) to solve problems. Fazendo parte das comemorações do Ano Internacional da Física e tendo como principal objetivo introduzir estudantes do ensino médio ao método científico, a Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em parceria com diversas instituições do Brasil e da Europa, coordenou a atividade "Revivendo Eratóstenes" cujo objetivo foi a determinação da circunferência da Terra. Para isso, utilizou-se um procedimento semelhante ao empregado pelo sábio Eratóstenes há mais de 2.000 anos, com algumas adaptações. Este trabalho propõe e analisa o método que empregamos, visando a aplicação em escolas. A possibilidade de se trabalhar com locais em diferentes meridianos permite uma melhor compreensão dos conceitos mas abstratos, como coordenadas e fusos horários. A precisão dos resultados é bastante razoável, melhorando para cidades bem afastadas. Finalmente, uma das conclusões mais importantes é a percepção, por parte dos estudantes, da importância da colaboração (neste caso, internacional) para resolver problemas. Como parte de las conmemoraciones del Año Internacional de la Física y con el objetivo principal de introducir a los estudiantes secundarios al método científico, la Fundación Planetario Rio de Janeiro, en conjunto con diversas instituciones de Brasil y de Europa, coordinó la actividad denominada "Reviviendo a Eratóstenes" cuyo objetivo consistió en la determinación de la cincunferencia de la Tierra. Para esto se utilizó un procedimiento semejante al empleado por Eratóstenes hace más de 2.000 años, con algunas adaptaciones. Este trabajo expone y analiza el método empleado, con la intención de aplicarlo en las escuelas. La posibilidad de trabajar en lugares situados en diferentes meridianos permite una mejor comprensión de los conceptos más abstractos, tales como coordenadas y husos horarios. La precisión de los resultados resultó razonable, mejorando para aquellas ciudades mas apartadas. Finalmente, una de las conclusiones más importantes es la de la percepción, por parte de los estudiantes, de la importancia de la colaboración (en este caso internacional) para resolver problemas.

  3. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present part of the results obtained by the intervention made from the author's Master degree project, which consisted in the development of a set of Astronomy classes for first year of High School students from a private school in the "Distrito Federal", Brasilia, Brazil, making use of a didactical material called mini-planetarium (MP) as the main resource. Using Paulo Freire's contextualization and dialogicity ideas as a theoretical framework guided by these lessons, it was proposed to the students the assembly and application of that resource in a planetarium session. During the project, some subjects such as the apparent trajectory of stars through Brasilia's sky, the location of the cardinal points beginning from the Southern Cross constellation, the color of stars and the stars being seen from a particular place were emphasized. It was found that the students showed an improvement of their understanding about these subjects, as well as a significant excitement with the developed methodology. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar algunos de los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto de la tesis de maestría del autor, que incluyó el desarrollo de algunas clases de Astronomía, con estudiantes del primer año del bachillerato de una escuela privada del Distrito Federal (Brasilia, Brasil), utilizando como materia prima didáctica el recurso llamado miniplanetario (MP). Utilizando como base teórica orientadora de esas clases las ideas de contextualización y dialógica de Paulo Freire, fue propuesto a los estudiantes el montaje y la utilización de este recurso en una función de planetario. Durante el proyecto, se enfatizaron asuntos tales como la trayectoria aparente de las estrellas del cielo de Brasilia, la ubicación de los puntos cardinales a partir de la constelación de la Cruz del Sur, los colores de las estrellas y las estrellas vistas desde una localidad determinada. Se constató que los estudiantes mostraron una mejora en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  4. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  5. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years. PMID:26909972

  6. Parallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool Objects (PARSEC). II. Spectroscopic Follow-up and Parallaxes of 52 Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Andrei, A. H.; Smart, R. L.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Sozzetti, A.; Lucas, P. W.; Bucciarelli, B.; Penna, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy for 52 ultracool dwarfs, including two newly discovered late-M dwarfs, one new late-M subdwarf candidate, three new L, and four new T dwarfs. We also present parallaxes and proper motions for 21 of them. Four of the targets presented here have previous parallax measurements, while all the others are new values. This allow us to populate further the spectral sequence at early types (L0-L4). Combining the astrometric parameters with the new near-infrared spectroscopy presented here, we are able to investigate further the nature of some of the objects. In particular, we find that the peculiar blue L1 dwarf SDSS J133148.92-011651.4 is a metal-poor object, likely a member of the galactic thick disk. We discover a new M subdwarf candidate, 2MASS J20115649-6201127. We confirm the low-gravity nature of EROS-MP J0032-4405, DENIS-P J035726.9-441730, and 2MASS J22134491-2136079. We present two new metal-poor dwarfs: the L4pec 2MASS J19285196-4356256 and the M7pec SIPS2346-5928. We also determine the effective temperature and bolometric luminosity of the 21 targets with astrometric measurements, and we obtain a new polynomial relation between effective temperature and near-infrared spectral type. The new fit suggests a flattening of the sequence at the transition between M and L spectral types. This could be an effect of dust formation, which causes a more rapid evolution of the spectral features as a function of the effective temperature. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  7. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs. I. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kanaan, A.; Thompson, S. E.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; Childers, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Rosen, R.; Henrique, P.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Strickland, W.; Chandler, D.; Walter, B.; Watson, T. K.; Castanheira, B.; Wang, S.; Handler, G.; Wood, M.; Vennes, S.; Nemeth, P.; Kepler, S. O.; Reed, M.; Nitta, A.; Kleinman, S. J.; Brown, T.; Kim, S.-L.; Sullivan, D.; Chen, W. P.; Yang, M.; Shih, C. Y.; Jiang, X. J.; Sergeev, A. V.; Maksim, A.; Janulis, R.; Baliyan, K. S.; Vats, H. O.; Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Paparo, M.; Bognar, Z.; Papics, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Sefako, R.; Buckley, D.; Loaring, N.; Kniazev, A.; Silvotti, R.; Galleti, S.; Nagel, T.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fremy, J. R.; Perez, J.; Almenara, J. M.; Fraga, L.

    2012-06-01

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 ?Hz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of ?0 = 99.4 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 6.2, and an inclination angle of ? i = 32fdg9 3fdg2. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corrêa, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebouças Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 µg/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebouças Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebouças Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebouças Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/µg and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk. PMID:23479151

  9. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be emended. PMID:25780503

  12. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  13. U-Pb geochronology of the Lagoa Real uranium district, Brazil: Implications for the age of the uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia Maria; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Cruz, Simone C. P.; Machado, Nuno; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha

    2015-03-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium district in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is the most important uranium province in the country and presently produces this metal in an open-pit mine operated by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. Uranium-rich zones are associated with plagioclase (dominantly albite ± oligoclase) -rich rocks, albitites and metasomatized granitic-gneisses, distributed along NNW/SSE striking shear zones. We have used the ID-TIMS U-Pb method to date zircon and titanite grains from the São Timóteo granitoid, and albite-rich rocks from the Lagoa Real district in order to assess the age of granite emplacement, deformation/metamorphism and uranium mineralization. The isotopic data support the following sequence of events (i) 1746 ± 5 Ma - emplacement of the São Timóteo granitoid (U-Pb zircon age) in an extensional setting, coeval with the beginning of the sedimentation of the Espinhaço Supergroup; (ii) 956 ± 59 Ma hydrothermal alteration of the São Timóteo granitoid and emplacement of the uranium mineralization (U-Pb titanite age on an albite-rich sample); (iii) 480 Ma metamorphism, remobilization and Pb loss (U-Pb titanite age for the gneiss sample), during the nucleation of shear zones related to the collision between the São Francisco-Congo and Amazonia paleoplates. The 956 ± 59-Ma mineralization age is apparently associated with the evolution of the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre rift. This age bracket may bear an important exploration implication, and should be included in the diverse age scenario of uranium deposits worldwide.

  14. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  15. Heritage and Observatories in Brazil at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Marcus

    The first systematic asronomical observations in the southern hemisphere were in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, in the short period of Dutch rule in the region (1637-1644). Later, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were three observatories on Brazilian soil: Imperial Observatório do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório da Escola Politecnica, both in Rio de Janeiro and Observatório Central, in the southern city of Porto Alegre. The first was created by Imperial decree by D. Pedro I, on 15 October 1827, while the second, linked to Universidade do Brasil, was established on 5 July 1881. The third was planned in 1889, but only inaugurated on 24 January 1908 as part of the Escola de Engenharia. All three institutions exist to this day, and their scientific instruments of historical value are included in cultural heritage preservation projects. The largest collection of this kind of objects is at Museu de Astronomia e Ciéncias Afins (MAST), most of whose 2000 artefacts come from the Imperial Observatory (today the National Observatory). Many of them were produced in Germany by manufacturers such as Gustav Heyde, Carl Zeiss, Askania-Werke, Carl Bamberg and Max Kohl. The buildings of the Observatório Central (1921) and Observatório Nacional (1921) are listed by federal and state heritage protection agencies, particularly because they were purpose built for astronomical research and have architectural features typical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that have not been altered over the years.

  16. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXII. CoRoT-16b: a hot Jupiter with a hint of eccentricity around a faint solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.; Wuchterl, G.; Havel, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Pasternacki, T.; Endl, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Cochran, W. D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Grziwa, S.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Lovis, C.; MacQueen, P. J.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-16b, a low density hot jupiter that orbits a faint G5V star (mV = 15.63) in 5.3523 ± 0.0002 days with slight eccentricity. A fit of the data with no a priori assumptions on the orbit leads to an eccentricity of 0.33 ± 0.1. We discuss this value and also derive the mass and radius of the planet. Methods: We analyse the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-16 given by the CoRoT satellite, and radial velocity data from the HARPS and HIRES spectrometers. A combined analysis using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to get the system parameters. Results: CoRoT-16b is a 0.535 -0.083/+0.085 MJ, 1.17 -0.14/+0.16 RJ hot Jupiter with a density of 0.44 -0.14/+0.21 g cm-3. Despite its short orbital distance (0.0618 ± 0.0015 AU) and the age of the parent star (6.73 ± 2.8 Gyr), the planet orbit exhibits significantly non-zero eccentricity. This is very uncommon for this type of objects as tidal effects tend to circularise the orbit. This value is discussed taking into account the characteristics of the star and the observation accuracy. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Observations made with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (HARPS programs 083.C-0186 and 184.C-0639) and the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Observatory (NASA-Keck programs N035Hr, N143Hr and N095Hr).

  17. Fotometria WHBY |o lll|/HB de Regiones H 11 Y la HISTORIA de la Formacion ESTELAR Reciente EN la PEQUENA NUBE de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.; Dottori, H. A.

    1987-05-01

    El ancho equivalente WHβ de la linea de Hβ en emisión y la razón [0 III]/Hβ del par λλ4959, 50 7 A del [0111], fueron medidos en 23 regiones HII de la Peque˜a Nube de Magallanes, por medio de la fotometría fotoeléctrica a través de un sistema de tres filtros interferenciales: dos Hβ , con bandas pasantes de 100 y 30 A, y un [0111] centrado en 5000 A y con banda pasante de 50 A. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con los telescopios de 1.60-m y 0.60-m del Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasópolis, Brasil. Fueron escogidos diafragmas suficientemente grandes para captar la radiación integrada de cada región HII. Las medidas fueron calibradas por comparación a un conjunto de nebulosas planetarias con flujos absolutos bien definidos. A través de la comparación entre los datos observacionales y modelos evolutivos de WHβ y [0 III] /Hβ (Copetti et al.1986', Astr. and Ap., 156, 111), las edades de las regiones HIl fueron estimadas. Basada en la distribución espacial de las edades de regiones HIl, la historia de la formación estelar reciente en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes es analizada. La similitud de las medidas de WH&beta y [OIII]/WHβ entre las regiones H II observadas sugiere que hubo una explosión de formación estelar a 4±1 x106 años en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes. (Parcialmente financiado por CNPq).

  18. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  19. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. II. Discovery of Four Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] <= -3.0), with four having [Fe/H] <= -3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ~ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] <= -3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects. Based on observations gathered with: The 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (SO2011B-002), which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  20. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  1. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  2. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  3. Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.

    We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km/sec/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9 Msolar in the inner kpc. HST-NICMOS images show the presence of a circumnuclear star formation ring at radius ~ 2.8'' (720 pc). This ring is more defined than most of the known cases and harbours a mini-bar and nuclear spiral arms with a sense of rotation opposite than the main spiral arms. This morphological evidence suggest the presence of a dynamically decoupled system inside the circumnuclear ring. As in other cases studied by us, the ring seems to be inside an Inner Lindblad Resonance and the Lindblad curve ω-κ/2 for this object begins to drop for Rmax = 400 pc (~1.5''), but the limited spatial resolution does not allow us to find out a definitive evidence for the existence of a second ILR inside at inner radii. Up to date there is no published morphological or kinematical evidence for the presence of a second ILR at such small radii, a necessary ingredient for the presence of circumnuclear ring of star formation, considering the results of recent hydrodynamic simulations. We have proposed the observation of NGC 1241 with better instruments in order to extend the rotation curve to the central 2'', unveil the presence of a second inner resonance, study in detail the structural properties of the nuclear counterrotating arms and establish accurate models of mass distribution in galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This program has been awarded with Band 1 observing time at the Gemini North Telescope Quick Start Stage (Brasil and Argentina).

  4. Expansion Of Sugarcane Production In São Paulo, Brazil: Implications For Fire Occurrence And Respiratory Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the price of oil have generated much interest in biofuel development. Despite the increasing demand, the social and environmental impacts of large scale adoption of biofuels at both regional and national scales remain understudied, especially in developing economies. Here we use municipality-level data for the state of São Paulo in Brasil to explore the effects of fires associated with sugarcane cultivation on respiratory health of elderly and children. We examined the effects of fires occurring in the same year in which respiratory cases were reported as well as chronic effects associated with long-term cultivation of sugarcane. Across the state, respiratory morbidity attributable to fires accounted for 113 elderly and 317 child cases, approximately 1.8% of total cases in each group. Although no chronic effects of fire were detected for the elderly group, an additional 650 child cases can be attributed to the long term cultivation of sugar cane increasing to 5.4% the percent of children cases that can be attributed to fire. For municipalities with greater than 50% of the land in sugarcane the percentage increased to 15% and 12 % respectively for elderly and children. An additional 209 child cases could also be attributed to past exposure to fires associated with sugarcane, suggesting that in total 38% of children respiratory cases could be attributed to current or chronic exposure to fires in these municipalities. The harmful effects of cane- associated fires on health are not only a burden for the public health system but also for household economies. This type of information should be incorporated into land use decisions and discussions of biofuel sustainability.

  5. South Atlantic sag basins: new petroleum system components

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, S.G. Mohriak, W.U.; Mello, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Newly discovered pre-salt source rocks, reservoirs and seals need to be included as components to the petroleum systems of both sides of the South Atlantic. These new components lie between the pre-salt rift strata and the Aptian salt layers, forming large, post-rift, thermal subsidence sag basins. These are differentiated from the older rift basins by the lack of syn-rift faulting and a reflector geometry that is parallel to the base salt regional unconformity rather than to the Precambrian basement. These basins are observed in deep water regions overlying areas where both the mantle and the crust have been involved in the extension. This mantle involvement creates post-rift subsiding depocenters in which deposition is continuous while proximal rift-phase troughs with little or no mantle involvement are bypassed and failed to accumulate potential source rocks during anoxic times. These features have been recognized in both West African Kwanza Basin and in the East Brasil Rift systems. The pre-salt source rocks that are in the West African sag basins were deposited in lacustrine brackish to saline water environment and are geochemically distinct from the older, syn-rift fresh to brackish water lakes, as well as from younger, post-salt marine anoxic environments of the drift phase. Geochemical analyses of the source rocks and their oils have shown a developing source rock system evolving from isolated deep rift lakes to shallow saline lakes, and culminating with the infill of the sag basin by large saline lakes to a marginally marine restricted gulf. Sag basin source rocks may be important in the South Atlantic petroleum system by charging deep-water prospects where syn-rift source rocks are overmature and the post-salt sequences are immature.

  6. Comparative sediment quality assessment in different littoral ecosystems from Spain (Gulf of Cadiz) and Brazil (Santos and So Vicente estuarine system).

    PubMed

    Cesar, A; Choueri, R B; Riba, I; Morales-Caselles, C; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Abessa, D M S; DelValls, T A

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this work was to establish comparisons among environmental degradation in different areas from Southern Spain (Gulf of Cdiz) and Brazil (Santos and So Vicente estuary), by using principal component analyses (PCA) to integrate sediment toxicity (amphipods mortality) and chemical-physical data (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, V, PCBs, PAHs concentrations, OC and fines contents). The results of PCA extraction of Spanish data showed that Bay of Cdiz, CA-1 did not present contamination or degradation; CA-2 exhibited contamination by PCBs, however it was not related to the amphipods mortality. Ra of Huelva was the most impacted site, showing contamination caused principally by hydrocarbons, in HV-1 and HV-2, but heavy metals were also important contaminants at HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3. Algeciras Bay was considered as not degraded in GR-3 and -4, but in GR-3' high contamination by PAHs was found. In the Brazilian area, the most degraded sediments were found in the stations situated at the inner parts of the estuary (SSV-2, SSV-3, and SSV-4), followed by SSV-6, which is close to the Submarine Sewage Outfall of Santos - SSOS. Sediments from SSV-1 and SSV-5 did not present chemical contamination, organic contamination or significant amphipod mortality. The results of this investigation showed that both countries present environmental degradation related to PAHs: in Spain, at Ra of Huelva and Gudarranque river's estuary areas; and in Brasil, in the internal portion of the Santos and So Vicente estuary. The same situation is found for heavy metals, since all of the identified metals are related to toxicity in the studied areas, with few exceptions (V for both Brazil and Spain, and Cd and Co for Brazilian areas). The contamination by PCBs is more serious for Santos and So Vicente estuary than for the investigated areas in Gulf of Cdiz, where such compound did not relate to the toxicity. PMID:17175025

  7. Isolation of human Fab antibodies specific for the low-affinity IgE receptor (CD23) by selecting a hierarchical antibody library system against B lymphoblastic IM-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo-jung; Song, Suk-yoon; Yoon, Jae-bong; Liu, Li-kun; Kim, Kristine; Cha, Sang-hoon

    2011-05-01

    The development of human antibodies specific for certain B cell markers is required to generate therapeutic antibody leads with improved therapeutic indices against B-cell lymphomas. To meet this demand, we selected a primary human antibody library, HuDVFab-8L, against human B lymphoblastic IM-9 cells via a 'Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands (BRASIL)' cell panning approach. Six Fab clones that specifically bound to IM-9 cells were successfully isolated. Among these clones, two clones (IM-L6-E and IM-L8-G), were found to be specific for CD23 (Fc?RII). Affinity maturation of these Fab clones was then performed in a hierarchical manner by constructing secondary antibody libraries through combining heavy (H) chains of two Fabs with the human kappa L chain sublibrary HuNL-D3 followed by biopanning against the CD23 antigen. Clone IM-L6-5, one of the affinity maturated Fab derivatives from IM-L6-E, has a binding affinity of k(D)?30 nM to soluble CD23. In addition, IM-L6-5 Fab is able to bind to an inducible form of CD23 expressed on U937 cells upon IL-4 stimulation, and inhibits binding of human IgE to CD23. Since the Fab IM-L6-5 is derived from a fully human nave origin, we believe that IM-L6-5 can be utilized for the development of a therapeutic mAb which may have an improved therapeutic index over lumiliximab, a primatized anti-CD23 mAb, for the treatment of CLL or allergic diseases. PMID:21277901

  8. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  9. Anomalous lightning activity over the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo due to urban effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, W. R. G.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.

    2009-02-01

    A significant enhancement in the number of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a decrease in the percentage of positive CG flashes are observed over the city of São Paulo, similar to observations in other large urban areas. Strong evidence indicates that this anomalous behavior results from several mechanisms related to the urban effect. In this paper, we investigated the importance of the air pollution using CG lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a 6-year period (1999-2004). Due to the large variations in the CG lightning activity in response to different meteorological processes, it is not an easy task to infer the contribution of air pollution to the enhancement in the lightning activity. In order to overcome such difficulty, two approaches were considered: (1) the weekly variation of the number of days with lightning in comparison to the mean concentration of particulate matter (PM 10), as well as other thermodynamical parameters; (2) the variation of the number of CG flashes and the maximum storm flash rate per individual thunderstorm for different levels of pollution. The results of both analyses suggest that: first, the enhancement in the CG lightning activity during the week days over São Paulo metropolitan region is related to the PM 10 concentration (pollution); second, the PM 10 concentration tends to increase the lifetime of the storms and, in consequence, the number of flashes per storm, and not the flash rate of the thunderstorm; and third, the effect of the pollution in the enhancement of the CG lightning activity is probably less significant compared to the effect of the urban heat island.

  10. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  11. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. Nebular phase observations of the Type-Ib supernova iPTF13bvn favour a binary progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Maeda, K.; Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; Morrell, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Hamuy, M.; de Jaeger, T.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kawabata, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present and analyse late-time observations of the Type-Ib supernova with possible pre-supernova progenitor detection, iPTF13bvn, which were done ~300 days after the explosion. We discuss them in the context of constraints on the supernova's progenitor. Previous studies have proposed two possible natures for the progenitor of the supernova, i.e. a massive Wolf-Rayet star or a lower-mass star in a close binary system. Methods: Our observations show that the supernova has entered the nebular phase, with the spectrum dominated by Mg I]λλ4571, [O I]λλ6300, 6364, and [Ca II]λλ7291, 7324 emission lines. We measured the emission line fluxes to estimate the core oxygen mass and compared the [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae. Results.The core oxygen mass of the supernova progenitor was estimated to be ≲0.7 M⊙, which implies initial progenitor mass that does not exceed ~15-17 M⊙.Since the derived mass is too low for a single star to become a Wolf-Rayet star, this result lends more support to the binary nature of the progenitor star of iPTF13bvn. The comparison of [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae also shows that iPTF13bvn appears to be in close association with the lower mass progenitors of stripped-envelope and Type-II supernovae. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); Chilean Telescope Time Allocation Committee proposal CN2014A-91.

  13. Low power laser stimulation of the bone consolidation in tibial fractures of rats: a radiologic and histopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Briteño-Vázquez, M; Santillán-Díaz, G; González-Pérez, M; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Pecos-Martín, D; Plaza-Manzano, G; Romero-Franco, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of low power laser irradiation in the bone consolidation of tibial fractures in rats. An experimental, comparative, prospective study with control group was designed. Twenty Wistar rats were grouped into control (n = 10) and experimental groups (n = 10). A tibial fracture, with a mechanical drill, was inflicted in all rats. The experimental group received ten days of low power arsenide-gallium laser irradiation of 850 nm (KLD, Sao Paulo, Brasil)-100 mW, 8 J/cm(2), 64 s. Before and after the laser treatment, a radiologic analysis was carried out in both groups, in which the rats were graded from 0 to IV according the Montoya scale of bone consolidation. Also, we histopathologically analyzed the bone to estimate the proliferation of fibroblasts, bone matrix, and angiogénesis with a microscopy, which were graded as I (thin layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix), II (thick layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix), or III (thick layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix and new blood vessels). Radiologic data showed that the experimental group had a higher bone consolidation of Montoya scale after ten days of laser irradiation compared to control group (P < 0.004). Histopathologic data showed more fibroblasts and angiogenesis presence in the group receiving laser irradiation, compared to control group (P < .002). The low power laser radiation therapy may expedite the bone repair after tibial fractures in rats, according to radiologic and histopathologic analysis. PMID:25274198

  14. A dynamical mechanism to produce high-inclinations TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasil, P. I. O.; Gomes, R. S.; Nesvorý, D.

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the dynamical formation of small Solar System objects beyond Neptune. The discovery of the first trans-Neptunian object (TNO) - except for Pluto and Charon - is relatively recent (1992QB_1). Many unpredicted dynamical and physical features not predicted in past theoretical models and are now showing up. Among them, we note the existence of many high-inclined orbits with respect to the eclipitc plane (where all Solar System bodies supposedly have formed). The aim of this work is to show a dynamical pathway from the primordial planetesimal disk to high inclinations orbits in the trans-Neptunian region. The main mechanism requires that scattered planetesimals are captured into some exterior mean motion resonance (MMR) with Neptune and then be trapped into the Kozai resonance as well. After that, some planetesimals may access a resonance hibernating mode in which the planesimal is barely locked in resonance. We show that only a few percent of all scattered planetesimals would access the hibernating mode. But, once this mechanism is active, ˜ 100% of the particles would escape both resonances while Neptune is in its final migration stage (after the LHB phase). Our results could explain at least a portion (up to 80%) of the classical hot population, defined by a_{2:3}5^{o}, and q>36au. Previous results indicate that this mechanism is the most likely to form the detached objects close to MMR with Neptune as, for example, 2004XR_{190} (Gomes, 2011, Icarus 215, 661). We have determined the most probable regions, in the orbital elements space (a, e, i), where detached objects would form close to 2:5 and 1:3 MMRs (Brasil, Gomes & Soares, 2013 - submitted to A&A).

  15. Alternatives across Latin America: catalysing change in the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week series of seminars addressing replacement of harmful animal use in education and training was held across Latin America in March-April 2008. Organised by InterNICHE and partner organisations in Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, the events built on the experience of previous major outreach in Russia and India. Up to 6 full-day seminars were held at universities and independent venues in each country. Smaller meetings with campaigners, teachers and professional bodies complemented the large presentations. All events included spoken presentations, demonstrations and free trials of a wide range of alternatives. Speakers included InterNICHE experts and those from the host countries who are involved in replacement work. Partner organisations were empowered through the process of planning and execution of the seminars, and the tour helped to identify and provide support to others who are progressing humane education initiatives. Further collaboration is now planned. Information on the current situation concerning animal use and alternatives, including laws and regulations, was also gathered from each country. The tour succeeded in raising awareness and generating interest in replacement alternatives, also by national-level interviews and media coverage. Information and freeware alternatives were widely distributed, and further translations of material into Spanish and Portuguese are in progress. To continue the hands-on access to alternatives provided at the seminars, a Mexican / Central American Alternatives Loan System has been established, and others are being built in Peru and Brasil. The donation of computers and alternatives to selected universities is also being planned in order to establish multimedia laboratories that will promote alternatives through example. PMID:19326034

  16. Uncomplicated malaria among pregnant women in the Brazilian Amazon: local barriers to prompt and effective case management.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Moritz, Angela Fernandes Esher; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-02-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery and other adverse effects on health. In Brazil, disease transmission is highly concentrated in the multi-state region that constitutes the Brazilian Amazon (more than 99% of all cases). This study, conducted between the first bimesters of 2007 and 2008, aims to identify the local barriers to prompt and effective case management of malaria in pregnancy and was carried out in health facilities located in three endemic municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Porto Velho). The study design combined both qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative design involved semi-structured interviews with health personnel who routinely deal with malaria care. The quantitative design involved a review of medical records of pregnant women in the visited health facilities. Additionally, data were abstracted from SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Brasil, 2007) and Primary Care Information System (SIAB) databases. Flaws were detected in diagnosis (only 6.8% of women tested for malaria) and treatment (for Plasmodium falciparum infections, only 44.8% of patients received recommended first-line therapy; 10.2% of prescription presented treatments were not found in national guideline and 7.3% of the prescriptions for Plasmodium vivax and 17.9% of the prescriptions for P. falciparum were not sanctioned by the official guidelines). Training (only 37.3% had had some training), knowledge and counseling were also sub-optimal. These results indicated the need to improve the health-worker performance through training. Close supervision and feedback on the health-worker performance are also needed. These findings also highlighted the need to put into practice a series of government recommendations that encourage close collaboration between the National Malaria Control Program and Primary Health Care actions in order to achieve safer pregnancies. PMID:23178220

  17. 221 Eos: A remnant of a partially differentiated parent body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    The asteroid 221 Eos (K class), has been traditionally associated to CO/CV meteorites (Bell 1988). This association is based solely on spectral similarities with meteorites, and previously the best spectral analog to Eos was found to be the CO3 Warrenton (Burbine et al. 2001). The 52-color spectrum (http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/) and the SMASSIR spectrum (Burbine and Binzel 2001) of 221 Eos in the NIR region, combined with the SMASSII spectrum (Bus and Binzel 2001) in the visible, has now been compared to the whole RELAB meteorites database (http://www.planetary.brown.edu/relab/rel_pub/) updated on July 31, 2003. This comparison revealed a better spectral analog to Eos: the anomalous stone Divnoe, a primitive achondrite meteorite. Problems and implications of such match for the composition of Eos and its dynamical family will be discussed. This work has been supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq/Brasil. References: Bell, J.F. 1988. A Probable Asteroidal Parent Body for the CV or CO Chondrites. Meteoritics 23, 256. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. Bus, S.J. and Clark, B.E. 2001. K asteroids and CO3/CV3 chondrites. Icarus 36, 245. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey in the Near-Infrared. Icarus 159, 468. Bus, S.J. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey: The Observations. Icarus 158, 106.

  18. An ergonomic study on the biomechanical consequences in children, generated by the use of computers at school.

    PubMed

    Paraizo, Claudia; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the influence of the computer use in schools related to the children posture, in an ergonomic point of view. The research tries to identify probable causes for the children early postural constraints, relating it to the sedentary behavior and the lack of an ergonomic project in schools. The survey involved 186 children, between 8 and 12 years old, students of a private school in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil. An historical and theoretical school furniture research was conducted as well as a survey with the students and teachers, computer postural evaluation, ergonomic evaluation (RULA method), and observations in the computer classroom. The research dealt with the student's perception with respect to the furniture utilized by him in the classroom during the use of the computer, his body complaint, the time he spent working on the school computer and the possibility of the existence of sedentariness. Also deals with the teachers' perception and knowledge regarding ergonomics with reference to schoolroom furniture and its Regulatory Norms (RN). The purpose of the research work is to highlight the importance of this knowledge, having in view the possibility of the teachers' collaboration in the ergonomic adaptation of the classroom environment and in their conscientious opinion during the purchasing of this furniture. A questionnaire was utilized and its results showed some discontent on the part of the teachers with relation to the schoolroom furniture as well as the teachers' scant knowledge of Ergonomics.We conclude with a survey that despite the children had constraints in postural assessments and school furniture needs a major ergonomic action, the time that children use the computer at school is small compared with the time of use at home and therefore insufficient to be the main cause of quantified commitments, thus the study of computer use at home as a development and continuity of this research. PMID:22316829

  19. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  20. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conteúdos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino Médio, as propostas curriculares do Paraná e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conteúdo Gravitação Universal, na primeira série do Ensino Médio, já a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequência que é proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em questão, porém, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, não há um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conteúdos. O detalhamento facilita a prática pedagógica, pois, conteúdos simples como as Estações do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer são citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado é que os conteúdos de um modo geral não trazem uma sequência e não primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedagógico, pois, por ser uma região com características culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais próximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transferências dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conteúdos, clareza, sequência dos conteúdos e propostas de trabalho é proposto uma sequência de conteúdos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), é necessário fornecer além da informação, do conteúdo, o como fazer. Tal proposta não visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua prática pedagógica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. Análise de conteúdo. Tradução Luís Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. São Paulo: Edições 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educação formal, informal, não-formal e divulgação científica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, v. 31, n. 4, p. 4402-1 a 4402-11, 2009.

  1. 42 Years of Continuous Observations of the Solar Diameter - 1974 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Vani Leister, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of 42 years of continuous measurements of the photospheric solar diameter, taken at major national observatories, using the same fundamental method, and similar apparatus. Such a series overlap observations from the Calern Observatory/France (Solar Astrolabe in 1975-2003 to 253 obs/year lead by F. Laclare and C. Delmas; Doraysol in 2000-2005 to 3,070 obs/year lead by C. Delmas and V. Sinceac), from the IAG/USP/Brazil (Solar Astrolabe in 1974-1994 to 95 obs/year lead by N. VaniLeister, P. Benevides and M. Emilio), from the Antalya Observatory/Turkey (CCD Astrolabe in 2000-2007 to 400 obs/year lead by F. Chollet and OI. Golbasi), from the San Fernando Observatory/Spain (Solar Astrolabe in 1972-1975 to 133 obs/year lead by J. Muiños), from Observatório Nacional/Brasil (CCD Astrolabe in 1998-2009 to 1,820 obs/year lead by J. Penna, E. Reis Neto and A.H. Andrei; Heliometer 2010-2015 to 8,509 obs/year lead by S.C. Boscardin, J.L. Penna and A.H. Andrei). The Heliometer is fully automatized in its observations and continues in regular operation with no plan of stopping; it shares with the former instruments the physical/mathematical definition of the limb, and the instruments aperture and focal length. We perform a reconciliation of all these series, using the common stretches. A modulation with the 11 years cycle of solar activity is evident. However when such modulation is removed, both from the solar diameter compound series and from the solar activity series (given by the sunspots count), a very strong anti-correlation surfaces. This suggests a smaller diameter for the forthcoming cycles, in a behavior similar to that on the Minima of Dalton and Maunder. This study stresses the importance of keeping and make available such long, continuous, and uniform series of solar diameter measurements. Maybe even the more by the controversy about its magnitude and origin. This presentation is dedicated to all the teams that developed and sustained the modern solar diameter observations.

  2. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country. Species of sanitary interest are the propagators of: schistosomiasis -Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila, Planorbidae-, fasciolasis -Lymnaea viatrix and L. columnella, Lymnaeidae- and dermatitis -Chilina gibbosa and C. fluminea, Chilinidae. Invasive species are: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae) and Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae). The construction of new areas for the protection and conservation of the high risk endemic species of freshwater molluscs is a priority. It is necessary to give special attention to the species of the patagonic mountain range and of the mesopotamic area of the Del Plata Basin. PMID:18624229

  3. Petrophysical properties of carbonate rocks: example from the cretaceous Jandaira Formation, Potiguar basin - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Francisco; Soares, José; Bezerra, Francisco; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Cazarin, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate sediments are prone to rapid and pervasive diagenetic alterations that change the mineralogy and pore structure within carbonate units. In particular, cementation and dissolution processes continuously modify the pore structure to create or destroy porosity. In extreme cases these modifications can completely change the mineralogy from calcite to dolomite, in the properties of rock for soil (Caliche), or reverse the pore distribution whereby original grains are dissolved to produce pores as the original pore space is filled with cement to form the rock. These processes are common in fractured carbonate units. All these modifications alter the elastic properties of the rock and, therefore, the sonic velocity. This study presents the result of relationship among diagenesis, porosity, grain density, and sonic velocity, in limestones, dolomites and caliche samples from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar basin, Brasil. This stratigraphic unit have been subjected to fracturing since the late Cretaceous. The rock and soil samples were collected in outcrops, prepared as plugs, and analyzed at ambient temperature. The porosity and grain density analysis were performed under ambient pressure, while elastic properties analyses were conducted with samples under confining pressure between 5 and 40 MPa. The result is a wide range of sonic velocity in carbonates, in which compressional-wave velocity (VP) ranges from 3507 to 6119 m/s and shear-wave velocity (VS) range from 2114 to 3451 m/s. The ratio VS1/VS2 indicate a level of anisotropy equal to 2%, without any clear relationship with porosity. The elastics properties are affected by rock alteration process or by modification of mineral composition, due to the presence of clay minerals and organic matter, The porosity and grain density values range from 3.2 to 21.5%, and 2.7 to 2.8 (g/cm3), respectively. The grain density analysis in the carbonate rocks indicate the existence of two groups: the first group of calcareous matrix, with density of 2.7 g/cm3, and the second group of dolomitic matrix, with density of 2.8 g/cm3. The caliche present density values than the average carbonate rock. The elastics and grain density properties in carbonate rocks showed strong inverse correlation with porosity. These correlations have high coefficients of determination, valid for samples with both carbonate and dolomitic matrix. The Poisson ratio shows a soft correlation and a considerable dispersion.

  4. Self-consistent physical parameters for five intermediate-age SMC stellar clusters from CMD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L. O.; Barbuy, B.; Santiago, B.; Ortolani, S.; Balbinot, E.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Stellar clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are useful probes for studying the chemical and dynamical evolution of this neighbouring dwarf galaxy, enabling inspection of a large period covering over 10 Gyr. Aims: The main goals of this work are the derivation of age, metallicity, distance modulus, reddening, core radius, and central density profiles for six sample clusters, in order to place them in the context of the Small Cloud evolution. The studied clusters are AM 3, HW 1, HW 34, HW 40, Lindsay 2, and Lindsay 3; HW 1, HW 34, and Lindsay 2 are studied for the first time. Methods: Optical colour-magnitude diagrams (V,B - V CMDs) and radial density profiles were built from images obtained with the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, reaching V ~ 23. The determination of structural parameters were carried out by applying King profile fitting. The other parameters were derived in a self-consistent way by means of isochrone fitting, which uses likelihood statistics to identify the synthetic CMDs that best reproduce the observed ones. Membership probabilities were determined comparing the cluster and control field CMDs. Completeness and photometric uncertainties were obtained by performing artificial star tests. Results: The results confirm that these clusters (except HW 34, identified as a field fluctuation) are intermediate-age clusters, with ages between 1.2 Gyr (Lindsay 3) and ~5.0 Gyr (HW 1). In particular HW 1, Lindsay 2 and Lindsay 3 are located in a region that we called West Halo, where studies of ages and metallicity gradients are still lacking. Moreover, Lindsay 2 was identified as a moderately metal-poor cluster with [Fe/H] = -1.4 0.2 dex, lower than expected from the age-metallicity relation by Pagel & Tautvaisiene (1998). We also found distances varying from ~53 kpc to 66 kpc, compatible with the large depth of the SMC. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia, e Inovao (MCTI) da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe tables of photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A106

  5. Noninvasive Determination of Anaerobic Threshold Based on the Heart Rate Deflection Point in Water Cycling.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Brasil, Roxana M; Alberton, Cristine L; Ferreira, Hector K; Bagatini, Natália C; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    Pinto, SS, Brasil, RM, Alberton, CL, Ferreira, HK, Bagatini, NC, Calatayud, J, and Colado, JC. Noninvasive determination of anaerobic threshold based on the heart rate deflection point in water cycling. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 518-524, 2016-This study compared heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax), percentage of maximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and cadence (Cad) related to the anaerobic threshold (AT) during a water cycling maximal test between heart rate deflection point (HRDP) and ventilatory (VT) methods. In addition, the correlations between both methods were assessed for all variables. The test was performed by 27 men in a cycle ergometer in an aquatic environment. The protocol started at a Cad of 100 b·min for 3 minutes with subsequent increments of 15 b·min every 2 minutes until exhaustion. A paired two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare the variables between the HRDP and VT methods. The Pearson product-moment correlation test was used to correlate the same variables determined by the 2 methods. There was no difference in HR (166 ± 13 vs. 166 ± 13 b·min), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (38.56 ± 6.26 vs. 39.18 ± 6.13 ml·kg·min), %HRmax (89.24 ± 3.84 vs. 89.52 ± 4.29%), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (70.44 ± 7.99 vs. 71.64 ± 8.32%), and Cad (174 ± 14 b·min vs. 171 ± 8 b·min) related to AT between the HRDP and VT methods. Moreover, significant relationships were found between the methods to determine the AT for all variables analyzed (r = 0.57-0.97). The estimation of the HRDP may be a noninvasive and easy method to determine the AT, which could be used to adapt individualized training intensities to practitioners during water cycling classes. PMID:26200195

  6. PREFACE: 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia; Santiago-Avilés, Jorge J.

    2013-03-01

    The 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012) was held in Carolina, Puerto Rico on 16-19 October 2012. IBERSENSOR is a forum of the Spanish and Portuguese speaking scientific community, working in the fields of sensors of every possible kind and their applications. Previous conferences in the series were successfully carried out in La Habana, Cuba (1998); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000); Lima, Perú (2002); Puebla, México (2004); Montevideo, Uruguay (2006); Sao Paulo, Brasil (2008) and Lisboa, Portugal (2010). IBERSENSOR 2012 participants included researchers from eleven countries in the Americas and Europe, in particular young men and women. The conference was organized and sponsored by the Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-DMR-0934195) a collaborative program between the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) and the University of Pennsylvania (PENN) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, sponsored by the USA National Science Foundation (NSF). Other sponsors included the Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras and the Nano/Bio Interface Center (NBIC) at PENN. The Proceedings of IBERSENSOR 2012 include a selection of 21 research papers in the areas of Materials and Processes for Sensor Development, Nano-Sensors, Chemical Sensors, Mechanical Sensors, Optical Sensors, Wireless Sensors, Sensor signal conditioning and Instrumentation, Microfluidic Devices, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications. Editors Idalia Ramos University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Puerto Rico Jorge J Santiago-Avilés University of Pennsylvania, USA Group photograph Logos Ibero-American Congress on Sensors Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (Ibersensor) Main Sponsors PENN-UPRH-PREM Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (PENN-UPRH-PREM) University of Puerto Rico at Humacao USA National Science Foundation USA National Science Foundation Other Sponsors Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials (CNM), University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Nano/Bio Interface Center Nano/Bio Interface Center, University of Pennsylvania

  7. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos modelos de universo que os participantes possuíam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelânea, geocêntrico, heliocêntrico e acêntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. São apontadas as análises da atividade na ótica dos participantes, além de tecidas considerações sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formação docente.

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feijó Nunes, Flávia; Bassani, Lílian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la elección del método para la evaluación nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de hígado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y después del trasplante de hígado por el tiempo de un año para los diferentes métodos de evaluación nutricional.Métodos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de hígado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los métodos utilizados fueron la antropometría, la fuerza de apretón de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar y el ángulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los métodos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los métodos de evaluación de CB, espesor del pliegue cutáneo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los métodos de evaluación nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el método de mayor detección de desnutrición.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podría intensificarse el uso del método AF por la BIA en esta población, ya que los resultados están en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles. PMID:27019235

  9. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. Major Ions Fluxes and DOC in Rainfall and Throughfall at the Tapajos National Forest - Belterra, Para, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, R. C.; Keller, M.; Crill, P.; de Mello, W.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, K.; Souza Neto, E.; Albuquerque, S.; Dias, J.; Pereira, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Tapajós National Forest -(FLONA Tapajós), an area of 600,000 ha of protected forest, is located 50km south Santarem (Pará, Brasil). The FLONA receives approximately 2000 mm.y-1 of rainfall and the forest is evergreen. The tropical forest nutrient cycle depends upon inputs from the atmosphere and from rock weathering. Internally, throughfall and stemflow transfer nutrients from the vegetation to the ground. We collected rainfall and throughfall from [starting date] through [ending date]. Concentrations of the ions Cl-, NO3-, PO4-3, SO4-2, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg+2 and Ca+2 were analyzed using a Dionex DX-120 ion chromatograph. Total carbon and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed by a Shimadzu TOC V - CSN. Ionic fluxes were calculated from volume-weighted concentrations. The fluxes in precipitation followed the sequence: NH4+ (7.1 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Ca+2 (6.31 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Na+ (6.11 kg.ha-1.y-1) > K+ (4.41 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Cl- (3.61 kg.ha-1.y-1) > SO4-2 (3.11 kg.ha-1.y-1) > NO3- (1.31 kg.ha-1.y-1) > PO4-3 (1.11 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Mg+2 (1.01 kg.ha-1.y-1). In the throughfall, the fluxes were in the sequence: NO3- (31.8 kg.ha-1.y-1) > K+ (27.6 kg.ha-1.y-1) > NH4+ (25.5 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Na+ (17.4 kg.ha-1.y-1) > SO4-2 (15.6 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Cl- (14.5 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Ca+2 (12.7 kg.ha-1.y-1) > Mg+2 (11.1 kg.ha-1.y-1) > PO4-3 (10.8 kg.ha-1.y-1). The seasonality of cation and anion inputs suggests that intensive fertilized grain agricultural activity upwind of the site is contributing a substantial nutrient input to the forest. The fluxes of the total organic carbon for April 2003, May 2003 and February 2004 reached amounts of the 23, 18 and 34 kg.ha-1.y-1, respectively.

  11. Population and family planning: the particulars of five nations.

    PubMed

    1974-04-01

    Population and family planning in Brazil, Nigeria, the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Romania are discussed. Brazil with a population of 100 million and a growth rate of 3% has no explicit population policies. The importation, advertisement, and sale of contraceptives are prohibited, although oral contraceptives and condoms are sold freely over the counter. The Sociedade de Bem Estar Familiar no Brasil (BEMFAM), a private family planning association, provides family planning services. Illegal abortion is a serious health problem in Brazil. Although Nigeria plans to integrate family planning into the overall health and social welfare program of the country, little has been done to implement this policy. There are 80 million people in Nigeria, the population growth rate is 2.5%, and the groos national product per capita is $140. The main responsibility for providing family planning services rests with the private organization, the Family Planning Council of Nigeria (FPCN). Illegal abortion is a serious problem in Nigeria. China's family planning program is 1 of the most comprehensive and effective in the world. Family planning services are delivered through China's extensive health network. There are an estimated 800 million people in China, and its growth rate is between 1.9% and 2.2%. The gross national product per capita is $160. In Indonesia, the government has launched an ambitious and well-organized family planning program with the Indonesian Planning Parenthood Association (IPPA). The government, which has supported family planning since 1968, has allocated $8 million of its own funds, to be matched with $6 million in foreign assistance for 1974. There are 130 million people in Indonesia, the population growth rate is between 2% and 2 1/2%, and the gross national product per capita is $80. Similar to other East European countries, Romania has an explicit policy of encouraging couples to have more children. Its population is 20 million, the growth rate is 1.1%, and the gross national product per capita is $740. In 1966, the government restricted abortion to medical grounds for women already having 4 or more children. The sale of contraceptives is illegal. There are no organized family planning activities, but contraceptive services are available at some hospitals. PMID:12276745

  12. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os melhores livros disponíveis no mercado editorial brasileiro, buscamos esquadrinhar algumas categorias constantes no Guia de Livros Didáticos de 2008. A pesquisa caracteriza a freqüência do conteúdo de Astronomia no texto, nas figuras e nas atividades de experimentação. Além disso, descreve alguns erros conceituais e apresenta um conjunto de informações adicionais sobre as coleções.

  13. Rituximab Effectiveness and Safety for Treating Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Francine Bertolais do Valle; Porfírio, Gustavo José Martiniano; Andriolo, Brenda Nazaré Gomes; de Albuquerque, Julia Vajda; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that involves the exocrine glands and internal organs. pSS leads to destruction and loss of secretory function due to intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Therapeutic options include mainly symptomatic and supportive measures, and traditional immunosuppressant drugs have shown no effectiveness in randomized trials. Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric antibody anti-CD20 that leads to B cell depletion by diverse mechanisms. There is evidence that this drug may be effective for treating pSS. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Rituximab effectiveness and safety for treating pSS. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of RCTs published until December 2015, with no language restriction. We registered a protocol on Plataforma Brasil (40654814.6.0000.5505) and developed search strategies for the following scientific databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. We included adults with established pSS diagnosis and considered the use of Rituximab as intervention and the use of other drugs or placebo as control. Four studies met our eligibility criteria: three with low risk of bias and one with uncertain risk of bias. The total number of participants was 276 (145 RTX, 131 placebo). We assessed the risk of bias of each included study and evaluated the following as primary outcomes: lacrimal gland function, salivary gland function, fatigue improvement and adverse events. We found no significant differences between the groups in the Schirmer test at week 24 meta-analysis (MD 3.59, 95% CI -2.89 to 10.07). Only one study evaluated the lissamine green test and reported a statistically significant difference between the groups at week 24 (MD -2.00, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.48). There was a significant difference between the groups regarding salivary flow rate (MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16) and improvement in fatigue VAS at weeks 6 (RR 3.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 9.82) and week 16 (RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.80). Conclusions According to moderate quality evidence, the treatment with a single RTX course in patients with SSp presents discrete effect for improving lacrimal gland function. Low-quality evidence indicates the potential of this drug for improving salivary flow. According to low quality evidence, no differences were observed in the evaluation after 24 weeks regarding fatigue reduction (30% VAS), serious adverse events occurrence, quality of life improvement and disease activity. With a very low level of evidence, there was no improvement in oral dryness VAS evaluation. PMID:26998607

  14. Ground-based transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cáceres, C.; Kabath, P.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Miller-Ricci Kempton, E.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    2014-05-01

    Context. GJ 1214 b is one of the few known transiting super-Earth-sized exoplanets with a measured mass and radius. It orbits an M-dwarf, only 14.55 pc away, making it a favorable candidate for follow-up studies. However, the composition of GJ 1214 b's mysterious atmosphere has yet to be fully unveiled. Aims: Our goal is to distinguish between the various proposed atmospheric models to explain the properties of GJ 1214 b: hydrogen-rich or hydrogen-He mix, or a heavy molecular weight atmosphere with reflecting high clouds, as latest studies have suggested. Methods: Wavelength-dependent planetary radii measurements from the transit depths in the optical/NIR are the best tool to investigate the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. We present here (i) photometric transit observations with a narrow-band filter centered on 2.14 μm and a broad-band I-Bessel filter centered on 0.8665 μm, and (ii) transmission spectroscopy in the H and K atmospheric windows that cover three transits. The photometric and spectrophotometric time series obtained were analyzed with MCMC simulations to measure the planetary radii as a function of wavelength. We determined radii ratios of 0.1173-0.0024+0.0022 for I-Bessel and 0.11735-0.00076+0.00072 at 2.14 μm. Results: Our measurements indicate a flat transmission spectrum, in agreement with the last atmospheric models that favor featureless spectra with clouds and high molecular weight compositions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). SofI results are based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 087.C-0509.Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A7

  15. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  16. New results about the study of the lightning activity and characteristics over the large urban area of the city of São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, W. R.; Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R.

    2009-12-01

    The urban effect on lightning activity has been studied in many places around the world. The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) in the Southeast region of Brazil is one of the greatest and more populous urban areas of the world with a density of about 3000 inhabitants/km2. Similar to observations in other large urban areas, there is a significant enhancement in the number of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a decrease in the percentage of positive CG flashes over the city of São Paulo. This work investigates the role of air polluted on lightning in MRSP. The CG lightning data set used was provided by Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a period of 10 years (1999 - 2008). In this period, only days with CG flashes during the spring and summer seasons (from October to March) were considered and, for these days, only lightning data from 14 h to 20 h LT, were considered since this period corresponds to the time of the day with maximum lightning activity. The air polluted data set used in this work, was provided by the São Paulo environmental agencies (CETESB). The main results are: there is a tendency of increase in the ratio between lightning activity in the center area and surrounding area of the MRSP during the ten years in agreement with the same tendency observed for the number of automotive vehicles circulating on the center area of the city; there is a statistical significant increase in the CG lightning activity during the week days over MRSP related to the PM10 concentration. Apparently the increase in the lightning activity is related to an increase in the lifetime of the storms and, in consequence, the number of flashes per storm, and not to the mean flash rate of the storms. However, the increase also suggest that the effect of the pollution in the enhancement of the CG lightning activity is probably less significant compared to the effect of the urban heat island. A similar study is being done for other lightning spot not related to a large urban area in the southeast Brazil that occur in the south of Rio de Janeiro State (SRJS) and the preliminary results should be presented. Finally, simulations with the mesoscale numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) are running in order to evaluate the behavior of the dynamic, thermodynamic and instability of the atmosphere in response to pollution.

  17. The Neoproterozoic Trans-Saharan/Trans-Brasiliano shear zones: Suggested Tibetan Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    The Trans-Saharan Borborema (TSB) belt is a product of the assembly of Gondwana, a supercontinent that formed from cratonic fragments derived from Rodinia and other vagrant lithospheric blocks. Recent reconstructions show the West African craton (WAC) and Congo- San-Francisco craton juxtaposed by the closure of the Brasiliano (Pharuside, Adamastor) ocean during early stages of the Pan-African orogenic cycle in northwest Gondwana. The Dahomeyide and Pharuside segments of the resulting orogenic belt preserve well- organized lithotectonic units on the eastern margin of the WAC. The foreland units consist of craton-verging nappe stacks formed from the deformed margin of the WAC and its cover rocks. The near-hinter land is underlain by granitoid gneisses postulated to represent ca 600 Ma juvenile crust, exposed in the Accra-Benin plain. Further east from the suture zone is the Nigerian province, which includes rocks that were extensively reworked apparently during the Pan-African. The Borborema province of northeastern Brasil is the correlative/ extension of Nigerian. It is underlain by rocks intensively reworked during the Brasiliano (Pan-African) orogeny and juxtaposed along a series of shear zones. A distinct feature of the TBS are these extensive shear zones, many of which are typified by dextral wrench shear. In West Africa the prominent examples extend from the Sahara to the coastline and include the Hoggar, which splays into the Kandi fault, which itself has numerous splays in Benin, Togo and southeastern Ghana. In Brazil, nearly all reconstructions show that the continuation of the Kandi Fault is the Sobral fault which is inferred to be the northern segment of the Trans-Brasiliano lineament (TBL). If correct, the TBL and its TBS extensions constitute a 4000 km long dextral shear zone, perhaps the longest coherent shear zone on earth. We suggest that the geometry of these shear zones and associated Pan African sutures have instructive analogs in the Tibet-Himalayan collision system. The Pan-African suture in the Dahomeyides and its correlative in the Pharusides corresponds to Main Himalayan Thrust in the Himalayan (belt). The Kandi fault and it's splays are remarkably similar to the convergence of Indus and Bangong sutures into the Karakoram in the Himalayas. The merger of the Pan-African faults into the Hoggar fault suggest a correspondence with the Altyn Tagh and Kulun faults that bound the norther Tibet Plateau, and which accommodate contemporary tectonic escape of that Plateau eastwards.

  18. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Walker, Marina; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) e B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) pertencem ao grupo de espécies de B. circumdata. A localidade-tipo da primeira espécie é a Serra do Cipó, Serra do Espinhaço, e a da segunda é o Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira, ambas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O padrão de desenhos dorsais, morfologia oral dos girinos e propriedades temporais dos cantos são indicadas como forma de distinguir essas espécies. Porém, diversos espécimes coletados entre as duas localidades-tipo permanecem sem identificação porque apresentam sobreposição nos caracteres e estados propostos para diagnosticar as duas espécies. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação desses caracteres, foram realizadas análises de morfologia e morfometria de adultos, vocalizações e morfologia de girinos. Espécimes foram divididos em três unidades taxonômicas operacionais: B. nanuzae (Serra do Cipó e localidades ao norte, Serra do Espinhaço), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Serra do Espinhaço ao sul da Serra do Cipó), e B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira). Os padrões de desenhos do dorso e membros apresentam variação clinal e as três unidades são muito similares morfometricamente. As propriedades temporais e espectrais do canto apresentam sobreposição entre essas três unidades. Diferenças diagnósticas originalmente propostas para os girinos são variações intrapopulacionais e ocorrem em espécimes de todas as localidades analisadas. Assim, concluímos que essas três unidades são morfologicamente indistinguíveis. Portanto, Bokermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) é designado como um sinônimo júnior de Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), o que estende a distribuição geográfica desta para a Serra da Mantiqueira. PMID:25947466

  19. Atmospheric anionic and VOCs composition from Detroit Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, A. S.; Evangelista, H.; Cataldo, M.; Coôrreia, S.; Simoes, J. C.; Wainer, I.; Jaña, R.; Kurbatov, A.; Potocki, M.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    In the context of Climate of Antarctica and South America project (CASA/ Brasil-Chile-EUA scientific cooperation) atmospheric sampling were performed in 2007 austral summer (nov-dec) at Detroit Plateau (64°05'07”S, 59°38'42”W, ~ 2,000 m above sea level) in the Antarctic Peninsula, aiming to analyze the anionic and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) composition in the low atmosphere, and to better understand the regional atmospheric transport patterns. Air samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and filter pack. Local climatological data were obtained from an AWS installed in the site during the scientific expedition and regional data are based on NCEP/NCAR and NOAA HYSPLIT reanalyzes. Air samples were collected using eight 2.5L-canisters, and 0.1µm pore size Nuclepore filter at 6h / day intervals. In laboratory, after cryogenic concentration, air samples from canisters were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC/MS). While all filters were leached out with 15 mL Milli-Q water using a ultrasound device, and these solutions were sealed in Teflon vials until later analysis through an ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy) system. Analyses of the AWS data, during the studied period, showed a mean temperature of -10.4 ± 3.8oC, while the atmospheric pressure was 770.1 ± 10.2 hPa. Results from atmospheric reanalyzes indicates that Detroit Plateau has a significant influence of continental and marine aerosols. Al and Fe were the main represents in the aerosol with terrigenous influence, while Na showed the high concentration in the aerosol with marine influence. Total quantification of VOCs in the local atmosphere showed mean value of 9.8 ug/m3, with maximum (34.1 ug/m3) observed in 29 November and minimum (1.3 ug/m3) during 12 December. Our previous results indicate Detroit Plateau as a well preserved atmospheric site, allowing its use for climatological/glaciological studies.

  20. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1‑0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius–Carina, Scutum–Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1‑0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1‑0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and the Michigan State University (MSU).

  1. Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries Lima, Marta1; Menor, Eldemar2; Lima, Enjolras3; Neumann, Virginio4 1MFGTransportes, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil 3Servico Geologico do Brasil-CPRM, Brazil 4Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Heavy metal (HM) concentrations in estuarine sediments of the Botafogo and Manguaba river, North-eastern Brazil were investigated on basis of samples from a bottom core drill performed 4km from the mouth of the rivers. Total sediments (TS) of the sliced profiles (62 cm, Botafogo river and 87 cm, Manguaba river ) were submitted to chemical analysis (51 elements), mineralogical analysis (XRD) and statistical study, followed by stoichiometric calculations. Geochronologic determinations of 210Pb allowed studying the evolution of the contamination level approximately 150 year-old interval in the Botafogo river. Mercury (Hg) and Arsenic (As) are emphasized because of a chlorine-soda industry that dumps its effluents about 15 km upstream of the estuary and extensive cultivation of sugarcane existent in this watershed. Hg background in pelitic total sediments (PTS) was certain established considering the Hg content (126 ppb) in sedimentary intervals previous to 1910. The production of chlorine-soda (since 1963) coincides with a drastic increase of the Hg concentrations and contemporary values around 6.000 ppb, without interruption in the pollutant process. The conclusions found that the Hg was the main indicator of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments of the Botafogo river. On the other hand, an increase in the Hg-As concentrations has been observed at the last decades due to an increase of the clay mineral fraction in TS of the Manguaga river. This scenario indicates that the accumulation of HM has been constant since the last decades, under a background, around 80 ppm available for pelitic sediments. This result is influenced by small geogenic factors (rock weathering and natural atmospheric contributions) and moderate antropic factors (urban sewage, agricultural fertilizers, before the 1930'), but is representative of relatively well preserved hydrographic basins under tropical climate. Effectively, the Manguaba's Basin is characterized by little urban and industrial occupations although it includes extensive sugar-cane plantations with great devastation of the native forests.

  2. SN 2011A: A Low-luminosity Interacting Transient with a Double Plateau and Strong Sodium Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Pignata, G.; Hamuy, M.; Kankare, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Inserra, C.; Kotak, R.; Lira, P.; Morrell, N.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data span 140 days after discovery including {BVRI} u\\prime g\\prime r\\prime i\\prime z\\prime photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow Hα emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. First, the light curve shows a double plateau, a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Second, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ({M}V=-15.72), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Third, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change in line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favor an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes and du Pont telescope; the Gemini-North Telescope, Mauna Kea, USA (Gemini Program GN-2010B-Q67, PI: Stritzinger); the PROMPT telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile; with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council; based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; the NTT from ESO Science Archive Facility under allocations 184.D-1151 and 184.D-1140 (PI: S. Benetti), at the Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca (CSIC), on observations collected at Asiago Observatory and the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  4. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho é parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em nível de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e comunicação, utilizando dispositivos compactos, móveis e pessoais. Este estudo também faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da agência estadual FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresentação aborda o resultado das concepções prévias de estudantes em relação a conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, ligados à percepção e observação direta do céu. Três turmas de estudantes de 1ª série e uma turma de 3ª série do ensino integrado médio técnico da Educação Básica, Técnica e Tecnológica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avaliação prévia através de questionário estruturado. Este questionário foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percepção dos estudantes em relação aos recursos gráficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, comuns em livros didáticos. Após a análise dos resultados desta avaliação, organizou-se uma estratégia de intervenção didática em sala de aula sobre o conteúdo de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de mediação baseados nas tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Os temas selecionados para esta estratégia didática foram relacionados aos assuntos básicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior nível de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avaliação posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avaliação prévia. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por mediação das tecnologias da informação e comunicação indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na prática escolar, tais como, visita a planetários e a observatórios. Os estudantes ficaram muito sensibilizados pela possibilidade de percepção do céu em tempo real e à luz do dia dentro da sala de aula no contexto escolar. Os resultados deste levantamento preliminar indicam que os níveis de ensino fundamental e médio não foram capazes de internalizar conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, a despeito das orientações específicas contidas nos documentos oficiais da educação básica brasileira (Brasil, 1997 e 2000). Os estudantes pesquisados apresentaram conhecimentos e concepções rudimentares sobre o tema astronomia básica, indicando a ausência de abordagem do tema astronomia, tampouco de observação direta do céu em trabalhos de campo escolares na educação básica. Finalmente, esta abordagem didática suscitou nos estudantes grande interesse para futuros trabalhos de observação de campo. D.P. Ausubel; J.D. Novak; H. Hanesian. Psicología Educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. México: Trillas, 1983. BRASIL. Secretaria de Educação Básica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Fundamental (PCN), 1997, e Ensino Médio (PCNEM), 2000. Brasília. MEC/SEB.

  5. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  6. PREFACE: Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Kodama, Takeshi; Padula, Sandra; Takahashi, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) was held in Brazil from 27 September to 2 October 2009 at Hotel Atlântico, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro. The conference was jointly organized by Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Over 120 scientists from Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the USA gathered at the meeting to discuss the physics of hot and dense matter through the signals of strangeness and also the behavior of heavy quarks. Group photograph The topics covered were strange and heavy quark production in nuclear collisions, strange and heavy quark production in elementary processes, bulk matter phenomena associated with strange and heavy quarks, and strangeness in astrophysics. In view of the LHC era and many other upcoming new machines, together with recent theoretical developments, sessions focused on `New developments and new facilities' and 'Open questions' were also included. A stimulating round-table discussion on 'Physics opportunities in the next decade in the view of strangeness and heavy flavor in matter' was chaired in a relaxed atmosphere by Grazyna Odyniec and conducted by P Braun-Munzinger, W Florkowski, K Redlich, K Šafařík and H Stöcker, We thank these colleagues for pointing out to young participants new physics directions to be pursued. We also thank J Dunlop and K Redlich for excellent introductory lectures given on the Sunday evening pre-conference session. In spite of the not-so-helpful weather, the beauty and charm of the town of Búzios helped to make the meeting successful. Nevertheless, the most important contributions were the excellent talks, whose contents are part of these proceedings, given by participants who often came from far away. (One presentation by the NA57 Collaboration is not included in these proceedings because it was recently published in this journal (2010 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 37 045105) and may be accessed online. Other important contributions came from the unsung heroes who supported the organization of the meeting, to whom we would like to express our gratitude, in the name of the local organizing committee. In particular, the assistance from David Chinellato, Bruno Mintz, Philipe Mota, Leticia Palhares and Rafael de Souza is deeply acknowledged. We also wish to thank Cristina Coelho, Ana Lucia Moraes and Zelia Quadros for secretarial work, and the company META Events for administrative help. Last, but not least, we deeply acknowledge the editorial team of Journal of Physics G for their efficient and excellent work. The organization of the event was supported by CNPq, FAPERJ, PRONEX, RENAFAE/CBPF, Banco do Brasil, FAPESP and IOP Publishing.

  7. Genome sequencing of methanogenic Archaea Methanosarcina mazei TUC01 strain isolated from an Amazonian Flooded Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraúna, R. A.; Graças, D. A.; Ramos, R. T.; Carneiro, A. R.; Lopes, T. S.; Lima, A. R.; Zahlouth, R. L.; Pellizari, V. H.; Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Methanosarcina mazei is a strictly anaerobic methanogen from the Methanosarcinales order. This species is known for its broad catabolic range among methanogens and is widespread throughout diverse environments. The draft genome of a strain cultivated from the sediment of the Tucuruí hydroelectric power station, the fourth largest hydroelectric dam in the world, is described here. Approximately 80% of methane is produced by biogenic sources, such as methanogenic archaea from M. mazei species. Although the methanogenesis pathway is well known, some aspects of the core genome, genome evolution and shared genes are still unclear. A sediment sample from the Tucuruí hydropower station reservoir was inoculated in mineral media supplemented with acetate and methanol. This media was maintained in an H2:CO2 (80:20) atmosphere to enrich and cultivate M. mazei. The enrichment was conducted at 30°C under standard anaerobic conditions. After several molecular and cellular analyses, total DNA was extracted from a non-pure culture of M. mazei, amplified using phi29 DNA polymerase (BioLabs) and finally used as a source template for genome sequencing. The draft genome was obtained after two rounds of sequencing. First, the genome was sequenced using a SOLiD System V3 with a mate-paired library, which yielded 24,405,103 and 24,399,268 reads (50 bp) for the R3 and F3 tags, respectively. The second round of sequencing was performed using the SOLiD 5500 XL platform with a mate-paired library, resulting in a total of 113,588,848 reads (60 bp) for each tag (F3 and R3). All reads obtained by this procedure were filtered using Quality Assessment software, whereby reads with an average quality score below Phred 20 were removed. Velvet and Edena were used to assemble the reads, and Simplifier was used to remove the redundant sequences. After this, a total of 16,811 contigs were obtained. M. mazei GO1 (AE008384) genome was used to map the contigs and generate the scaffolds. We used the Graphical Contig Analyzer for All Sequencing Platforms software (G4ALL; http://g4all.sourceforge.net/) to manually curate and generate the genome scaffold with gaps. The resultant gaps were manually closed using CLC Genomics Workbench software. M. mazei TUC01 genome contained 3,420,400 bp with a GC content of 42.47% distributed over 3 scaffolds that were annotated by RAST. A total of 2,959 coding DNA sequences (CDS) were predicted. The genome of M. mazei TUC01 (accession number: CP003077) will provide valuable information about the ecology of Methanosarcinales order and more accurate information about the methanogenesis pathway observed in the Neotropics. SPONSOR: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL); Centrais Elétricas do Norte do Brasil (Eletronorte).

  8. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a project developed through a partnership between the Astronomy Club of Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) and Jaime de Souza Queiroz College, both located in the town of Itaocara, in the Northwest Fluminense, to disseminate Astronomy in adult education (Education for Youth and Adult). Given the interdisciplinary nature of Astronomy, we have developed this work to motivate the learning of this science by students in adult education, who attend the subjects Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Initially, we conducted a research in the school to assess the prior knowledge of Astronomy class of adult education, noting that there is little knowledge of basic concepts of the discipline. With these data, we were able to elaborate several activities that would enable a greater involvement of students with this science, performing in the school a work of improvement of scientific literacy, whose activities will be presented in this article. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto realizado por el Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Pontes" (CAIMP), conjuntamente con el Colegio Estatal" Jaime de Souza Queiroz", ambos de la ciudad de Itaocara (Noroeste Fluminense - RJ, Brasil), para la difusión de la Astronomía entre los estudiantes, tanto adultos como adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza interdisciplinaria de la Astronomía, se determinó motivar el estudio de esta ciencia en los estudiantes adultos de nivel secundario matriculados en las asignaturas de Química, Física y Biología. Como primer paso, se investigó el grado de conocimiento sobre astronomía del estudiante. Este estudio inicial mostró niveles de conocimiento muy bajos de los conceptos básicos de esta ciencia, muchos de los cuales deberían haber sido asimilados dentro del plan curricular del curso de Física. Este estudio previo permitió determinar las actividades adecuadas para promover un mayor envolvimiento de los estudiantes en las ciencias, o sea, elaborar y desarrollar un plan de alfabetización científica. Se describe en detalle este plan, las actividades realizadas y los resultados obtenidos hasta el presente. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar um projeto desenvolvido através de parceria entre o Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) e o Colégio Estadual Jaime Queiroz de Souza, ambos localizados na cidade de Itaocara, no Noroeste Fluminense, no sentido de divulgar junto às turmas de EJA (Ensino de Jovens e Adultos) a disciplina Astronomia. Conhecendo o caráter interdisciplinar da Astronomia, desenvolvemos este trabalho para motivar o aprendizado de Ciências junto a alunos de EJA do Ensino Médio que cursam as disciplinas Química, Física e Biologia. Inicialmente, realizamos na escola pesquisa sobre o conhecimento prévio de Astronomia da turma de EJA, observando que é escasso o conhecimento de conceitos básicos do tema, muitos dos quais deveriam ser assimilados através do conteúdo da disciplina Física. Com esses dados, foi possível elaborar várias atividades que possibilitassem um maior envolvimento dos estudantes com a Ciência, realizando dentro da escola um trabalho de alfabetização científica, cujas atividades serão apresentadas neste artigo.

  9. Chicxulub Impact and the Stratigraphy, Nature and Origin of Near-K-T Breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Berner, Z.; Stüben, D.

    2007-05-01

    Breccias with altered impact glass and located at or near the K-T boundary in Texas (USA), northern and southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Haiti and Brazil are investigated to determine their age, stratigraphy and origin. Ages are variable. The oldest breccia deposit is within the uppermost Maastrichtian in the southern USA (Brazos, Texas), NE Mexico (e.g., Loma Cerca, El Penon) and in the Chicxulub impact crater cores on Yucatan (e.g., cores Yaxcopoil-1, Y6, C1). In all these sections, the geochemistry of glass within the breccias is identical and consistent with Chicxulub impact ejecta. The K-T boundary, Ir anomaly and mass extinction is located well above these impact breccia layers. This strongly supports a pre-K-T age for the Chicxulub impact, as also determined based on sedimentology, stratigraphy and paleontology. In NE Mexico and Texas the oldest Chicxulub impact spherule ejecta layer is interbedded in normal marine sedimentation in the upper Maastrichtian (base of CF1 Zone), about 300'000 year prior to the K-T boundary. All stratigraphically younger spherule ejecta layers represent repeated episodes of reworking and transport of the original layer during a sea-level regression and re- deposition in incised valleys in shallow environments (e.g., Brazos, Texas, La Popa Basin NE Mexico) and submarine canyons in deeper environments via mass flows and turbidites (e.g. Mimbral, Penon, Loma Cerca and many other section throughout NE Mexico). In southern Mexico, Belize and eastern Guatemala, the widespread thick microspherule and larger spheroid deposits are interbedded with breccia, microbreccias and conglomerates in the early Danian as a result of erosion in shallow carbonate platform sediments. The presence of early Danian planktic foraminifera in the matrix of the breccia, as well as within spherule clasts, indicate that redeposition occurred during the early Danian Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P1a) zone. In Haiti (Beloc sections), spherule deposits and microbreccias are also reworked together with late Maastrichtian microfossils and redeposited during the early Danian zone P1a. In NE Brazil (Poty Quarry) and Argentina (Neuquen Basin), the breccia layers identified as K-T age are also younger and deposited in the early Danian P1a and P1c zones, respectively. No extraterrestrial markers, such as glass, glass spherules or shocked quartz are present. These breccia and sandstone deposits thus represent normal sedimentary processes with deposition primarily linked to sea-level changes. However, an Ir anomaly is detected in the Early Danian P1a(1) subzone (100-200ky after the KT boundary) in southern Mexico (Coxquihui, Bochil), Guatemala (Actela), Haiti (Beloc) and Brasil (Poty). This suggests that the K-T transition was a time comet showers with current evidence of two large impacts, the pre-K-T Chicxulub impact and K-T impact, and smaller impacts in the early Danian and late Maastrichtian (Boltysh crater). The distribution of the K-T impact breccia is consistent with a multi-impact scenario.

  10. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2009-02-01

    Unusual high-pressure inner thermal aureoles are described from the Minador and Angico Torto epidote-bearing tonalitic plutons that emplaced into greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt, northeastern Brazil. The foliated pelitic hornfelses display the mineral assemblage garnet, kyanite, staurolite, muscovite, biotite, plagioclase ± quartz. Rare fibrolite is only found very close to the contacts. Hornfelses display steep mineral lineations and steeply-dipping foliations concordant with magmatic contacts. Leucocratic veinlets containing quartz, oligoclase, garnet, kyanite, staurolite, rutile and ilmenite suggest that limited melting conditions were reached very close to magmatic contacts ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P around 8 kbar). These high-pressure hornfelses form a few meters thick, rigid envelopes around the two plutons. Contrary to known examples of kyanite-bearing hornfelses that recorded high-temperature decompression, the nearly isobaric cooling down to ca. 450 °C is constrained by 3.20-3.30 Si contents of retrogressive phengites from both inner hornfelses and ductilely-deformed tonalite at the pluton margins. Isograds and bathograds are, therefore, apparently telescoped due to HP/LT shearing, possibly caused by subsequent differential vertical movements affecting these two solidified plutons. The unusual depth of emplacement of these syn-kinematic calc-alkaline plutons is explained by a tentative geodynamic model involving a pre-620 Ma-subduction setting. Resumen Las aureolas internas que rodean dos plutones tonalíticos emplazados dentro de rocas cajas en facies esquistos verdes del Cinturón-plegado Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro al noreste de Brasil, contienen hornfelses pelíticos foliados con granate, kyanita, estaurolita, muscovita, biotita, plagioclasa ± cuarzo. Fibrolita es rara ó es encontrada solamente cerca de las zonas de contacto. Los hornfelses desarrollaron foliaciones concordantes con buzamiento fuerte cerca de los contactos magmáticos y muestran lineaciones minerales casi verticales. Venillas leucocraticas contienen cuarzo, oligoclasa, granate, kyanita, estaurolita, rutilo e ilmenita sugiriendo que el límite en las condiciones de fusión fueron cercanas a los contactos magmáticos ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P entorno 8 kbar). Estos hornfelses de alta presión forman una cobertura rígida de poco metros entorno a los dos plutones. Contrariamente a lo conocido en diferentes ejemplos de hornfelses con kyanita con registro de descompresión, la isóbara de enfriamiento para cerca de 450 °C está controlada por el contenido de Si 3.20-3.30 de fengitas retrógradas, en los hornfelses internos y en las márgenes de los plutones donde las tonalitas están deformadas ductilmente. Isógradas y batógradas son, por lo tanto, aparentemente telescopadas debido a cizalla de alta presión/baja temperatura, posiblemente causado por subsecuentes movimientos verticales diferenciales afectando estos dos plutones solidificados. El emplazamiento a una profundidad inusual de estos plutones calci-alcalinos syn-cinemáticos es explicado por un modelo geodinámico tentativo que involucra un escenario de subducción pre-620 Ma.

  11. The demise of Comet 85P/Boethin, the first EPOXI mission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, K. J.; Kleyna, J.; Hainaut, O. R.; Lowry, S. C.; Fuse, T.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Chesley, S.; Yeomans, D. K.; Fernández, Y.; Lisse, C.; Reach, W.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Pittichová, J.; Christensen, E.; Osip, D.; Brink, T.; Mateo, M.; Motta, V.; Challis, P.; Holman, M.; Ferrín, I.

    2013-02-01

    Comet 85P/Boethin was selected as the original comet target for the Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. Because this comet had been only observed at two apparitions in 1975 and 1986 and consequently had a large ephemeris error, an early intense recovery effort similar to that of 1P/Halley was undertaken beginning in 2005 using the ESO Very Large Telescopes (VLTs) in a distant comet program. These were challenging observations because of the low galactic latitude, and an error ellipse (the line of variations) that was larger than the CCD FOV, and the comet was not seen. Dedicated recovery observing time was awarded on the Subaru telescope in April and May 2006, and June 2007, in addition to time on the VLT and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes during July-August 2007 with wide field mosaics and mosaicing techniques. The limiting V magnitudes from these observing runs ranged between 25.7 and 27.3 and again the comet was not seen in the individual nights. A new image processing technique was developed to stack images over extended runs and runs after distorting them to account for dilations and rotations in the line of variations using modifications of the world coordinate system. A candidate at V ˜ 27.3 was found in the CFHT data along the LOV, 2.5' west of the nominal ephemeris position. The EPOXI mission was unwilling to re-target the spacecraft without a confirmation. Additional time was secured using the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Gemini South 8-m telescope, the Clay and Baade (Magellan 6.5 m), CTIO 4 m, and SOAR 4 m telescopes during 2007 September and October A composite image made by stacking the new data showed no plausible candidate nucleus to a limiting magnitude of V = 28.5, corresponding to a nucleus radius between 0.1 and 0.2 km (assuming an albedo of 0.04). The comet was declared lost, presumably having disintegrated. Searches in the WISE data set revealed no debris trail, but no constraints on the possible time of disruption can be made. NASA approved the trajectory correction maneuver to go to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 2007 November 1. Many observers searched for the comet as it came to its December 2008 perihelion, but no trace of the nucleus was found. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope, Chile, in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, in part using data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, in part on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii, in part using data collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association for Research in Astronomy, under contract with the National Science Foundation, and in part on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). This work is also based in part on observations taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA.

  12. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Physical Activity in Soccer Referees During Match-Play

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alberto Inácio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint). The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765), with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006), and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs) with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play. Key pointsIn order to elaborate a diet that sufficiently restores the athlete’s energy expenditure during training and/or competition, the first step would be to measure energy expenditure during activity.We observed that during officials matches soccer referees perform physical aerobic activities of low and moderate intensity, and present a significant decline in energy expenditure between the first and second half.The pattern of movement observed in the present report confirms that soccer referees, like players undertake intermittent type exercise.Nutritional habits of soccer referees must be adapted to their daily physical activities, short training periods and moderate energy intensity physical activity, on average, during match refereeing. PMID:24149899

  13. Ophiuchus: An optical view of a very massive cluster of galaxies hidden behind the Milky Way ⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, F.; Wakamatsu, K.; Nagayama, T.; Adami, C.; Biviano, A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Ophiuchus cluster, at a redshift z = 0.0296, is known from X-rays to be one of the most massive nearby clusters, but its optical properties have not been investigated in detail because of its very low Galactic latitude. Aims: We discuss the optical properties of the galaxies in the Ophiuchus cluster, in particular, with the aim of understanding its dynamical properties better. Methods: We have obtained deep optical imaging in several bands with various telescopes, and applied a sophisticated method to model and subtract the contributions of stars to measure galaxy magnitudes as accurately as possible. The colour-magnitude relations obtained show that there are hardly any blue galaxies in Ophiuchus (at least brighter than r' ≤ 19.5), and this is confirmed by the fact that we only detect two galaxies in Hα. We also obtained a number of spectra with ESO-FORS2, which we combined with previously available redshifts. Altogether, we have 152 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the 0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.04 range, and 89 galaxies with both a redshift within the cluster redshift range and a measured r' band magnitude (limited to the Megacam 1 × 1 deg2 field). Results: A complete dynamical analysis based on the galaxy redshifts available shows that the overall cluster is relaxed and has a mass of 1.1 × 1015 M⊙. The Sernal-Gerbal method detects a main structure and a much smaller substructure, which are not separated in projection. Conclusions: From its dynamical properties derived from optical data, the Ophiuchus cluster seems overall to be a relaxed structure, or at most a minor merger, though in X-rays the central region (radius ~ 150 kpc) may show evidence for merging effects. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam (program 10AF02), a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations performed with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.A-0016(C). Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (programme 2009B-0340 on SOI/SOAR), which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France.Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A124

  14. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse application at 1 m depth were 117.23 Mg ha-1 and 126.92 Mg ha-1, and at 0.3 m depth we found 50.34 Mg ha-1 and 55.54 Mg ha-1, respectively. It represented an increase 8.3% and 10.3% in soil C stocks in areas with vinasse application at 1 m and 0.3 m soil depth. This information may be used as a basis for public policies decision which dealing of the land use and global warming. The scientific information obtained in this research will be included in carbon footprint calculation of ethanol production and its use as biofuel. References Ellert B.H., Bettany J.R. 1995. Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:529-538. Six J., Ogle S.M., Breidt F.J., Conant R.T., Mosier A.R., Paustian K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10:155-160. Soares L.H.B., Alves B.J.R., Urquiaga S., Boddey R.M. 2009. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ. 14p. (Circular Técnica, 27).

  15. The GEOSCOPE program: state of the art in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G.; Geoscope Group, A

    2006-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE program was launched in 1982 by the National Institute of Sciences of Universe (INSU), a department of the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS), following the initiative of the Institute of Physics of the Earth of Paris (IPGP). The purpose was the installation of about 25 stations well distributed worldwide (in particular in the southern hemisphere), in the standard configuration defined by the FDSN (very broad-band 24 bit, continuous recording at 20sps). At present, the GEOSCOPE program is operating 28 digital 3-component very- broadband stations. In terms of site locations, the aim of the GEOSCOPE program is almost fulfilled. Our purpose is to maintain the stations at original sites (Indian Ocean, Africa) and to fill some geographical gaps at high latitudes in the southern and northern hemisphere. In particular, we plan to install a new stations VOR (Vorkuta) at high latitudes in Russia and to move the station SEY (Seimchan) to a new location in northern Kamchatka. We are also working on improving data quality and transmission. Historically, GEOSCOPE did not operate real-time data. Continuous data from most of stations arrive with significant delays and records from large events are teletransmitted from some stations (by phone RTC line or through internet) and are made available within one day. To improve this situation, we are replacing the old Streckeisen digitizers with new Quanterra data loggers. This will potentially allow us to receive most of data in our Data Center in a near real-time. Presently data from 8 stations arrive at the IPGP Geoscope Data Center in near real-time, with a delay depending on the station: 1-DZM Dzumac in New Caledonia, a joint DASE/CTBTO/GEOSCOPE station 2-FDF Fort de France in French West Indies 3-SSB Saint Sauveur-Badole in France 4-RER Riviere de l'Est , La Réunion, Indian Ocean 5-KIP Kipapa, Hawaï, a joint USGS/IRIS/GEOSCOPE station 6-TRIS Tristan Da Cunha, a joint USGS/IRIS/GEOSCOPE station 7-TAOE Marquesas Islands, a joint DASE/GEOSCOPE station 8-ATD Arta, Djibouti, a joint CTBTO/CERD/G station The next challenge is to link the maximum number of stations to our Data Center for getting data in real time. To reach this objective in a few years, we plan to upgrade 3 or 4 stations every year, giving priority to the ones easy to link permanently to Paris (TAM/Algeria, SPB/Brasil and CAN/Australia before the end of 2006). For the last ten years we have been progressively installing microbarometers and thermometers, transforming all our stations in multiparameter observatories. We also are participating to the national efforts for the creation of a Tsunami Warning Center at La Reunion Island in the frame of the CNATOI project (Centre National d'Alerte aux Tsunamis dans l'Ocean Indien).

  16. Geochemistry and Magmagenesis of the Early May 2008 Rhyolitic Magma Erupted by Chaiten Volcano, Southern Andes Volcanic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J. O.; Basualto, D.; Moreno, H.; Peña, P.; Mella, M.

    2008-12-01

    Chaiten volcano, located in the southern portion of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, is a 2 km diameter Holocene obsidian rhyolitic dome inside a 3 km wide caldera formed by an Upper Pleistocene basaltic to andesitic sequence. Chaiten volcano started a plinian eruption on May 1 evolving to subplinian and weak strombolian with time. Eruption has produced a significant evolution of craters geometry, volume of pyroclastic materials, gas and water emissions, large amount of fall out ash, new rhyolitic dome that is still growing, minor pyroclastic flows to the north, lateral blast to the east, and several lahars and mud flows mainly to the south along the river partially burying the Chaiten city. Six glassy, fibrous and banded, highly porous, crystal poor (zoned and twinned plagioclase, hornblende, orthopyroxene and magnetite) rhyolitic pumice and obsidian (including explosion breccias with andesitic to basaltic country rock fragments)fragments and three ash samples (also crystal poor including cristoballite, quartz, feldspars and biotite) representative of the early stage of the explosive eruption have major, trace and REE whole rock geochemical composition indicating an important crustal input in the magmagenesis (high SiO2=73-75, low Al2O3=12.75-14.80, MgO=0.1-0.6, CaO=1.4-1.9, TiO2=0.15-0.28, S=0.01-0.13, moderated K2O=2,7-3.0, Na2O=3.9-4.8 and Rb=95-121ppm, high Ba= 619-665 and Cs=5.71-7.75 and low Sr =142-161, Nb=8.00- 8.75, Y=13-14, Zr=106-121 and La/Yb=20-23 ratios, depleted HREE and HREE patterns and Eu moderate negative anomaly), as also does the previously documented <9,370 yBP rhyolitic pumice and obsidian dome, the last also showing crustal Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic signature (Lopez et al., 1993, Stern et al., 2002, Naranjo and Stern, 2004). Early May samples are depleted in MHEE and HREE and have higher La/Yb (20- 23), Rb/Ba (0.15-0.18), Ba/Sr (3.8-4.7) and Rb/Sr (0.65-0.85) ratios compare to basaltic to andesitic lavas from the Michinmahuida volcano, located 15 km to the east and to the Upper Pleistocene rhyolite from Yate volcano, approximately 100 km to the north. Geochemical data suggest that Chaiten rhyolites (both old and current eruption) were not produced by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma derived from an astenospheric or lithospheric mantle source, as could be the case of the nearby Michinmahuida volcano. Also, Chaiten rhyolites appears to be derived from a less mafic source than the rhyolite from Yate volcano (Mella, 2008). Preliminary non-modal dynamic melting models for mafic and intermediate source suggests that 5-10 percent of partial melting of an intermediate source (modal composition including 10 Cpx, 30 Hb, 45 Pl, 4 Bt, 1 Mt) is the best fit model. As indicate by precursory and early eruption volcanotectonic seismicity, this intermediate source could be an amphibolite (facies either acquired during accretion or within the crust) located at 10-15 km depth, in a 30 km thickness crust with relatively high geothermal gradient, as it was previously proposed by Lopez et al. (1993). Crystals may be relict from the magma plumbing system. Lopez, L., Kilian, R., Kempton, P. D.., Tagiti, M. 1993. Rev. Geol.. Chile 22(1):33-55. Mella, M., 2008. Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 180 p. Brasil. Naranjo, J.A., Stern C., 2004. Rev. Geol. Chile 31(2): 225-240. Stern, C., Navarro, X. and Munoz, J. 2002. Anal. Inst. Patagonia 30: 167-174.

  17. Prospecting For Magnetite Ore Deposits With A Innovative Sensor's of Unique Fundamentally New Magnetometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelianenko, T. I.; Tachaytdinov, R. S.; Sarichev, V. F.; Kotov, B. V.; Susoeva, G. N.

    After careful study of principles and abilities of all existing magnetmeters of all three revolutions in magnetic prospecting we have come to the conclusion that they cannot solve local guestions of the magnetic prospecting or determine centre coordinates of magnetite ore body before drilling Electromagnetism lows and achievents magnetprospectings and radioelectronics of all 20th century serve as a theoretical base of the "locator". While creating this cardinally new magnetmeter , we borrowed different things from radio-prospectors, magnetprospectors, wireless operators and combined all of them while creating the "locators''. The "locators' construction is bas ed on the "magnetic intensification" principle ,owing to which this "locators" are characterised by hight sensitiveness and ability to determine centers of even little commercial magnetite ore deposits with relatively weak magnetic anomalies. The main advantage of the "locators" over existing ones is that it can solve local questions determine centre coordinates. A remarkably simple locator construction determine direction of the on-surface measurings towards the ore body centre and gives approximate prognosis resourses before/withour/ drilling. The "locators" were worked out for the first time in history , they have 2 licences. The fundamental design and drawbacks of the existing magnetometers have been inherited from the original magnetometre dating back two or three hundred years. The developers of the existing magnetometres have all gone along the same well- beaten track of replacing the primitive sensor in the form of a piece of ore hung on a string at first by an arrow sensor and later by magnetically oriented protons and quanta, with amplification of the sensors' OUTPUT signal. Furthermore, all the existing magnetometres are imperfect in that they, lacking the directivity of the ground-level magnetic measurements, only record the overall magnetic vector field generated by all the ore bodies around the measurement point. The result is often misleading as an intense magnetic anomaly may be registered in a place where is no ore, and vice versa. Such false anomalies and maps may serve as the only guide in iron ore prospecting. The reserves' forecast based on such magnetic maps are also false as they may yield figures exceeding the actual reserves by tens or even hundreds of times. The existing magnetometres are often insufficiently sensitive and incapable of detecting small commercial processable ore bodies with a weak magnetic anomaly (less than 0.1% of the Earth's field). As regards new large iron ore deposits with strong anomalies, the probabilities of encountering them nowadays are becoming increasingly smaller. Confidence in the good performance and the advantages of the new magnetometres patented by the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works is based on the following considerations: The anomalies' magnetic field is several times stronger than the magnetic field of the Earth; To cite two historical instances, the Sokolovskoye ore deposit in Kazakhstan was discovered in 1949 not by prospectors but by a civil aviation pilot, M.Surgutanov, using an ordinary airplane compass. The Kursk Magnetic Anomaly was discovered in 1778 by Professor I.Inozemtsev using a piece of ore hung on a string. The magnetometres patented by the MMK team, are based on the electromagnetism laws of Ampere, Ohm, Weber, Maxwell and Tesla. The history of magnetic prospecting can be divided into three periods, each of them preceded by a revolution of sorts. The first one occurred in 1910 when the German scientist Schmidt developed an optic mechanical magnetometre which came to be known in Russia as M-2 or "Fanzelau". The second revolution came about in 1936 with the invention by the Russian scientist A.Logachov of an AM-9L aeromagnetometre. The third revolution happened in 1953 when Pickard in the Unuted States (and Tsyrell in 1957 in the Soviet Union) invented a proton and quantum magnetometre. But, having examined the fundamental principles and the potential of all these types of magnetometres, we can see that they cannot solve the problem of local magnetic prospecting. In particular, they cannot determine the coordinates of the ore body prior to drilling. In devising a fundamentally new magnetometre we have used the experience and achievements of radio and magnetic prospecting and electronics. As already noted, the new magnetometre locator has a much higher sensitivity than most modern magnetometres, which approximates the sensitivity of proton-quantum devices. Thanks to its simple design, the new magnetometre has a sharp measurement directivity towards the centre of even quite small commercially processable ore bodies. Instead of the light pumping, magnetic pumping is used in the new magnetometres. The novelty of the approach consisted in concentrating and amplifying the signal from the ore body BOTH at the INPUT and OUTPUT of the sensor. A research team at the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, Russia (MMK), has developed and patented fundamentally novel magnetometers and methods of quantitative geochemical forecasting of magnetite ore deposits which allow to cut the costs (by as much as 50%) of locating iron ores at all stages of prospecting. The main advantages of the new magnetometers and the geochemical method over the existing ones are as follows: The possibility, before or even without expensive drilling, of determining the coordinates of principal ore bodies both in the horizontal plane and in depth by the new patented magnetometers with elevated sensitivity and sharp measurement directivity as well as of yielding an estimated forecast of the ore reserves; The possibility of an early quantitative estimate of the ore bodies and the ore deposit as a whole based on the results of a SINGLE BOREHOLE in the centre of the location previously determined by the novel magnetometre in contrast to the conventional quantitative evaluation method requiring dozens of boreholes The preliminary tests of the new magnetometre in the Magnitogosrk iron ore field, in particular, the Zapadny Kuibas deposit, have shown that the centre of the ore body located by means of the magnetometre deviated insignificantly from the results obtained with boreholes. At the Beriozki and Podotvalnoye deposits the new device permitted to correct the reserves and the conditions of the ore bodies' occurrence. In conclusion, we would like to recap the main advantages of the new magnetometre patented by the MMK team (block patents) which consist in the possibility of: determining the coordinates of the ore body's centre both in plan and in depth, BEFORE or WITHOUT DRILLING; forecasting the reserves of the ore deposit also BEFORE or WITHOUT DRILLING. The use of the new magnetometre in combination with the method of early geochemical forecasting of magnetite ore bodies will permit to drastically reduce the cost of iron ore prospecting as it will no longer be necessary to drill dozens of expensive boreholes in accordance with plans and maps which are often erroneous because they were made using the imprecise older type magnetometers. Has developed and patented by JSC"MMK"fundamentally novel magnetometers and methods of quantitative geochemical forecasting of magnetite ore deposits which allow to cut the costs (by as much as 50%) of locating iron ores at all stages of prospecting The "Magnitometer-locators" were worked out for the first time in history,They have 3 licences. Theoretical basis of the "locators" application its practical results presen ted in the report. THIS RESEARCH WAS FINANCED BY RUSSIAN FOND of FUNDAMENTALLY RESEARCH (RFFR, Moscow and "URAL2001" grant 01-05- 96429). REFERENCES Emelianenko T.I.,Tachaytdinov R.S.,Susoeva G.N.Magnetometer(Patent for invention N 2138831 dated 27.09.99.,M.,2000) Emelianenko T.I.,Tachaytdinov R.S.,Susoeva G.N.Magnetometer (Patent for invetation N 2148840 dated 10.05.2000.,M.,2000). Emelianenko T.I.Matveev A.A.Method of erosional truncation level determination(Patent for invention N 2148844 dated 10.05.2000,M.,2000). Emelianenko T.I.,Tachaytdinov R.S.,Sarichev V.F.,Kotov B.V.,Susoeva G.N.2000.Fundamentally new magnetometer -locator for search magnetite ores (Abstracts of 31 International Geological Congress -Rio-de-Janeiro Brasil)at http www:// 31.igc.org. Emel ianenko T.I.,Matveev A.A. 2000.New geochemical method of quantity estimation of magnetite deposits(Abstracts of 31 International Geological Congress in Rio de Janeiro Brasil)at htt :www.31.igc.org. Emelianenko T.I.,Matveev A.A.2001.Fundamentally new geochemical method of quantitative of magnetite ore deposits(Abstracts of 20 International Geochemical Exploration Simposium,Santiago de Chile)at http ://aeg.org. Emelianenko T.I.,Matveev A.A.2001.Fundamentally new geochemical method of hypsometrical level of magnetite deposits ore zone.(Abstracts of 20 International Geochemical Exploration Symposium Santiago de Chile).at http:www.aeg.org. Nikitskiye V.E.,Glebovskiye J.S..Magnitoprospecting.M.N.1980. Nikitskiye V.E.,Glebovskiye J.S. Magnitoprospecting.M.,N.,1990. .Grinevitch G.I.Magnitoprospecting.M.,N.,1974.

  18. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity are among the top public health priorities in Brazil, being quite high, especially among the most disadvantage women. A case control study was developed to identify risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in Sao Luis, one of the poorest Brazilian State Capitals. Methods The case–control study was carried out between 01/03/2009 and 28/02/2010 in two public high-risk maternities facilities and in two intensive care units (ICUs) for referral of obstetric cases. All cases hospitalized due to complications during gestation period, childbirth or up to 42 days of puerperium and who fulfilled any of Mantel's and/or Waterstone's criteria were identified. Two controls per case were randomly selected among patients of the same clinics discharged for other reasons. Data were obtained through a structured interview as well as from medical charts and prenatal cards and included sociodemographic variables, clinical and obstetric histories, behavioral factors and exposure to stress factors during pregnancy, pre-natal assistance and obstetric complication and childbirth care. Results In the final model of the unconditional logistic regression analysis, being older than 35 years (OR=3.11; 95% CI:1.53-6.31), previous hypertension (OR=2.52; 95% CI:1.09-5.80), history of abortion (OR=1.61; 95% CI:0.97-2.68), 4–5 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.78; 95% CI:1.05-3.01) and 1–3 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.89; 95% CI:1.03-3.49) were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity. Conclusions The results corroborate the importance of reproductive healthcare, of identifying a high-risk pregnancy and of a qualified and complete prenatal care to prevent severe morbid events. Resumo Introdução A mortalidade e morbidade maternas estão entre os tópicos prioritários da Saúde Pública brasileira, especialmente na população de menor nível socioeconômico. Um estudo caso-controle foi desenvolvido para identificar os fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave em São Luís, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. Método Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades públicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de referência aos casos obstétricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram incluídas todas as pacientes internadas por complicação do período grávido-puerperal e que preenchiam os critérios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleatório dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo período e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informações de domínio sociodemográfico, clínico, obstétrico, comportamental, exposição a eventos estressores na gestação, assistência ao pré-natal, intercorrências obstétricas e atenção ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As variáveis foram analisadas por modelo de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertensão prévia à gestação (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4–5 consultas pré-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1–3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo corroboram a importância da assistência à saúde reprodutiva e o pré-natal completo e qualificado na prevenção de eventos mórbidos graves durante o ciclo grávido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  19. {U}/{Pb} and {Sm}/{Nd} geochronologic studies of the eastern Borborema Province, Northeastern Brazil: initial conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schmus, W. R.; de Brito Neves, B. B.; Hackspacher, P.; Babinski, M.

    1995-10-01

    The Borborema Province of NE Brasil comprises the central part of a wide Pan-African-Brasiliano orogenetic belt that formed as a consequence of late Neoproterozoic convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. New {Sm}/{Nd} and {U}/{Pb} results from the eastern part of this province help to define the basic internal architecture and pre-collisional history of this province, with particular emphasis on delineating older cratonic terranes, their fragmentation during the Mesoproterozoic, and their assembly into West Gondwana during the Pan African-Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 600 Ma. The region can be divided into three major geotectonic domains: a) Rio Piranhas-Caldas Brandão massif, with overlying Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, north of the Patos Lineament; b) the Archean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton (SFC) to the south; and c) a complex domain of Paleoproterozoic to Archean basement blocks with several intervening Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic fold belts in the center (south of Patos Lineament and north of SFC). The northern and central domains comprise the Borborema Province. Archean basement gneiss and Transamazonian granulite of northern SFC are exposed in the southern part of the central domain, underlying southern parts of the Sergipano fold belt. Basement in the Rio Piranhas massif appears to consist mostly of Transamazonian (2.1 to 2.2 Ga) gneissic rocks; Nd model ages (T DM) of ca. 2.6 Ga for 2.15 Ga gneisses indicate a substantial Archean component in the protoliths to these gneisses. The Caldas Brandão massif to the east yields both Transamazonian and Archean {U}/{Pb} zircon and Nd (T DM) ages, indicating a complex architecture. Metasedimentary rocks of the Jucurutu Formation yield detrital zircons with original crystallization ages as young as 1.8 Ga, indicating that these rocks may be late Paleoproterozoic and correlate with other ca. 1.8 Ga cratonic supracrustal rocks in Brazil such as the Roraima Group and Espinhaço Group. Most metavolcanic and pre-Brasiliano granitic units of the Sergipano (SDS), Pajeú-Paraíba (SPP), Riacho Pontal (SRP), and Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB) fold belts in the central domain formed 1.0 ± 0.1 Ga, based on {U}/{Pb} ages of zircons. Nd model ages (T DM) for these same rocks, as well as Brasiliano granites intruded into them and large parts of the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif, are commonly 1.3-1.7 Ga, indicating that rocks of the fold belts were not wholly derived from either older (> 2.1 Ga) or juvenile (ca. 1.0 Ga) crust, but include mixtures of both components. A simple interpretation of Brasiliano granite genesis and the Nd data implies that there is no Transamazonian or Archean basement underlying large parts of these fold belts or of the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif. An exception is a belt of syenitic Brasiliano plutons (Syenitoid Line) and host gneisses between SPAB and SPP that clearly has a Transamazonian (or older) source. In addition, there are several smaller blocks of Archean to Transamazonian gneiss that can be defined within and among these fold belts. These blocks do not appear to constitute a continuous basement complex, but appear to be isolated older crustal fragments. Our data support a model in which ca. 1.0 Ga rifting was an important tectonic and crust-forming event along the northern edge of the São Francisco craton. Our data also show that significant parts of the Borborema Province are not remobilized Transamazonian to Archean crust, but that Mesoproterozoic crust is a major feature of the Province. There are several small remnants of older crust within the area dominated by Mesoproterozoic crust, suggesting that the rifting event created several small continental fragments that were later incorporated into the Brasiliano collisional orogen. We cannot at present determine if the Rio Piranhas-Caldas Brandão massifs and the older crustal blocks of the central domain were originally part of the São Francisco craton or whether some (or all) of them came from more exotic parts of the Proterozoic Earth. Finally, our data have not yet revealed any juvenile terranes of either Transamazonian or Brasiliano age.

  20. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su línea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodológica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de información para los docentes.

  1. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user, to the societies, and to improve societies understanding and appreciation of that value. The series of IAHR Symposia on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation started with the 1st edition in Nice, France, 1960. For the past decade, all the symposia have focused on an extended portfolio of topics under the name of 'Hydraulic Machinery and Systems', such as the 20th edition in Charlotte, USA, 2000, the 21st in Lausanne, Switzerland, 2002, the 22nd in Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, the 23rd in Yokohama, Japan, 2006, the 24th in Foz do Iguassu, Brasil, 2008, and the 25th in Timisoara, Romania, 2010. The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems brings together more than 250 scientists and researchers from 25 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for hydraulic machinery and systems, which will enhance the sustainable development of water resources and hydropower production. The Scientific Committee has selected 268 papers, out of 430 abstracts submitted, on the following topics: (i) Hydraulic Turbines and Pumps, (ii) Sustainable Hydropower, (iii) Hydraulic Systems, (iv) Advances in Computational and Experimental Techniques, (v) Application in Industries and in Special Conditions, to be presented at the symposium and to be included in the proceedings. All the papers, published in this Volume 15 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shuhong Liu, Shouqi Yuan, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that this edition of the symposium will be a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing the modern Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Organizing Committee 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

  2. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  3. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    Combining observations from the CoRoT satellite and the ESO HARPS instrument, astronomers have discovered the first "normal" exoplanet that can be studied in great detail. Designated Corot-9b, the planet regularly passes in front of a star similar to the Sun located 1500 light-years away from Earth towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake). "This is a normal, temperate exoplanet just like dozens we already know, but this is the first whose properties we can study in depth," says Claire Moutou, who is part of the international team of 60 astronomers that made the discovery. "It is bound to become a Rosetta stone in exoplanet research." "Corot-9b is the first exoplanet that really does resemble planets in our solar system," adds lead author Hans Deeg. "It has the size of Jupiter and an orbit similar to that of Mercury." "Like our own giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the planet is mostly made of hydrogen and helium," says team member Tristan Guillot, "and it may contain up to 20 Earth masses of other elements, including water and rock at high temperatures and pressures." Corot-9b passes in front of its host star every 95 days, as seen from Earth [1]. This "transit" lasts for about 8 hours, and provides astronomers with much additional information on the planet. This is fortunate as the gas giant shares many features with the majority of exoplanets discovered so far [2]. "Our analysis has provided more information on Corot-9b than for other exoplanets of the same type," says co-author Didier Queloz. "It may open up a new field of research to understand the atmospheres of moderate- and low-temperature planets, and in particular a completely new window in our understanding of low-temperature chemistry." More than 400 exoplanets have been discovered so far, 70 of them through the transit method. Corot-9b is special in that its distance from its host star is about ten times larger than that of any planet previously discovered by this method. And unlike all such exoplanets, the planet has a temperate climate. The temperature of its gaseous surface is expected to be between 160 degrees and minus twenty degrees Celsius, with minimal variations between day and night. The exact value depends on the possible presence of a layer of highly reflective clouds. The CoRoT satellite, operated by the French space agency CNES [3], identified the planet after 145 days of observations during the summer of 2008. Observations with the very successful ESO exoplanet hunter - the HARPS instrument attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile - allowed the astronomers to measure its mass, confirming that Corot-9b is indeed an exoplanet, with a mass about 80% the mass of Jupiter. This finding is being published in this week's edition of the journal Nature. Notes [1] A planetary transit occurs when a celestial body passes in front of its host star and blocks some of the star's light. This type of eclipse causes changes in the apparent brightness of the star and enables the planet's diameter to be measured. Combined with radial velocity measurements made by the HARPS spectrograph, it is also possible to deduce the mass and, hence, the density of the planet. It is this combination that allows astronomers to study this object in great detail. The fact that it is transiting - but nevertheless not so close to its star to be a "hot Jupiter" - is what makes this object uniquely well suited for further studies. [2] Temperate gas giants are, so far, the largest known group of exoplanets discovered. [3] The CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and Transits) space telescope was constructed by CNES, with contributions from Austria, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Brazil and the European Space Agency (ESA). It was specifically designed to detect transiting exoplanets and carry out seismological studies of stars. Its results are supplemented by observations with several ground-based telescopes, among them the IAC-80 (Teide Observatory), the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (Hawaii), the Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory), Wise Observatory (Israel), the Faulkes North Telescope of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (Hawaii) and the ESO 3.6-metre telescope (Chile). More information This research was presented in a paper published this week in Nature ("A transiting giant planet with a temperature between 250 K and 430 K"), by H. J. Deeg et al. The team is composed of H.J. Deeg, B. Tingley, J.M. Almenara, and M. Rabus (Instituto de Astrofısica de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain), C. Moutou, P. Barge, A. S. Bonomo, M. Deleuil, J.-C. Gazzano, L. Jorda, and A. Llebaria (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Université de Provence, CNRS, OAMP, France), A. Erikson, Sz. Csizmadia, J. Cabrera, P. Kabath, H. Rauer (Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany), H. Bruntt, M. Auvergne, A. Baglin, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider (Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France), S. Aigrain and F. Pont (University of Exeter, UK), R. Alonso, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and S. Udry (Observatoire de l'Université de Genève, Switzerland), M. Barbieri (Università di Padova, Italia), W. Benz (Universität Bern, Switzerland), P. Bordé, A. Léger, M. Ollivier, and B. Samuel (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris XI, Orsay, France), F. Bouchy and G. Hébrard (IAP, Paris, France), L. Carone and M. Pätzold (Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Germany), S. Carpano, M. Fridlund, P. Gondoin, and R. den Hartog (ESTEC/ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands), D. Ciardi (NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, USA), R. Dvorak (University of Vienna, Austria), S. Ferraz-Mello (Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil), D. Gandolfi, E. Guenther, A. Hatzes, G. Wuchterl, B. Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany), M. Gillon (University of Liège, Belgium), T. Guillot and M. Havel (Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Nice, France), M. Hidas, T. Lister, and R. Street (Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Santa Barbara, USA), H. Lammer and J. Weingrill (Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science), and T. Mazeh and A. Shporer (Tel Aviv University, Israel). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  4. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established 'Politehnica' of Timisoara in 1923 'It is not the walls that make a school, but the spirit living inside'. A particular trademark of the 'Politehnica' of Timisoara was the continuous effort to answer industrial problems by training the students not only on theoretical aspects but also in design and manufacturing, as well as in laboratory works. Developing modern laboratories, where students can observe and understand first hand the engineering applications along the years a priority for Timisoara 'Politehnica' University. The School of Hydraulic Machinery within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara was established in early 1930 by Professor Aurel Barglazan (1905-1960), and further developed by Professor Ioan Anton (born 1924), both members of the Romanian Academy. The Laboratory of Hydraulic Machines from Timisoara (LMHT) started back in 1928 in a small hut, with a test rig for Francis and Kaplan turbines manufactured by J M Voith. LMHT was continuously developed and was officially recognized in 1959 as being one of the leading research and developing laboratories in Romania. It was the foundation of the Romanian efforts of designing and manufacturing hydraulic turbines starting in 1960 at the Resita Machine Building Factory. Under the leadership of Professor Ioan Anton, the Timisoara School in Hydraulic Machinery has focused the basic and development research activities on the following main topics: (i) Turbine Hydrodynamics, (ii) Hydrofoil Cascade Hydrodynamics, (iii) Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines and Equipments, (iv) Scale-up Effects in Hydraulic Machines. With the establishment in the year 2000 of the National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, the research in turbomachinery hydrodynamics and cavitation included high performance computing for flows in hydraulic machines, as well as the development of novel technologies to mitigate the self-induced flow instabilities in hydraulic turbines operated far from the best efficiency regime. The traditional partnership with the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, Laboratory for Hydrodynamics and Cavitation, led to complex projects that combine both basic theoretical developments with advanced experimental investigations leading to practical engineering solutions for modern hydraulic machines. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) celebrates its 75th anniversary this year. IAHR particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, industrial processes. The IAHR - Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation, and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community at large. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally responsible. The increasing atmospheric content of carbon dioxide related to pollution from thermal power plants, is one of the most significant threats to our global ecology. The problem is exacerbated by the need for increased energy production in third world countries. This results in rising global temperatures and dramatic changes in climate which may also result in flooding in parts of our globe. Energy conservation together with replacement of coal and oil-fired power plants are, therefore, needed. The development and installation of more efficient hydroelectric power plants which work hand in hand with water storage and flood protection is part of this strategy. Waterpower is the most significant 'renewable resource'. The goals of this IAHR - Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user and to society and to improve society's understanding and appreciation of that value. The series of IAHR Symposia on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation started with the 1st edition in Nice in 1960 in France. Within the past decade, all the symposia were focused on an extended portfolio of topics under the name of 'Hydraulic Machinery and Systems', such as the 20th edition in 2000, Charlotte, USA, the 21st in 2002, Lausanne, Switzerland, the 22nd in 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, the 23rd in 2006, Yokohama, Japan, and the 24th in 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brasil. The 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems brings together more than 150 scientists and researchers from 24 countries, affiliated with universities , technology centres and industry to debate topics related to advanced technologies for hydraulic machinery and systems, which will enhance the sustainable development of water resources and hydropower production. The Scientific Committee has selected 118 papers, out of 238 abstracts submitted, on the following topics: (i) Hydraulic Turbines and Pumps, (ii) Sustainable hydropower, (iii) Hydraulic Systems, (iv) Advances in Computational and Experimental Techniques, (v) Innovative Technology, to be presented at the symposium and to be included in the proceedings. All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. We hope that this anniversary edition of the series of symposia on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems will be a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing the modern hydraulic machines. Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga Chairman of the Organizing Committee 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

  5. PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.

    2007-07-01

    This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan George Sudarshan

    International Advisory Committee

    A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)
    L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany)
    G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy)
    A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
    S. L. Glashow (Boston University, USA)
    A. M. Gleeson (University of Texas, Austin, USA)
    C. R. Hagen (Rochester University, NY, USA)
    J. Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA)
    A. Kossakowski (University of Torun, Poland)
    V.I. Manko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia)
    G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy)
    N. Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)
    J. V. Narlikar (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India)
    J. Nilsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden)
    S. Okubo (Rochester University, NY, USA)
    T. Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
    W. Schleich (University of Ulm, Germany)
    M. Scully (Texas A& M University, USA)
    S. Weinberg (University of Texas, Austin, USA)

    Local Organizing Committee

    M. Asorey (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain). Co-Chair
    J. F. Cariñena (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    J. Clemente-Gallardo (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    F. Falceto (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy) Co-Chair
    G. Morandi (Universitá di Bologna, Italy)

    Participants

    ACHARYA, Raghunath: Arizona State University, USA
    AGUADO, Miguel M.: Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany
    ASOREY, Manuel: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    BERETTA, Gian Paolo: Università di Brescia, Italy
    BHAMATHI, Gopalakrishnan: University of Texas at Austin, USA
    BOYA, Luis Joaquín: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    CARIÑENA, José F.: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    CELEGHINI, Enrico: Università di Firenze & INFN, Italy
    CHRUSCINSKI, Dariusz: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
    CIRILO-LOMBARDO, Diego: Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (JINR-Dubna), Russia
    CLEMENTE-GALLARDO, Jesus: BIFI-Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    DE LUCAS, Javier: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    FALCETO, Fernando: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    GINOCCHIO, Joseph: Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
    GORINI, Vittorio: Universitá' dell' Insubria, Como, Italy
    INDURAIN, Javier: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    KLAUDER, John: University of Florida, USA
    KOSSAKOWSKI, Andrzej: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
    MARMO, Giuseppe: Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy
    MORANDI, Giuseppe: Universitá di Bologna-Italy
    MUKUNDA, Narasimhaiengar: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
    MUÑOZ-CASTAÑEDA, Jose M.: University of Zaragoza, Spain
    NAIR, RANJIT: Centre for Philosophy & Foundations of Science, New Delhi, India
    NILSSON, Jan S: University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    OKUBO, Susumu: University of Rochester, USA
    PASCAZIO, Saverio: Universitá di Bari, Italy
    RIVERA HERNÁNDEZ, Rayito: Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    RODRIGUEZ, Cesar: University of Texas - Austin, USA
    SCOLARICI, Giuseppe: Universitá del Salento, Lecce, Italy
    SEGUI, Antonio: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    SHAPIRO, Ilya: Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brasil
    SIMONI, Alberto: Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy
    SOLOMON, Allan: Open University/ University of Paris VI, UK/France
    SUDARSHAN, Ashok:
    SUDARSHAN, George: University of Texas at Austin, USA
    TULCZYJEW, Wlodzimierz: Universitá di Camerino, Italy
    UCHIYAMA, Chikako: University of Yamanashi, Japan
    VENTRIGLIA, Franco: Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy
    VILASI, Gaetano: Universitá di Salerno, Italy
    ZACCARIA, Francesco: Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Italy

  6. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    The year 2009 signals the birth of a new conference series under the name of Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG). The main purpose of this new series is to bring together physicists working on General Relativity, Field Theory, and related areas to discuss the present status and latest developments in the classical and quantum treatment of gravitational systems, as well as to support and strengthen the scientific communication between the physicists of the wide Mediterranean region, working in the field of Classical and Quantum Gravity. For the latter reason, we plan to organize all future conferences of this series in the Mediterranean region. The First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity took place at the Orthodox Academy of Crete (OAC) in Kolymbari (Crete, Greece) from 14-18 September 2009. Physicists from countries all around the world travelled to Kolymbari to discuss hot topics in the classical and quantum treatment of gravitational systems such as string theory and branes, classical gravity and alternative theories, gravitational waves and experiments, quantum gravity, cosmology, and black holes. The program consisted of invited plenary talks and contributed talks in parallel sessions. We were able to give full financial support for accommodation to all invited speakers and partial support to younger people at the beginning of their scientific careers. In particular, help was provided to students and scientists from non-EU countries. The financial support was provided by the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation. During the MCCQG two social events were organized. The first one was a half-day guided bus excursion to Knossos and the surrounding area which took place on 16 September. The second one was the conference dinner on 18 September at the OAC. Traditional Cretan dishes were served and dancers performing in traditional costumes entertained the participants. These events contributed to create a quite fruitful, enjoyable 'Mediterranean' atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and discussion. It is a pleasure to thank our administrative and technical staff Georgia Angelopoulou, Athina Pouri, Mando Zambeli and Manolis Zoulias for their untiring assistance. We also thank the staff of the OAC for the enthusiastic support and their hospitality. We are grateful to the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation for their generous financial support which made MCCQG possible. Finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting. The success of the MCCQG is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors March 2010 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Spyros Basilakos (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Mariano Cadoni (University and INFN Cagliari, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Elias Vagenas (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Advisory Committee Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Switzerland) Orfeu Bertolami (IST, Lisbon, Portugal) Loriano Bonora (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) George Contopoulos (Academy of Athens, Greece) Ruth Durrer (Geneva University, Switzerland) Enrique Gaztanaga (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain) Gabriela Gonzalez (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA) Marc Henneaux (Brussels University, Belgium) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Claus Kiefer (Cologne University, Germany) Stefano Liberati (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Ofer Lahav (University College London, UK) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Don Marolf (UC Santa Barbara, USA) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Augusto Sagnotti (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy) Mairi Sakellariadou (King's College London, UK) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Valdivia, Chile) SPONSORS Academy of Athens The Tomalla Foundation Università di Cagliari University of Mississippi University of Athens LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdalla, Elcio (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil) Antoniadis, Ignatios (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) Arminjon, Mayeul (CNRS, Section of Theoretical Physics, France) Banados, Max (University of Oxford, UK) Basilakos, Spyros (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Bastos, Catarina (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bertolami, Orfeu (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bevilaqua, Leandro Ibiapina (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil) Bezerra De Mello, Eugenio (Dept. de Física, CCEN Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil) Blake, Russ (Readify Pty Ltd, Australia) Bogdanos, Charalampos (LPT-Orsay, France) Burinskii, Alexander (Gravity Research Group NSI, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Cadonati, Laura (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA) Cadoni, Mariano (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Capone, Monica (University of Turin, Italy) Cavaglià, Marco (University of Mississippi, USA) Chirco, Goffredo (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Christodoulakis, Theodosios (University of Athens, Greece) Domingues Zarro, Carlos Augusto ((IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Durrer, Ruth (Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique, Switzerland) Fagnocchi, Serena (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Finazzi, Stefano (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Francia, Dario (University Paris 7 - APC, France) Ghosh, Subir (Indian Statistical Institute, India) Gomberoff, Andres (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile) Grumiller, Daniel (Institute for Theoretical Physics Vienna University of Technology, Austria) Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo (IFM, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Mexico) Hsu, Steve (University of Oregon, USA) Ichinose, Shoichi (University of Shizuoka, SFNS, Japan) Kiefer, Claus (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, Germany) Kokkotas, Kostas (Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Germany) Kothawala, Dawood (IUCAA, Pune, India) Liberati, Stefano (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Lopez-Villarejo, Juan Jose (Dep. de Física Teorica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain) Louko, Jorma (University of Nottingham, UK) Lusanna, Luca (Sezione INFN di Firenze, Italy) Majumdar, Archan S (S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, India) Melis, Maurizio (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Menotti, Pietro (Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Italy) Mignemi, Salvatore (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Monni, Cristina (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Pani, Paolo (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Papazoglou, Antonios (ICG, University of Portsmouth, UK) Páramos, Jorge (Instituto de Plasmas e Fusāo Nuclear, IST, Portugal) Pavsic, Matej (Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) Perivolaropoulos, Leandros (University of Ioannina, Greece) Plionis, Manolis (Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, Greece) Pons, Josep (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Pouri, Athina (University of Athens, Greece) Radicella, Ninfa (Polytechnic of Turin, Italy) Rocha, Jorge (IST, Portugal) Russo, Jorge (ICREA, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Sakai, Norisuke (Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Japan) Sakellariadou, Mairi (Department of Physics, King's College University of London, UK) Salisbury, Donald (Austin College, USA and MPI for the History of Science, Germany) Shnir, Yakov (National University of Ireland, Maynooth and DIAS, Ireland) Skenderis, Kostas (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands) Sotiriou, Thomas (DAMTP, Cambridge, UK) Sundermeyer, Kurt (Free University Berlin Institute for Theoretical Physics, Germany) Tartaglia, Angelo (DIFIS, Politecnico and INFN, Torino, Italy) Vagenas, Elias (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Wallden, Petros (Raman Research Institute, India) Wang, Bin (Fudan University, China) Weinfurtner, Silke (University of British Columbia, Canada) Zampeli, Mando (National Technical University of Athens, Greece) Zanelli, Jorge (Centro de Estudios Científicos CECS-Valdivia, Chile)

  7. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans l'État de Sao Paulo (Brésil). L'évolution des concentrations des espèces dissoutes et la modélisation géochimique ont fait apparaître le rôle notable des échanges de cations et de la dissolution des carbonates de l'amont vers l'aval des nappes. La perte de calcium par échange de cation avec le sodium pilote la dissolution des carbonates et donne naissance à des eaux souterraines à faciès Na-HCO3. Le front d'échange de cation se déplace vers l'aval probablement plus lentement que la vitesse d'écoulement de l'eau souterraine et est actuellement situé à proximité des villes de Sertaozinho et de Aguas de Santa Barbara (respectivement puits PZ-34 et PZ-148), dans une zone captive proche de la surface, à 50-70 km de la zone de recharge. Une partie du sodium provient probablement du système aquifère du Guarani, associée aux chlorures et aux sulfates de la formation Piramboia sous-jacente, par diffusion liée à la dissolution d'évaporites comme la halite et le gypse. De fortes concentrations en fluorures (jusqu'à 13,3 mg/L) peuvent être expliquées par la dissolution d'un minéral fluoré également pilotée par l'échange de cations. Cependant, on ne sait pas bien si la dissolution intervient directement dans le système aquifère du Guarani ou dans la formation basaltique sus-jacente de Serra Geral. Les valeurs de δ2H et δ18O décroissent vers l'aval de la nappe. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous sont enrichies vers l'aval, indiquant qu'il se produit une dissolution de calcite en système fermé. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous dans les puits géothermaux profonds sont très élevées (supérieures à -6,0‰) et rendent probablement compte d'échanges isotopiques avec des carbonates possédant un δ13C d'environ -3,0‰. De prochaines études devront s'attacher à évaluer les flux verticaux et le potentiel de pénétration de contamination du système aquifère du Guarani. Resumen. El propósito de este informe es explicar las tendencias geoquímicas y de los isótopos estables en la unidad brasileña del Sistema Acuífero Guaraní (acuíferos de Botucatu y Piramboya), en el Estado de Sao Paulo. Las concentraciones de especies disueltas y los resultados de modelaciones geoquímicas indican que el intercambio catiónico y la disolución de carbonatos desempeñan un papel importante en la evolución aguas abajo del acuífero. La disminución de calcio por el intercambio con sodio origina la disolución de carbonatos, dando lugar a aguas subterráneas de tipo bicarbonatado sódico. El frente de intercambio catiónico se desplaza a una velocidad probablemente mucho más lenta que la del flujo de agua; actualmente, se halla cerca de las ciudades de Sertaozinho y Aguas de Santa Bárbara (pozos PZ-34 y PZ-148, respectivamente), en una zona confinada somera que dista entre 50 y 70 km del área de recarga. Parte del sodio entra probablemente en el Sistema Acuífero Guaraní junto con el cloruro y el sulfato procedentes de la Formación Piramboia inferior, debido a la difusión relacionada con la disolución de evaporitas como la halita y los yesos. Se puede explicar las elevadas concentraciones de flúor (hasta 13,3 mg/L) por la disolución de fluoruro mineral, que sucede también por intercambio catiónico. Sin embargo, no está claro si la disolución ocurre directamente en el Sistema Acuífero Guaraní o en la Formación basáltica superior de Serra Geral. Hay una reducción de δ2H y de δ18O a favor del gradiente hidráulico. Hay un enriquecimiento en δ13C inorgánico aguas abajo, lo que indica que la calcita se disuelve en condiciones de sistema cerrado. Los valores de δ13C inorgánico en pozos geotérmicos profundos son muy altos (mayores que -6,0‰), y probablemente apuntan a un intercambio isotópico con carbonatos de δ13C que tiene un valor del orden del -3,0‰. Las líneas de investigación deberían centrarse en evaluar los flujos verticales y el potencial de penetración de contaminantes en el Sistema Acuífero Guaraní.

  8. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    The formulation of a quantum theory of gravity seems to be the unavoidable endpoint of modern theoretical physics. Yet the quantum description of the gravitational field remains elusive. The year 2005 marks the tenth anniversary of the First Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity, held in Dubna (Russia) due to the efforts of Alexandre T. Filippov (JINR, Dubna) and Vittorio de Alfaro (University of Torino, Italy). At the heart of this initiative was the desire for an international forum where the status and perspectives of research in quantum gravity could be discussed from the broader viewpoint of modern gauge field theories. Since the Dubna meeting, an increasing number of scientists has joined this quest. Progress was reported in two other conferences in this series: in Santa Margherita Ligure (Italy) in 1996 and in Villasimius (Sardinia, Italy) in 1999. After a few years of ``working silence'' the time was now mature for a new gathering. The Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity (QG05) was held in Cala Gonone (Sardinia, Italy) from Monday 12th to Friday 16th September 2005. Surrounded by beautiful scenery, 100 scientists from 23 countries working in field theory, general relativity and related areas discussed the latest developments in the quantum treatment of gravitational systems. The QG05 edition covered many of the issues that had been addressed in the previous meetings and new interesting developments in the field, such as brane world models, large extra dimensions, analogue models of gravity, non-commutative techniques etc. The format of the meeting was similar to the previous ones. The programme consisted of invited plenary talks and parallel sessions on cosmology, quantum gravity, strings and phenomenology, gauge theories and quantisation and black holes. A major goal was to bring together senior scientists and younger people at the beginning of their scientific career. We were able to give financial support to both groups. In particular, help was provided to students and scientists from non-EU countries. It is our great pleasure to thank those people and institutions whose help and support was crucial to the success of the meeting. We appreciate the enthusiastic support of our colleagues of the academic community, especially those from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and the Universities of Cagliari, Pisa, Torino and Mississippi. Financial support was provided by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, the Universities of Cagliari, Torino, Pisa and Mississippi. This was used largely to support participants, especially younger people. Special thanks go to Pietro Menotti (University of Pisa) and Stefano Sciuto (University of Torino) for their friendship and their universities' financial contributions. It is also a pleasure to acknowledge financial support from the Regione Autonoma della Sardegna and from Tiscali, the communications and Internet company, for providing free telephone cards. Technical support and local organisation was provided by the Sezione di Cagliari of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Warmest thanks go to our administrative and technical staff - Maria Assunta Lecca and Simona Renieri, for their untiring assistance, and to Palmasera Village and Hotel Smeraldo for their splendid hospitality. And finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting and were largely without support. The success of the meeting is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors January 2006 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Mariano Cadoni (Università and INFN Cagliari) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi) Jeanette E. Nelson (Università and INFN Torino) Advisory Committee Orfeu Bertolami (IST Lisboa, Portugal) Luca Bombelli (Univ. Mississippi) Steve Carlip (UC Davis, USA) Alessandro D'Adda (INFN Torino, Italy) Stanley Deser (Brandeis, USA) Georgi Dvali (NYU, USA) Sergio Ferrara (CERN) Gian Francesco Giudice (CERN) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Edward W. Kolb (Fermilab, USA) Luca Lusanna (INFN Firenze, Italy) Roy Maartens (Univ. Portsmouth, UK) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Tullio Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) Augusto Sagnotti (Univ. Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Kellogg S. Stelle (Imperial College London, UK) Ruth Williams (DAMTP, Cambridge, UK) SPONSORS Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Università di Cagliari Università di Torino University of Mississippi Università di Pisa Regione autonoma della Sardegna Tiscali LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Eun-Joo Ahn (University of Chicago, USA) David Alba (Università di Firenze, Italy) Stanislav Alexeyev (Lomonosov Moscow State U., Russia) Damiano Anselmi (Università di Pisa, Italy) Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) Maria Da Conceicao Bento (Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal) Orfeu Bertolami (Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal) Massimo Bianchi (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Mariam Bouhmadi-Lopez (University of Portsmouth, UK) Raphael Bousso (University of California at Berkeley, USA) Mariano Cadoni (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Steven Carlip (University of California at Davis, USA) Roberto Casadio (Università di Bologna, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Demian Cho (Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Chryssomalis Chryssomalakos (Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares - UNAM, Mexico) Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo (JINR, Dubna, Russia) Denis Comelli INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Italy ) Ruben Cordero-Elizalde (Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico) Lorenzo Cornalba (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Branislav Cvetkovic (Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia ) Maro Cvitan (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Alessandro D'Adda (Università di Torino, Italy) Claudio Dappiaggi (Università di Pavia, Italy) Roberto De Leo (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Roberto De Pietri (Università di Parma, Italy) Giuseppe De Risi (Università di Bari, Italy) Hans-Thomas Elze (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) Alessandro Fabbri (Università di Bologna, Italy) Sergey Fadeev (VNIIMS, Moscow, Russia) Serena Fagnocchi (Università di Bologna, Italy) Sara Farese (Universidad de Valencia, Spain) Alessandra Feo (Università di Parma, Italy) Dario Francia (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Francesco Fucito (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Dmitri Fursaev (JINR, Dubna, Russia) Daniel Galehouse (University of Akron, Ohio, USA) Remo Garattini (Università di Bergamo, Italy) Florian Girelli (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Luca Griguolo (Università di Parma, Italy) Daniel Grumiller (Universität Leipzig, Germany) Shinichi Horata (Hayama Center of Advanced Research, Japan) Giorgio Immirzi (Università di Perugia, Italy) Roman Jackiw (MIT, Cambridge, USA) Matyas Karadi (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Mikhail Katanaev (Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia) Claus Kiefer (Universität Koln, Germany) John Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA) Pavel Klepac (Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic) Jen-Chi Lee (National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan) Carlos Leiva (Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile) Stefano Liberati (SISSA/ISAS, Trieste, Italy) Jorma Louko (University of Nottingham, UK) Luca Lusanna (INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Italy) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Fotini Markopoulou (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Annalisa Marzuoli (Università di Pavia, Italy) Evangelos Melas (QMW, University of London, UK) Maurizio Melis (Università di Cagliary, Italy) Vitaly Melnikov (VNIIMS, Moscow, Russia) Guillermo A. Mena Marugan (CSIC, Madrid, Spain) Pietro Menotti (Università di Pisa, Italy) Salvatore Mignemi (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Aleksandar Mikovic (Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal) Leonardo Modesto (Université de la Mediterranée, Marseille, France) Michael Mueller (Sardinien.com, Cagliari, Italy) Mario Nadalini (Università di Trento, Italy) José Navarro-Salas (Universidad de Valencia, Spain) Jeanette E. Nelson (Università di Torino, Italy) Alexander Nesterov (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) Hermann Nicolai (Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm, Germany) Daniele Oriti (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Marcello Ortaggio (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) Silvio Pallua (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Matej Pavsic (Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) Wlodzimierz Piechocki (Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland) Nicola Pinamonti (Università di Trento, Italy) J. Brian Pitts (University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA) Vojtech Pravda (Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czech Rep.) Gianpaolo Procopio (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Alice Rogers (King's College London, UK) Efrain Rojas (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico) James Ryan (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Augusto Sagnotti (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Wenceslao Santiago-German (University of California at Davis, USA) Stefano Sciuto (Università di Torino, Italy) Domenico Seminara (Università di Firenze, Italy) Lorenzo Sindoni (Università di Udine, Italy) Kellogg S. Stelle (Imperial College, London, UK) Cosimo Stornaiolo (INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Italy) Ward Struyve (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Makoto Tanabe (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan) Daniel Terno (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Charles Wang (Lancaster University, UK) Silke Weinfurtner (Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand) Hans Westman (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Ruth Williams (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Tetsuyuki Yukawa (Graduate U. for Adv. Studies, Kanagawa, Japan) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Santiago, Chile) Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity Conference photo

  9. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers of mass of some bodies of solar system and attributes of secular displacements of their centers of mass are universal and testify to relative translational displacements of shells of these bodies (such as the core, the mantle and others). And it means, that there is a highly effective mechanism of an active life of planets and satellites [1, 2]. This mechanism is distinct from the tidal mechanism of gravitational interaction of deformable celestial bodies. Its action is shown, for example, even in case if the core and the mantle are considered as absolutely rigid gravitating bodies, but separated by a is viscous-elastic layer. Classics of celestial mechanics did not consider gravitational interaction and relative translational displacement of the core and the mantle of the Earth. As our studies have shown the specified new mechanism is high energetic and allows to explain many of the phenomena earlier inaccessible to understanding in various geosciences, including climatology [1] - [5]. It has been shown, that secular changes in activity of all planetary processes on the Earth are connected with a secular drift of the core of the Earth, and are controlled by the core and are reflections and displays of the core drift [5]. It is naturally, that slow climatic changes are connected with drift of the core, with induced by this drift inversion changes in an atmosphere, ocean, with thermodynamic variations of state of layer D ', with changes and variations in mantle convection and in plume activity of the Earth. The drift of the core controls a transmission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth, organizes volcanic and seismic activity of the Earth in planetary scale. The mechanism of a warming up of layers of the mantle and cyclic inversion changes of a climate. According to a developed geodynamic model all layers of the mantle at oscillations and motions of the core under action of its gravitational attraction test wide class of inversion deformations [1]. Thus the part of energy of deformations passes in heat by virtue of dissipation properties of the mantle. Than more intensively oscillations of the core, the more amplitudes of these oscillations, the occur the specified thermal transformations more intensively. As relative displacements of the core have cyclic character, because of cyclic influences on the core-mantle system of external celestial bodies also a formation of heat flows and warmed plume materials (substances) will have also cyclic character. In particular orbital perturbations with Milankovitch's periods in 100 kyr, 41 kyr, etc. will be precisely reflected in variations of the specified thermal flows and, accordingly, a planetary climate. In it the essence of occurrence of cycles of congelations on the Earth [3] consists. If during any period of time the core behaves passively, amplitudes of its oscillations are small the thermal flows to a surface of a planet will be decrease. This geodynamic conditions corresponds to the periods of a cold snap. And on the contrary, if the core and mantle interact actively and make significant oscillations the thermal flows to a surface of a planet accrues. This geodynamic state corresponds to the periods of warming. At drift of the core to the north and its oscillations with accrueing amplitude (for example, in present period) submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle will accrue. It is warmly allocated in all layers of the mantle deformed by an attraction of the drifting and oscillating core. But a base layer is the layer D" ("kitchen of plume-tectonics"). As we know the two mechanisms work for warm redistribution into the Earth. First is a mechanism of convection. In our geodynamical model it has forced nature and is organized and controlled by gravitational action of external celestial bodies and as result has cyclical character. Second mechanism is a plume mechanism which organizes the warmed masses redistributions in higher levels of the mantle, on a bottom of ocean and on a surface of the Earth. In accordance with our geodynamical model mentioned redistribution of warmed mass also has forced character. It is organized and controlled by gravitational cyclic action of the external celestial bodies on core-mantle system. N/S inversion of the natural processes. Reliable an attribute of influence of oscillations of the core on a variation of natural processes is their property of inversion when, for example, activity of process accrues in northern hemisphere and decreases in a southern hemisphere. Such contrast secular changes in northern and southern (N/S) hemispheres have been predicted on the base of geodynamic model [1] and revealed according to observations: from gravimetry measurements of a gravity; in determination of a secular trend of a sea level, as global, and in northern and southern hemispheres; in redistribution of air masses; in geodetic measurements of changes of average radiuses of northern and southern hemispheres; in contrast changes of physical fields, for example, streams of heat, currents and circulation at ocean and an atmosphere, etc. [5]. The geodynamic mechanism [1] also unequivocally specifies, that the secular trend in global climatic characteristics of the Earth, and also inversion and asymmetric tendencies of change of a climate, in its northern and southern hemispheres in present period should be observed. The hemispherical asymmetry of global heat flows. In the paper [6] authors have shown that the mean heat flow of the Southern Hemisphere is 99.3 mW/m2, significantly higher than that of the Northern Hemisphere (74.0 mW/m2). The mantle heat loss from the Southern Hemisphere is 22.1 × 1012 W, as twice as that from the Northern Hemisphere (10.8 × 1012 W). The authors believe that this hemispherical asymmetry of global heat loss is originated by the asymmetry of geographic distribution of continents and oceans. In accordance with our geodynamical model discussed assymmetry of heat flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of warming from latitude. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of warming in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and asymmetry in decade variations of temperatures in northern and southern hemispheres (smaller variations in a southern hemisphere). References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, M., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. [2] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Moons and planets: mechanism of their life. Proceedings of International Conference 'Astronomy and World Heritage: across Time and Continents' (Kazan, 19-24 August 2009). KSU, pp. 142-161. [3] Barkin Yu.V. (2004) Dynamics of the Earth shells and variations of paleoclimate. Proceedings of Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium 'Paleoclimate and the Earth climate system' (Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August - 2 September, 2004). Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, pp. 161-164. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Inversion of periodic and trend variations of climate in opposite hemispheres of the Earth and their mechanism. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007) (P) - IAPSO, JPS001 'Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability', p. 1674. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2008) Secular polar drift of the core in present epoch: geodynamical and geophysical consequences and confirmations. General and regional problems of tectonics and geodynamics. Materials of XLI Tectonic Conference. V. 1. -M.:GEOS. p. 55-59. In Russian. [6] Yang Wang, Jiyang Wangand Zongji Ma (1998) On the asymmetric distribution of heat loss from the Earth's interior. Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 43, Number 18 , p. 1566-1570.

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a cultura da batata podem ser de ordem agronómica, economica e comercial. Como exemplos destes podem ser citados: o uso racional de matérias orgânicos, esterco de curral e inorgânico fertilizantes. Efeito de materias orgnicânicos e N, P, K elementos minerais para produção da batata As necessidades em N, P, e K elementos minerais da batata são superidas pela aplicação apropriada de matérias orgânicos, esterco de currals, fertilizantes ao solo, combinada com a ambiente (Márton 2001a., 2001b.), época adequada e posição ideal de aplicá- lo. Efeito da materias orgânicos O suprimento de N á batateira provém principalmente da matéria orgânica do solo e do fertilizante aplicado (László 2000a., Márton et all. 2000.). Embora não seja muito praticado no Brasíl, a incorporação de esterco ao solo é fator de aumento da produção de tuberculos. Este resultado favorável poderia ser atribuído ao melhoramento da estrutura do solo, á maior retenção de água pelo e mesmo favorecendo o melhor desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da planta. A batata pode ser cultivada em todo tipo de solo desde que tenha boa drenagem e seja bem estruturado. Isto é tem que ser bem aerado e permitir o bom desenvolvimento dos órgãos subterráneos da batateira. Sem de matéria orgânicos e esterco de curral a tendencia de determinados solos formar crosta, oferecendo uma alta resisténcia mecánica á emergéncia das plantas, pode ser um determinante de stands desuniformes. A cause primaria da formação de crostas é a destruição dos agregados do solo pela excessiva manipulação mecánica resultando em aeração reduzida e aumento da densidade e coesão das particulas do solo. O encrostamento do solo pode ser reduzido através com matérias orgânicos. De maneira geral, a produção de tuberculos em solo de baixa potencialidade (aqueles em que a penetração das raizes é dificultada pela compactação, textura argilosa ou com camadas no solo) será menor do que nagueles com alta potencialidade (boa textura e adequada retenção de agua). Efeito do nitrogênio No Brazíl em todas regiões onde se cultiva batata é raro encontrar solos com elevado teor de nitrogênio e que não precisam de quantidades desta elemento. É o elemento que governa o padrão de desenvolvimento da planta, estimulando principalmente o crescimento da parte aérea (Kádár et all. 2000., László 2000.). Para se obter rendimento de tubérculos é necessário um rápido e curto periodo de desenvolvimento da parte aérea e uma fase de acúmulo maior possível. Para tanto, devem ser evitadas doses muito altas de nitrogênio e, principalmente, se aplicadas tardiamente, pois haverá demasiado desenvolvimento de folhas que demorarão mais a finalizar seu crescimento e maturação. Isto implicará na redução do periodo de intenso desenvolvimento dos tubérculos e armazenagem do amido, resultando em menor produção. Há risco para a saúde na ingestão de alimentos com altos teores de nitrato e nitrito, havendo preocupação com o efeito de doses mais altas de nitrogênio sobre os teores dos mesmos nos tuberculos. Embora haja diferenças entre cultivares, localidades e períodos de armazenamento, há estudos mostrando que a fertilização com até 150 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio não foi suficiente para propiciar niveis preocupantes de nitrato nos tuberculos colhidos. Efeito do fósforo A grande maioria dos solos brasileiros cultivados com batata apresentam limitações ao bom desenvolvimento e produção da cultura em função dos baixos níveis de fósforo. Isto significa que aumentos de produção quase sempre ocorrem quando o solo recebe adubação fosfatada (László 2001a.). Estes aumentos são mais marcantes em solos nunca antes adubados ou com baixo teor de fósforo. Nestes, dificilmente alcanca- se a produção máxima com níveis reduzidos de fósforo. Não seria exagerado supor níveis de 600 a 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, como sendo aqueles que iriam proporcionar produção máximas, principalmente em solos mais ácidos e pobres em matéria orgânico. A adubação fosfatada é muito importante no crescimento inicial da planta e, além de aumentar a produção de tuberculos em peso e números, aumenta também a quantidade e qualidade do amido neles contidos e reduz perdas durante o armazenamento dos mesmos. A quantidade de fósforo a aplicar dependerá da análise do solo considerando- se principalmente o nível de P existente e a textura do solo. Solos de textura média e arenosa necessitam maior conteúdo de fósforo do que os de textura argilosa para serem considerandos solos de baixo, médio ou alto teor de fósfato. Efeito da potássica Embora seja o elemento mais absorbido pela batateira, nem sempre há resposta positiva da aduba potássica sobre o rendimento da cultura. Provavelmente isto esteja relacionado com níveis elevados deste elemento no solo (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Entretanto, em solos com médios e baixos teores de potássio, aumentos significativos são conseguidos. Por isto, as recomendações de adubação com potássio, nas diversas regiões do mundo, variam de 50-300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Resultados de trabalhos em brasiléiros têm demonstrado que a aduba potássica pode ser substituída pela aplicação de 150 m3 ha-1 de vinhaça de cana de açúcar. Ao elevar- se a dose de fertilização potássica deverá haver precaução para que a adubação magnesiana seja suficiente. O K além de aumentar a produção, em solos deficientes, aumenta também o tamanho dos tubérculos produzidos, e a proporção de tubérculos grandes. Deficiência no suprimento de potássio á planta pode acarretar produção de tubérculos com elevada susceptibilidade aos danos mecánicos pós-colheita. Os tubérculos injuriados enegrecem facilmente e este enegrecimento é inversamente proporcional á quantidade de potássio nos tuberculos. Ademais, quando fritos dão origem a um produto escuro, de baixa valor comercial. Manejo de adubação Diversos fatores como potencial de produção do solo, modo de aplicação do fertilizante dentre outro fatores afetam a resposta da batateira á aplicação de fertilizantes (Refschneider 1987.). Depreende- se pois que no estabelecimento de um nivel ideal de fertilização as variáveis planta, solo e condições climaticas devem ser visualizadas como um sistema pouco provável de ser homogeneo mesmo em nivel de fazenda. Como tal, generalizações a respeito de doses ou niveis de fertlização são difíceis de serem feitas, recomendações exigem julgamento hábil por parte do fazendeiro ou do tecnico responsavel pela cultura (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). Este julgamento será mais preciso conhecendo- se pontos que serão rápidamente discutidos a seguir. A taxa de absorção de nutrientes é governada pela concentração externa ou suprimento de nutrientes pelo solo e a demanda do nutriente criada pelo desenvolvimento e funcinamento normal dos diversos órgãos das plantas. O nivel de nutrientes na solução do solo deve ser suficiamente alto para que suas taxas de absorção não sejam limitantes ao crescimento. Por outro lado, não deve ser demasiado para causar excessiva absorção de outros nutrientes. Forte associação existe entre a absorção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da planta. De maneira geral, a fase de rapido desenvolvimento da cultura é acompanhada por um grande aumento na absorção de nutrientes com a taxa de absorção declinado quando a taxa de crescimento diminuiu. Normalmente todos os fertilizantes potássicos e fosfatados são adicionados ao solo na época do plantio. O nitrogênio normalmente é parcelado. Cerca de 2 por 3 do nível recomendado é colocado no sulco de plantio e o restante adicionado por ocasião da amontoa. É uma prática tradicinal e com pouco suporte experimental no condiõces brasileiras. Espera -se que a aplicação parcelada do nitrogênio e mesmo do potássio possem ser benéficas quando houver chuva excessiva ou irrigações mal executadas principalmente em solos mais arenosos onde poderá ocorrer a lixiviacão dos mesmos (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). O parcelamento poderá também ser benéfico quando elevados níveis de fertilizantes porém recomendandos e a aplicação por feita nos sulcos de plantio, pois evitar-se ia assim, elevada concentração salina em torno dos tubérculos plantados, embora a aplicação á lanco, em toda área, possa ser opção vantajosa. Quantidades corretas de fertilizantes, posição ideal e época certa de aplicação, combinadas adequadamente, definem o programa de adubação da batata. Esse programa é variável de acordo com o solo, a batata e condisões ambientais (Márton 2001a.). A dose de um elemento a ser aplicada em batata, é função da quantidade desse elemento suprida pelo solo e da percentagem de recuperação do elemento adicionado ao solo como fertilizante. Resultados experimentais comparando a aplicação de fertilizante á lanco ou localizado mostram respostas variadas sobre a produção. E possivel encontrar resultados iguais em ambos os métodos, de supremacia da aplicação á lanco ou da aplicação localizada (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Parece que baixas quantidades de fertilizantes são mais eficiemente utilizadas quando aplicação nos sulcos de plantios. Entretanto o potancial de produção pode ser aumentando com alta ou mesmo moderada quantidade de fertilizantes aplicados á lanço. A recomendação geral de colocar o adubo no sulco de plantio da batata merece ser questionada. É uma recomendação válida ao entender- se que a batata responde bastante á aplicação de fósforo, que os solos brasileiros tem alta capacidade de absorção de fósforo e que haverá maior proliferação de raízes na área fertilizada. Uma indagação aparece: um solo com baxa disponibilidade de fósforo fora da zona fertilizada permitiria o desenvolvimento ótimo da planta. Algumas evidéncias mostram, para outras espécies, que grande parte do sistema radicular, deve estar exposta ao fósforo para suprir as necessidades das plantas. Ademais, há um determinado valor de concentração de fósforo, na solução do solo, acima da qual a taxa de absorção não é aumentada. Essas considerações suscitam a possibilidade de questionar se a aplicação de fósforo em sulcos seria a forma mais eficiente de usá-lo quando se pretende alcancar elevadas produções. Deve-se lembrar entretanto, que solos tropicais, ainda com baixos teores fósforo e alta capacidade de adsorção, seria necessária dose muito elevada de P, quando aplicada á lanço, em todo o terreno. Se a aplicação localizada do fósforo pode, em parte, ser explicada, a do nitrogênio e potássio não são facilmente justificadas sob o aspecto de eficiéncia de utilização. Pelo contrário, ela pode ser questionada, principalmente pelas suas caracteristicas de difusão, pelo efeito que altas concentração de amónio e cloreto podem ter sobre a pressão osmotica da solução do solo junto aos tubérculos plantados, pelo efeito negativo do cloreto sobre a absorção de fósforo e também sobre a capacidade produtiva das plantas. Portanto, existe a possibilidade de ocorrer toxidez de amónio e de cloreto ao se aplicar doses altas dos fertilizantes nos sulcos de plantios. Isto pode determinar uma menor eficiéncia no uso dos fertilizantes. Materiais e Metodos: Nos desenvolverémos os três experimentos (i.e.: 1., 2., 3.) para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação com diferentes doságens do latossolo vermelho novo, do esterco de curral e do adubo fórmula 4N:14P:8K no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, da Brazília-DF no 1990. Caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo em faixa arado (dados estimados), e conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral e palha de arroz queimado (dados estimados): a., caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo latossolo vermelho (solo novo: nunca foi usado para produção da batata semente): CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1 com abastecer fraco destes elementos, b., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral (qualidade médio): N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do palha de arroz queimado (palha de arroz foi queimado em um especial forno): N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. Nestas provas usarémos para controle a *mistura padrão. O este tratamento é a composição usual neste programa i.e.: 150 l de solo novo, 50 l de palha de arroz queimado, 50 l de esterco de curral, 350 gramas de cal e 300 gramas de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K. Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se sete misturas de substrato (latossolo vermelho novo, esterco de curral, palha de arroz queimado) em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, na mésas experimentais em caso de vegetação. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As misturas do substrato utilizadas foram como a seguir no Tabela 1. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se 9 dosagens de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K com latossolo vermelho novo em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As doságens de adubo foram como a seguir no Tabela 2. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Para pesquisar estes efeitos o experimento tipo de (2 x 6) foi instalado considerando-se as combinações entre duas misturas (i.e.: 1., 2.) e seis doságens de adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K, com três repetições, no delineamento experimental de bloco ao acaso, sendo 1 vaso (3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto) por parcela na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar utilizada foi Baraka e o tamanho de tuberculos foi com 0-20 mm. A data de plantio foi 25.09.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 tuberculos com embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 21 0C é humidade médio foi 66% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 14.12.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco e matéria seca. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, MANOVA. Os manejos foram como a seguir no Tabela 3. Resultados e Discuscáo Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O tratamento 3. i.e.: mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm (tamanho de comercial), peso de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. Porém, não houve diferencas significativas para o numero tuberculos comerciais, i.e.: com 0-20 mm, para os tratamentos 2., 3., 4., e 5. Portanto, a mistura poderá ter uma composição entre 60 a 90% de latossolo vermelho novo, 6 a 24% de palha de arroz queimado e de 4 a 16% de esterco de curral. Não houve diferenca significativa entre a mistura padrão utilizada e as misturas incluidas nos extremos indicados anteriormente. Porém, a mistura padrão recebeu adubação quimica de 4N:14P:8K (3.6 grama vaso-1) e calcário na dosagem de 4.2 grama vaso-1, o que não aconteceu com as parcelas das misturas em analise. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Há um efeito crescente das dóses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. Porém, a maior dóse não chegou a ultrapassar a mistura padrão. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Efeitos de misturas As duas misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2) deram resultados significativos mais alto que a mistura padrão, em média 54 %. Entre as misturas 1 e 2, foi melhor a 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a mistura 1. (70% latossolo vermelho novo, 20% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Em caso de número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com a mistura 2. foi possivel aumentar geralmente os números de tuberculos em 77% que a mistura padrão. Efeitos de adubação 1. Área da folhas por planta entre manejo foi melhor de modo significativo a doságem de 3.6 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo (3103 cm2 plantas-1). 2. Peso fresco da folhas e de hastes por plantas as tendencias foram parecidos com o da área de folhas. 3. Peso fresco de raizis por planta até 7.2 grama vaso-1 diminuiu depois aumentou. 4. Peso fresco total de tuberculos por planta as crescentes doságens de um modo forte diminuiram a produção de tuberculos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 em 160% em os dois caso da mistura. 5. Peso de fitomassa fresco por planta foi melhor a 3.6 g vaso-1 (239 grama planta-1 em médio da dois mistura), depois os dados diminuirám. 6. Produção de biomassa fresco por planta a maxima produção (188 grama planta-1) foi obtida com 3.6 grama vaso-1. Deste ponto de modo forte caiu a produção. 7. Peso da matéria seca de folhas, hastes e raizis por planta somente em caso de mistura padrão o resultado foi significativo em relação aos outros tratamentos. 8. Péso da matéria seca de tuberculos total por planta modo significativo diminuiu a produção (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 360%) em médio da duas misturas. 9. Biomassa produção de materia seca por planta modo significativo diminuiu para efeito de alta dosagens de adubo complexo (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 158%) em médio da duas misturas. 10. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 0-20 mm as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção em 213% em médio da duas misturas. 11. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 20 mm-1 as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção assima de 250% em médio da duas misturas. 12. Numero de tuberculos 0-20 mm e 20 mm- por planta com os manejos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 foi possível aumentar em media 200% sobre a mistura padrão. Os manejo de 18.0 grama de adubo vaso-1 já causaram importante diminuição em relação caso a absoluto controle. 13. Numero total de tuberculos por planta entre manejos foi melhor a dosagem de 7.2 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K comparando da mistura padrão. Nos verificamos-se que a mistura padrão sempre deu menor rasultados do que as outras misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2). Entre as misturas 1 e 2 a melhor foi a número 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Com esta mistura e com relação a mistura padrão, foi possível aumentar o número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com 77%. No caso do adubação, verificamos que grande quantidades de adubo acima de 7.2 grama vaso-1, de modo rigoroso diminuiu a produção de batata-semente pré- básica. Este fato deve ser considerado para a eleição das dosagens de adubos. Deve-se indicar o caso de número de tuberculos acima 20 mm-, onde em relação mistura padrão foi possivel aumentar em média 73% os resultados. Reconhecimento: Esta pesquisa foi apoio da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, Brasília-DF e Centro Pesquisa de Solo e Agroquímica do Academia Húngara de Ciências, Budapest References Kádár I-Márton L.-Horváth S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. Kurnik E.-Németh T.-Márton L.-Radimszki L. 2001. Effects of a new environment friendly deep fertilization system on a limy chernozem soil parameters. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press László M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László M. 2001b. Year and fertilization effect analysis in long field term experiments. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László M.-Imre K.-Jose E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99-106. László M.-Silva J.C.-Jose A.B. 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 107-111. László M.-Silva J.B.C.-Jose A.B. 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton L. 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2001a. Climete change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press Márton L. 2001b. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő Márton L.-Kádár I.-Estáquio M.J. 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Reifschneider F.J.B. 1987. Produção de batata. Linha Gráfica e Editora. Brasília. p. 239. Tabela 1. Tratamentos do experimento 1. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Numero de Composição em % Tratamento Solo novo Palha de arroz queimado Esterco de curral ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 100 0 0 2. 90 6 4 3. 80 10 10 4. 70 18 12 5. 60 24 16 6. 50 30 20 7. 40 36 24 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 2. Tratamentos do experimento 2. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------- Numero de Adubo 4:14:8 N P2O5 K2O Tratamento Grama vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------- 1. 0.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 2. 1.8 0.072 0.252 0.144 3. 3.6 0.144 0.504 0.288 4. 5.4 0.216 0.756 0.432 5. 7.2 0.288 1.008 0.576 6. 9.0 0.360 1.260 0.720 7. 10.8 0.432 1.512 0.864 8. 12.6 0.504 1.764 1.008 9. 14.4 0.576 2.016 1.152 ------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 3. Tratamentos do experimento 3. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Num. de Mistura % Trat. Solo novo Palea de arr. Q Esterco de curral 4N:14P:8K g vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 70 20 10 0.0 2 70 20 10 3.6 3. 70 20 10 7.2 4. 70 20 10 10.8 5. 70 20 10 14.4 6. 70 20 10 18.0 7. 80 10 10 0.0 8. 80 10 10 3.6 9. 80 10 10 7.2 10. 80 10 10 10.8 11. 80 10 10 14.4 12. 80 10 10 18.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------