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Impacto social da produção integrada de abacaxi no estado do TocantinsBrasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Além do objeto da produção em si, a produção integrada tem como princípios o bem-estar social e a preservação ambiental. Neste artigo avaliam-se os impactos sociais da produção integrada de abacaxi no Estado do Tocantins (Brasil) em oito estabelecimentos rurais. A ferramenta empregada na avaliação, denominada Ambitec Social, foi desenvolvida pela Embrapa, sob a liderança da Embrapa Meio Ambiente. O

Clovis Oliveira de Almeida; Aristoteles Pires de Matos; Carlos Estevao Leite Cardoso



Nova espécie de Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) dos rios Tapajós e Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from Tapajós and Tocantins rivers, Brazil. Pimelodus tetramerus sp. nov. differs from the other species of Pimelodus Lacepède by its typical coloration, with four dark stripes on the sides of the body, the most dorsal beginning just behind the pre-dorsal plate and finishing at the end of the adipose-fin base; the second, wider

Frank Raynner V. Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto S. de Lucena



Ensemble flood forecasting on the Tocantins River - Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tocantins River basin is located in the northern region of Brazil and has about 300.000 km2 of drainage area upstream of its confluence with river Araguaia, its major tributary. The Tocantins River is intensely used for hydropower production, with seven major dams, including Tucuruí, world's fourth largest in terms of installed capacity. In this context, the use of hydrological streamflow forecasts at this basin is very useful to support the decision making process for reservoir operation, and can produce benefits by reducing damages from floods, increasing dam safety and upgrading efficiency in power generation. The occurrence of floods along the Tocantins River is a relatively frequent event, where one recent example is the year of 2012, when a large flood occurred in the Tocantins River with discharge peaks exceeding 16.000m³/s, and causing damages to cities located along the river. After this flooding event, a hydrological forecasting system was developed and is operationally in use since mid-2012 in order to assist the decision making of dam operation along the river basin. The forecasting system is based on the MGB-IPH model, a large scale distributed hydrological model, and initially used only telemetric data as observed information and deterministic rainfall forecasts from the Brazilian Meteorological Forecasting Centre (CPTEC) with 7-days lead time as input. Since August-2013 the system has been updated and now works with two new features: (i) a technique for merging satellite TRMM real-time precipitation estimative with gauged information is applied to reduce the uncertainty due to the lack of observed information over a portion of the basin, since the total number of rain gages available is scarce compared to the total basin area; (ii) rainfall ensemble forecasts with 16-days lead time provided by the Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFs), from the 2nd Generation of NOAA Global Ensemble Reforecast Data Set, maintained by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-NOAA) of the United States, are added in the system as additional inputs. This system is one of the first operational ensemble forecasting systems in Brazil, and it is also one of the first based on mixed satellite-telemetric data. This work presents the Tocantins forecasting system and some hindcasting analysis of how recent floods could have been predicted with the use of the ensemble forecasts.

Fan, Fernando; Collischonn, Walter; Jiménez, Karena; Sorribas, Mino; Buarque, Diogo; Siqueira, Vinicius



Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

Snell, Leonard J.



Neoproterozoic geotectonic evolution of Tocantins Structural Province, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tocantins Structural Province (TSP) is the main tectonic feature in Central Brazil. It separates two main cratonic areas ( former continental plates): the Amazonian Craton to the West and the Sao Francisco Craton to the East. Recent geochronological data (U-Pb and Sm-Nd) and structural studies show that the actual structural framework of the province was developed during the Neoproterozoic. It is herein proposed that Brasiliano Orogenic Cycle in the TSP was developed in four broad tectonic stages: 1) an ocean opening stage began possibly 1270 Ma; 2) an island-arc system development stage started 1000 Ma and its amal- gamation lasted until ca. 800 Ma; 3) a continental collision stage began ca. 800 Ma with the accretion of the island-arcs to the upper Amazonian plate, the closure of the Goias Ocean and the development of a foreland basin upon the lower Sao Francisco plate; and 4) a post-collisional stage (650-500 Ma) with the development of transcurrent faults (Transbrasiliano lineaments), back-thrust reverse faults, and intrusion of alkalic granitic plutons.

Strieder, Adelir Jose; Suita, Marcos Tadeu de Freitas



Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

PubMed Central

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Goncalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo



Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

Demendonca, F. (principal investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.



Anthropically dislodged assemblages of sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the River Araguaia at Araguatins, Tocantins State, Brazil Assembléias de esponjas desalojadas no Rio Araguaia em Araguatins, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent outbreak of an human ocular disease at Araguaia River by the town of Araguatins, TO, Central Amazonia, along the low water period of 2005 required pathological analyses of surgically extracted ocular tissues. Spicules which invest the gemmules of the freshwater sponges Drulia uruguayensis and D. ctenosclera were found inside these ocular materials. Such relation between an ocular disease

C. Volkmer-Ribeiro; Salvador França; Rodovia Washington Luís


The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guara?, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

Vilela, Mauricio Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Britto, Constanca; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira



Mulheres, homossexuais e Forças Armadas no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O trabalho analisa a incorporação de mulheres às Forças Armadas do Brasil. Em caráter preliminar analisa também o debate sobre a possível incorporação de homossexuais. No caso das mulheres observa-se que, apesar de preconceitos e limitações em termos de promoção na carreira, foram assimiladas pelas três Forças brasileiras de forma bastante positiva. Ao contrário, o debate sobre o acesso explícito

Maria Celina D'Araujo


Migração Familiar e Trabalho Infantil no Brasil Urbano  

Microsoft Academic Search

O principal objetivo desse estudo é analisar como os pais alocam o tempo dos filhos de 10 a 14 anos entre estudo e trabalho no Brasil urbano, considerando entre os possíveis determinantes, a condição de migração intersetorial da família. Para tanto, foram utilizados dados do Censo Demográfico 2000 do IBGE. A análise empírica foi dividida em duas partes. Primeiro, utilizou-se

Shirley Pereira Mesquita



Microsoft Academic Search

2 ABSTRACT.- BRASIL-SATO, M. DE C.; SANTOS, M. D. DOS (Helminths of Myleus micans (Lütken, 1875) (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) from the São Francisco river, Brazil.) Helmintos de Myleus micans (Lütken, 1875) (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veteriná- ria, v. 12, n. 3, p. 131-134, 2003. Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFRRJ, Km 47, Antiga Rod. Rio-São



Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues  

SciTech Connect

Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.



Análise comparativa do isolamento do ruído aéreo entre diferentes painéis de vedação utilizados no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O artigo aborda a avaliação do isolamento acústico de painéis de vedação que vem sendo utilizados no Brasil. Os painéis que surgem como alternativa à alvenaria convencional e o seu uso indiscrimado, sem uma avaliação dos requisitos mínimos de desempenho, são o principal objetivo deste trabalho. A análise dos resultados do índice de isolação sonora é feita através do

Danielly Borges


Regulação Econômica e a Expansão dos Serviços de Distribuição de Gás Natural Canalizado no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta dissertação trata da questão da regulação do setor de distribuição de gás natural canalizado no Brasil e as implicações que uma política de expansão dos serviços tem na regulação ótima. A primeira parte faz uma análise institucional do setor de distribuição de gás natural, identificando o papel da regulação no mesmo. A segunda parte é uma breve resenha sobre

Pablo Aurélio Lacerda de Almeida


Nuevas Actividades Exportadoras en Brasil: Ventaja Comparativa, Políticas o Auto-Descubrimiento?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento examina los hallazgos de Brasil en la exportación de aviones, teléfonos celulares y carne de cerdo. Todos los casos confirman la importancia que tienen el aumento de la eficacia y los costos irrecuperables en la expansión de las exportaciones y llevan a las siguientes conclusiones: la política económica y la ventaja comparativa desempeñaron un papel importante en la

Armando Castelar Pinneiro; Regis Bonelli



Os determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil: Luta de classes ou heterogeneidade educacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho considera a questão: quais os principais determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil? Após lembrar a importância da questão para a nossa economia, o artigo sugere um arcabouço genérico para categorizar os determinantes da distribuição de renda, baseado em cinco grupos de fatores: caraterísticas natas dos indivíduos; suas características adquiridas; o papel do mercado de trabalho; o papel

Francisco de Hollanda Guimarães Ferreira



Respostas religiosas ? aids no Brasil: impress?es de pesquisa1  

PubMed Central

Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Goncalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luis Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano



Avança Brasil: Environmental and Social Consequences of Brazil's Planned Infrastructure in Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Avan?a Brasil” (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out\\u000a in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing\\u000a environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented\\u000a by Avan?a

Philip M. Fearnside; André Araújo



“Sou Doméstica:” Construções de Identidade e Saúde das Trabalhadoras Domésticas Salvador, Bahia Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O mundo do trabalho doméstico é um mundo invisível de discriminação, desvalorização e exploração. No Brasil, existem milhões de trabalhadoras domésticas, na sua maioria mulheres, negras e que vêm de histórias pobres. Essas trabalhadoras domésticas enfrentam uma agressão profunda contra a dignidade, direitos, saúde, e identidade delas.\\u000aNesta pesquisa, perguntamos sobre a relação entre identidade e saúde. Como é que

Jenny Fauci




Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing three aspects of sustainability, environment, society and economy, the proposed renovations of Curitiba Brasil'sPasseio Públicointend to demonstrate the impact that a sustainable designed park can have on visitors and the surrounding area. Passeio Público celebrated 150 years as a park this year ant it was the first Zoo of Curitiba. The park has an area of 70.000 square meters,

Kelly Woodward; Thomas Calderwood; Eloy F. Casagrande Jr; Sarah Vesseld



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho é pioneiro para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil e visa ao aprofundamento da problemática do aproveitamento do Rio Araguaia como via navegável para transportar as safras de grãos das regiões Centro-Norte. O Programa de Desenvolvimento da Hidrovia Tocantins- Araguaia é uma iniciativa do Ministério dos Transportes para estabelecer a navegação fluvial confiável e segura em 2.242

Rone Antônio de Azevedo


[Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002].  


Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1%) were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4%) were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9%) were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 %) were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity. PMID:16906258

de Souza Júnior, Milton Formiga; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Moreira, Elvio Carlos; de Oliveira, Rogério Rodrigues; Leite, Geysa Goulart; Freitas, Theonys Diógenes; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes



Doação de órgãos e tecidos no Brasil: podemos evoluir? Organ and tissues donation in Brazil: can we evolve? Donación de órganos y de tejidos en el Brasil: ¿podemos desarrollarnos?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumO: Desde 1997, quando da aprovação da chamada Lei dos transplantes, até os dias de hoje, tivemos várias oportunidades de esclarecimentos à população acerca da doação de órgãos e tecidos no Brasil. Adicionalmente, também tivemos um importante avanço nessa área, possibilitando aos profis- sionais mudanças e melhorias em suas práticas assistenciais. Mas ainda buscamos não somente entender o significado da

Bartira De Aguiar Roza; Ben-Hur Ferraz Neto; Tadeu Thomé; Janine Schirmer


[Questionnaire development in ELSA-Brasil: challenges of a multidimensional instrument].  


This article describes the development of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) questionnaire. We first address the selection of topics whose contents have to cover the knowledge available on the complex causal network of outcomes and allow comparability with similar studies. Then we deal with the "translation and adaptation of measurement instruments" including neighborhood environment rating scales, depression and anxiety disorder rating scale and a food frequency questionnaire and discuss criteria that guided "theme block sequencing". And finally we focus on the practical importance of "pretesting and pilot studies". The ELSA may provide an original contribution regarding factors that cause or aggravate the outcomes of interest in the Brazilian population, as well as protective factors. PMID:24346718

Chor, Dóra; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Giatti, Luana; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Benseñor, Isabela M; Aquino, Estela M L; Passos, Valéria; Santos, Simone M; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Oliveira, Letícia Cardoso



Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.  


The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete



Rapid spread of an invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulica , in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning around 1800, but primarily since the early and mid-twentieth century, the giant African snail, Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, has been introduced throughout the tropics and subtropics and has been considered the most important snail\\u000a pest in these regions. In Brasil, specimens probably brought from Indonesia were introduced into the state of Paran? in the\\u000a 1980s for commercial purposes

Silvana C. Thiengo; Fábio André Faraco; Norma C. Salgado; Robert H. Cowie; Monica A. Fernandez



[The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program and aspects of public provision of medicines in Brazil].  


In 2004, the Federal Government introduced the "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program, which was an example of policy innovation, establishing a co-payment scheme as a strategy for access to medication. The study analyzed the original model of the Program. Data were obtained from interviews with key stakeholders, program documents and user prescriptions and registers. The results showed widespread expansion of the PFPB network and in the number of people attended. Despite the ever-increasing number of people attended with prescriptions from the private sector, a large demand from public sector users, namely the original focus of the program, was observed. From the standpoint of the federative pact, the program reinstates the centralized model of essential medication distribution which, in the decentralized public system is under state and municipal responsibility. The results point to the difficulty in compliance by states and municipalities with medication distribution responsibilities, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. The study concludes that the population has been consistently turning to the PFPB for essential medication it has not been able to access in the public sector. PMID:21709993

Santos-Pinto, Cláudia Du Bocage; Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa



Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR?=?1.63, 95% IC?=?1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR?=?0.96, 95% IC?=?0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR?=?0.94, 95% IC?=?0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement.



EFICIÊNCIA PRODUTIVA DE EMPRESAS DA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS NO BRASIL Grupo de Pesquisa: Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica dos Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A indústria de alimentos no Brasil é um setor de g rande importância para a economia brasileira com poucos estudos publicados quanto ao seu desempenho operacional. Este trabalho avalia a eficiência relativa (técnica e de escala) de uma amostra de empresas de diferentes segmentos desta indústria, utilizando-se para tanto o Método DEA. Os segmentos analisados foram: Conglomerados Alimentícios; Óleos

Apresentação Oral-Estrutura; OSCAR TUPY


Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de

Alan Kardec Elias Martins; Carlos Ernesto G. R. Schaefer; Elias Silva; Vicente Paulo Soares; Guilherme Resende Corrêa; Bruno Araújo Furtado de Mendonça



Respostas religiosas ? aids no Brasil: impress?es de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Cat?lica1  

PubMed Central

O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Goncalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luis Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano



Partitioning of inorganic nitrogen assimilation between the roots and shoots of cerrado and forest trees of contrasting plant communities of South East Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Woody plants growing in cerrado and forest communities of south-east Brasil were found to have low levels of nitrate reductase\\u000a activity in their leaves suggesting that nitrate ions are not an important nitrogen source in these communities. Only in the\\u000a leaves of species growing in areas of disturbance, such as gaps and forest margins, were high levels of nitrate reductase

G. R. Stewart; C. A. Joly; N. Smirnoff



Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Background The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant’s closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants’ age, sex and education category. Conclusion The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.



ExposiÁªo humana ao metilmercœrio em comunidades ribeirinhas da Regiªo do TapajÛs, ParÆ, Brasil Methylmercury human exposure in riverine villages of Tapajos basin, ParÆ State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Resumo Avaliou-se a exposição humana ao metilmercúrio e ao mercúrio total em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Tapajós e da região metropolitana de Belém, no Estado do Pará, Brasil, através da determinação de mercúrio total e metilmercúrio em amostras de cabelo nos anos de 1994 e 1995. Observou-se que as concentrações médias de mercúrio total variaram de 2 ± 1µg\\/g-1

Maria da Conceição; Nascimento Pinheiro; Junko Nakanishi; Manoel Quaresma; Bernardo Cardoso; Walter W. Amoras; Masazume Harada; Carlos Magno; Luis F. Vieira; Marilia Brasil Xavier; Denise R. Bacelar


Negative life events and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline data  

PubMed Central

Background Stress is a typical migraine trigger. However, the impact of negative life events on migraine activity is poorly studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between negative life events and migraine using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study conducted in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included validated questionnaires for headache classification and the occurrence of five pre-specified negative life events (financial hardship, hospitalization other than for childbirth, death of a close relative, robbery and end of a love relationship), focusing on a 12-month period before evaluation. We built crude and adjusted logistic regression models to study the association between the occurrences of negative life events and migraine diagnosis and activity. Results We included 4,409 individuals with migraine and 4,457 participants without headache (reference). After adjustment for age, sex, race, income and educational level, we found that the occurrence of a negative life event (Odds ratio?=?1.31; 95% confidence interval?=?1.19 – 1.45) was associated with migraine. However, after stratifying with subgroup analyses, only financial hardship (Odds ratio?=?1.65; 95% confidence interval?=?1.47 – 1.87) and hospitalization (Odds ratio?=?1.47; 95% confidence interval?=?1.25 – 1.72) were independently associated with migraine. Further adjustment for a current major depression episode and report of religious activity did not significantly change the results. Considering migraine frequency as (a) less than once per month, (b) once per month to once per week, or (c) more than once per week, financial hardship and hospitalization remained significantly associated with migraine in all episode frequency strata, with higher odds ratios for higher frequencies in adjusted models. We also observed a significant association between the death of a close relative and the highest migraine frequency stratum (Odds ratio?=?1.38; 95% confidence interval?=?1.09 – 1.75) in full-adjusted model. Conclusions The occurrence of financial hardship and hospitalization had a direct and independent association with migraine diagnosis and frequency. The death of a close relative was also independently associated with the highest migraine frequency stratum.



Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context.



Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José



How brasil grows motor fuel  

SciTech Connect

The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.



Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

Toro, Leonor; And Others


Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.


Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, Joao Tome Farias



Educação formal, mulher e gênero no Brasil contemporâneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: O objetivo do artigo é evidenciar o descompasso entre a situação de homens e mulheres no sistema educacional brasileiro e as metas nacionais e internacionais de igualdade de oportunidades de gênero na educação. Para tanto analisa e interpreta estatísticas educacionais, resoluções das conferências internacionais da década de 1990 e documentos de instâncias multilaterais, governamentais e




Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.



Regionalização da agricultura do Estado do Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a characterization of the agriculture of Paraná State based on thirty-five variables extracted from Agricultural Census of 1995\\/96 and two variables from the Map of Soil Aptitude. These are related to land access, land use, utilization of chemical and mechanical technologies, use of capital assets, labor relationships and tercerization, soil fertility and mechanization suitability. The Factor analysis

Rafael Fuentes Llanillo; Mauro Eduardo Del Grossi; Flávio Oliveira dos Santos; Paula Daniela Munhos; Maria de Fátima Guimarães




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objective of this article is to undertake a deep analysis of the pedagogical aspects related to the teacher's dialogical ability under teaching conditions. The work begins with a study of the outline, content and meaning of activities that are considered to be able to stimulate an effective dialogue with students, according to opinions expressed by teachers. The contextualized



Tarifas deImportação e Evasão Fiscal no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A evasão de impostos, sobretudo por meio de subfaturamento das importações, sempre foi motivo de preocupação da administração aduaneira. Além da redução de receita tributária, a sonegação impõe perdas de competitividade aos importadores que assumem todos os encargos tributários, e reduz o grau de proteção à produção doméstica. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar empiricamente a relação entre os níveis

Honorio Kume; Guida Piani; Pedro Miranda



Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).


Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes


The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Benjamim, E. A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Depto. Fisica Particulas, Facultad Fisica, Campus Sur s/n 15786 Santiago de Compostela (Spain) (Spain); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio Tandar, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Assuncao, M. [UNIFESP-Campus de Diadema, SP (Brazil)] (and others)




Microsoft Academic Search

THE BRASILIANO OROGENY AT THE CENTRAL SEGMENT OF RIBEIRA BELT, BRAZIL The structure of the central segment of the Ribeira belt is defined by three large thrust sheets (Lower, Intermediate and Upper) which override the autochthonous domain, towards the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton. Four lithotectonic associations are individualized within the domains: basement rocks (pré-1,8 Ga rocks); orthogneisses



Acesso ao casamento no Brasil: uma questão de cidadania sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo esumo esumo esumo esumo: A instituição do casamento deve estar acessível a todos os cidadãos, independen- temente de sua orientação sexual, sob pena de discriminação vedada na Constituição Federal. Contribui para essa conclusão a jurisprudência que, utilizando-se da analogia, tem reconhecido uniões estáveis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo sem que para isso seja obstáculo o

Roberto Arriada Lorea



Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) do município de Beruri, Amazonas, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawkmoths were collected at District of Beruri, low river Purus, State of Amazonas in three periods September-October\\/2002, July\\/ 2003 and November-December\\/2003. A 250W mixed mercury vapor lamp was used to atract insects on a white sheet in the nights collecting periods of 12 consecutive hours. 295 specimens were collected of 46 species, and 20 genera were identified, with predominance of

Catarina da Silva Motta; Francisco Felipe Xavier-Filho




Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the concept of an independent central bank and investigates the existence of such independence in the case of Brazil. The empirical analysis is based on the construction of indicators that seek to evaluate the central bank's ability to resist government pressures related to the political calendar and to public budget financing. The main conclusion points to a

Marcos Holanda; Leonardo P. Freire


Freshwater stingrays: study of epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects based on 84 envenomings in humans and some enzymatic activities of the venom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater stingrays are very common in the Parana ´, Paraguay, Araguaia, and Tocantins Rivers and tributaries in Brazil. This study presents the clinical aspects of 84 patients injured by freshwater stingrays. Intense pain was the most conspicuous symptom. Skin necrosis was observed in a high percentage of the victims, mostly fishermen and bathers. The initial therapeutic procedures, like immersion of

Vidal Haddad Jr; Domingos Garrone Neto; Joao Batista de Paul; Fernando Portella de Luna


Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish

Gustavo Hallwass; Priscila Fabiana Lopes; Anastacio Afonso Juras; Renato Azevedo Matias Silvano




Microsoft Academic Search

The Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and Leishmania chagasi is the causal agent of the disease in Brazil. The transmission between vertebrate hosts occurs through the bite of a phlebotomine, whose main representative in the country is the Lutzomyia longipalpis. The disease has been described in some cities, presenting important




Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the competitive ness of the sugar cane industry in Brazil and in Paraná. The Paraná state occupies the second position in productivity and in the total production of the sector, reason why this paper ana lyzes the competitiveness of the complex and its evolution in Brazil and in Paraná between 1 990



Peso Adulto de Matrizes em Rebanhos de Seleção da Raça Nelore no Brasil 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to evaluate the Nellore breed in Brazil with respect to the phenotypic and genetic variation of the mature size of cows. The observations were taken from 34 herds of eleven different beef cattle product ion regions in the country. There were considered cows of the horned and polled varieties, raised on pastures, from

Nascimento Rosa; Henrique Nunes de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio; Framartino Bezerra



Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho é resultado de uma investigação sobre a ação dos órgãos oficiais de Assistência Técnica e Extensão rural (ATER) no nordeste brasileiro, com o objetivo avaliar as ações dos mesmos visando a implementação da nova Política Nacional de ATER (PNATER), na região como referência para o país. Ela contemplou os Estados de Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte,

José Ribamar; Furtado de Souza


Relación entre turismo, género y sexo. El caso de Buzios - Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sex and tourism has followed different paths starting from the Gay \\/ Lesbian friendly market to nudist tourism or prostitution. Not withstanding, there are sill few initiatives to stop this kind of tourism that brings with its huge social problems and scandalizes the public opinion. This is probably due to the fact that from an historic point

Juana A. Norrild



Planificación urbana versus autoregulación: la ciudad de Fortaleza (Brasil) como tablero de juego de diferentes agentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortaleza es una ciudad relativamente jóven en cuanto a su importancia como metrópoli regional, caracterizándose sobre todo en las últimas décadas por una muy fuerte dinámica demográfica, económica y política. En este contexto el espacio urbano se ha convertido en una mercancía de alto costo, disputada entre los intereses contradictorios de compañías influentes, especuladores inmobiliarios, políticos y el resto de

Waltraud Rosner; Ulli Vilsmaier



Karyotype composition of some rodents and marsupials from Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brasil).  


The Chapada Diamantina (CD) is located in Bahia State, between 11-14 degrees S and 41-43 degrees W, being part of the Serra do Espinhaço. The occurrence of different habitats and transition areas permits an interesting mammal fauna composition, with species from different biomes living in sympatry. Species of Didelphimorphia and Rodentia are important members of mammal communities in almost all different habitats, and morphological and cytogenetic characters are important for a correct identification of most of these species. In this work 258 specimens of small mammals from the orders Didelphimorphia (six genera and six species) and Rodentia (two families, five Sigmodontinae tribes, nine genera and 11 species) were collected during the whole field work (44 nights with traps). Chromosome preparations were obtained from 145 specimens from the species: Marmosops incanus, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis domestica, Akodon aff. cursor, Necromys lasiurus, Cerradomys sp., Oligoryzomys fornesi, O. nigripes, O. rupestris, Calomys expulsus, Rhipidomys macrurus, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinus and Thrichomys inermis. Didelphis albiventris, Micoureus demerarae, Thylamys karymii and Nectomys sp. were identified by morphological characters. Most analyzed specimens do not show karyotype variation. However, numerical chromosomic variation was found in two individuals of Akodon aff. cursor (2n = 15) and in one individual of Cerradomys sp. (2n = 51). Structural variation in karyotype was observed in seven individuals of Cerradomys sp., showing one additional pair of metacentric chromosomes. PMID:18094834

Pereira, L G; Geise, L




Microsoft Academic Search

É notória a crescente importância das medidas técnicas, sanitárias e fitossanitárias às exportações brasileiras de produtos agrícolas, tais como: certificação de origem, avaliação de conformidade, normas e procedimentos técnicos, etc. Essas medidas têm sido formalizadas em notificações aos acordos TBT e SPS da OMC, vigentes desde 1995. Cabe ressaltar, no entanto, que essas medidas podem servir como barreiras protecionistas quando

Braulio Martins Bueno; Orlando Monteiro da Silva



Transferencias entre gobiernos y representación política: elementos empíricos de juicio de Argentina, Brasil y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En los países en desarrollo, las transferencias entre gobiernos desde el nivel central son una fuente importante de ingresos para la mayoría de los gobiernos subnacionales. Y es probable que su importancia aumente aún más, si se toman en cuenta las iniciativas de descentralización en América Latina y otras regiones. En este trabajo se investiga

Moritz Kraemer




Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the shape of characteristic spectral profile of soybean are associated with the development conditions of plants, especially meteorological and management. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences among spectral profiles taken on different producer regions of soybean in the southern of Brazil. The biomass monitoring, done from September 1999 to March 2000, was made using

E. Weber; L. A. Guasselli


Ceramica avancada no Brasil: estagio atual e perspectivas. (Advanced ceramics in Brazil: actual stage and perspectives).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of advanced ceramics in Brazil, the perspectives of the world and Brazilian markets, the raw materials, the equipments for industry and research, the human resources, and the disposable technology, are presented. The researches on advanced...

E. D. Zanotto



Esquistossomose em área de ecoturismo do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmis- sion in São José da Serra, a village with a popula- tion of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis in- volving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday

Cristiano Lara Massara; Graciela Larissa Amaral; Roberta Lima Caldeira; Sandra Costa Drummond; Martin Johannes Enk; Omar dos Santos Carvalho



Comunidade de Carabidae (Coleoptera) em manchas florestais no Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carabid community (Coleoptera) in forest patches in Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This work addresses the effects of the size, flooding susceptibility and vegetation complexity on ground beetles community structure (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in forest patches (capões) in the sub-regions Miranda and Abobral of the Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Thirty pitfall traps were run for

Letícia Vieira; Frederico S. Lopes; Wedson D. Fernandes; Josué Raizer



Análise de programas de preservação da audição em quatro indústrias metalúrgicas de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes noise control programs in four metallurgical factories in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. From 1997 to 2001, 741 workers were examined and the programs were analyzed based on workers' profiles (2,270 audiometric exams) and documents on hearing preservation programs. 41% of workers presented hearing loss (mean age 42.3; mean years of work 16.7). 104 workers with more than

Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira Gonçalves; Aparecida Mari Iguti




Microsoft Academic Search

The flood plain of Paraná river problably mantain, one of the last considerable populations of neotropical big cats, represented by jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). Large felids depend on the landscape to obtain food and habitat. Fire is a huge natural agent that can change the landscape, modifying flora and fauna species. In the Ilha Grande National Park,

Kauê Cachuba de Abreu; Letícia de Paulo Koproski; Ângela Márcia Kuczach; Pedro Chaves de Camargo; Tiago Giarola Boscarato



Microsoft Academic Search

2, 4 RESUMO: Acritarcos anormais são indivíduos portadores de anomalias morfológicas e que são encontrados em diversos níveis ao longo da série siluriana, mas particularmente abundantes dentro do limite Llandovery\\/Wenlock. São poucos os trabalhos que fazem referências a acritarcos anormais. Na primeira citação foi descrito um Veryhachium europaeum \\



Anatomia foliar de bromélias ocorrentes em áreas de cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf anatomy of bromeliads from the cerrado of São Paulo State, Brazil). Our aim was to indicate typical features of Bromeliaceae as well as possible adaptive features found in cerrado species. We studied the leaves of five Bromelioideae, seven Tillandsioideae and one Pitcairnoideae. Usually the stomata of Bromelioideae are located only on the abaxial leaf surface, there is epidermal and

Suzana Lúcia Proença


12 item allodynia symptom checklist/Brasil: cross-cultural adaptation, internal consistency and reproducibility.  


Since there was no Portuguese questionnaire to evaluate cutaneous allodynia, which has been pointed out as a risk factor of migraine, we aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the 12 item Allodynia Symptom Checklist for the Brazilian population and to test its measurement properties. It consisted in six stages: translation, synthesis, back translation, revision by a specialist committee, pretest and submission the documents to the committee. In the pretest stage, the questionnaire was applied to 30 migraineurs of both sexes, who had some difficulty in understanding it. Thus, a second version was applied to 30 additional subjects, with no difficulties being reported. The mean filling out time was 3'36", and the internal consistency was 0.76. To test reproducibility, 15 other subjects filled out the questionnaire at two different times, it was classified as moderate (weighted kappa=0.58). We made available to Brazilian population an easy, quick and reliable questionnaire. PMID:23175197

Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Branisso, Lívia B; Gonçalves, Maria Cláudia; Dach, Fabíola; Speciali, José Geraldo; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora




Microsoft Academic Search

In the two last decades, in many countries of Latin America, a renaissance of the agrarian politics was verified. These had been implemented, almost always, in the context of the programs of combat to the poverty and promotion of the agricultural development. In this situation it fits to mention the system of land lease, sufficiently used in some latin and

Patrícia José de Almeida


Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil. Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae), mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and

Patologia Geral


USO E ABUSO DE DROGAS PSICOTRÓPICAS NO BRASIL Use and abuse psychotrophics drugs in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the studies performed by CEBRID on the drugs consumptiom in the country, commenting the main results, with emphasis in the surveys among students and the 1 st household survey in São Paulo's State.

José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz; Aldous Huxley


[The nursing administration scientific publications in Brasil since 1947 until 1972].  


The Nursing Administration was added to the Nursing Undergraduation Curriculum when the evidence of this need came clear to the brazilian nurses. The main objective of the present investigation is to describe the history pathway of scientific productions about Nursing Administration to evidence the special points of this history, intended to contribute to the understanding of the sequence of their productions and the utilization of this concepts in the administration nursing practice. The study referred from 1947 to 1972, by the searching in the electronic nursing scientific publications data base named--PERIENF. The results were 19 indications submitted to a thematic analysis treatment. This procedure reveals that since the forties the nurses were conscious of the difficulties they had experimented in their administration performance, growing up to the inclusion of this theme in the undergraduate courses and demonstrating its organization until the definition of the "Curriculo Mínimo do Curso de Enfermagem e Obstetricia" in 1972, granting a special place of this discipline. PMID:16334196

Martins, Elaine Guimarães; Sanna, Maria Cristina



Abertura Financeira e Vulnerabilidade Externa na América Latina: os impactos sobre Brasil, México e Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho, na primeira seção, define o que costuma ser entendido como um processo de abertura financeira, identifica os níveis que compõem este processo, e lista as principais justificativas teóricas costumeiramente apresentadas para a implementação deste tipo de política. Na segunda seção, discute-se teoricamente o impacto dos processos de liberalização financeira na autonomia de política econômica e no grau

Juan Pablo Painceira; Marcelo Dias Carcanholo


Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira



Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the contribution of cash transfer programmes to the observed fall in inequality in Brazil between 1995 and 2004 as well as its impact on poverty. We use the 2004 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) that for the first time collected data on the incidence of some of the cash transfer programmes. We develop a methodology to separate

Fabio Veras Soares; Sergei Soares; Marcelo Medeiros; Rafael Guerreiro Osório




Microsoft Academic Search

List of mammals from Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The mammal fauna from Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, is one of the least known of the country. Works on terrestrial mammals are scarce and new species of aquatic mammals have been registered in the last years. For that reason, a commented list of the mammals of Santa Catarina based on

Jorge J. Cherem; Paulo C. Simões-Lopes; Sérgio Althoff; Maurício E. Graipel; Servidão Adélia; C. Cherem



Baixo peso ao nascer em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birthweight infants (under 2500 g) are much more likely to have severe diseases or die in the first year of life. This study's objective was to compare occurrence of low birthweight, preterm births, and intrauterine growth retardation in two cohorts born in the years 1982 and 1993 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All hospital births (corresponding to over 99% of

Bernardo L. Horta; Fernando C. Barros; Ricardo Halpern; Cesar G. Victora



Sugestões para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Modificações no mini-exame do estado mental (MEM) foram sugeridas anteriormente em nosso meio. Neste artigo relatamos sugestões para aplicação uniforme deste instrumento. Método: Avaliamos 433 indivíduos saudáveis sem queixas de memória através do MEM tendo seu desempenho sido avaliado quanto às variáveis demográficas. As modificações propostas foram detalhadamente descritas. Resultados: A escolaridade foi o principal fator que influenciou

Sonia M. D. Brucki; Ricardo Nitrini; Paulo Caramelli; Paulo H. F. Bertolucci; Ivan H. Okamoto




Microsoft Academic Search

While in the social and in the ethical realms the Cardoso administration was successful, its economic outcomes were frustrating. In this administration's eight years the investment rate did not increase and income per capita growth lagged, while the public debt and the foreign debt increased substantially. This poor economic performance may be explained by three chained causes: a mistake in

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira


Mortalidade precoce por doenças do coração no brasil. Comparação com outros países  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo - Comparar a mortalidade por doenças do coração e pela doença coronária (DC) nas faixas etárias dos 45 aos 64 anos, no período 1984-87, em capitais bra- sileiras com outros países. Métodos - Foram utilizadas as estatísticas oficiais de mortalidade de 8 capitais com boa qualidade de informa- ção: Belém, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Ja- neiro, São

Paulo Andrade Lotufo



The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III  

SciTech Connect

A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R. [Instituto de Fisica da USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 (Brazil); Assuncao, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Unifesp, Campus de Diadema, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)



Desigualdades geográficas e sociais na utilização de serviços de saúde no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care service consumption is related not only to need and individuals' behav- ior, but also to factors associated to the supply side of health care market. The new Brazilian Constitution (1988) established the Unified Health Care System (SUS) which is based on universal access to health care services. The sys- tem was implemented in 1990. The principle of equity

Cláudia Travassos; Francisco Viacava; Cristiano Fernandes; Célia Maria Almeida



Microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) bioaccumulation in fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay (Brasil, RJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blooms of cyanobacteria in water bodies cause serious environmental problems and the occurrence of toxic strains are also related with the human health. Aquatic animals could bioaccumulate microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) and so, beyond water, the ingestion of contaminated food represents a human health risk. Recently, WHO recommended a maximum concentration of microcystins (MCYSTs) in drinking water and established the tolerable

V. F. Magalhaes; M. M. Marinho; P. Domingos; A. C. Oliveira; S. M. Costa; L. O. Azevedo; S. M. F. O. Azevedo



Rickettsioses emergentes e reemergentes numa região endêmica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the county. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clini- cal symptoms of Brazilian

Márcio A. M. Galvão; Joel A. Lamounier; Elido Bonomo; Margarete S. Tropia; Eliane G. Rezende; Simone B. Calic; Chequer B. Chamone; Mirtes C. Machado; Márcia E. A. Otoni; Romário C. Leite; Camila Caram; Cláudio L. Mafra; David H. Walker



Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae) em igarapés da Amazônia Central, Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Estudos florísticos e taxonômicos envolvendo diatomáceas são escassos para a região amazônica. As publicações existentes incluem registros de diatomáceas da Amazônia brasileira, do Equador, da Colômbia e do Peru e comumente mostram que Eunotia e Actinella (Eunotiaceae) são gêneros bem representados nessa região. A maioria dos igarapés amazônicos costuma apresentar potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) ácido, característica aquática que promove o

Fernanda Ferrari; Letícia Knechtel Procopiak; Yamile Benaion Alencar; Thelma Alvim Veiga Ludwig



Mapeamento dos ambientes aquáticos e da cobertura da terra na Bacia do Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to map and characterize the aquatic environments and the ways of use and occupancy of land along the basin of purus river. To implement this work were used images of optical sensor TM \\/ satellite Landsat 5. The software was used SPRING. the floodplain covers an area of 22,184 km2. The lakes dendritic present the largest

Alberto Furtado; Martins Junior



PubMed Central

Background After hearing about the reproducible and excellent results of the Ponseti method for clubfoot treatment, a group of Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons organized and participated in a standardized national program to teach the Ponseti technique in 21 different cities across Brazil. Methods A total of 21 Ponseti symposiums were organized in a standard fashion from January, 2007 to December, 2008. They consisted of a two-day program with lectures, hands-on cast application, and discussion of local clinical cases presented by orthopaedic surgeons. Thirteen Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons, who had been trained by the University of Iowa or centers recognized by them, taught the method. Financial support for travel was provided by an English charity: La Vida (Vital Investment for Developing Aid in Latin America). The physicians who attended the symposiums answered questionnaires before and after the training. Results About 7% of the 8000 orthopaedic surgeons in Brazil (556 orthopaedic surgeons) were trained. These orthopaedic surgeons stated that they had treated about 4905 babies in the previous year via other methods, including extensive surgery. Seventeen percent of the surgeons did not know about the Ponseti technique at the start of the symposium. Eighty-eight percent reported they felt able to treat children with the Ponseti technique after the symposium. Ninety-four percent of respondents reported that the symposium changed their way of treating clubfoot Conclusions These Ponseti symposiums brought about an exchange of medical information and empowered the participants. This program is a good educational tool which can be used in eradicating neglected clubfoot in Brazil.

Nogueira, Monica Paschoal; Pereira, Julio Cesar Rodrigues; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Lourenco, Alexandre; Tedesco, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Laura Alves; Forlin, Edilson; Volpi, Reinaldo; Violante, Francisco; Brandao, Gilberto; Novaes, Eduardo; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amin; Kim, Jung Ho; Aguiar, Carlos; Merlotti, Maria Henriqueta Renno



Brasil: Novo Desafio a Saude do Adulto (Brazil: The New Challenge of Adult Health).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on the problems which the Brazilian health system will face in coming decades as the population gets older, and as chronic and degenerative diseases and AIDS increase. The focus is on the causes of mortality which become dominant in the ...



Novos Aspectos da Regulação do Trabalho no Brasil. Qual o Papel do Estado?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uma inserção civilizada dos trabalhadores nos âmbitos econômico, social e político da vida brasileira depende da existência de relações assalariadas com direitos trabalhistas e previdenciários assegurados. Não obstante, ao longo dos anos 1990 e em parte dos atuais, os trabalhadores tenderam a assumir outras posições na estrutura de ocupações – posições quase sempre distintas da de assalariados formalmente registrados. Em

André Gambier Campos



Compatibilizando Direitos Sociais com Competividade: Fiscais do Trabalho e a Implementação da Legislação Trabalhista no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudo trata da seguinte questão: como compatibilizar direitos trabalhistas e proteção social com competitividade e produtividade das empresas? Na América Latina, há um intenso debate sobre a perversidade da legislação trabalhista (considerada prejudicial para os trabalhadores e para as empresas) e, em resposta, a política recomendada atualmente enfatiza a desregulamentação e a flexibilização dos direitos trabalhistas existentes. Em contraposição

Roberto Pires



Políticas trabalhista, Fundiária e de Crédito Agrícola e Seus Impactos Adversos Sobre a Pobreza no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the question of the concentrated pattern of agriculturaldevelopment in Brazil, as expressed in the predominance of large-scale production,high level of mechanization and low absorption of non-qualified labor. It is proposed,initially, the existence of two conflicting explanations for this fact: the first, thatblames our historical heritage, characterized by the predominance of the latifúndio,with the implication that the solution

Gervásio Castro de Rezende



Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de trigo irrigado no Cerrado do Brasil Central  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to estimate the adaptability and stability of irrigated wheat genotypes under conditions of Central Brazil savannah area. Grain yield of five cultivars and nine lines of irrigated wheat was measured in assays of cultivation value and use. The assays were conducted during the years 2005 and 2006, in six locations in Minas Gerais State,

Embrapa Soja



Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya) throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world- wide, only three have been identified to date that naturally




Genetic characterization of native and introduced populations of the neotropical cichlid genus Cichla in Brazil  

PubMed Central

A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA and Control Region sequences from native and introduced populations was undertaken, in order to characterize the introduction of Cichla (peacock bass or tucunaré) species in Brazil. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes found in introduced fish from Minas Gerais state (southeastern Brazil) clustered only with those from native species of the Tocantins River (Cichla piquiti and C. kelberi), thereby suggesting a single or, at most, few translocation acts in this area, even though with fish from the same source-population. Our study contributes to an understanding of the introduction of Cichla in regions of Brazil outside the Amazon basin, and adds phylogenetic data to the recently describe Cichla species, endemic from the Tocantins-Araguaia basin.



Revision of the South American freshwater fish genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Anostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anostomid genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872, is redefined.Various morphological, especially osteological characters in addi- tion to the commonly utilized features of dentition proved useful for its characterization. A taxonomic revision of all species was made using meristics, morphometrics and color pattern. Five species are recognized: Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950, from the río Orinoco (Venezuela) and the sub-basins Tocantins\\/Araguaia and Xingu,

Kelly Cristina Mautari; Naércio Aquino Menezes



Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries\\u000a of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an\\u000a urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We\\u000a recorded 86 and 601 fish

Gustavo Hallwass; Priscila Fabiana Lopes; Anastacio Afonso Juras; Renato Azevedo Matias Silvano



Combined use of the centroid and matched filtering spectral magnetic methods in determining thermomagnetic characteristics of the crust in the structural provinces of Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of data acquired in twelve different aeromagnetic surveys of central Brazil has led to new insights in the magnetic characteristics of the lithosphere in the structural provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco. Since centroid-based spectral magnetic methods do not model the spectrum explicitly, they are used for the first time in conjunction with the matched filtering spectral modeling method to verify that appropriate slope segments are fit when determining source depths. The Tocantins province is characterized by subdued variations in the thickness of magnetized layers, most of which may be associated with structural discontinuities and subcrustal intrusions. In contrast, variations in thickness of magnetized crustal layers are more prevalent in the São Francisco province. The depths to the bottom of magnetized crust in the Tocantins province are, in general, less than 30-35 km, whereas they reach depths greater than 40 km in the São Francisco province. In parts of São Francisco craton, the depths to the bottom of magnetized crust are greater than the crustal thickness determined from seismic refraction and receiver function studies. However, these are indistinguishable in terms of resolution of the two methods. Analysis of heat flow data and results of thermal modeling indicate depths of Curie isotherms consistent with estimates from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. Hence the possibility that the uppermost part of mantle under the São Francisco craton may be ferromagnetic cannot be dismissed.

Guimarães, S. N. P.; Ravat, D.; Hamza, V. M.




Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper was to test the h ypothesis that at least 46 counties of Maranhão State may be included into th e Brazilian Semi-arid Zone. Such hypothesis comes from the climatic, social as well economical characteristics prevailing in those counties. In order to do this job, we utiliz ed the Aridity Index. Unfortunately, we only have

O Maranhão; José de Jesus; Sousa Lemos


Acompanhamento do crescimento em crianças menores de um ano: situação nos serviços de saúde em Pernambuco, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A situational diagnosis was performed on infant growth monitoring in Greater Metropolitan Rec- ife and in the interior of the State of Pernambu- co, Brazil, using the database from the Survey on Maternal and Child Health in the State of Per- nambuco, 1998, which included 816 infants (< 1 year of age) and 120 health units. Epi Info ver- sion

Michelle Figueiredo Carvalho; Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira; Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani; Iná S. Santos; Ana Amélia Corrêa de Araújo Veras; Malaquias Batista Filho




Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions related to urban environmental quality play important emphasis in the present. Several scientific studies have been developed in order to contribute to developments related to the theme. Among them, many believe the presence of vegetation as an important indicator of urban environmental quality. Although there is no consensual definition, the term used to designate the urban vegetation is \\

Lindon Fonseca Matias; Danúbia Caporusso



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY By means of standardized methods, the nutritive value of some beetle species that are eaten in Mexico and that of Pachymerus nucleorum from Brazil was analyzed and compared. It is con- cluded that the edible beetles of Mexico and P. nucleorum show a high nutritive value in proteins, amino acids, fats, calories, and minerals. Their ingestion contributes to the

Julieta Ramos-Elorduy; Eraldo Medeiros; Costa Neto; José M. Pino Moreno; Ivonne Landero-Torres; Sergio C. Ángeles Campos; Águeda García Pérez



Participação social nos serviços de saúde: concepções dos usuários e líderes comunitários em dois municípios do Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social participation in management of the health care system at different levels of government is one of the key policies promoted by the Unified National Health System (SUS) in Brazil. As with any new policy, success hinges on several factors such as stakeholders' interests and opinions, which have not always been considered in the past. This paper analyzes the un-

María Luisa Vázquez; Maria Rejane Ferreira da Silva; Eliane Siqueira Campos; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Ida Leite Veras; Ana Paula Campos Pereira



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.  


Regular (non-alkylated) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues were determined in sediments from Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon using gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Concentrations varying from 405 to 11734 ng x g(-1) were found for total PAHs (regular and alkylated homologues). The study showed a pyrogenic and petrogenic contribution, probably due to the incomplete burning of fossil fuels as a result of the intense traffic of boats and motor vehicles added to the anthropogenic activity of several gas stations present in the region of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Sediment Quality Guide, PAHs concentration should not exceed 4000 ng x g(-1) (Long et al., 1995) The obtained data present values above the NOAA limit for some sampling points indicating chronic contamination of those sites probably due to anthropogenic activities related to petroleum and its derivatives. PMID:17365308

Stefens, Josemar; dos Santos, João Henrique Z; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro



Gravidez na adolescência: perfi l sócio- demográfi co e comportamental de uma população da periferia de São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the socio-demographic behavioral profile of low-income pregnant teenagers, 1,000 adolescents admitted to a Brazilian public ma- ternity hospital from July 24, 2001, to November 27, 2002, were interviewed. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables were assessed through a questionnaire. Over the 492 days of the study, 24.3% of admissions were adolescents (930 for childbirth and 70 for miscarriage). Mean ma-

Elisa Chalem; Sandro Sendin Mitsuhiro; Cleusa P. Ferri; Marina Carvalho; Moraes Barros; Ruth Guinsburg; Ronaldo Laranjeira


Atividade da celulase de fungos isolados do solo da Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

(recebido: 13 de novembro de 2002; aceito: 27 de novembro de 2003) ABSTRACT - (Cellulase activity of fungi isolated from soil of the Ecological Station of Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brazil). Eighty filamentous fungi strains isolated from soil of the Atlantic rainforest in the Banhado Grande, an Ecological Station region of Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo State, Brazil, were analysed concerning their potential

Marcelo J. S. Ruegger; Sâmia M. Tauk-Tornisielo



Mapas Auto-Organizáveis Aplicados ao Mapeamento do Potencial Mineral na Província Mineral de Carajás, Norte do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was designed with the aim of integrating and searching for patterns in airborne geological and geophysical gamma-spectrometric and magnetic data of the Serra Leste region, Carajás Mineral Province. SOM is an unsupervised Artificial Neural Network method that performs a non-linear mapping from a high-dimensional data space to a 2-dimensional grid, whereas preserving the topological relations

Emilson Pereira Leite


Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes com neurocisticercose atendidos no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to drawn an epidemiological and clinical profile of the neurocysticer- cosis (NCC) patients assisted by Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá. A transversal, retrospective and descriptive study based on 6,100 records of the Neurology, Neuropediatry, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry clinics was done from January\\/1998 to December\\/2004. Of these, 48 were selected with diagnosis of NCC. The

Márcia Regina Benedeti; Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna; Ana Lúcia Falavigna-Guilherme; Silvana Marques de Araújo



A high spatial resolution outdoor dose rate map of the Rio de Janeiro city, Brasil, risk assessment and urbanization effects.  


Geophysical surveys have been widely used for geological mapping, and with appropriate ground calibration the database can be converted to radiometric surveys. Herein we present a case study of a high resolution map of the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, constructed by integrating aerial and in situ (ground) measurements. This allowed assessing the influence of urbanization observed between 1978 and 2009 on radiation external exposure. Radiometric, geological and demographics databases were integrated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) facility. The average absorbed dose rate recorded for the city was 96 ± 0.3 nGy h(-1) and ranged from 22 to 152 nGy h(-1) among districts. The corresponding annual effective dose was determined as 0.09 ± 0.01 mSv. The number of people at risk per year according to the estimated natural radiation levels was 17 ± 1.4, among the 28,000 new cases estimated by the INCA (Brazilian National Cancer Institute) within a population of approximately 6.3 million people. PMID:23933084

Licínio, M V; Freitas, A C; Evangelista, H; Costa-Gonçalves, A; Miranda, M; Alencar, A S



Tabaco, álcool e outras drogas entre adolescentes em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: uma perspectiva de gênero  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the relationship between gender and use of psychoactive substances (al- cohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs) by teenagers. In 2002, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sam- ple of adolescents, 15 to 18 years of age. Subjects were interviewed using a self-applied confiden-

Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Blanca Morales; Marlene Neves Strey



Conglomerados de homicídios e o tráfico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a spatial analysis of homicides in Belo Horizonte according to the Minas Gerais Military Police records from 1995 to 1999. The authors identify clusters of high mortality risk and relate them to areas with drug traffic and associated violence. SaTScan soft-

Cláudio Chaves Beato Filho; Renato Martins Assunção; Bráulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva; Frederico Couto Marinho; Ilka Afonso Reis; Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida



Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 ­ Distribuição por hábitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population be- havior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens

Anthony Érico Guimarães; Catarina Macedo Lopes; Rubens Pinto de Mello; Jeronimo Alencar



Mamíferos de médio e grande porte atropelados em rodovias do Estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to

Jorge J. Cherem; Marcelo Kammers; Ivo R. Ghizoni-Jr; Anderson Martins


Uma Análise Tipológica da Dinâmica dos Arranjos e Sistemas Produtivos e Inovativos Locais (Aspil?S) Do Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar a dinâmica produtiva e inovativa dos Arranjos e Sistemas Produtivos e Inovativos Locais (ASPILs), tendo como foco os ASPILs nordestinos. Para tanto, foi utilizado o arcabouço da teoria evolucionária tendo por base o conceito de Sistema Nacional de Inovação do qual gerou a conceituação de ASPIL. Assim, buscou-se apresentar a dinâmica de arranjos

Diogo Araújo Sampaio


Formas Plurais no Franchising de Alimentos: Evid?ncias de Estudos de Caso na França e no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O problema de formas plurais é importante tema de interesse na literatura dedicada ao franchising. A coexistência de lojas próprias e unidades franqueadas em uma mesma rede é fato bem conhecido, merecendo a grande atenção que vem recebendo dos pesquisadores. Acontece, porém, que formas organizacionais no franchising são mais diferenciadas do que sugere a literatura. De fato, informações oriundas de

Vivian Lara; S. Silva; Paulo Furquim de Azevedo



Microsoft Academic Search

The services provided by the pollinators are directly linked to the reproductive success of the plants, since the transference of the pollen (genetic flow) up to the production of fruits and seeds. Five groups of floral visitors of the umbuzeiro were identified: bees (5 species), ants (6 species), wasps (6 species) and flies (8 families). The potencial pollinators were: Apis

Lílian Santos Barreto; Synara Mattos Leal; Joseane Costa dos Anjos; Marina Siqueira de Castro


Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos


Estratificação vertical de bromélias epifíticas em diferentes estádios sucessionais da Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Ilha de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

(recebido: 2 de junho de 2005; aceito: 9 de março de 2006) ABSTRACT - (Vertical stratification of epiphytic bromeliads on different stages of secondary succession of Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Catarina Island, Santa Catarina, Brazil). The present study aims to characterize the distribution of bromeliads height preference at four sucessional stages (\\



Amamentação e padrões alimentares em crianças de duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastfeeding is fundamental for infant health. However, its median duration in Brazil is very short, and national campaigns since the mid-1980s have attempted to revert this situation. In the present paper, data on breastfeeding are compared for two population-based cohorts of chil- dren born in 1982 and 1993 in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. All hospital births in

Bernardo L. Horta; Maria Teresa A. Olinto; Cesar G. Victora; Fernando C. Barros; Paula R. V. Guimarães



Mortalidade materna: um estudo dos níveis e das causas de óbitos no México e no Brasil entre 2000 e 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mortalidade materna se apresenta como um grave problema social e de saúde pública, representando um importante indicador para avaliar as condições de assistência à saúde feminina. A preocupação com as mortes maternas está relacionada principalmente às repercussões sociais e econômicas que a morte de uma mulher acarreta para as famílias. Isto porque as mulheres assumem atribuições centrais na organização

Ana Paula Belon


A Produção e o emprego industrial no Brasil e o impacto da abertura comercial (1990-2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analisou-se a liberalização comercial, o nível de emprego e a produção industrial no período entre 1990 e 2008. Em 1980, o Modelo de Substituição de Importações (MSI) sofreu com os efeitos retardados de três grandes choques adversos que estrangularam a balança de pagamentos gerando estagflação. Era evidente o MSI tinha se esgotado. O modelo adotado em 1990, o Modelo do

Luis Emmanuel Rodrigues Monteiro


Impasses da energia nucleoeletrica no Brasil na decada de 80. (Nucleoelectric energy dilemma in Brazil in the 1980's).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production of electrical energy by nuclear reactors is unnecessary in Brazil. This option, which was concrete by the beginning of the 1970's, had its origins in the industrialized countries of the northern hemisphere. It signified a political ideological ...

M. D. P. Darella




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A suíte Serrinha localiza-se na porção meridional do Cráton São Francisco e é representada pelo quartzo diorito do Brito, granodiorito Brumado de Cima, granodiorito Brumado de Baixo, dois corpos granofíricos e dois corpos subvulcânicos - vulcânicos félsicos. As relações de campo apontam que os corpos da suíte Serrinha são intrusivos em rochas metamáficas, metaultramáficas e metassedimentares do greenstone belt



The Effect of an Organic Pesticide on Mortality and Learning in Africanized Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven experiments were conducted. First, the influence of the consumption of different concentrations of the organic pesticide Bioganic ® on mortality was assessed at 11 different time intervals in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) as was direct application of the pesticide to the abdomen. Results indicated that the pesticide was not lethal to bees regardless of concentration at any

Charles I. Abramson; Jordan B. Singleton; Maritza K. Wilson; Paulo A. Wanderley



Novos materiais de Propraopus Ameghino, 1881 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) do Pleistoceno final, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEW FOSSIL MATERIAL OF PROPRAOPUS AMEGHINO, 1881 (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, CINGULATA) OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL Propraopus Ameghino, 1881 is a genus of Dasypodidae that was widely distributed during the Pleistocene times in South America. In Brazil it was recorded in many localities and distinct latitudes, between the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. This work discuss new

Vanessa Gregis Pitana; Ana Maria Ribeiro


Haroldo Leitão Camargo. Uma pré-história do turismo no Brasil: recreações aristocráticas e lazeres burgueses (1808-1850)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Na efeméride dos duzentos anos da chegada da Coroa Portuguesa a ter- ras brasileiras e na esteira das inovações que trouxe consigo — como a cria- ção de instituições de ensino superior, indústrias, imprensa e museus, entre outras —, observamos que a historiografia tem revisitado esses temas. No en- tanto, poucos especialistas têm se debruçado sobre o estudo das formas

Sandra C. A. Pelegrini



Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Soares, J. E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R. A.; Mooney, W. D.; Ventura, D. B. R.



Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam  

SciTech Connect

The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.

Fearnside, P.M.



Diversity and microdistribution of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) assemblages in the tropical savanna streams of the Brazilian cerrado.  


We describe the abiotic factors affecting the distribution of black flies at a microhabitat scale, rather than at the regional scale usually present in the literature on the Neotropics. Black fly larvae were sampled from the Tocantins River and three tributaries, located in the Brazilian savanna (state of Tocantins, Brazil) during six bi-monthly sampling periods from October 2004-August 2005. At each sampling site, 15 random quadrats (30 x 30 cm) were sampled each period and for each quadrat were determined mean water velocity, predominant substrate type (rocks, riffle litter or riparian vegetation) and depth detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to determine associations with current velocity, whereas correspondence analysis (CA) was used to estimate site specific current velocity associations. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to identify general microhabitat associations. The CCA showed that most species had a trend towards riffle litter, except for Simulium nigrimanum associated with rocky substrate and Simulium cuasiexiguum associated with riparian vegetation. The DCA showed a well defined pattern of water velocity associations. The CA revealed that the species showed different speed associations from one site to another, suggesting different competitive pressures resulting in the occurrence of different realized niches. PMID:22510832

Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira



Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.  


The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T



Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.  


Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants. PMID:24741469

de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela



Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

Cordani, U. G.



Biting behaviour and potential vector status of anthropophilic blackflies in a new focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu, central Brazil.  


Monthly collections were made of man-biting female blackflies: Simulium auripellitum Enderlein, S. guianense Wise, S. minusculum Lutz and S. nigrimanum Macquart (Diptera: Simuliidae) from four catching stations in the newly discovered focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu (13 degrees 35 minutes S 48 degrees 18 minutes W), 300 km north of Brasília in Goiás State. These provided baseline data on biting habits, population density and seasonal prevalence during the year before completion of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam on the Rio Tocantins near Minaçu, in a project investigating the effect of dam construction on onchocerciasis transmission in the area. All four simuliid species were most abundant during the dry season, and only bit in low numbers (S. auripellitum S. minusculum, S. nigrimanum) or were absent (S. guianense) in the wet season. Simulium minusculum was the predominant species at all catching stations, being particularly abundant by the large River Tocantins. The other three species were mainly associated with smaller rivers. In the dry season, biting rhythms of S. minusculum varied with catching site, while S. nigrimanum showed peaks of activity in early morning and during the afternoon. Experimental infection with Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), from a human volunteer, showed that this parasite could develop fully in the four simuliid species, which are all considered to be potential vectors in the area. PMID:11297099

Shelley, A J; Maia-Herzog, M; Dias, A P; Camargo, M; Costa, E G; Garritano, P; Lowry, C A



A New Cryptic Species of South American Freshwater Pufferfish of the Genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), Based on Both Morphology and DNA Data  

PubMed Central

The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected.

Amaral, Cesar R. L.; Brito, Paulo M.; Silva, Dayse A.; Carvalho, Elizeu F.



Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.  


The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions. PMID:21153639

Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias



76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, is revised...New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to...



Associação entre aves e flores de duas espécies de árvores do gênero Erythrina (Fabaceae) na Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association between birds and flowers of two species of trees of the genus Erythrina (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Flowers are considered important resources in the diet of birds during the dry season. We studied the interaction between birds and two species of the trees of genus Erythrina (E. falcata and E. verna) at four localities in

Ricardo Parrini; Marcos A. Raposo



Aplicação de dados SRTM, sensoriamento remoto e SIG em etnomapeamento: o caso da Terra Indígena Kampa do Rio Amônia na fronteira Brasil-Acre\\/Peru-Ucayali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous lands occupy 12% of Brazil and are not considered conservation units. While they are an essential instrument for protection of indigenous cultures, these lands also conserve natural resources and maintain environmental services. Ethnic mapping of indigenous lands has become an important tool for Indigenous management of these lands. In the case of the Kampa Indigenous Land of the Amonia

Antonio Willian; Flores de Melo


Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith




Microsoft Academic Search

Recognized in the State of São as one of the last f rontiers of development paulista, the Pontal do Par anapanema, has its main base in the agricultural economy, but needs to further diversify and increase technology. Order to support actions of public and private actors with r egard to rural development, this work had as main o bjective to

Ricardo Firetti; Vanderlei José Sereia; Eduardo Cardoso de Oliveira; Antônio Assiz de Carvalho



Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the exportation of soy, and other derived products, in Brazil and in Paraná state, from 1990 to 2007. The methodological procedures consist of identification of the most representative products of the chain - the soy in grain, the soy bran and soy oil, and analysis of the results using the Constant Market-Share (CMS) model. The sources of

Carlos Eduardo Caldarelli; Marcia Regina Gabardo Camara; Vanderlei Jose Sereia



Density and Magnetic Susceptibility of Pre-Cambrian Rocks in Southeastern Brazil Densidade E Suscetibilidade Magnetica de Rochas Pre-Cambrianas Do Se Do Brasil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density and magnetic susceptibility measurements of different rocks from SE Brazil were done with the aim to estimate some physical properties of the main rock formations of this area. Although the results could be affected in some regions by insufficient...

A. P. Padilha



Early Detection of Malaria Epidemics in Brazil: a Proposal for Automation Detecção precoce de epidemias de malária no Brasil: uma proposta de automação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Brazil, 99% of reported malaria cases occur in the Amazon Region. To date, however, an automated system has not yet been defined to detect epidemics in this area. This study proposes several statistical methods that could be useful for early detection of malaria epidemics. Five types of graphs were investigated: average +1.96 standard deviations (Cullen method); inter-quartile range

Rui Moreira Braz; Pauline Lorena Kale; Rio de Janeiro-RJ



Bactérias transportadas em mutucas (Diptera: Tabanidae) no nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil Bacteria transported by horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the northeast of Pará State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Os insetos da família Tabanidae (Diptera), conhecidos vulgarmente como mutucas, são considerados potenciais pragas ao homem e animais domésticos pelo comportamento hematófago de suas fêmeas. São capazes de transportar mecanicamente vírus, bactérias e helmintos, pelo fato desses patógenos aderirem-se à estrutura da probóscide. As coletas dos insetos foram realizadas em áreas peri-urbanas e florestadas, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise e cavalos

Willy Cristiano Luz-Alves; Inocêncio de Sousa Gorayeb; José Caetano Lima Silva; Edvaldo Carlos; Brito Loureiro


Efeitos da Exploração Madeireira de Baixo Impacto sobre uma Comunidade de Aves de Sub-bosque na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este estudo compara a resposta de uma comunidade aves à exploração madeireira de baixo impacto através da distribuição das espécies em floresta controle e manejada ao longo de cinco anos com amostragem pré e pós-exploração. O procedimento de ordenação mostrou que a similaridade da comunidade de aves após a exploração madeireira foi menor que a similaridade entre as amostras

Luiza Magalli; Pinto HENRIQUES; Joseph M. WUNdERLE; C. OREN; Michael R. WILLIG


Parvovirus B19 infections in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: 526 sera analyzed by IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study were analyzed 526 sera; the patients aged from two days to 65 years old presenting exanthema, which was the most frequent symptom observed, besides fever, adenomegaly, and arthralgia. These sera were nega- tive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) for either rubella (495), toxoplasma (41), cytomegalovi- rus (12), measles (40), dengue (56), and they were submitted to nested

MCL Mendonça; SB Ribeiro; JNSS Couceiro; MG von Hubinger



Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at S?o Paulo city, Brasil  

PubMed Central

In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

d'Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.



A fauna de Rotallida (Foraminiferida) da borda do recife de Itacimirim, Bahia, Brasil: um estudo comparativo do sedimento e das algas como substrato  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare the Rotaliida fauna (Foraminiferida) that lives in the sediment with that attached on algae from the Itacimirim's reef border, Bahia's north coast. Six samples of sediment and six of algae were collected in sites distributed along the reef border. The first 200 foraminnifers of each sample were selected, identified and the specimens belonging to the

Yonara S. Braga; Altair J. Machado; Simone S. Moraes



Factores de la deserción escolar en Brasil. El papel de la paternidad temprana, la mano de obra infantil y la pobreza  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the major factors that lead to school abandonment in an urban surrounding, namely, the shantytowns of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. We use an extensive survey addressing risk factors faced by the population in these neighborhoods, which covered both in-school and out-of-school youth of both genders. The role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty in pushing

Ana Rute Cardoso; Dorte Verner



Magnetic fabric and emplacement mechanisms in a co-mingled mafic and felsic magma chamber: the Espinharas granite (Borborema Province, NE Brasil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Espinharas granite is a co-mingled mafic and felsic magmatic complex forming part of the widespread Brasiliano plutonism that affected the Borborema Province during the Neoproterozoic. Syenogranite is mixed and mingled with diorite generating a range of aluminous shoshonitic hybrid rocks containing mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of various shapes and orientations. Geochemical modelling shows that the pluton originated by upper-mantle magma underplating and fault-assisted intrusion of diorite, which would supply heat for partial melting of the crust and formation of syenogranite. The Espinharas granite comprises syenogranites and diorites associated with quartz-monzonites, monzodiorites and syenites mainly deformed in the magmatic state. The pluton is emplaced within Paleoproterozoic augen gneisses from the basement and is bounded by high-temperature NE-trending mylonitic shear zones at its western and eastern borders. To the south, the pluton is in contact with the E-trending high-grade transpressional Patos shear zone. Magmatic foliations can be observed throughout the syenogranite and in the felsic rocks, being defined by a SPO of feldspars and quartz. However, they appear to be absent in the diorite. The microgranular enclaves display irregular contacts with the host syenogranite and may be often aligned in agreement with the magmatic foliation; they are also randomly dispersed and disrupted by monzo- to syenogranitic veins. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique was employed in order to investigate the mechanical relationships between mingled mafic and felsic magmas, as well as their emplacement mechanisms. Susceptibilities are usually high (k > 1.3 mSI), suggesting that Ti-magnetite is the main carrier of the magnetic signal. The magnetic lineation plunges shallowly to NE, parallel to the pluton main elongation axis. Zircons from diorite and syenogranite yield U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages of ~ 620 Ma, which are attributed to the crystallization of the granite and are younger than the main metamorphic event in the Seridó Belt (~ 575 Ma). These data suggest that the magnetic fabric of the Espinharas granite records the high-temperature deformation observed in the Seridó Belt. This deformation was active during a prolonged time range (~ 100 Ma) in a hybrid magmatic chamber emplaced in the middle- to shallow continental crust. These conditions indicate that the Patos shear zone controlled the development of the magmatic- to solid-state fabric of the Espinharas granite, highlighting the contribution of strain partitioning in the mechanical mingling of magmas in the continental crust.

Viegas, G.; Gouveia, F.; Archanjo, C.; Hollanda, M.



Ocorrência de carrapatos em tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) e tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla) na região do Pantanal Sul Mato-Grossense, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of ticks on anteaters in the Pantanal region, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, between March and February 2001 is described. Tick species identified were Amblyomma cajennense (123 males and 63 females), A. parvum (35 males, 67 females) and A. nodosum (2 males), species considered as specific of anteater in its adult phase. A. cajennense was found in

João Ricardo Martins; Ísis Meri Medri; Carlos Marcos Oliveira; Alberto Guglielmone



Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host\\/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species\\/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella,

Martha Lima Brandão; Marcia Chame; José Luis Passos Cordeiro; S. A. de M. Chaves



Caracterização do microhabitat e vulnerabilidade de cinco espécies de arapaçus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) em um fragmento florestal do norte do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microhabitat characterization and vulnerability of five woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptidae) species in a forest fragment in northern state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Little information is available on the ecological requirements of the woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae), and on the causes of their tendency to disappear from forest fragments in the Neotropics. Here, we documented microhabitat selection of five syntopic species of woodcreepers in

Fabíola Poletto; Luiz dos Anjos; Edson Varga Lopes; Graziele Hernandes Volpato



O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

Gebara, Ademir



A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

Mazzilli, Sueli



Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

Germano, Jose Willington



Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound present in cashew apple and in some medicinal plants, is being associated to some specific biological effects. The purpose of this work was to determine anacardic acid content in peduncles of A. microcarpum and eight clones of A. occidentale from Northeastern Brazil, evaluating some physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of these peduncles. Cashew apples from BRS

Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa; Katiane Arrais Jales; Deborah dos Santos Garruti; Viviane Azevedo Padilha; Jedaias Batista de Lima; Maria de Jesus Aguiar; João Rodrigues de Paiva



Produção de frutos e distribuição espacial de angiospermas com frutos zoocóricos em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit production and spatial distribution of animal-dispersed angiosperms in a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). We investigated, during 14 months, patterns of fruit production of animal dispersed angiosperms in a patch of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF) in the National Park of Aparados da Serra, State of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. For a

Gabriela Paise; Emerson M. Vieira



Avaliação do impacto ambiental do uso e ocupação da terra na sub-bacia hidrográfica do Rio Vacacaí-Mirim\\/RS-Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of landuse in the watershed Vacacaí-Mirim River, located in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) for the lifting of the use and coverage of the earth were used topographic charts of Camobi and Santa Maria, on the scale of 1:50,000, and images CCD\\/CBERS 2 were used (October 2006) 3B4R2G composition.

Aline Batista Ferreira


Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco



Área Temática: Operações Avaliação do Nível de Serviço de Operadores Logísticos no Brasil: uma Aplicação de Análise Fatorial e Regressão Logística Binária AUTORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, significant economical changes have begun to affect the societies commercially developed and industrialized. This evolution has occurred not only in the industrial sector but also in the distribution sector and it has been characterized by the integration of the supply chain and also by the profound organizational changes, influencing significantly the organization's logistics system. The



Políticas Trabalhista e Fundiária e seus Efeitos Adversos Sobre o Emprego Agrícola, a Estrutura Agrária e o Desenvolvimento Territorial Rural no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the question of the concentrated pattern of agricultural developmentin Brazil, as expressed in the predominance of large-scale production, high level ofmechanization and low absorption of non-qualified labor. It is proposed, initially, theexistence of two conflicting explanations for this fact: the first, that blames our historicalheritage, characterized by the predominance of the latifúndio, with the implication thatthe solution

Gervásio Castro de Rezende



Respeito às Normas e Crescimento Econômico: Como Promotores Públicos Garantem o Cumprimento das Leis e Promovem o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta pesquisa examina como os membros do Ministério Público (MP) brasileiro conseguem que empresas instaladas em território nacional cumpram com a legislação trabalhista e ambiental sem perder a competitividade. Nos casos analisados, promotores e procuradores percebem que os gargalos que dificultam o cumprimento da lei estão freqüentemente fora das empresas infratoras e de suas respectivas cadeias de valor, e que,

Salo Vinocur Coslovsky




Microsoft Academic Search

Social-environment aspects of freshwater praws fisheries (Macrobrachium amazonicum Heller, 1862 e Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) of Bragantina Region - Pará - Brazil Among abundance of native shrimp species with high fisheries potential and good commercial relationships like Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), exotic species like Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been done introduced with aquaculture aims. Study was conducted with

Julliany Lemos Freire


Metschnikowia cerradonensis sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from ephemeral flowers and their nitidulid beetles in Brazil.  


A novel yeast species, Metschnikowia cerradonensis sp. nov., is described from 12 strains isolated from flowers of Ipomoea carnea and from beetles of the genus Conotelus in the Cerrado ecosystem in the region of Jalapão, Tocantins State, Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the rRNA gene cluster suggested that M. cerradonensis is closely related to Metschnikowia santaceciliae, Metschnikowia continentalis and an undescribed species represented by strain UWOPS 00-154.1. These species mate together but ascospores are very rarely formed, showing that they represent distinct biological species. M. cerradonensis is apparently endemic to the Cerrado ecosystem of the Jalapão area. The type strain of M. cerradonensis is UFMG 03-T67.1(T) (h(+)) (=CBS 10409(T)=NRRL Y-48067(T)) and the designated allotype is UFMG 03-T68.1 (h(-)) (=CBS 10410=NRRL Y-48068). PMID:17220460

Rosa, Carlos A; Lachance, Marc-André; Teixeira, Lia C R S; Pimenta, Raphael S; Morais, Paula B



Satellite telemetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic application of satellite data collection systems in Brazil is discussed. The Data Collection Platform (DCP) is a telemetry station used for the acquisition of environmental parameters. Artificial satellites are employed to relay the data to receiving centers. Two meteorologic satellite data collection systems are in operation in Brazil: the ARGOS system, on board low-orbit (850 km) satellites of the TIROS-NOAA series, and the Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) system, on board geostationary satellites (36,000 km) of the SMS/GOES series. DCPs have been used mainly in the field of hydrology to obtain timely data, to make decisions, and to compose historical records. The first DCP network established in Brazil was in the Tocantins Basin, which has 10 telemetry stations. Other networks are currently being planned. Prototypes of ARGOS and GOES DCPs are being developed that are aimed at further industrialization and improved supply of national demand.

Deolveira, J. R.



Freshwater sponge spicules: a new agent of ocular pathology.  


In a recent outbreak of human ocular injuries that occurred in the town of Araguatins, at the right bank of Araguaia river, state of Tocantins, Brazil, along the low water period of 2005, two patients (8 and 12-year-old boys) presented inferior adherent leukoma in the left eye (OS), and peripherical uveites, with snowbanking in the inferior pars plana. The third one (13-year-old girl) showed posterior uveites in OS, also with snowbanking. Histopathological analysis of lensectomy material from the three patients and vitrectomy from the last one revealed several silicious spicules (gemmoscleres) of the freshwater sponges Drulia uruguayensis and D. ctenosclera. This work brings material evidences, for the first time in the literature, that freshwater sponge spicules may be a surprising new etiological agent of ocular pathology. PMID:17293986

Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecilia; Lenzi, Henrique L; Oréfice, Fernando; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Alencar, Leandro M; Fonseca, Carlos F; Batista, Twiggy C A; Manso, Pedro P A; Coelho, Janice; Machado, Marcelo



The northernmost record of Catagonus stenocephalus (Lund in Reinhardt, 1880) (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During fieldwork carried out in January 2009 at Aurora do Tocantins (Tocantins State, northern Brazil), we recovered a fragmentary right maxilla (UNIRIO-PM 1006) of Catagonus stenocephalus from a sedimentary deposit of presumed late Pleistocene age in a karstic cave. This paper aims to: (1) provide the first record of C. stenocephalus in the northern region of Brazil (and consequently, also the northernmost one); (2) update the geographic distribution of C. stenocephalus; (3) present a date for the specimen; and (4) discuss the palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical implications of the finding. The species C. stenocephalus (Lund) is known from the Bonaerian (middle Pleistocene) and Lujanian (late Pleistocene to earliest Holocene) ages in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia. The new record presented here extends the geographical distribution of C. stenocephalus more than 1000 km north from the former northernmost record (caves of Lagoa Santa region). Peccaries of the genus Catagonus have several morphological features associated with cursorial habits in relatively open and dry environments. The new distributional range of C. stenocephalus is coincident with the Chacoan subregion, characterized by dry climates and open areas. As the studied material comes from the top of the carbonate layer, this may suggest that the deposition of the C. stenocephalus remains described here is synchronous with the onset of a wetter climate phase. This argument is also in accordance with the datation results, around 20 ky BP, just after the last glacial maximum. This increasingly wet climate, which may also be related to the climatic changes that occurred during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, could be a factor in the extinction of C. stenocephalus in South America.

Avilla, Leonardo S.; Müller, Lisiane; Gasparini, German M.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Absolon, Bruno; Pêgo, Frederico Bonissoni; Silva, Rafael C.; Kinoshita, Angela; Graciano Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Baffa, Oswaldo



MØtodo Mªe Canguru: aplicaÁªo no Brasil, evidŒncias cientÌficas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and mortality, psychological and neurological development and breastfeeding of low birth weight infants. Sources of data: Papers about Kangaroo Mother Care published from 1983 to 2004 were consulted, selected in Medline and Lilacs, as well as books, thesis and

Sonia Isoyama Venancio; Honorina de Almeida


I processi cumulativi nella crisi del debito degli anni 80: una lettura dai casi di Argentina, Brasile e Messico Cumulative processes in the 1980s debt crisis: an analysis from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico's case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the 1980s Latin American debt crisis in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and, in particular, the influence of cumulative processes at work in its early and final stages. The paper is organised in three sections. The first examines the crisis<92> features in the three countries, and maps the key macroeconomic and behavioural relationships at its onset and resolution.

Andrea de Panizza



Projeto Serge: Trabalho de Campo Referente AO Experimento Sir-a No Brasil (Fase 2) (Shuttle Experimental Radar for Geological Exploration (SERGE) Project: Field Work Relating to the Shuttle Experimental Radar A (SIR-A) in Brazil (Phase 2)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ground observations undertaken over the northern position of Minas Gerais State, and part of Distrito Federal from 7 to 12 December 1982, along the Space Shuttle 2 flying orbit 22 of November 1981 are described. Field data related mostly with litholog...

M. G. Balieiro P. R. Martini J. R. Dossantos J. T. Demattos



Condicionantes E Mecanismos Do Processo de Inovacao Tecnologica No Brasil: Atuacao de Institutos de Pesquisa (Conditions and Mechanisms of the Process of Technological Innovation in Brazil: The Role of Research Institutes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the role of research institutes concerning the Technological Innovation Process (PIT), in view of the bounds which are imposed on them by their external environment and by their organizational characteristics. As to the external enviro...

H. Decarvalhokataoka



Stereo Photo Series for Quantifying Cerrado Fuels in Central Brazil: Volume 1 (Series de Estereo-Fotografias para Quantificar a Biomassa da Vegetacao do Cerrado do Brasil Central. Volume 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five series of single and stereo photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings in Cerrado ecosystems in central Brazil. Each group of photographs is accompanied by information summarizing vegetation composition, structure and biomass...

R. D. Ottmar R. E. Vihnanek H. S. Miranda M. N. Sato S. M. A. Andrade



Foreign body aspiration in children and adolescents: experience of a Brazilian referral center* Aspiração de corpo estranho por menores de 15 anos: experiência de um centro de referência do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological and endoscopic characteristics of foreign body aspiration among individuals under the age of 15 treated at a referral center in the city of São Luís, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study using data from the medical charts of patients treated for foreign body aspiration at the Hospital Universitário Materno Infantil between 1995 and

Sílvia Teresa; Evangelista Vidotto; Marco Antonio Barbieri; José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto


O modelo de Solow-Swan na linguagem de dinâmica de sistemas: uma aplicação para o Brasil [The Solow-Swan model in the system dynamics language: an application for Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at contributing to the Brazilian economic growth discussion based on a new approach: system dynamics. Specifically, we intend to develop a systemic version of Solow-Swan model which allows the exploration of new angles of some important insights from recent Brazilian studies using that model and the assessment of the ability of the economy to grow in the

Newton Paulo Bueno



Perfil do nível de atividade física na vida diária de pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil* Profile of the level of physical activity in the daily lives of patients with COPD in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in COPD patients in Brazil, correlating those characteristics with physiological variables. Methods: Physical activities in daily life were evaluated in 40 COPD patients (18 males; 66 ± 8 years of age; FEV 1 = 46 ± 16 % of predicted; body mass index = 27 ± 6 kg\\/m 2 )

Nidia Aparecida Hernandes; Denilson de Castro Teixeira; Vanessa Suziane Probst; Antonio Fernando Brunetto; Ercy Mara; Cipulo Ramos; Fábio Pitta



Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

Chareille, Samantha



ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL AISLAMIENTO DE Rickettsia bellii A PARTIR DE GARRAPATAS Amblyomma ovale Y Amblyomma incisum PROCEDENTES DEL SUR DE BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in

Richard Pacheco; Simone Rosa; Leonardo Richtzenhain; Matias P. J. Szabó; Marcelo B. Labruna


Forame Oval Patente e AVC Criptogênico: situação do PC-trial no Brasil e no mundo Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke: the PC-trial in Brazil and around the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction: Several studies have shown an association between cryptogenic stroke and embolism from patent foramen ovale (PFO) but the question how to prevent further events is unresolved. PC-trial is a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of percutaneous closure of PFO with medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism, and is going on. The objective of this manuscript is

Marcia Maiumi Fukujima; Célia Maria Camelo Silva; Carlos Eduardo; Bernini Kapins; Antonio Carlos


Publicações indexadas geradas a partir de resumos de congressos de angiologia e cirurgia vascular no Brasil Indexed publications generated from abstracts of angiology and vascular surgery congresses in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Great part of the scientific production presented in congresses is not published. Even in developed countries, figures show an expressive difference between presentations and publications. Objective: To evaluate the number of published and indexed articles, based on available national and international databases, searching for titles and authors of papers and panels from Brazilian vascular surgery congresses held in 2001

Winston Bonetti Yoshida; Nicole França Holmo; Gabriela Tieme Corregliano; Karina Marcellino Baldon


Evaluación experimental de rodolitos como sustratos vivos para la infauna en el Banco de Abrolhos, Brasil Experimental evaluation of rhodoliths as living substrata for infauna at the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over large areas of the Brazilian continental shelf, coralline algal rhodoliths provide habitats with high community diversity. In order to understand the role of rhodoliths in structuring the poorly studied infauna of these habitats, we determined seasonal patterns of their size and shape related to the associated biota, and experimentally tested the influence of living substrata in the Abrolhos Archipelago

K Santos de Menezes; EM Costa-Paiva; PC Paiva; CRR Ventura


As Atividades de Treinamento Em Sensoriamento Remoto No Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais-Inpe/Brasil (Training Activities in Remote Sensing at the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais-Inpe/Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE) began its research program in remote sensing in 1972, with the launching of the American LANDSAT satellites. Research was developed mainly in the field of natural resources, throug...

T. M. Sausen R. Pereiradacunha




Microsoft Academic Search

The presented paper aims to analyze the perception on 3 dimensions of business associateship (management skill, business relationship and representativeness) by young entrepreneurs, besides putting in context the associativity movement in Brasil. In order to do so, the article presents a brief theoretical review, a few data on the entrepreneurial context in Brasil and finally a quantitative survey research introduces



Cidadania, identidade e multiculturalismo Cidadania, identidade e multiculturalismo Cidadania, identidade e multiculturalismo Cidadania, identidade e multiculturalismo Cidadania, identidade e multiculturalismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O argumento desenvolvido neste artigo procura demonstrar a necessidade de incorporar a discussão das diferenças no conceito de cidadania. No Brasil, a diferença étnico-racial sempre foi geradora de desigualdades entre brancos e negros. A construção de um conceito de cidadania que leve em consideração tal fenômeno certamente contribuirá para diminuir as desigualdades entre brancos e negros no Brasil. O

Márcio Mucedula Aguiar


77 FR 72776 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos-SP- BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732...Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732;...



77 FR 33334 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP-- BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732...Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos-SP--Brasil; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732;...



Impacto da redução dos encargos trabalhistas sobre a formalização e o salário das empregadas domésticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente artigo faz uma avaliação da polarização de renda no Brasil para os anos de 1981 e 2003. Após diferenciar os conceitos de polarização e de desigualdade de renda, calculamos o índice de polarização da renda no Brasil, com base na metodologia proposta por Esteban, Gradin e Ray (1999). Os resultados indicam que a bipolarização se manteve praticamente constante

Maria Isabel Accoroni Theodoro; Luiz Guilherme Scorzafave



Physiochemical characterisation of biomass burning plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different areas of Brazil. This included two extensive areas of burning, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single area of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the burned area was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 ?g m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 ?g m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass burning aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.

Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh



Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost all dry years occurred when the NTA index was positive. Annual streamflows were regressed on climatic indexes NINO 3.4 and NTA. At 95% level of significance, NINO3.4 and NTA indexes are significant variables in predicting streamflows at the Amazon (p=0.01% for NINO3.4 and p=0.30% for NTA) and at the Parana river basins (p=0.23% for NINO3.4 and p=1.11% for NTA). The values of R2 were significant high, 0.59 for Amazon and 0.26 for Parana, compared to very low values for Xingu (0.10), Araguaia-Tocantins (0.06) and Sao Francisco (0.04) river basins. The low correlation at central basins can be explained from the regression coefficients values. The coefficients for NTA index are all negative (except for Xingu river), indicating that negative NTA implies in greater streamflow and vice-versa. However, coefficients for NINO3.4 are negative at the Amazon and positive at Parana which means that negative anomalies (La Nina years) implies in greater streamflows at Amazon and lower streamflows at Parana and vice-versa. Opposite effects of El Nino/La Nina on north and south river basins seems to be neutralized in the central river basins so the correlation gets weaker: during El Nino (La Nina) events, the reduction (increasing) in rainfall at north is counter balanced by the enhancement (reduction) of rainfall at south associated with cold fronts.

Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.



Seismic waveforms inversion of earthquakes in the Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central region of Brazil, Tocantins (TO) province, the distribution of tectonic stresses are not well known; there is only a measurement of stress and no data from focal mechanisms.To understand the processes that occur during an earthquake, it is necessary to have a precise knowledge of the earthquake source parameters. This work shows that the focal mechanism of an earthquake can be obtained in reliable way using only information contained in its band-pass-filtered waveforms registered at a few stations.The inversion for the focal mechanism was made using the package ISOLA (Zahradnik et al., 2005, Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008) and MATLAB. The seismicity is associated with the Goiás -Tocantins (GO-TO) Seismic Range (SR) that crosses the central part of Brazil in a NE-SW direction. The obtained focal mechanisms are in agreement with the results obtained by Barros et al. (2012) for 5.0 mb earthquake in this region.The Green functions were calculated using the 1-D velocity model determined by Soares et al (2006) for a model of point source located above and below the hypocenter. Ten hypocenters were tested, 5 above and 5 below to the given hypocenter. All seismograms were corrected for instrument response, band-pass-filtered, integrated to obtain displacement, and finally inverted for the DC (double couple) focal mechanism. The optimal solution produced the best correlation between the observed and synthetic seismograms, in one of the 10 points tested. However, a new search was attempted for each point source located on a plane passing through the hypocenter's optimal previous solution. This plane is divided into a rectangular grid, whose separation depends on the physical dimensions of the source investigated. The centroid (center of gravity of the fault displaced), corresponds to the solution that produces the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations. the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations.

Sayao, E. A.; Barros, L. V.; Maffia, N.; Schmidt, K.; Quintero, R.



Flexural Stresses are a Major Factor to Enhance Intraplate Seismicity in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explaining intraplate seismic activity has been a challenging task. Several different models have been proposed combining weak crustal zones and mechanisms of stress concentration. Here we propose that stress concentration due to flexural deformation is one of the most important factors to explain seismicity in Central Brazil, especially the SW-NE oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons, called "Goiás-Tocantins Seismic Zone" (GTSZ). This activity has been usually associated with the TransBrasiliano Lineament (TBL), a major Paleozoic transcontinental feature. However, two observations cast doubt on a direct relationship with the Lineament. First, the seismic activity in the Tocantins province is parallel but not coincident with the TBL; secondly, the continental scale TransBrasiliano Lineament shows no seismic activity further to the NE (beneath the Parnaíba basin), while to the SW, the seismic activity follows an E-W and then N-S direction, not coincident with the TBL. On the other hand, the seismic zone coincides exactly with the trend of high isostatic gravity anomalies (above -20 mGal), which were interpreted as due to high-density mantle rocks beneath a belt of thin crust (roughly beneath the Goiás Magmatic Arc and the Central Massif). Upper crustal stresses due to flexural deformation were calculated with finite-element methods assuming a visco-elastic lithosphere overlying a very soft asthenosphere. The lithospheric load due to the shallow, high-density mantle rocks produces compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide GTSZ. Regional compressive stresses from plate boundary forces combine with the local flexural stresses to reach seismogenic levels in the GTSZ. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses (related to the peripheral bulge) balance the regional compression, which explains the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters (the N-S belt along the Eastern border of the Amazon craton near Carajás, the cluster of seismicity at the northern border of the Parecis Basin (Porto dos Gauchos Seismic Zone), and the active Pantanal Basin overlying the Paraguay foldbelt) are also located in areas of predominantly positive isostatic anomalies. For this reason we propose that similar compressional flexural stresses enhance the regional, plate-wide stresses up to seismogenic levels in other areas and are an important factor to explain the mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.

Assumpcao, M.; Sacek, V.



Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and Parnaiba intracontinental syneclises with almost continuous traces. Main direction is N45E, connected with splays of E-W and N-S secondary lineaments. Magnetic lineaments developed dominantly along the borders of crustal/lithospheric blocks, determining their limits. Magnetic Euler deconvolution preliminary results indicates depths up to 5 km. The magnetic lineaments continue below the intracratonic Phanerozoic basins, where brittle fault zones characterize several tectonic reactivation events from the Cambrian up to the Cenozoic. These results stress the outstanding role of the Transbrasiliano lineament in the tectonic framework of the Brazilian continental crust/lithosphere and the relevance of its set of faults in the infilling and evolution of large intracontinental Phanerozoic syneclises.

Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.



Two new species of Leporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, and redescription of Leporinus striatus Kner 1858.  


Two new species of Leporinus are described from tributaries of the Rio Amazonas in Brazil. One species is known from the Jari and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of a gas bladder reduced in size, a dark midlateral stripe on the body, dark transverse bars on the dorsum, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 16 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. The second new species is known from the Tocantins, Xingu and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of three dark longitudinal stripes on the body, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 12 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. In addition, Leporinus striatus is redescribed based on type and additional specimens from the Río de La Plata, Amazonas, Orinoco, Atrato, Magdalena and Sinu River basins. Leporinus striatus is identified on the basis of four dark longitudinal stripes on the body, a subterminal mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 16 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. PMID:24580659

Birindelli, J L O; Britski, H A



A New Species of River Dolphin from Brazil or: How Little Do We Know Our Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

True river dolphins are some of the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates. They comprise relict evolutionary lineages of high taxonomic distinctness and conservation value, but are afforded little protection. We report the discovery of a new species of a river dolphin from the Araguaia River basin of Brazil, the first such discovery in nearly 100 years. The species is diagnosable by a series of molecular and morphological characters and diverged from its Amazonian sister taxon 2.08 million years ago. The estimated time of divergence corresponds to the separation of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin from the Amazon basin. This discovery highlights the immensity of the deficit in our knowledge of Neotropical biodiversity, as well as vulnerability of biodiversity to anthropogenic actions in an increasingly threatened landscape. We anticipate that this study will provide an impetus for the taxonomic and conservation reanalysis of other taxa shared between the Araguaia and Amazon aquatic ecosystems, as well as stimulate historical biogeographical analyses of the two basins.

Hrbek, Tomas; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Dutra, Nicole; Gravena, Waleska; Martin, Anthony R.; Farias, Izeni Pires



Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.  


We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M



Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.  


The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity. PMID:24068089

Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia



Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.



La Leche League International  


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Microsoft Academic Search

4 D.S. - DEC\\/UFV, . Resumo: Há uma estreita relação entre qualidade de vida, sustentabilidade dos recursos hídricos e controle de cargas poluidoras. Uma gama de doenças está relacionada à qualidade da água utilizada; estima-se que até 10% do tempo útil de trabalho no mundo seja desperdiçado devido às condições da água utilizada. O grande déficit nos serviços de saneamento

Aníbal da Fonseca Santiago; Maria Lúcia Calijuri


Torio: uma das aplicacoes analiticas da ativacao neutronica e espectrometria alfa no CDTN nas ultimas tres decadas do Brasil. (Thorium: one of the analytical techniques in neutronic activation and alpha spectrometry of the CDTN (Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center) in the last three decades).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For long years, the CDTN (Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center ) has applied several analytical techniques in the thorium determination. This work is about the evolution of the neutronic activation in the thorium 232 analysis from the 1960's to...

M. A. B. Menezes C. V. S. Sabino



ESTUDO DE VIABILIDADE TÉCNICO-ECONÔMICA PRELIMINAR PARA PRODUÇÃO DE CARVÃO ATIVADO NO BRASIL A PARTIR DOS RESÍDUOS DO COCO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DOS CENÁRIOS DE PRODUÇÃO 1 Preliminary Technological-Economic Viability Study for Activated Charcoal Production in Brazil From Residual Coconut Biomass: A Comparative Study of Two Production Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O objetivo da pesquisa foi desenvolver uma rota para utilização de resíduos de coco para produção de carvão ativado com co-produção de energia, visando o máximo aproveitamento e máximo rendimento energético, com o mínimo de perdas de matéria-prima. Depois de realizadas pesquisas bibliográficas sobre o atual estado de tecnologia na produção de carvão ativado com base na biomassa residual

Brunno Henrique; Souza Santiago



Relation Between Ocean Temperature and Ocean Level Change in the Tropical Atlantic and Precipitation in the Amazon Region of Northeast Brazil Relacoes Entre Temperatura DA Agua Do Mar E Divergencia AO Nivel Do Mar No Atlantico Tropical E Precipitacao NAS Regioes Amazonica E Nordeste Do Brasil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The precipitation series for the rainy season over northeastern Brazil (Fortaleza and Quixeramobim) and the Amazon Region (manaus, Belem, Taperinha, Conceicao do Araguaia and Alto Tapajos) and a 48 station average of normalized departure of annual precipi...

M. T. Kagano



Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio



The influence of cement type and admixture on life span of reinforced concrete utility poles subjected to the high salinity environment of Northeastern Brazil, studied by corrosion potential testing (A influência do tipo de cimento e adição na vida útil de postes de concreto armado submetidos ao ambiente de alta salinidade do Nordeste do Brasil, estudada pela técnica de potencial de corrosão)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete structures installed in coastal zones have constantly been threatened by environmental damaging elements. The chloride ion is known as one of the most aggressive of these elements, causing, among other damages, corrosion of the steel reinforcement and then degradation of the concrete matrix. The goal of this work was to determine the influence of cement type on the

A. Joukoski; K. F. Portella; O. Baron; C. M. Garcia; G. R. Vergés; A. Sales; J. F. de Paula


Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Petrologia, geoquimica de elementos maiores, tracos, terras raras e isotopos (Sr, O, H, S) nos batolitos da Meruoca e Mocambo, Ceara, Nordeste do Brasil. (Petrology, geochemistry of major elements, traces, rare earths and isotopes (Sr, O, H, S) on Meruoca and Mocambo batholith, Ceara State, Northeast of Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Values of (delta) sup(18) O of whole-rock Meruoca granite and mineral separates form a remarkable bull's-eye pattern. Toward the periphery, the granite appears to be normal I type ((delta) sup(18) O = +7 to +8 permil sub(SMOW)). Whole-rock isochron gives ...

A. N. Sial



Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main Precambrian terrains recognized in Brazil comprise the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de la Plata cratons, surrounded by Neoproterozoic Brasiliano fold belts, making up the Borborema, Mantiqueira and Tocantins provinces. The Amazonian craton comprises an Archean core, surrounded by Paleoproterozoic terrains (Maroni-Itacaiunas, Ventuari-Tapajós, Rio Negro-Juruena), which southwestwards give way to the Mesoproterozoic Rondoniano-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts, the latter thought to be related to the Grenville belt of North America. The São Francisco craton comprises several Archean blocks (Gavião, Serrinha, Jequié) amalgamated by the Paleoproterozoic high-grade Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen. The Rio de la Plata craton, largely covered by Phanerozoic strata, is made of Paleoproterozoic basement gneiss and several Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts. Other cratonic blocks are hidden below large Phanerozoic basins, like the Paranapanema and Parnaíba blocks below the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, respectively. Several smaller Archean/Paleoproterozoic blocks appear within the Brasiliano provinces: some were strongly reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogenic events (São José do Campestre, Pernambuco-Alagoas, Goiás, Guanhães, Juiz de Fora, Curitiba), others were only marginally affected (São Luiz, Rio Apa, Luís Alves). The Brasiliano provinces are the result of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic orogenic events within the framework of West Gondwana amalgamation. The Mantiqueira Province extends from eastern Brazil to southern Uruguay and includes the Araçuaí, Ribeira and Dom Feliciano fold belts, bordering the São Francisco, Paranapanema and Rio de la Plata cratons and surrounding the Luís Alves craton. The Tocantins province in central Brazil includes the Araguaia, Paraguay and Brasília fold belts, the former bordering the Amazonian craton, the second bordering both the southern Amazonian craton and the Rio Apa block, and the last established on the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

Fuck, R.



Genetic structure of red-handed howler monkey populations in the fragmented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia.  


We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation, caused by flooding of the Tucuruí reservoir, on the genetic structure of Alouatta belzebul in eastern Amazonia. The analysis included two populations sampled in 1984, representing both margins of the Tocantins river, and three populations sampled 18 years later. Minimal differences in the diversity levels between present-day (Ho = 0.62-0.69 and A(R) = 6.07-7.21) and pre-flooding (Ho = 0.60-0.62 and A (R) = 6.27-6.77) populations indicated there was no significant loss of genetic variability, possibly because of successful management strategies applied during the flooding. The changes observed were limited to shifts in the composition of alleles, which presumably reflect the admixture of subpopulations during flooding. Given this, there were significant differences in the Rst values (p = 0.05) in all but one between-site comparison. Both present-day and original populations showed a deficit of heterozygotes, which suggests that this may be typical of the species, at least at a local level, perhaps because of specific ecological characteristics. The relatively large number of private alleles recorded in all populations may be a consequence of the Wahlund effect resulting from population admixture or a process of expansion rather than the loss of rare alleles through genetic drift. Additionally, the levels of genetic variability observed in this study were higher than those reported for other species of Neotropical primates, suggesting good fitness levels in these A. belzebul populations. Regular genetic monitoring of remnant populations, especially on islands, should nevertheless be an integral component of long-term management strategies. PMID:21637590

Bastos, Heitor B; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Ferrari, Stephen F; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula C



[Human exposure to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: a historical perspective].  


The objective of the present article was to present the most important data generated by a multicentric study carried out by Brazilian researchers who, with the support of national and international institutions, worked during the 1990s to describe human exposure to mercury in gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Three sets of procedures were followed with residents of the Tocantins and Xingu river basins: (1) clinical examination, based on a standardized protocol and performed by a single researcher, in order to identify five basic levels of contamination; (2) determination of mercury levels in blood, hair, and urine, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Xingu Project); and (3) investigation of genotoxicity by using four cytogenetic indicators. During the first stage, 41 individuals were studied. Mercury was found in miners and their family members. Contamination was significantly associated with occupation and showed a differential correlation with genotoxicity indicators. After that, the Xingu project, which encompassed 625 individuals, focused on 417 Kayapó natives from the Gorotire and Djudjetiktire villages; 142 miners; and 66 riverine individuals (ribeirinhos). The highest levels of methylmercury in hair and total mercury in blood and urine were found among the Indian population. Contamination with inorganic forms of mercury was also observed in the blood, hair, and urine of Indians. Following a specific recommendation from the World Health Organization, special attention was given to pregnant Gorotire and Djudjetiktire women, who, although not directly exposed to mercury vapors, showed considerable levels of mercury intoxication. Despite this worrisome scenario, a number of social achievements in the 1990s point to new standards of dignity in health care and of social ethics in Brazil that could benefit everyone, including the victims of environmental injury. PMID:15673484

Gonçalves, Aguinaldo; Gonçalves, Neusa Nunes da Silva e



Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.  


One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida



Comparative parasitism of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in native and invaded river basins.  


Biological invasions are considered a major threat to biodiversity around the world, but the role of parasites in this process is still little investigated. Here, we compared parasite infections of a host species in the areas where it originated and where it was introduced, and in native and introduced species in the same environment, using the endoparasites of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) in 3 Brazilian basins. Samples were taken in 2 rivers where the species is native, i.e., Solimões River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Paraná River (PR). In addition, abundances of diplostomids and larval nematodes were compared between P. squamosissimus and 2 native competitors in the PR, Hoplias malabaricus and Raphiodon vulpinus. In total, 13 species of endoparasites were recorded, but only Austrodiplostomum sp. and cestode cysts were present in all localities. Although infracommunity richness was similar, their species composition was slightly different among localities. General linear models using the relative condition factor of fish as response variables, and abundance of the most prevalent parasites as possible predictors showed that the condition of fish is negatively correlated with parasite abundance only in the native range (TO). Abundance of diplostomid eye flukes was higher in the PR, and in the native species H. malabaricus when compared to the invader, which might present an advantage for P. squamosissimus if they compete for prey. However, although P. squamosissimus may have lost some of its native parasites during its introduction to the PR, it is now possibly acting as a host for native generalist parasites. PMID:22468610

Lacerda, A C F; Takemoto, R M; Tavares-Dias, M; Poulin, R; Pavanelli, G C



Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.  


For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission. PMID:24789391

Rogério, Jp; Santos, Ma; Santos, Eo



Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph



The Caldas Novas dome, central Brazil: structural evolution and implications for the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caldas Novas dome (Goiaás state, central Brazil) lies in the southern segment of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt (center of the Tocantins Province) between the Goiás magmatic arc and the margin of the ancient São Francisco plate. The core of the dome comprises rocks of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Paranoá group (passive margin psamitic-pelitic sediments and subgreenschist facies) covered by a nappe of the Neoproterozoic Araxá group (backarc basin pelitic-psamitic sediments and volcanics of greenschist facies, bitotite zone). Hot underground waters that emerge along fractures in the Paranoá quartzite and wells in the Araxá schist have made the Caldas Novas dome an international tourist attraction. A recent detailed structural analysis demonstrates that the dome area was affected by a D 1-D 3 Brasiliano cycle progressive deformation in the ˜750-600 Ma interval (published U-Pb and Sm-Nd data). During event D 1, a pervasive layer-parallel foliation developed coeval the regional metamorphism. Event D 2 (intense F 2 isoclinal folding) was responsible for the emplacement of the nappe. D 1 and D 2 record a regime of simple shear (top-to-SE relative regional movement) due to a WNW-ESE subhorizontal compression ( ?1). Event D 3 records a WSW-ENE compression, during which the dome rose as a large-scale F 3 fold, possibly associated with a duplex structure at depth. During the dome's uplift, the layers slid back and down in all directions, giving way to gravity-slide folds and an extensional crenulation cleavage. A set of brittle fractures and quartz veins constitutes the record of a late-stage D 4 event important for understanding the thermal water reservoir.

D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Wolf Klein, Percy Boris; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gert



Reciclaje Sostenible de Botellas de PET en Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo presenta un estudio de caso exitoso implementado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, evidenciando la utilización de un instrumento basado en el mercado con el propósito de perfeccionar la calidad de los servicios de aseo urbano de la ciudad. En esto estudio de caso se demuestra la viabilidad técnica y económica del proceso de reciclaje de

Luiz Edmundo Costa Leite; José Henrique Penido Monteiro




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O estudo foi baseado no projeto da OEA e adaptado pela Escola de Enfermagem da UNIFESP, buscando analisar a situação sobre os conteúdos de álcool e outras drogas ministradas na graduação de enfermagem no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a situação do ensino sobre a temática, álcool e drogas, na graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal do

Robison Boni; Sandra C Pillon; Elisangela C. Santos; Marcio W. Camata; Marluce S. Macieira



Microsoft Academic Search

This work is to analyze the university's mission, in a context of changes imposed by globalization and tech- nological innovations. During the decade of 30, with the Universidade do Brasil, in Rio de Janeiro and the Universidade de São Paulo The Brazilian university appears. It is approximately 80 years old, it's histo- rical period is short compared to that of




Estados Unidos y cuatro países de América Latina se unen para combatir el cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) de Estados Unidos formalizó esta semana alianzas bilaterales con los gobiernos de Argentina, Brasil, México y Uruguay, para acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana de Estados Unidos y de América Latina y mejorar la investigación del cáncer.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Estima-se, atualmente, que existam no Brasil cerca de três milhões de hectares irrigados e algo em torno de 355.000 hectares de área irrigada na bacia do rio São Francisco. Sendo a irrigação considerada um uso consuntivo, grande parte da água empregada fica indisponível para a produção de energia e demais usos. O abastecimento humano, a dessedentação animal e o

Alan Vaz Lopes; Marcos Airton de Sousa Freitas



Microsoft Academic Search

Nos anos 1990 observou-se na região sul do Brasil um significativo avanço de formas alternativas de produção agrícola lastreada na construção de canais alternativos de comercialização, em especial as feiras ecológicas e lojas especializadas. Mas, nos anos recentes nota-se um arrefecimento do ritmo inicial. As hipóteses levantadas no artigo são de que isto está relacionado a dois aspectos principais: a)

Marcelo Santos Souza; Raquel Pereira Souza



Poder de mercado das exportações brasileiras de carne bovina in natura para a União Européia Grupo de Pesquisa: Comercialização, Mercados e Preços  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A União Européia é o principal mercado do setor ex portador de carne bovina do Brasil e é marcado por práticas de protecionismo qu e distorcem o equilíbrio de mercado. Além disso, as exportações brasileiras para a UE do tipo in natura vêm sofrendo quedas contínuas. Neste contexto, o principal objetivo des te trabalho foi mensurar o poder de

Apresentação Oral-Comercialização; ALINE CRISTINA CRUZ; MARCELO JOSE BRAGA


Mundos Torcidos: diferenças entre crioulos e africanos na dinâmica da construção de comunidades de grandes propriedades no Sudeste brasileiro do século XIX. Twisted worlds: differences between African and Creole in the dynamics of building communities of large properties in the Southeast of Brazil of the nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar elementos constitutivos das relações entre grupos de escravos oriundos da diáspora africana e seus pares nascidos no Brasil, em busca de um padrão cultural e de fundamentos morais que organizariam as diferenças instauradas no cativeiro, buscando compreender um pouco mais a dinâmica do manuseio de patrimônios imateriais, quer trazidos na travessia

Carlos Engemann



Microsoft Academic Search

O presente estudo de caso foi realizado em duas organizações agroindustriais, a AGCO do Brasil Comércio e Indústria Ltda. e a Tecno Moageira S\\/A, tratando-se de um estudo de caso de natureza exploratória e descritiva, que objetivou analisar os motivos pelos quais essas organizações implementaram a certificação ISO 9001, em torno da seguinte problemática: Qual o real interesse da certificação

Alexandre Melo Abicht; Alessandra Carla Ceolin; Augusto Faria Correa; Paulo Rodrigo Pereira; Tania Nunes da Silva



Occurrence of Clavellisa ilishae (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) parasitizing herrings (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) in Brazil.  


The lernaeopodids are highly specialized copepods which are widely distributed worldwide. In this paper the first record of Clavellisa ilishae Pillai, 1962 in the Neotropical region is documented parasitizing Sardinella brasiliensis from coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. PMID:24473893

Moreira, Juliana; Paschoal, Fabiano; Cezar, Anderson Dias; Luque, José Luis



O Potencial Distributivo do Imposto de Rendapessoa Física (IRPF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este texto argumenta a favor de níveis mais elevados de Imposto de Renda-Pessoa Física (IRPF). Verificamos que, de todos os países para os quais existem informações, o Brasil é o que menos arrecada IRPF relativo à Carga Tributária Bruta (CTB). O IRPF é responsável por algo em torno de 6% da CTB, um pouco mais que 2% do Produto Interno

Sergei Soares; Fernando Gaiger Silveira; Claudio Hamilton dos Santos; Fábio Monteiro Vaz; André Luis Souza



Crescimento ponderal de filhotes de tartaruga gigante da Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa) submetidos a tratamento com rações isocalóricas contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A criação de Podocnemis expansa, a tartaruga-da-amazônia, com finalidade comercial foi implantada no Brasil em 1992. Contudo, muitas questões acerca do manejo, da nutrição, da sanidade e, principalmente, da reprodução ainda são obscuras. Visando contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia alimentar da espécie, objetivou-se testar diferentes níveis de proteína da dieta. Uma amostra de 480 animais neonatos

Vinicius Augusto Sá; Leonardo C. Quintanilha; Gustavo Eduardo Freneau; Vera Lucia Ferreira Luz; Arcádio de Los Reyes Borja; Paulo César Silva



The Study of Some Personality Traits in Theological Students Using the Rorschach Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesquisa realizada com 50 alunos da Faculdade de Teologia de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, com objetiva de analisar alguns traços comuns no Feitio de Personalidade e quanto ao Tipo de Trabalho Mental, a partir da prova de Rorschach. Optou-se para verificar dados que aparecem com mais freqüência e não construir um protocolo médio. Apresenta-se os dados mais

Maria Célia Esgaib Kayatt Lacoski; Vera Nice Assumpção do Nascimento



Non-conventional application of AC drives - Use of AC drives in emergency systems. Case study: tilting system of torpedo car in CST BOF shop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, variable speed drives (VSD's) are very often used in many industrial systems, but almost always in traditional applications. This paper describes the successful application of VSD's in the CST-Arcelor Brasil torpedo car tilting system in the basic oxygen furnace BOF (steelmaking plant), in normal operation condition and also in emergency system condition during blackouts. The electrical system uses a

P. H. Zanandrea; A. C. V. Goncalves; E. V. Ardisson; E. V. Dias; J. F. Campos; E. D. Gomes



Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC.) e exóticas (Lotus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas). Este trabalho teve o obj etivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS) e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A.

Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso; Aino Victor Avila Jacques; Miguel Dall'Agnol; João Riboldi; Stela Maris Jesuz Castro



Vegetais fósseis do Terciário brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacia de Fonseca, situada na região do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, no estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil, constitui um clássico exemplo de sedimentos terciários, tendo despertado o interesse de vários pesquisadores, desde a segunda metade do século passado, por conter depósitos de \\

Claudio Limeira Mello; Lílian Paglarelli Bergqvist; Lucy Gomes Sant


a Biopirataria: a pilhagem da natureza e do conhecimento , de Vandana Shiva (Petrópolis, Vozes, 2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversidade, proteção do meio ambiente, agricultura sustentável, agribusiness e alimentos geneticamente modificados - tais são os temas que cada vez mais ocupam o centro das controvérsias atuais sobre a agricultura, no mundo inteiro. O Brasil não é exceção, e entre os movimentos que dão a eles maior destaque encontra-se o MST. Imbuído de forte consciência ecológica desde sua fundação, e

Hugh Lacey; Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira




Microsoft Academic Search

Em junho de 2005 houve em todo o Brasil uma intensa mobilização de produtores rurais a qual culminou com manifestações em praças e estradas nas quais os tratores se faziam presentes ruidosamente, bloqueando o acesso e impedindo o trânsito. Foi intensa a cobertura da imprensa a estas manifestações que levaram a concessões governamentais e mudanças nos instrumentos de política agrícola

Amilcar Baiardi; Januzia Mendes; Maria Lucia Sodre; Elizabeth Maria Ramos; Vivian Liborio Pinto



Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

Cumalat, John P. [University of Colorado, Department of Physics Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)



77 FR 73270 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email;...



75 FR 31332 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim-- 12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail:...



Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels  

SciTech Connect

Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

Baptista, Tatyana S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto Butantan Av Vital Brasil 1500 05503-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G. [Instituto Butantan Av Vital Brasil 1500 05503-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)



Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

Peres, Clovis A.; And Others



78 FR 9800 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email;...



16 CFR 300.25 - Country where wool products are processed or manufactured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR refer to a kind of species of product. Variant spellings which clearly indicate the English name of the country, such as Brasil for Brazil and Italie for Italy, are acceptable. Abbreviations which unmistakenly indicate the name of a country, such...



Exotic Nuclei in South America  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R. [Instituto de Fisica da USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 (Brazil); Assuncao, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Unifesp, Campus de Diadema, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)



16 CFR 300.25 - Country where wool products are processed or manufactured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR refer to a kind of species of product. Variant spellings which clearly indicate the English name of the country, such as Brasil for Brazil and Italie for Italy, are acceptable. Abbreviations which unmistakenly indicate the name of a country, such...



Reforma do Fundo de Participação dos Estados (FPE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento focaliza as opções para a reforma do Fundo de Participação dos Estados (FPE), que constitui uma das principais transferências intergovernamentais no Brasil. Este enfoque se justifica pelo fato de que essa reforma tornou-se uma prioridade política urgente após a decisão do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) que declarou a inconstitucionalidade da fórmula atual de distribuição horizontal do FPE e

Teresa Ter-Minassian



Experiments with a double solenoid system: Measurements of the 6He + p Resonant Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has been performed in the double solenoid system Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil (RIBRAS) by impinging a pure 6He secondary beam on a thick CH2 target to measure the 6He + p excitation function. Results of this experiment will be presented.

Pampa Condori, R.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Gasques, L. R.; de Faria, P. N.; Mendes, D. R.; Morais, M. C.; Pires, K. C. C.; Scarduelli, V. B.; Leistenschneider, E.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Assunção, M.



Rickettsial infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from São Paulo, Brazil: serological evidence for infection by Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia parkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. En Brasil, los capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) son importantes huéspedes para garrapatas del género Amblyomma, las cuales transmiten rickettsiosis a humanos y animales. Por lo tanto, estos roedores pueden ser potenciales centinelas para detectar infección por rickettsia. Objetivos. Este trabajo evaluó la infección por rickettsia en capibaras de diferentes regiones del estado de São Paulo, donde las rickettsiosis nunca han

Richard C. Pacheco; Mauricio C. Horta; Jonas Moraes-Filho; Alexandre C. Ataliba; Adriano Pinter; Marcelo B. Labruna




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Historicamente, as políticas de saúde para o campo no Brasil estiveram associadas aos interesses econômicos ligados à garantia de mão-de-obra sadia para a exploração dos recursos naturais. Esse artigo busca caracterizar as políticas oficiais de saúde para a população do campo, analisando o contexto histórico, princípios, objetivos, estratégias e resultados. A experiência do Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra

Fernando Ferreira Carneiro; Anamaria Testa Tambellini



Microsoft Academic Search

Considerando-se que existe um déficit na capacidade estática de armazenamento de grãos no Brasil, aliado a baixa margem de rentabilidade auferida pelos produtores de commodities agrícolas, notadamente a soja, bem como o fato de que a armazenagem em nível de propriedade rural pode vir a se constituir em um diferencial positivo ao produtor no momento da comercialização desta oleaginosa, buscou-se

Alberto Silva Dutra; Joao Armando Dessimon Machado; Regis Rathmann



Do lar para as ruas: capitalismo, trabalho e feminismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo, busca-se discutir as influências sociais, culturais e econômicas que contribuíram para a formulação de um discurso e práticas coletivas feministas 1 . Com efeito, esse discurso passou a se manifestar na Europa e nos Estados Unidos ainda no século XIX, sendo que, no caso do Brasil, o mesmo fenômeno ocorreu nas últimas décadas deste e nos primórdios do

Natalia Pietra Méndez


As relações da Revista Estudos Feministas com os movimentos de mulheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo esumo esumo esumo esumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre o diálogo da REF, nesses últimos 15 anos, com os movimentos de mulheres no Brasil. Recupera os temas dos diversos dossiês que, em grande medida, focaram temáticas de extrema relevância e atualidade para a agenda política do feminismo. Resgata alguns desses dossiês como exemplos

Leila Linhares Barsted



Práticas naturalistas e feministas. Debate educacional e a construção da carreira de Bertha Lutz na comunidade científica e política das décadas de 1920 e 30  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Analisamos a trajetória da naturalista do Museu Nacional, Bertha Lutz nos anos iniciais de sua carreira, buscando compreender em que medida seu ingresso e atuação na instituição estão relacionados com o contexto de profissionalização e especialização científica no Brasil, e como participou em meio às culturas científicas - também políticas - e formas de sociabilidade. Este movimento, permeado pelo

Lia Gomes; Pinto de Sousa


Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da \\

P. P. R. Amaral; Resende de R. O; M. T. Souza



Autoras de obras didáticas e livros para o ensino da leitura produzidos no Rio Grande do Sul: contribuições à história da alfabetização (1950-1970)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A História da Alfabetização tem se constituído um importante campo de pesquisa no Brasil nos últimos anos, enfatizando, entre outras coisas, métodos e processos de ensino da leitura e da escrita, materiais de alfabetização, com destaque para as cartilhas escolares, histórias e trajetórias de vida de professoras alfabetizadoras, etc. Na pesquisa que realizamos desde 2001, temos privilegiado a análise

Eliane Peres


Sistema de tratamiento y disposicion final de los residuos urbanos en la Region Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahía  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo trata de las innovaciones tecnicas en el tratamiento de los residuos industriales en la región metropolitana de Salvador y las principales medidas adoptadas para una gestión ambiental de la petroquímica en Bahia, Brasil. La adopción de procedimientos y criterios en conformidad con las normativas internacionales añade una nueva dimensión en la gestión del espacio regional.

Hilda Maria de Carvalho Braga



Avaliação da evolução dos valores pagos pelo SIH em Minas Gerais frente à inflação setorial da saúde no período de fevereiro de 1996 a maio de 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Uma questão atual nas políticas públicas de saúde no Brasil é o financiamento dos prestadores de serviços médico-hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Um dos meios de financiamento é o pagamento de procedimentos informados ao Sistema de Informações Hospitalares - SIH, em que o valor pago deriva do número de procedimentos efetuados conforme o valor de cada

Helen Cristiny; Teodoro Couto; Juliana Ferreira Castro; Bruno Pérez Ferreira


Qual o significado do trabalho para as pessoas com e sem deficiência física?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este estudo classificou aspectos positivos e negativos associados ao trabalho por 27 trabalhadores com deficiência física (TDF) em comparação com outros 27 sem deficiência (TND). Os grupos foram emparelhados em sexo, idade, estado civil, nível econômico e função. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil e Questionário sobre Aspectos do Trabalho. As respostas foram analisadas qualitativa e

Camila de Sousa Pereira; Zilda Aparecida; Pereira Del Prette



Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUÇÃO Sob o pretexto d e e stabelecer mudanças radicais na Legislação do Trabalho n o Brasil, garantindo-se assim o crescimento e os empregos, um grande véu vem obscurecendo o verdadeiro carater da reforma sindical e trabalhista que está sendo proposta pelo governo do Presidente Luiz Ignácio Lula da Silva. A hipótese central sustentada por esse artigo é de que

Ariovaldo Santos



Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução O turismo tem crescido em ritmo intenso em todo o Brasil. No litoral norte de São Paulo, em virtude, principalmente, da proximidade com a capital do estado - maior fluxo emissivo de turistas - esse crescimento é bastante acentuado. Ilhabela detém belezas naturais e cenários geográficos que estimulam os turistas e veranistas a escolherem esse destino para suas férias

Claudia Maria Astorino


A recente reforma trabalhista e o trabalhador brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O texto trata da flexibilização da CLT, contemplada no Projeto de Lei 5.483\\/2001, que introduz o princípio que empresta ao acordo ou convenção coletiva a mesma força que tem a lei. A agenda de modernização trabalhista do Brasil está inconclusa. As mudanças nos campos da organização sindical e da Justiça do Trabalho são etapas importantes para dar força a tudo

Anelino Francisco da Silva



Montagem e Resultados Preliminares de Aparato Experimental para Estudo Térmico de Materiais Ablativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

O estudo do fenômeno físico de ablação, que ocorre em determinados materiais usados em sistemas de proteção térmica de satélites, bem como a caracterização das propriedades térmicas dos mesmos são considerados de grande importância, por representar um ponto estratégico para a tecnologia espacial. No Brasil, os estudos de materiais ablativos têm sido realizados dentro da perspectiva do Programa Nacional de

Gabriel Antônio de Souza Júnior; Lucas Mello de Campos Arruda; Walber Ferreira Braga; Márcia Barbosa; Henriques Mantelli



Microsoft Academic Search

4 IPA, Av. Gen. San Martim 1371, Caixa Postal 1022, 50761-000, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade de quarenta e um híbridos de milho quando submetidos a vinte e quatro ambientes no Nordeste brasileiro, para fins de indicação na região. Os ensaios foram realizados no ano agrícola de 2000\\/2001, em blocos

Hélio Wilson; Lemos de Carvalho; Milton José Cardoso; Maria de Lourdes da Silva Leal; Manoel Xavier dos Santos; José Nildo Tabosa


Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.  


The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, p<0.01). Besides, adult males used the gallery forest more frequently (Fisher's exact test, p<0.01) and wetlands less frequently (Fisher's exact test, p<0.01) than juvenile males, without significant differences between animal ages for cerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, p<0.01) and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01) males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01). The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km2 for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100%) and from 4.38 to 13.32km2 for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%). The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3), and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75%) for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and its band with that of the two adult males. The present study provides new data on core area size and frequency habitat use by adult and juvenile males of N. nasua in the Brazilian Cerrado, that may support conservation efforts. PMID:20737855

Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti



Mutual evaluation of global gravity models (EGM2008 and GOCE) and terrestrial data in Amazon Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity observations of the satellite GOCE have a global homogeneous coverage and precision. This data set constitutes an independent new tool to control the quality of terrestrial gravity data. Terrestrial data reach higher resolution and precision, but can be affected by errors due to factors such as different vertical geodetic datums, wrong position in latitude and longitude, geodynamic effects and gravimeter drift, which tends to accumulate over long distances. Terrestrial data recover gravity signals at shorter wavelengths compared to the GOCE satellite, but the average gravity anomaly values can be compared to the GOCE derived values which are bandlimited to lower frequencies. We consider the area of the Amazon Craton, and in particular the Solimões, Amazon and Parnaiba Basins, and part of the Tocantins and São Francisco Provinces in Brazil, to estimate the systematic errors in terrestrial gravity data. We calculate the average terrestrial gravity anomaly by spatial averages applying Gaussian, inverse distance and simple averages, which allows to compare the long- and medium-wavelength part of the terrestrial gravity anomalies with the gravity field derived from GOCE. We also consider the combined satellite-terrestrial model EGM2008 up to degree and order 250 (i.e. maximum expansion from satellite GOCE). The results show that the systematic errors range from about -28.1 to 25.2 mGal with a standard deviation value of 6.4 mGal. The mean value over the study area is about zero, obtaining 0.27 mGal difference between the Gaussian average of the terrestrial gravity data and the gravity data from the GOCE satellite-only model and is smaller than the commission error associated to the geopotential model. Also, we verified that 64.8 per cent of the study area does not present systematic errors, as their difference is within the commission error of 5.1 mGal of the GOCE model in the harmonic expansion up to degree 250. The comparison of the terrestrial data with the model EGM2008 gives slightly smaller differences, which can be attributed to the fact that the EGM2008 contains terrestrial data. The results vary only slightly according to the type of averaging used, with improved values for the Gaussian average. The analysis also shows where the terrestrial data are scarce and require an improvement in data coverage in order to correctly represent the gravity field. The method we propose can be directly used to control other gravity databases and constitutes a tool for the quality assessment of terrestrial gravity observations.

Bomfim, E. P.; Braitenberg, C.; Molina, E. C.



Behavioral and environmental influences on fishing rewards and the outcomes of alternative management scenarios for large tropical rivers.  


Identifying the factors that influence the amount of fish caught, and thus the fishers' income, is important for proposing or improving management plans. Some of these factors influencing fishing rewards may be related to fishers' behavior, which is driven by economic motivations. Therefore, those management rules that have less of an impact on fishers' income could achieve better acceptance and compliance from fishers. We analyzed the relative influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on fish catches (biomass) in fishing communities of a large tropical river. We then used the results from this analysis to propose alternative management scenarios in which we predicted potential fishers' compliance (high, moderate and low) based on the extent to which management proposals would affect fish catches and fishers' income. We used a General Linear Model (GLM) to analyze the influence of environmental (fishing community, season and habitat) and socioeconomic factors (number of fishers in the crew, time spent fishing, fishing gear used, type of canoe, distance traveled to fishing grounds) on fish catches (dependent variable) in 572 fishing trips by small-scale fishers in the Lower Tocantins River, Brazilian Amazon. According to the GLM, all factors together accounted for 43% of the variation in the biomass of the fish that were caught. The behaviors of fishers' that are linked to fishing effort, such as time spent fishing (42% of the total explained by GLM), distance traveled to the fishing ground (12%) and number of fishers (10%), were all positively related to the biomass of fish caught and could explain most of the variation on it. The environmental factor of the fishing habitat accounted for 10% of the variation in fish caught. These results, when applied to management scenarios, indicated that some combinations of the management measures, such as selected lakes as no-take areas, restrictions on the use of gillnets (especially during the high-water season) and individual quotas larger than fishers' usual catches, would most likely have less impact on fishers' income. The proposed scenarios help to identify feasible management options, which could promote the conservation of fish, potentially achieving higher fishers' compliance. PMID:23764509

Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F M; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M



The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where upland terra-firme forest develop. The youngest landsurfaces thus appear to lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion from a northward (Caribbean) outlet to a generally eastward, Atlantic Ocean outlet. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. The bird DNA data appears to confirm the role of Amazonian rivers as primary diversification barriers, and thus probably as promoters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers of apparently different ages ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.



Neoproterozoic evolution of the basement of the South-American platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic geologic and geotectonic processes were of utmost importance in forming and structuring the basement framework of the South-American platform. Two large domains with distinct evolutionary histories are identified with respect to the Neoproterozoic era: the northwest-west (Amazonian craton and surroundings) and the central-southeast (the extra-Amazonian domain). In the first domain, Neoproterozoic events occurred only locally and were of secondary significance, and the geologic events, processes, and structures of the pre-Neoproterozoic (and syn-Brasiliano) cratonic block were much more influential. In the second, the extra-Amazonian domain, the final evolution, structures and forms are assigned to events related to the development of a complex net of Neoproterozoic mobile belts. These in turn resulted in strong reworking of the older pre-Neoproterozoic basement. In this domain, four distinct structural provinces circumscribe or are separated by relatively small pre-Neoproterozoic cratonic nuclei, namely the Pampean, Tocantins, Borborema and Mantiqueira provinces. These extra-Amazonian provinces were formed by a complex framework of orogenic branching systems following a diversified post-Mesoproterozoic paleogeographic scenario. This scenario included many types of basement inliers as well as a diversified organization of accretionary and collisional orogens. The basement inliers date from the Archean to Mesoproterozoic periods and are different in nature. The escape tectonics that operated during the final consolidation stages of the provinces were important to and responsible for the final forms currently observed. These latest events, which occurred from the Late Ediacaran to the Early Ordovician, present serious obstacles to paleogeographic reconstructions. Two groups of orogenic collage systems are identified. The older system from the Tonian (>850 Ma) period is of restricted occurrence and is not fully understood due to strong reworking subsequent to Tonian times. The second group of orogenies is more extensive and more important. Its development began with diachronic taphrogenic processes in the Early Cryogenian period (ca. 850-750 Ma) and preceded a complex scenario of continental, transitional and oceanic basins. Subsequent orogenies (post 800 Ma) were also created by diachronic processes that ended in the Early Ordovician. More than one orogeny (plate interaction) can be identified either in space or in time in every province. The orogenic processes were not necessarily synchronous in different parts of the orogenic system, even within the same province. This particular group of orogenic collage events is known as the "Brasiliano". All of the structural provinces of the extra-Amazonian domain exhibit final events that are marked by extrusion processes, are represented by long lineaments, and are fundamental to unraveling the structural history of the Phanerozoic sedimentary basins.

de Brito Neves, Benjamim Bley; Fuck, Reinhardt A.



[Circuses and clowns. Experimental contribution to nursing methodology].  


The description of a very original experience of health education in a region of Amazonia, Brasil (based on the utilization of techniques of population theater) is the occasion for a reflection on the possibilities and on the opportunity of adopting also for the nursing practice of western countries methodologically innovative approaches, which could allow a caring attention oriented not only to the problem of assistance, but more basically to the cultural components of the needs and expectations of defined populations. PMID:2112775

Tognoni, G



Major Ions Fluxes and DOC in Rainfall and Throughfall at the Tapajos National Forest - Belterra, Para, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tapajós National Forest -(FLONA Tapajós), an area of 600,000 ha of protected forest, is located 50km south Santarem (Pará, Brasil). The FLONA receives approximately 2000 mm.y-1 of rainfall and the forest is evergreen. The tropical forest nutrient cycle depends upon inputs from the atmosphere and from rock weathering. Internally, throughfall and stemflow transfer nutrients from the vegetation to the

R. C. Oliveira; M. Keller; P. Crill; W. de Mello; J. Dias; K. Oliveira; E. Souza Neto; S. Albuquerque; C. Pereira



As concepções de risco e de prevenção segundo a ótica dos usuários de drogas injetáveis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an exploratory analysis, using a qualitative approach, to percep- tions by injecting drug users (IDUs) on: (a) risks associated with injecting practices; (b) risks of HIV\\/AIDS; and (c) prevention of HIV\\/AIDS. The study was conducted in five harm reduction pro- grams in Brazil (the AjUDE-Brasil Project). Forty semi-structured interviews were carried out. The study focuses on the

Suely Ferreira Deslandes; Eduardo Alves Mendonça; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa; Denise Doneda



Geologia e Geoquímica do Batólito Rapakivi Rio Branco, SW do Craton Amazônico - MT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Branco Rapakivi Batholith belongs to the Cachoeirinha Tectonic Domain, part of the Rio Negro-Juruena Geochronological Province located on the southwestern portion of the Amazonian Craton in Mato Grosso, Central Brasil. A systematic geological mapping on a 1:100.000 scale, coupled with petrographic and geochemical studies allowed to redefine this batholithic unit, to recognize faciological variations and to characterize the

Larissa Marques; Barbosa de Araújo-Ruiz; Amarildo Salina Ruiz; Mello Montano



Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn  

SciTech Connect

The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J. [Instituto de Fisica-Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Campus Diadema, 09941-510 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)



Activity pattern of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca , Geoffroy 1812, in a forest fragment of southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of six brown howlers was studied during a year in the Santa Genebra Reserve, a 250ha-forest fragment near the city\\u000a of Campinas, State of So Paulo, southeastern Brasil. On average, the group rested for 64% of the daylight hours and feeding\\u000a and moving occupied 18% and 13% of this period, respectively. A greater proportion of time was spent

Adriano Garcia Chiarello



Avaliação da eficiência nutricional de três procedências australianas de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência nutricional de macronutrient es N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S nos diferentes componentes das árvores de três procedências de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.), com 2,4 anos de idade, plantadas em Butiá-RS (Brasil). As procedências selecionadas foram Lake George, Bodalla e Batemans Bay. Foi constatada variação na eficiência

Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira; Rubens Marques Rondon Neto; Mauro Valdir Schumacher




Microsoft Academic Search

O sistema de duração da jornada laboral foi objeto de preocupação do legislador Constituinte nos incisos XIII a XVII do art. 7º, sendo complementado pelos comandos dispostos no art. 57 e seguintes da Consolidação das Leis Trabalhistas. Pretende-se, nessa pequena investigação, discorrer inicialmente sobre a evolução histórica da jornada de trabalho e sua regulamentação pelos Estados Modernos, incluindo-se o Brasil.

Marcelo Nunes Apolinário



BIODISPONIBILIDADE COMPARATIVA DE DOSES ÚNICAS DE FORMULAÇÕES DE CAPTOPRIL Comparative biodisponibility of a single dose captopril formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate, on human volunteers, the performance of one captopril tablet formulation (Neo-Química Comércio Indústria Ltda) against one standard tablet formulation (Capoten® 50mg Bristol-Myers Squibb Brasil S.A).Twenty-four healthy volunteers, as assessed by clinical and laboratory test evaluations, were enrolled in the study. The study was of a two way randomised crossover design comparing both

Manoel Odorico de Moraes; Fernando Antônio Frota; Gilberto de Nucci


Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

Steiner, João



Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. This is consistent with organic aerosol mass being approximately constant when accounting for dilution both close to source and on the regional scale. However, the bulk organic aerosol composition became increasingly oxidised with distance from source. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts. Biomass burning layers were observed aloft in the free troposphere, which has potential implications for atmospheric stability profiles and cloud formation. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.



Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simpli?ed river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood warning thresholds, showed that the upper quantiles of the ensemble (e.g. 80th and 90th quantiles) over performed the deterministic forecast and even the ensemble mean. In most cases we observed an increase in the proportion of correctly forecasted events while keeping false alarm rates at low levels. This benefit was generally higher for higher flow thresholds and for longer lead times, which are the most important situations for flood impact mitigation. In parallel with the ensemble forecasts studies, a forecasting system platform fully coupled to a GIS tool (Mapwindow GIS) is being developed, which facilitates the system operation and interpretation of results. Currently, this system is being tested, however using only deterministic precipitation forecasts, in two large scale river basins in Brazil: the São Francisco River upstream of Pirapora (60 thousand km2) and the Tocantins River (300 thousand km2). Results obtained in the Paraopeba River are now motivating the incorporation of NWP ensemble outputs in these systems to make probabilistic predictions.

Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan



Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, while the organic aerosol component was observed to oxidise rapidly upon advection and dilution downwind of major smoke plumes. Significant differences in the coating thickness of the BC-containing particles were observed when comparing the Rainforest and Cerrado environments. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, as well as their optical and radiative properties. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh



The evolution of organic matter along the lower Amazon River continuum - Óbidos to the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the Amazon River on global hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling is well recognized. The Amazon River provides roughly 16% of the global freshwater supply to the ocean and is a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere, outgassing 0.5 Pg C y-1 to the atmosphere--a flux roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon 'sequestered' by the Amazon rainforest (Field et al, 1998; Richey et al., 2002; Malhi et al., 2008). However, much of our understanding of the flux of matter from the Amazon River into the Atlantic Ocean (and atmosphere) is limited to measurements made at and upstream of Óbidos, 900 km upstream from the actual river mouth. Further, there are few to no observations documenting the transformation of organic matter in a parcel of water as it travels downstream of Óbidos into the ocean. Here we explore the hydrological and biogeochemical evolution of the lower Amazon River continuum, from Óbidos to the Atlantic Ocean. A suite of dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) parameters were measured during a series of five river expeditions with stations at Óbidos, the Tapajós tributary, the mouth of the Lago Grande de Curuai floodplain lake, both the north and south channels of the Amazon River mouth near Macapá, and the confluence of the Amazon and Tocantins Rivers near Belém. In addition to bulk carbon isotopic signatures, a suite of biomarkers including dissolved and particulate lignin-derived phenols were measured to trace the sources and degradation history of terrestrial vascular plant derived OM throughout the continuum. Dissolved and particulate lignin phenol concentrations both correlated positively with river discharge in the Amazon River mainstem, with variable export patterns from the tributaries and floodplains. As organic matter travels along the continuum it is degraded by microbial composition, fuelling gross respiration and CO2 outgassing. The flux of organic carbon to the ocean is chemically recalcitrant as a result of the constant biological processing of labile OM throughout the lower river. We estimate that 40% of the vascular plant-derived organic carbon sequestered by the terrestrial biosphere is degraded within soils, 55% is degraded along the river continuum, and less than 5% is delivered to the ocean (Ward et al., 2013) References Cited Field, C., M. Behrenfeld, J. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281, 237-240. Malhi, Y., Roberts, J.T., Betts, R.A., Killeen, T.J., Li, W., Nobre, C.A. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319, 169-172. Richey, J. E., Melack, J. M., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Ballester, V. M. & Hess, L. L. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416, 617-620. Ward, N.D.; Keil, R.G.; Medeiros, P.M.; Brito, D.C.; Cunha, A.C.; Dittmar, T.; Yager, P.L.; Krusche, A.V.; Richey, J.E. 2013. Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River. Nature Geoscience. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1817

Ward, N. D.; Keil, R. G.; Medeiros, P. M.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Moura, J. S.; Yager, P. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.



Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry seasons. Thick mudstones and some coquinites below and above the sandy interval may represent lacustrine facies formed in probably more humid conditions. The taphonomic history of the preserved plants began with exceptional storms that caused fast-flowing high water in channels and far into the floodplains. In the eastern site region, many tree ferns only fell, thus sometimes covering and protecting plant litter and leaves from further fragmentation. Assemblages of the central and western sites suggest that the trees were uprooted and transported in suspension (floating) parallel to the flow. Heavier ends of stems (according to their form or because of attached basal bulbous root mantle or large apical fronds) were oriented to upstream because of inertial forces. During falling water stage, the stems were stranded on riverbanks, usually maintaining the previous transport orientation, and were slightly buried. The perpendicular or oblique positions of some stems may have been caused by interference with other stems or shallow bars. Rare observed stems were apparently waterlogged before the final depositional process and transported as bedload. The differences of interpreted channel orientations between the three sites are expected in a braided fluvial system, considering the very low gradients of the basin and the work scale in the order of tens of kilometers. The mean direction of the drainage probably was to east and the flows apparently became weaker downstream. This study seems to provide reliable data for paleocurrent interpretations, especially considering areas with scarce preserved sedimentary structures.

Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie



The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type. The youngest landsurfaces thus lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion away from a northerly orientation generally towards the east and an Atlantic Ocean outlet. The advance of megafans is best seen by the location of axial rivers such as the Orinoco and Mamore which lie against the cratonic margins furthest from the Andes, at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. If this landscape-sequence scenario is accurate, it parallels the progressive younging of the passerine lineages. The bird DNA data appears to confirm strongly the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers--as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and thus probably as facilitaters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin



Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of episodic melting of Archean-Paleoproterozoic supracrustal gneisses related to the Svecofennian orogeny. Petrographic traverses across the boundary between widespread, foliation-parallel units of aplitic to pegmatitic pink granite and hosting biotite gneiss directly capture the process of ore formation. Dehydration breakdown of zircon-rich biotite aligned with the foliation in the gneiss is accompanied by formation of new pristine, post-deformational biotite plus sulfides, oxides, hydrothermal zircon and fluorite, all associated with microcline-dominant leucosomes. This process has profound implication for the traditional leucogranite, intrusion-related genesis attributed to the broad classification of Mo-W-Sn-base and precious metal mineralization (e.g., South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia; Okiep, Namaqualand, South Africa; Mactung, Yukon; Pogo-Liese, Tintina, Alaska; Carajás and Goiás-Rio Tocantins, Brazil; New England Batholith, NSW, Australia; Bergslagen, Sweden; Nevoria, Western Australia; Alpeinerscharte, Austria; Erzgebirge, Germany; Sardinia-Corsica Batholith). In addition to biotite, metallogenic contributions (e.g., Mo, W, Sn, U, Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni, Co, Au, Ag, Te, As, Sb, REE) in various combinations may also be controlled by breakdown of amphibole. In effect, the trace element composition of dehydrating or recrystallizing components in a gneissic rock essentially defines the local and district metallogenic suite. In the absence of focusing structures (e.g., shear zones, sheeted vein development), this process will generally form small and disconnected subeconomic deposits with erratic and unpredictable grades. Low Re content in associated molybdenite is a key indicator for a subeconomic origin by local melting of biotite gneiss (Mo-W) or muscovite schist (Sn-W).

Stein, Holly J.



Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in the following Brazilian regions: Northeast (NE) region and the states of Goiás (GO), Tocantins (TO), and Minas Gerais (MG). The suitability maps were generated by crossing the crop climate requirements with the interpolated climate conditions of the selected regions. The maps showed that only 22.65 % of the areas in the NE region are suitable for jatropha as a rain-fed crop. The other areas of the region are classified as marginal (62.61 %) and unsuitable (14.74 %). In the states of GO and TO, the majority of the areas (47.78 %) is classified as suitable, and in the state of MG, 33.92 % of the territory has suitability for the crop. These results prove that jatropha cannot be cultivated everywhere and will require, as any other crop, minimum climatic conditions to have sustainable performance and high yields.

Yamada, Eliane S. M.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.



A Web-based planning support tool for sediment management in a meso-scale river basin in Western Central Brazil.  


In scope of an IWRM concept for the Federal District, Western Central Brazil we developed a planning support tool, which enables non-experts to test the effects of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on landscape processes and landscape functions (LPF) related to sediment generation and retention. For this purpose we developed the web-based tool Letsmap do Brasil. The tool has two principal layers. The upper layer contains information on land use and its effect on LPF, i.e. sediment retention, runoff control, nitrogen loss control and agronomic value. The parameterized relation between land use and LPF is the core of the whole system. For each LPF a value specific to land use has been assigned. A second layer contains information on landscape properties and potentials (LPP), e.g. potential for sediment input in river networks and runoff potential. By linking land use and LPPs the system provides a spatially explicit assessment of effects of LULCC on landscape processes and functions (LPF). Letsmap do Brasil might have two major purposes. (1) It will support decision-making in river basin management and sediment management. By creating their own land-use/cover pattern non-expert users are enabled to test effects of LULCC on LPFs. (2) It will support and train non-experts to participate in decision processes in land-use planning. Because of its high adaptability, transparency, and simple handling Letsmap do Brasil might be used as tool in river basin management and land-use planning. PMID:23254313

Lorz, C; Neumann, C; Bakker, F; Pietzsch, K; Weiß, H; Makeschin, F



Observacoes do Cometa de Halley no Continuo de 22 GHz E 44 GHz, E NA Raia Maser de Vapor de H20 EM 22.2 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

0 cometa de Halley foi observado no contínuo nas frequencias de 22 GHz e 44 GHz no Observatório de Itapetinga, Brasil, no período Fevereiro-Abril de 1986. 0 cometa foi detetado em ambas frequ?ncias, apresentando variabilidade corn escalas de tempo de horas. Cálculos teóricos mostram que a radicão não pode ser devida a transicões livre-livre na região ionizada resultante da interacão do cometa corn 0 vento solar. A emissão seria então devida à radiacão térmica dos gráos da coma do cometa, cuja densidade também foi variável em intervalo de horas. Não foi detetada emissão maser de H2O maior que 4 Jy.

Abraham, Z.; Scalise, E., Jr.; Botti, L. C. L.; Cancoro, A. C. O.; Monteiro Do Vale, J. L.; del Ciampo, L. F.; Tateyama, C. E.; Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; Homor, J. L.; Kaufmann, P.



[Family planning policies in João Pessoa-PB: analysis of the contradictions between official and practical discourses].  


This research project's main objective is to analyze the contradictions encountered between official and practical discourses referent to family planning in public health policies in João Pessoa, PB, Brasil, using as its reference, PAISM (Program for Assistance in Women's Health). The policy was analyzed according to its official intentions and its practical use through interviews with people linked to PAISM. It was concluded that, this program is being developed under a utilitarian ideal, negating the individual citizen's right to regulate one's own fertility. PMID:11341232

Coelho, E A; Lucena, M F; Silva, A T



[Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].  


Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border. PMID:8278745

Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A



IAU (Maser) Symposium 287 Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost exactly twenty years ago, the first of a series of conferences dedicated to cosmic masers took place in Arlington, Virginia in the USA (March 9-11, 1992). Two more followed, each on a different continent, in Mangaratiba, near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (March 5-10, 2001) and in Alice Springs, Australia (March 12-16, 2007). As at all others, a large part of the international maser community convened from January 29 to February 3, 2012 in splendid Stellenbosch, South Africa, to discuss the state of the art of the field.

Menten, Karl M.



[Atypical presentation of cutaneous sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient].  


Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis with a high prevalence in Brasil. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, and may lead to different clinical presentations. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and corresponds to 4 percent of the total number of cases. We report a case of atypical disseminated sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient, whose culture for fungi revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg/day for 6 months with clinical clearing. PMID:22747936

Nassif, Priscila Wolf; Granado, Inandiara Rafaela Marco de Oliveira; Ferraz, Juliana Soares; Souza, Robson; Nassif, Aissar Eduardo



The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment /LACIE/ - A summary of three years' experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aims, history and schedule of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) conducted by NASA, USDA and NOAA from 1974-1977 are described. The LACIE experiment designed to research, develop, apply and evaluate a technology to monitor wheat production in important regions throughout the world (U.S., Canada, USSR, Brasil) utilized quantitative multispectral data collected by Landsat in concert with current weather data and historical information. The experiment successfully exploited computer data and mathematical models to extract timely corp information. A follow-on activities for the early 1980's is planned focusing especially on the early warning of changes affecting production and quality of renewable resources and commodity production forecast.

Erb, R. B.; Moore, B. H.



Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.



Population Dynamics of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on Host Plants.  


The stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) has become one of the major pests of corn and wheat in Brasil, mainly after a shift from the conventional tillage system to the no tillage cultivation system. This fact may be due to the simultaneous occurrence of second planting corn with wheat cultivation, and the presence of wild hosts. This study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of D. melacanthus on wild hosts adjacent to areas cultivated with corn, wheat, and soybean during the season and off-season of soybean cultivation. Weekly surveys were conducted in the region of Londrina, PR, Brasil from the beginning of July 2007 up to the end of June 2008 using the square meter method. Corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), crotalaria (Crotalaria pallida), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) were identified as hosts of D. melacanthus. Signal grass was the host in which stink bug adults were found in higher numbers, while nymphs and adults were consistently collected on tropical spiderwort. Although nymphs completed their development on tropical spiderwort seeds, this host was found less suitable than soybean seeds. PMID:23949747

Silva, J J; Ventura, M U; Silva, F A C; Panizzi, A R



A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção.

Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, Joao Renato



A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.  


A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato



Analysis of the Applicability of an Ankle-Foot Orthosis during Gait in Poststroke Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop and assess the applicability of an experimental ankle-foot orthosis during gait in patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] This was a noncontrolled cross-sectional study. Ten adult patients with hemiparesis but who were capable of independent gait were included in the study. Gait assessment was performed using two platforms (EMG System do Brasil), an electromyograph (EMG System do Brasil), and a video camera. The experimental orthosis consisted of a single piece that fit over the foot and 1/3 of the distal tibia and had a steel spring. [Results] There was greater activation of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles in the stance and mid-stance phases with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis and no orthosis. Regarding spatial and temporal gait parameters, the individuals achieved an increase in stride length with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis. [Conclusion] The results of the present study demonstrate that individuals with hemiparesis achieved an improvement in the stance and mid-stance phases of gait with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis.

Costa, Rafael Vital; Grecco, Luanda Andre Collange; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Correa, Joao Carlos Ferrari; Correa, Fernanda Ishida; Oliveira, Claudia Santos



[Paternity process in the adolescence].  


This qualitative study aimed at learning the masculine conception of paternity and understanding the masculine strategies to cope the legal, social and affective pressures of this process. The collection of information was done through semi-structured interview with eight adolescents from Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, ranging between 15 and 19 years old, who experienced paternity. The interpretation and analysis were based on the content analysis. From the analysis of these youngsters' reports the following categories have emerged: Adolescents Relationship; Paternity and Gender; and, Meaning of Being a Father. The attentive look to paternity in adolescence brings to light the comprehension of issues regarding the masculine exclusion in objective life experiences marked by the commitment with paternity. PMID:20339754

Luz, Ana Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira



O que bil?ngues bimodais t?m a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bil?ngue?  

PubMed Central

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada.

de Quadros, Ronice Muller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen



A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

Garcia-Rissmann, A.



[Preserved stegomyia and vinegared microbes: Brazil's triumph in Berlin].  


The article investigates the circumstances leading to Brazil being awarded the first prize at the XIV International Conference on Demography and Hygiene, held in Berlin in 1907. An examination of the unpublished correspondence between Henrique da Rocha Lima and Oswaldo Cruz prior to the conference/exhibition reveals the peculiarities of a Brazilian-style event, where the outcome seems to be determined by haphazard incidents rather than by meticulously planned strategies. Their letters can also be read as a narrative celebrating individual qualities, as they attribute the victory in Berlin much more to Rocha Lima's than Oswaldo Cruz's personal merits. In light of the Raízes do Brasil, a classic by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, this article also addresses the issue regarding the dispute between the Iberian and Anglo-Saxon worlds over the Brazilian victory. PMID:16683335

Cukierman, H L


[The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].  


Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries. PMID:21308202

Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto



[Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae)].  


Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis (Characiformes: Parodontidae). Parodontidae family is a group of Characiformes fishes distributed throughout South America and parts of Panama, except in the basins of the southern Bahia state in Brasil on the Atlantic coast, Patagonia and the Amazon river channel. The family includes three genera: Apareiodon Eigenmann 1916, Parodon Valenciennes 1849 y Saccodon Kner 1863, 28 recognized species and two valid genera: Parodon and Saccodon. Redescription of Parodon caliensis and Saccodon dariensis is carried out based on type, and topotypic material from Colombia. Significant differences were found in morphometric, meristic, osteologic and color characters. S. dariensis is widely distributed but P. caliensis is restricted to the upper Cauca River drainage. Three species are considered herein as synonyms of S. dariensis: Apareiodon dariensis, A. compressus and S. caucae. Sexual dimorphism is described for both species. PMID:20737840

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Román-Valencia, César



General circulation of the South Atlantic between 5 deg N and 35 deg S  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter will provide the temporal mean seal level. So, secondly, we propose to compute the difference between these two surfaces (mean sea level minus general circulation dynamic topography). The result will be an estimate of the marine geoid, which is time invariant for the 5-year period under consideration. If this geoid is precise enough, it will permit a description of seasonal variability of the large-scale surface circulation. If there happens to be enough float data, it may be possible to infer the first vertical modes of this variability. Thus the main goal of our investigation is to determine the 3-D general circulation of the South Atlantic and the large-scale seasonal fluctuations. This last objective, however, may be restricted to the western part of the South Atlantic because float deployments have been scheduled only in the Brasil basin.

Ollitrault, Michel; Mercier, H.; Blanc, F.; Letraon, L. Y.



Reduced superoxide dismutase activity in Palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda, Palemonidae) infected by Probopyrus ringueleti (Isopoda, Bopyridae).  


Cellular oxidative stress may promote damage or death in biological systems and may be caused by production of pro-oxidant molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) in the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 infected by Probopyrus ringueleti (Verdi & Schuldt, 1987), a gill chamber parasite known for its capacity to cause host metabolic changes, including changes in oxygen consumption rates. Infested and non-infested shrimp were collected in the Patos Lagoon estuary (southern Brasil), where the prevalence of the parasite may be as high as 70%. No significant differences were observed for either CAT or GPx activities. However, SOD activity was significantly reduced in infected shrimp, suggesting that bopyrid isopod respiratory impairment resulted in reduced SOD enzyme activity. PMID:10715822

Neves, C A; Santos, E A; Bainy, A C



Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

Batista, G. T. (principal investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.




PubMed Central

El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina

Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul



Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2012 and 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of speckle runs at the 4.1 m Southern Astronomical Research telescope in 2012 and 2013. A total of 586 objects were observed. We give 699 measurements of 487 resolved binaries and upper detection limits for 112 unresolved stars. Eleven pairs (including one triple) were resolved for the first time. Orbital elements have been determined for the first time for 13 pairs; orbits of another 45 binaries are revised or updated. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.



Physical activity, psychosocial and perceived environmental factors in adolescents from Northeast Brazil.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between levels of physical activity, psychosocial and perceived environmental factors in adolescents from Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted with 2,859 adolescents enrolled in secondary schools (57.8% females; mean = 16.5 years; SD = 1.2) in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil. The following physical activity correlates were measured: attitude, self-efficacy, social support from friends and parents, and perceived environmental characteristics. Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model analysis showed that the following factors are positively related to physical activity levels in adolescents: attitude, self-efficacy, as well as social support from parents and friends. Physical activity intervention programs should increase self-efficacy and social support from parents and friends, as well as a positive attitude toward physical activity.Este estudo analisou a associação do nível de atividade física com fatores psicossociais e ambientais em adolescentes do Nordeste do Brasil. Estudo epidemiológico transversal desenvolvido com 2.859 adolescentes (57,8% do sexo feminino, média de idade: 16,5 anos; DP = 1,2) no Município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Os seguintes fatores associados à atividade física foram mensurados: atitude, autoeficácia, apoio social dos pais e amigos e características do ambiente percebido. O nível de atividade física foi mensurado por questionário. Os resultados da análise multivariável por regressão logística ordinal, com modelo de odds proporcionais, identificaram os seguintes fatores positivamente associados ao nível de atividade física dos adolescentes: atitude, percepção de autoeficácia, apoio social dos pais e amigos. Programas de promoção da atividade física devem desenvolver ações para aumentar a autoeficácia dos adolescentes e o apoio social fornecido pelos pais e amigos, bem como desenvolver e reforçar atitudes positivas em relação à atividade física. PMID:24936811

Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hallal, Pedro Curi



Brazil current eddy activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP data measurements from 2006 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cape São Tomé, in the Campos Basin, is a region of intense ocean mesoscale activity where meanders and eddies are formed by instability processes of the Brazil Current. In this work seven years of ADCP current data (2006-2012) are analyzed at different depths over the continental shelf and slope of Campos Basin in order to characterize the variability and vertical struture of meanders and eddies. The present study is a continuation of Lima et al. (2010), in which two years of current meter data, taken at fewer locations and spanning a shorter depth range, were analyzed. This preliminary study suggested that eddy formation at Cape São Tomé may occur throughout the year, and that these eddies, which present a mixed barotropic and baroclinic structure, exert significant influence on the Brazil Current and on the upper portion of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current, which flows northward at intermediate depths. The longer time series of data, now available, alow us to check the validity of Lima et al. (2010) results about mesoscale activity activity, and to test their proposed conceptual model of eddy formation for other events. The ten ADCP moorings analyzed were located between 21°S and 23°S, and 41°W and 39°W. Measurements were taken from the surface down to 750 and 900 meters, and the data have different record lengths for each mooring. High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature dates (GHRSST) are also analyzed in order to provide a broader spatial view, assisting in the interpretation of the phenomena observed in the velocity data. The new results corroborate the study of Lima et al. (2010), showing that eddy formation is a reccuring phenomenon at Cape São Tomé for all the period analyzed. Eddies generate significant variability in current velocity both at the surface and at intermediate depths, changing the depth and intensity of Brasil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current system. While the average current system showed a strong baroclinic structure, the variability associated with the meandering of the stream and the eddy generation, had a significant barotropic component. Some eddies pinched off from the current, while others were reabsorbed by the Brasil Current, in accordance with the proposed conceptual model. Reference LIMA, N. D., GUERRA, L. D., PAIVA, A. M., 2010. Brazil Current eddy-activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP measurements, 2010 Meeting of the Americas, Foz do Iguaçu.

Lima, N. D.; Gabioux, M.; Guerra, L. D.; Paiva, A. M.



Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use throughout the Americas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are real-time sharing of hydro-meteorological data by institutions of higher education throughout the Americas; in the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; and in the establishment of server sites that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote- access to a wide variety of datasets. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data for approximately 150 US universities for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration among Unidata, the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Collaboration between Unidata and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Regional Meteorological Training Center (RMTC) based in Barbados, has been launched to investigate the possibility of expansion of IDD data sharing throughout Caribbean RMTC member countries. Most recently, efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are being provided by Unidata through a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are provided by Unidata's Thematic Realtime Environmental Data Services (THREDDS) servers (which incorporate Open-source Project for a Network Data Access (OPeNDAP) data services), and the Abstract Data Distribution Environment (ADDE) of McIDAS. It is envisioned that the data sharing capabilities available in the IDD, IDD-Brasil, and IDD-Caribe, remote data access capabilities available in THREDDS and ADDE, and analysis capabilities available in GEMPAK, the IDV, and McIDAS will help foster new collaborations among prominent university educators and researchers, national meteorological agencies, and WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers throughout North, Central, and South America.

Yoksas, T. C.



Heat generated by Er:YAG laser in the pulp chamber of teeth submitted to removal of dental tissue and composite resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge about and control of thermal energy produced by Er:YAG laser after irradiating hard dental tissues and compound resin is important because the pulp, like all vital biological tissue, has a certain capacity for supporting stimulus. The objective of this study was to analyze the thermal variation generated by Er:YAG laser (?=2.94?m) during the preparation of a Class I cavity in the dental structure and in the removal of microhybrid Z100 (3M) compound resin. An evaluation was made of 30 maxillary human pre-molar teeth from the bank of the Endodontic Laboratory Center of Ribeirao Preto Dental School, Brasil. The sample was divided into 6 groups of 5 teeth each: Group 1, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 113 seconds); Group 2, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 81 seconds); Group 3, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 58 seconds); Group 4, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 85 seconds); Group 5, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 67 seconds); Group 6, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 258 impulses, 42 seconds). The laser used was KaVo Key 2 (Biberach, Germany), ?=2,94?m, P=3 Watts, pulse duration of 250?s, with air-water cooling. The increase in temperature during dental preparation and the removal of the compound resin was evaluated by means of a Tektronix DMM916 Thermocouple (Consitec, Brasil). The results showed that the application of laser for the removal of the hard dental tissues and for the removal of compound resins with the pulse frequencies 3, 4 and 6 Hz did not generate heating greater than 3.1°C and remained within the histopathological limits permitted for pulp tissue (5.5°C) and there was a significant statistical difference between the heat generated by the application of laser in the removal of the hard dental tissues and in the removal of compound resins (p<0.01). The average increase in temperature of the compound resin component was greater than the tooth.

Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Spano, Julio; Barbin, Eduardo; Marchesan, Melissa A.



[Off-label prescriptions in Brazil and in the US: legal aspects and paradoxes].  


The scope of this study is to review the legal aspects of off-label prescription in Brazil compared to the US regulatory environment, to verify whether or not it derives from the structure of the current administrative regulatory process. It involved a bibliographic study in English and Portuguese in public databases of legislation, articles, books and dissertations using the key words 'off-label,' 'health law,' 'health regulation,' with respective translations into English. In Brasil and the US, health surveillance institutions have no jurisdiction on medical practices and cannot restrict off-label prescriptions beyond educational campaigns. Indications of use are a recommendation of minimum safety and efficacy for product commercialization, but are not a restrictive factor in practice, which does not exonerate physicians from civil liability lawsuits. Public measures to restrict off-label prescriptions are more common in the control of the incentives and dissemination of information to the medical community. Off-label prescription is a risk-benefit assessment made by the clinician and the pros and cons are described in the literature. Brazilian legislation and its stance on the subject still lack greater investigation and subsequent measures. PMID:23546211

Nobre, Patricia Fernandes da Silva



[The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].  


The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa



Targeting acute myeloid leukemia with a proapoptotic peptide conjugated to a Toll-like receptor 2-mediated cell-penetrating peptide.  


Cell-penetrating peptides provide a unique platform to create a new generation of cancer therapeutics with enhanced efficacy and diminished toxicity. In our study, enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Screening of a phage display peptide library using Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands (BRASIL) identified a TLR2-binding peptide motif, Pep2. We show that the TLR2-binding peptide motif targeted and penetrated into leukemia cells in a TLR2-dependent manner. Moreover, a synthetic, chimeric peptide composed of the TLR2-binding motif linked to a programmed cell death-inducing sequence, D(KLAKLAK)2, induced apoptosis in AML cells with high TLR2 expression (TLR2(high)) but not in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells with low TLR2 expression (TLR2(low)). The antileukemia activity of this chimeric peptide was confirmed in leukemia patient samples and an animal model of myeloid leukemia, as the development of leukemia was significantly delayed in mice with TLR2(high) AML compared to TLR2(low) CML NOD/SCID mice. TUNEL assays on bone marrow tissue slices revealed that the chimerical peptide induced leukemia cell apoptosis in a TLR2-dependent manner. Together, our findings indicate that TLR2 is a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AML, and the prototype, Pep2-D(KLAKLAK)2, is a promising drug candidate in this setting. PMID:23852533

Li, Ke; Lv, Xiao-Xi; Hua, Fang; Lin, Heng; Sun, Wei; Cao, Wen-Bin; Fu, Xiao-Ming; Xie, Jing; Yu, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Zhe; Liu, Hong; Han, Ming-Zhe; Hu, Zhuo-Wei



[Establishment and application of TLR2 receptor-based cell screening model].  


TLR2 activity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, tumor carcinogenesis and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. To establish a TLR2 receptor-based cell screening model, NF-kappaB promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmids were transfected into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) stably expressing human TLR2 and co-receptors CD14, TLR1 and TLR6. Single clones were then isolated and characterized. Using this screening system, a human TLR2-binding peptide C8 was obtained from the Ph.D.-7 Phage Display Peptide Library through biopanning and rapid analysis of selective interactive ligands (BRASIL). The binding characteristic of C8 with human TLR2 was evaluated by ELISA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The NF-kappaB luciferase activity assay showed that C8 could activate the TLR2/TLR1 signaling pathway and induce the production of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. In conclusion, the TLR2 receptor-based cell screening system is successfully established and a new TLR2-binding peptide is identified by using this system. PMID:23888692

Li, Ke; Hua, Fang; Lü, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Jiao-Jiao; Hu, Zhuo-Wei



Mini-winkler extractor and pitfall trap as complementary methods to sample formicidae.  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps as appropriate and complementary methods to sample ant communities in the phytophysiognomy mosaic in the Poconé Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso, Brasil. Seven units were studied for landscape, located within a 25 km(2) collection area, formed by thirty 250-m transects, at 1-km intervals in a 5?×?5 km area. Five collection points were marked in each transect at 50-m intervals, totaling 150 points. A collection was made at each sampling point with mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps. Using the mini-Winkler extractor, 1,088 individuals were collected distributed in 20 genera and 55 species, with Solenopsis invicta Buren and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 as the most frequent ants. Using pitfall traps, 2,726 individuals distributed in 24 genera and 48 species were sampled and Dorymyrmex (gr. pyramicus) sp.1 and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 were the most frequent species. A significant difference between the methods was observed in measured species number. The Principal coordinates analysis discriminated two species groups exclusively sampled by the mini-Winkler extractor and another by the pitfall methods. Therefore, it was concluded that these methods were complementary for ant diversity inventories in the Poconé Pantanal region. PMID:23949854

Silva, F H O; Delabie, J H C; dos Santos, G B; Meurer, E; Marques, M I



Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.



Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.  


This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region. PMID:16981042

Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A



Blood supply in the tongue of Nellore Bos indicus (Linnaeus, 1758).  


Aspects of the vascularization of the tongue of Nellore Bos indicus (Linnaeus, 1758) were evaluated through the vascular injection technique (with latex-type Neoprene 450, Du Pont do Brasil S.A. and Sulvinil coloring, Glassurit), fixed in formaldehyde at 7% and dissected with magnifying glass. The material was collected at Goiás Carnes Freezer Warehouse in Goiania, Goias. It was found that the deep lingual artery penetrated the lower lateral region of the prominence of the dorsal area of the tongue, advancing rostrally between the hyoid bone and the hypoglossal muscle. In the intravisceral initial third, the artery represents the deep, sinuous continuation branch of the lingual artery, in which path the sublingual artery was stressed in the ventral plan. Then, the artery deepened in the interior of the hypoglossal muscles and genioglossal, supplying dorsal branches (from three to nine) for the lingual torus; from one to five dorsal collateral branches for the lingual cavity; and one or two ventral collateral branches. At the lingual apex, the artery undergoes bifurcation supplying collateral, dorsal and ventral branches with anastomoses between the parallel vessels in the same antimere and between branches of lower caliber hierarchy between opposite antemeres. The large presence of microvessels indicates a significant blood supply to the organ. These results, in comparison with those found in literature, suggest a peculiar vascular pattern for this cattle breed of Indian origin. PMID:19183353

Ferreira, J R; Nogueira, D J; Rodrigues, B F; Alvarenga, B F



[Rudolf Schindler and the gastroscopy].  


Rudolf Schindler (1888?-?1968) accelerated the spread of gastroscopy in various ways. Together with the technical expert Georg Wolf he developed in 1932 the semiflexible gastroscope, which for about 25 years was the standard gastroscope worldwide before the onset of the fiberscopic era. With his previously constructed rigid gastroscope he became the founder of routine gastroscopy. His Lehrbuch und Atlas der Gastroskopie made him the leading endoscopic authority. He founded the ambulant gastroenterological-endoscopic practice. He was the first to describe and differentiate gastritis. In 1941 he founded the American Gastroscopic Club, he was its first president and the first editor of the journal of this society. For about 40 years he practiced gastroscopy every day with his wife Gabriele. Last but not least, Schindler was a leading authority, which attracted a steadily increasing number of pupils. Schindler was born and grew up in Berlin. He made most of his innovations in Munich between 1920 and 1934. An arrest by the Nazis of two months duration in 1934 drove him away from Germany. In the next decade he made Chicago the Mekka of gastroscopy. In 1943 he moved to California, From 1958 through to 1950 he worked in Belo Horizonte, Brasil. He spent his last years again in Munich. Schindler, possibly the best known digestive endoscopist and an innovative artistical personality, received worldwide high acceptance. PMID:24420795

Schäfer, P K



Biochemical and genetic polymorphisms for carboxylesterase and acetylesterase in grape clones of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) cultivars.  


Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was employed to show the highest number of esterase loci and to detect alpha- and beta-esterase polymorphisms in leaf buds of Vitis vinifera cultivars. A total of 16 esterase isozymes were detected in leaf buds from 235 plants including Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil cultivars. Biochemical characterization of the grape esterases using ester substrates revealed alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases with inhibitor tests distinguishing both carboxylesterases (EST-2, EST-3, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7, EST-8, EST-9, EST-10, and EST-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (EST-4, EST-11, EST-12, EST-13, EST-14, EST-15 isozymes). No allele variation for alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases was detected; however, EST-3 alpha-carboxylesterase was absent in 61.7% of vines, and EST-4 alpha/beta-acetylesterase was absent in one vine of Rubi cv. Null EST-3 carboxylesterase phenotype (61.7%) cannot be explained in this article, but the high genetic polymorphism in four V. vinifera clones is a positive aspect for genetic selection and development of new clones with different characteristics. PMID:17710528

Orasmo, Gleice Ribeiro; Oliveira-Collet, Sandra A; Lapenta, Ana Sílvia; de Fátima P S Machado, Maria



5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the philosophy that the International School on Field Theory and Gravitation must be held each three years in different Brazilian Universities and, if possible, in different brazilian states, the next meeting will take place at Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, Cuiabá city on April, 20-24/2009 very close to the beautiful Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães area. The goal of the meeting is to promote a greater integration among many physicists from the local university, UFMT, Co-organizing institutions in Brasil and foreign countries such as Canada, USA, Italy, China, England, Swiss, Spain, Brazil and others; to stimulate the organization of scientific events in our physics Institute and thus contributing to local research activities; to exhibit different fields of physics and to stimulate new lines of theoretical research and technological developments in the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT. Finally, we make efforts to promote the development of advanced studies, taking it to the present core of research in a strong process of affirmation of new lines of theoretical studies in our Physics Institute. To this, we invite colleagues, collaborators, researchers, students, and friends to attend this fifth edition of International School on Field Theory and gravitation-2009.


Meteor showers effects in the low terrestrial ionosphere detected at VLF ionosonde and long distance propagation paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Geminids and eta Aquarids meteor showers in the lower ionosphere were observed using two different methods. Low ionosphere group heights measured by a very low frequency ionosonde located south of Brazil indicated an anomalous lowering of the effective reflection height and presented night-time 5 sigma deviation in good correlation with Eta Aquarids stream transit. The group reflection coefficients present a very pronounced variation reaching values 3 sigma below the normal values. Diurnal very low frequency phase variations in two long-distance propagation paths present night-time 7 sigma and 4 sigma phase deviations from the average during the Eta Aquarids shower transit. The Geminids shower effect in the lower ionosphere was detected in two different long distance very low frequency propagation paths: NAA, Culter, U.S.A. - Atibaia, S.P., Brazil presented 5 sigma phase deviation and ARG, Argentina - Atibaia, S.P., Brasil presented 3.5 sigma phase deviation from the average. The geomagnetic activity in the periods covered by this investigation was low and the results obtained are a confirmation through two different techniques of changes in the physical conditions of the low ionosphere by meteor shower.

Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Paesleme, N. M.; Piazza, L. R.; Macedomoura, M. S. S.



Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.



Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N. [Departamento Materiales, GIDAT, GAEN, CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Gribaudo, L.M. [Departamento Materiales, GIDAT, GAEN, CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)



Uranium deposits of Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.




Phospholipases A2: a dendrogram from a distance matrix based on size and hydrophobicity of the residues in their homologous sequences.  


A distance matrix was obtained from aligned homologous sequences of 32 phospholipases A2 (EC (24 from Elapid and 5 from Viperid venoms, and 3 from mammals), on the basis of the quantities Dij which are defined from a two-dimensional vector representation of the amino acid residues (dimensions: size and hydrophobicity). These Dij quantities were proposed in a previous paper (Ventura, M. M., (1989), An. Acad. brasil. Ci., 61: 215). A dendrogram was constructed from this distance matrix employing, for cluster analysis, the unweighted pair-group using arithmetic averages. Two groups of phospholipases A2: a) Elapid venom enzymes together with the three mammalian pancreatic enzymes (bovine, equine and porcine), and b) Viper venom enzymes (Crotalus, Trimeresurus and Bitis enzymes) can be well distinguished in the topology of the dendrogram. The Elapid group of enzymes is divided into two subgroups: a) Naja, Hemachatus and Bungarus venom enzymes, and b) Notechis, Laticauda, Enhydrina and Oxyuranus venom enzymes. It is observed that there is a close similarity between the mammalian pancreatic phospholipases A2 and the enzymes from Naja, Hemachatus and Bungarus. These results are similar to those reported by Dufton and Hider (Eur. J. Biochem., 137:545 (1983] which were obtained from the distance matrix based on minimum mutation distance between 25 selected residue positions in the pairwise compared sequences. PMID:2094177

Ventura, M M



[Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary].  


The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0. PMID:19860342

Minahim, María Auxiliadora



Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.  


Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where (222)Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and (222)Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3). PMID:24729565

Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P



Ground-based photometry of space-based transit detections: photometric follow-up of the CoRoT? mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation, techniques and performance of the ground-based photometric follow-up of transit detections by the CoRoT space mission are presented. Its principal raison d'être arises from the much higher spatial resolution of common ground-based telescopes in comparison to CoRoT's cameras. This allows the identification of many transit candidates as arising from eclipsing binaries that are contaminating CoRoT's lightcurves, even in low-amplitude transit events that cannot be detected with ground-based obervations. For the ground observations, “on” - “off” photometry is now largely employed, in which only a short timeseries during a transit and a section outside a transit is observed and compared photometrically. CoRoTplanet candidates' transits are being observed by a dedicated team with access to telescopes with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 2 m. As an example, the process that led to the rejection of contaminating eclipsing binaries near the host star of the Super-Earth planet CoRoT-7b is shown. Experiences and techniques from this work may also be useful for other transit-detection experiments, when the discovery instrument obtains data with a relatively low angular resolution. The CoRoT?space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA (RSSD and Science Program), Germany and Spain.

Deeg, H. J.; Gillon, M.; Shporer, A.; Rouan, D.; Stecklum, B.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Barbieri, M.; Bouchy, F.; Eislöffel, J.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Eigmüller, P.; Handler, G.; Hatzes, A.; Kabath, P.; Lendl, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rabus, M.; Tingley, B.; Titz, R.



Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Chagas' disease.  


Chagas' disease is a common cause of morbidity in Latin American countries. In Brazil, naturally occurring transmission of its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has been almost completely abolished through effective control programs aimed at the triatomid insect vector. Thus, transfusion of blood from infected donors has become the major route for contracting Chagas' disease due to the socioeconomically motivated migration of residents from areas where the disease is endemic to the larger urban centers. Therefore, the employment of screening tests is mandatory for all blood banks throughout the country. We compared the diagnostic performances of three commercially available screening assays used in routine testing in Brazilian blood banks: the Abbott Chagas antibody enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil, São Paulo), the BIOELISACRUZI kit (Biolab-Mérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the BIOZIMA Chagas kit (Polychaco S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina). The evaluation was performed with sera obtained from chagasic patients and healthy residents of four different areas in Brazil where Chagas' disease is either endemic or emergent and where clinical manifestations of the disease and circulating parasite strains vary. The results obtained with each kit were compared to matched in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay data obtained for each sample. Depending on the area under investigation, the three commercial kits produced specificity values between 93.3 and 100.0%, sensitivity values between 97.7 and 100%, and accuracies ranging from 93.6 to 100.0%. PMID:9705367

Oelemann, W M; Teixeira, M D; Veríssimo Da Costa, G C; Borges-Pereira, J; De Castro, J A; Coura, J R; Peralta, J M



Evaluation of Three Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is a common cause of morbidity in Latin American countries. In Brazil, naturally occurring transmission of its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has been almost completely abolished through effective control programs aimed at the triatomid insect vector. Thus, transfusion of blood from infected donors has become the major route for contracting Chagas’ disease due to the socioeconomically motivated migration of residents from areas where the disease is endemic to the larger urban centers. Therefore, the employment of screening tests is mandatory for all blood banks throughout the country. We compared the diagnostic performances of three commercially available screening assays used in routine testing in Brazilian blood banks: the Abbott Chagas antibody enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil, São Paulo), the BIOELISACRUZI kit (Biolab-Mérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the BIOZIMA Chagas kit (Polychaco S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina). The evaluation was performed with sera obtained from chagasic patients and healthy residents of four different areas in Brazil where Chagas’ disease is either endemic or emergent and where clinical manifestations of the disease and circulating parasite strains vary. The results obtained with each kit were compared to matched in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay data obtained for each sample. Depending on the area under investigation, the three commercial kits produced specificity values between 93.3 and 100.0%, sensitivity values between 97.7 and 100%, and accuracies ranging from 93.6 to 100.0%.

Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Teixeira, Maria Da Gloria M.; Verissimo Da Costa, Giovani C.; Borges-Pereira, Jose; De Castro, Jose Adail F.; Coura, Jose Rodrigues; Peralta, Jose Mauro



Physical modeling in geomorphology: are boundary conditions necessary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Referring to the physical experimental design in geomorphology, boundary conditions are key elements that determine the quality of the results and therefore the study development. For years engineers have modeled structures, such as dams and bridges, with high precision and excellent results. Until the last decade, a great part of the physical experimental work in geomorphology has been developed with an engineer-like approach, requiring an accurate scaling analysis to determine inflow parameters and initial geometrical conditions. However, during the last decade, the way we have been approaching physical experiments has significantly changed. In particular, boundary conditions and initial conditions are considered unknown factors that need to be discovered during the experiment. This new philosophy leads to a more demanding data acquisition process but relaxes the obligation to a priori know the appropriate input and initial conditions and provides the flexibility to discover those data. Here I am going to present some practical examples of this experimental approach in deepwater geomorphology; some questions about scaling of turbidity currents and a new large experimental facility built at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Cantelli, A.



The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for Mars atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in the martian atmosphere. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.



FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Commit

Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.



Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use Worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are the free-and-open sharing of hydro-meteorological data; the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; the establishment of server technologies that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote-access to a wide variety of datasets, and in the building of a community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. The tools and services provided by Unidata are available to the research and education community free-of-charge. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the US university community for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration between Unidata and the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Most recently, explorations of data sharing between UCAR and select countries in Africa have begun. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are available through Unidata in a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are provided by Unidata's Thematic Realtime Environmental Data Services (THREDDS) servers (which incorporate Open-source Project for a Network Data Access (OPeNDAP) data services), and the Abstract Data Distribution Environment (ADDE) of McIDAS. It is envisioned that the data sharing capabilities available in the IDD, IDD-Brasil, IDD-Caribe, and Antarctic-IDD, remote data access capabilities available in THREDDS and ADDE, and analysis capabilities available in GEMPAK, the IDV, and McIDAS will help foster new collaborations among prominent universities, national meteorological agencies, and WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers throughout North, Central, and South America, in the Antarctic research community, and eventually in Africa. This paper is intended to inform AGU 2007 Joint Assembly attendees, especially those in Mexico and Central America, of the availability of real-time data and tools to analyze/visualize those data, and to promote the free-and-open sharing of data, especially of locally-held datasets of general interest.

Yoksas, T. C.; Almeida, W. G.; Leon, V. C.



An antibody-like peptide that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules.  


There is an urgent need for biomarkers to identify malignant thyroid nodules from indeterminate follicular lesions. We have used a subtractive proteomic strategy to identify novel biomarkers by selecting ligands to goiter tissue from a 12-mer random peptide phage-displayed library using the BRASIL method (Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands). After three rounds of selection, two highly reactive clones to the papillary thyroid tumor cell line NPA were further evaluated, and their specific binding to tumor proteins was confirmed using phage-ELISA. The antibody-like peptide CaT12 was tumor-specific, which was further tested by immunohistochemistry against TMAs (tissue microarrays) comprised of 775 human benign and malignant tissues, including 232 thyroid nodular lesions: 15 normal thyroid tissues, 53 nodular goiters (NG), 54 follicular adenomas (FA); 69 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); and 41 follicular carcinomas (FC). CaT12 was able to identify PTC among thyroid nodular lesions with 91.2% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity, despite its non-specificity for thyroid tissues. Additionally, the CaT12 peptide helped characterize follicular lesions distinguishing the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) from FA with 91.9% accuracy; FVPTC from NG with 83.1% accuracy; FVPTC from the classic PTC with 57.7% accuracy; and FVPTC from FC with 88.7% accuracy. In conclusion, our strategy to select differentially expressed ligands to thyroid tissue was highly effective and resulted in a useful antibody-like biomarker that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help distinguish follicular patterned lesions. PMID:23462224

Reis, Carolina Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Paula; Vieira, Carlos Ueira; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Silva, Sindeval José da; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Ward, Laura Sterian



Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil.  


Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide. Degradación, Reajuste, Eliminacióm de las Listas y Reclasificación de Áreas Protegidas en Brasil. PMID:24724978

Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E



Upward Lightning in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.



Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebouças Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 µg/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebouças Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebouças Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebouças Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/µg and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk. PMID:23479151

Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corrêa, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I



Expansion Of Sugarcane Production In São Paulo, Brazil: Implications For Fire Occurrence And Respiratory Health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in the price of oil have generated much interest in biofuel development. Despite the increasing demand, the social and environmental impacts of large scale adoption of biofuels at both regional and national scales remain understudied, especially in developing economies. Here we use municipality-level data for the state of São Paulo in Brasil to explore the effects of fires associated with sugarcane cultivation on respiratory health of elderly and children. We examined the effects of fires occurring in the same year in which respiratory cases were reported as well as chronic effects associated with long-term cultivation of sugarcane. Across the state, respiratory morbidity attributable to fires accounted for 113 elderly and 317 child cases, approximately 1.8% of total cases in each group. Although no chronic effects of fire were detected for the elderly group, an additional 650 child cases can be attributed to the long term cultivation of sugar cane increasing to 5.4% the percent of children cases that can be attributed to fire. For municipalities with greater than 50% of the land in sugarcane the percentage increased to 15% and 12 % respectively for elderly and children. An additional 209 child cases could also be attributed to past exposure to fires associated with sugarcane, suggesting that in total 38% of children respiratory cases could be attributed to current or chronic exposure to fires in these municipalities. The harmful effects of cane- associated fires on health are not only a burden for the public health system but also for household economies. This type of information should be incorporated into land use decisions and discussions of biofuel sustainability.

Uriarte, M.



221 Eos: A remnant of a partially differentiated parent body?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid 221 Eos (K class), has been traditionally associated to CO/CV meteorites (Bell 1988). This association is based solely on spectral similarities with meteorites, and previously the best spectral analog to Eos was found to be the CO3 Warrenton (Burbine et al. 2001). The 52-color spectrum ( and the SMASSIR spectrum (Burbine and Binzel 2001) of 221 Eos in the NIR region, combined with the SMASSII spectrum (Bus and Binzel 2001) in the visible, has now been compared to the whole RELAB meteorites database ( updated on July 31, 2003. This comparison revealed a better spectral analog to Eos: the anomalous stone Divnoe, a primitive achondrite meteorite. Problems and implications of such match for the composition of Eos and its dynamical family will be discussed. This work has been supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq/Brasil. References: Bell, J.F. 1988. A Probable Asteroidal Parent Body for the CV or CO Chondrites. Meteoritics 23, 256. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. Bus, S.J. and Clark, B.E. 2001. K asteroids and CO3/CV3 chondrites. Icarus 36, 245. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey in the Near-Infrared. Icarus 159, 468. Bus, S.J. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey: The Observations. Icarus 158, 106.

Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.



The Distance to the Massive Galactic Cluster Westerlund 2 from a Spectroscopic and HST Photometric Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters RV and AV for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values langRV rang = 3.77 ± 0.09 and langAV rang = 6.51 ± 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance langdrang = 4.16 ± 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P.



Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km/sec/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9 Msolar in the inner kpc. HST-NICMOS images show the presence of a circumnuclear star formation ring at radius ~ 2.8'' (720 pc). This ring is more defined than most of the known cases and harbours a mini-bar and nuclear spiral arms with a sense of rotation opposite than the main spiral arms. This morphological evidence suggest the presence of a dynamically decoupled system inside the circumnuclear ring. As in other cases studied by us, the ring seems to be inside an Inner Lindblad Resonance and the Lindblad curve ?-?/2 for this object begins to drop for Rmax = 400 pc (~1.5''), but the limited spatial resolution does not allow us to find out a definitive evidence for the existence of a second ILR inside at inner radii. Up to date there is no published morphological or kinematical evidence for the presence of a second ILR at such small radii, a necessary ingredient for the presence of circumnuclear ring of star formation, considering the results of recent hydrodynamic simulations. We have proposed the observation of NGC 1241 with better instruments in order to extend the rotation curve to the central 2'', unveil the presence of a second inner resonance, study in detail the structural properties of the nuclear counterrotating arms and establish accurate models of mass distribution in galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This program has been awarded with Band 1 observing time at the Gemini North Telescope Quick Start Stage (Brasil and Argentina).

Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.


Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien



Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries Lima, Marta1; Menor, Eldemar2; Lima, Enjolras3; Neumann, Virginio4 1MFGTransportes, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil 3Servico Geologico do Brasil-CPRM, Brazil 4Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Heavy metal (HM) concentrations in estuarine sediments of the Botafogo and Manguaba river, North-eastern Brazil were investigated on basis of samples from a bottom core drill performed 4km from the mouth of the rivers. Total sediments (TS) of the sliced profiles (62 cm, Botafogo river and 87 cm, Manguaba river ) were submitted to chemical analysis (51 elements), mineralogical analysis (XRD) and statistical study, followed by stoichiometric calculations. Geochronologic determinations of 210Pb allowed studying the evolution of the contamination level approximately 150 year-old interval in the Botafogo river. Mercury (Hg) and Arsenic (As) are emphasized because of a chlorine-soda industry that dumps its effluents about 15 km upstream of the estuary and extensive cultivation of sugarcane existent in this watershed. Hg background in pelitic total sediments (PTS) was certain established considering the Hg content (126 ppb) in sedimentary intervals previous to 1910. The production of chlorine-soda (since 1963) coincides with a drastic increase of the Hg concentrations and contemporary values around 6.000 ppb, without interruption in the pollutant process. The conclusions found that the Hg was the main indicator of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments of the Botafogo river. On the other hand, an increase in the Hg-As concentrations has been observed at the last decades due to an increase of the clay mineral fraction in TS of the Manguaga river. This scenario indicates that the accumulation of HM has been constant since the last decades, under a background, around 80 ppm available for pelitic sediments. This result is influenced by small geogenic factors (rock weathering and natural atmospheric contributions) and moderate antropic factors (urban sewage, agricultural fertilizers, before the 1930'), but is representative of relatively well preserved hydrographic basins under tropical climate. Effectively, the Manguaba's Basin is characterized by little urban and industrial occupations although it includes extensive sugar-cane plantations with great devastation of the native forests.

Lima, Marta



Status and Update of the International Precipitation Working Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of climate modeling, data assimilation, nowcasting, and hydrological applications requires satellite-based daily and sub-daily precipitation analyses along with their associated uncertainties. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) was initiated as a permanent Working Group of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) to provide a focus in the scientific community on operational and research satellite-based quantitative precipitation analysis issues and challenges. The primary challenge is to build on existing precipitation products that utilize blended active and passive microwave sensors and geostationary-based imagers to provide analyses of the precipitation field across a variety of spatial and temporal scales in near real time. Another challenge is to develop standards for validation and independent verification of precipitation measurements derived from satellite data. In support of these activities, the IPWG community convenes a workshop every two years. The most recent workshop (Sixth IPWG Workshop: IPWG6) was hosted by the Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) headquarters, in São José dos Campos, Brasil from 15-19 October 2012. IPWG6 was attended by about 52 scientists, with 14 countries represented. There was a mix of oral presentations, posters, and working group sessions that focused on international projects and satellite programmes, IPWG programmatic activities, climatology of precipitation, precipitation datasets, algorithms, applications, validation, new technologies and NWP data. A training program was conducted in conjunction with the IPWG6 Workshop. A total of 12 participants completed the training course. The training course was entitled, "New and Emerging Technologies, Sensors, and Datasets for Precipitation" and was held on first three days (15-17 October 2012) the IPWG6 Workshop. The training focused on five topic areas that ranged from new and upcoming satellite sensors, applications, precipitation datasets, and verification and validation. Several key outcomes were recommended at the IPWG6 Workshop. One key recommendation included the provision of in situ precipitation validation data is critical for the improvement of satellite estimates of precipitation, particularly over data sparse regions. Another recommendation is the long-term continuity of conically-scanning microwave imagers as well as space based radars. Additionally, IPWG recommends that the satellite agencies continue with the implementation of new technology, such as geostationary microwave and advanced radar instrumentation to advance the capability to measure precipitation from space. The presentation will provide a status update of IPWG activities and discuss the recommendations in further detail.

Kucera, Paul; Lapeta, Bozena; Wang, Nai-Yu; Aonashi, Kazumasa



Atmospheric anionic and VOCs composition from Detroit Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of Climate of Antarctica and South America project (CASA/ Brasil-Chile-EUA scientific cooperation) atmospheric sampling were performed in 2007 austral summer (nov-dec) at Detroit Plateau (64°05'07”S, 59°38'42”W, ~ 2,000 m above sea level) in the Antarctic Peninsula, aiming to analyze the anionic and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) composition in the low atmosphere, and to better understand the regional atmospheric transport patterns. Air samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and filter pack. Local climatological data were obtained from an AWS installed in the site during the scientific expedition and regional data are based on NCEP/NCAR and NOAA HYSPLIT reanalyzes. Air samples were collected using eight 2.5L-canisters, and 0.1µm pore size Nuclepore filter at 6h / day intervals. In laboratory, after cryogenic concentration, air samples from canisters were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC/MS). While all filters were leached out with 15 mL Milli-Q water using a ultrasound device, and these solutions were sealed in Teflon vials until later analysis through an ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy) system. Analyses of the AWS data, during the studied period, showed a mean temperature of -10.4 ± 3.8oC, while the atmospheric pressure was 770.1 ± 10.2 hPa. Results from atmospheric reanalyzes indicates that Detroit Plateau has a significant influence of continental and marine aerosols. Al and Fe were the main represents in the aerosol with terrigenous influence, while Na showed the high concentration in the aerosol with marine influence. Total quantification of VOCs in the local atmosphere showed mean value of 9.8 ug/m3, with maximum (34.1 ug/m3) observed in 29 November and minimum (1.3 ug/m3) during 12 December. Our previous results indicate Detroit Plateau as a well preserved atmospheric site, allowing its use for climatological/glaciological studies.

Alencar, A. S.; Evangelista, H.; Cataldo, M.; Coôrreia, S.; Simoes, J. C.; Wainer, I.; Jaña, R.; Kurbatov, A.; Potocki, M.; Mayewski, P. A.



Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. Methods: We analyzed two complementary data sets: the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-8b as measured by CoRoT and the radial velocity curve of CoRoT-8 as measured by the HARPS spectrometer. Results: We find that CoRoT-8b is on a circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.063 ± 0.001 AU. It has a radius of 0.57 ± 0.02 RJ, a mass of 0.22 ± 0.03 MJ, and therefore a mean density of 1.6 ± 0.1 g cm-3. Conclusions: With 67% of the size of Saturn and 72% of its mass, CoRoT-8b has a density comparable to that of Neptune (1.76 g cm-3). We estimate its content in heavy elements to be 47-63 {M}_?, and the mass of its hydrogen-helium envelope to be 7-23 {M}_?. At 0.063 AU, the thermal loss of hydrogen of CoRoT-8b should be no more than 0.1% over an assumed integrated lifetime of 3 Ga. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (PNP.07B.MOUT), and the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (081.C-0388 and 083.C-0186). The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Both data sets are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Deleuil, M.; Cabrera, J.; Jorda, L.; Lovis, C.; Csizmadia, S.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Benz, W.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deeg, H.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Ollivier, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Udry, S.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.



The Neoproterozoic Trans-Saharan/Trans-Brasiliano shear zones: Suggested Tibetan Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trans-Saharan Borborema (TSB) belt is a product of the assembly of Gondwana, a supercontinent that formed from cratonic fragments derived from Rodinia and other vagrant lithospheric blocks. Recent reconstructions show the West African craton (WAC) and Congo- San-Francisco craton juxtaposed by the closure of the Brasiliano (Pharuside, Adamastor) ocean during early stages of the Pan-African orogenic cycle in northwest Gondwana. The Dahomeyide and Pharuside segments of the resulting orogenic belt preserve well- organized lithotectonic units on the eastern margin of the WAC. The foreland units consist of craton-verging nappe stacks formed from the deformed margin of the WAC and its cover rocks. The near-hinter land is underlain by granitoid gneisses postulated to represent ca 600 Ma juvenile crust, exposed in the Accra-Benin plain. Further east from the suture zone is the Nigerian province, which includes rocks that were extensively reworked apparently during the Pan-African. The Borborema province of northeastern Brasil is the correlative/ extension of Nigerian. It is underlain by rocks intensively reworked during the Brasiliano (Pan-African) orogeny and juxtaposed along a series of shear zones. A distinct feature of the TBS are these extensive shear zones, many of which are typified by dextral wrench shear. In West Africa the prominent examples extend from the Sahara to the coastline and include the Hoggar, which splays into the Kandi fault, which itself has numerous splays in Benin, Togo and southeastern Ghana. In Brazil, nearly all reconstructions show that the continuation of the Kandi Fault is the Sobral fault which is inferred to be the northern segment of the Trans-Brasiliano lineament (TBL). If correct, the TBL and its TBS extensions constitute a 4000 km long dextral shear zone, perhaps the longest coherent shear zone on earth. We suggest that the geometry of these shear zones and associated Pan African sutures have instructive analogs in the Tibet-Himalayan collision system. The Pan-African suture in the Dahomeyides and its correlative in the Pharusides corresponds to Main Himalayan Thrust in the Himalayan (belt). The Kandi fault and it's splays are remarkably similar to the convergence of Indus and Bangong sutures into the Karakoram in the Himalayas. The merger of the Pan-African faults into the Hoggar fault suggest a correspondence with the Altyn Tagh and Kulun faults that bound the norther Tibet Plateau, and which accommodate contemporary tectonic escape of that Plateau eastwards.

Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.



Ground-based transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214 b  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. GJ 1214 b is one of the few known transiting super-Earth-sized exoplanets with a measured mass and radius. It orbits an M-dwarf, only 14.55 pc away, making it a favorable candidate for follow-up studies. However, the composition of GJ 1214 b's mysterious atmosphere has yet to be fully unveiled. Aims: Our goal is to distinguish between the various proposed atmospheric models to explain the properties of GJ 1214 b: hydrogen-rich or hydrogen-He mix, or a heavy molecular weight atmosphere with reflecting high clouds, as latest studies have suggested. Methods: Wavelength-dependent planetary radii measurements from the transit depths in the optical/NIR are the best tool to investigate the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. We present here (i) photometric transit observations with a narrow-band filter centered on 2.14 ?m and a broad-band I-Bessel filter centered on 0.8665 ?m, and (ii) transmission spectroscopy in the H and K atmospheric windows that cover three transits. The photometric and spectrophotometric time series obtained were analyzed with MCMC simulations to measure the planetary radii as a function of wavelength. We determined radii ratios of 0.1173-0.0024+0.0022 for I-Bessel and 0.11735-0.00076+0.00072 at 2.14 ?m. Results: Our measurements indicate a flat transmission spectrum, in agreement with the last atmospheric models that favor featureless spectra with clouds and high molecular weight compositions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). SofI results are based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 087.C-0509.Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Cáceres, C.; Kabath, P.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Miller-Ricci Kempton, E.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.



Spectral fine structure in mm-wave (18-23 GHz) burst and its source parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Variable Frequency Radiometer (VFR) in the mm-wavelength band has been put into regular operation since 1989 on time sharing basis jointly with a 13.7 m diameter of Itapetinga's antenna (Atibaia, Brasil). Briefly, the specifications of the VFR are frequency resolution of 1 GHz, time resolution of 0.6-1.2 s and sensitivity of 0.03-0.06 S.F.U. Since then we have observed various active regions, their time evolution and various types of burst components. Total of 67 groups of the bursts were observed associated with impulsive phase of the flares. On 06/30/89, 11 groups of solar bursts of simple as well as complex type associated with hard X-rays were recorded. Here, we are reporting observations of one interesting burst observed around 17:46 UT. This burst showed a normal profile, in four of the six frequencies of observation, classified as simple burst lasting for ~30 s with peak flux of 90 S.F.U. and associated with a UV burst also. However, a frequency fine structure was recorded superimposed in the time profile of the other two frequencies (21 and 22 GHz) lasting for < 5 s with a peak flux of ~10 S.F.U. We are, for the first time, reporting a fine structure superimposed in mm-wave band with a bandwidth of ~2-3 GHz lasting about 5 s. It is interesting to note that 10 groups of bursts observed on the same day did not exhibit any fine frequency structure. Following model is purposed, a small size emerging loop interacts with an existing large loop accelerating energetic electrons that produce radio emission by gyrosynchrotron mechanism and generate the simple mm-wave burst. The narrow-band thermal emission in a hot kernel located at the top of small emerging loop lasting for a couple of seconds generates the fine structure apparently superimposed in 21 and 22 GHz at 6th harmonic. Details of this model and other possibilities will be also discussed.

Cecatto, J. R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Zheleznyakov, V. V.


High-speed video observations of natural cloud-to-ground lightning leaders - A statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this investigation is to analyze the phenomenology of positive and negative (stepped and dart) leaders observed in natural lightning from digital high-speed video recordings. For that intent we have used four different high-speed cameras operating at frame rates ranging from 1000 or 11,800 frames per second in addition to data from lightning locating systems (BrasilDat and NLDN). All the recordings were GPS time-stamped in order to avoid ambiguities in the analysis, allowing us to estimate the peak current of and the distance to each flash that was detected by one of the lightning locating systems. The data collection was done at different sites in south and southeastern of Brazil, southern Arizona and South Dakota, USA. A total of 62 negative stepped leaders, 76 negative dart leaders and 29 positive leaders were recorded and analyzed. From these data it was possible to calculate the two-dimensional speed of each observed leader, allowing us to obtain its statistical distribution and evaluate whether or not it is related to other characteristics of the associated flash. In the analyzed dataset, the speeds of positive leaders and negative dart leaders follow a lognormal distribution at the 0.05 level (according to the Shapiro-Wilk test). We have also analyzed how the two-dimensional leader speeds change as they approach ground through two different methodologies. The speed of positive leaders showed a clear tendency to increase while negative dart leaders tend to become slower as they approach ground. Negative stepped leaders, on the other hand, can either accelerate as they get closer to ground or present an irregular development (with no clear tendency) throughout their entire development. For all the three leader types no correlation has been found between the return stroke peak current and the average speed of the leader responsible for its initiation. We did find, however, that dart leaders preceded by longer interstroke intervals cannot present speeds of the order of 107 m s- 1. Finally, we have analyzed the impact of recoil activity during positive leaders over their average speed and the return stroke peak current. Even though the analysis considering the leader speed was not conclusive it was possible to show that there is no apparent minimum or maximum peak current value for return strokes preceded by leaders with or without recoil activity (considering the most common range of values in literature, 20-80 kA).

Campos, Leandro Z. S.; Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Warner, Tom A.; Pinto, Osmar; Krider, E. Philip; Orville, Richard E.



The CoRoT target HD 49933 . II. Comparison of theoretical mode amplitudes with observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The seismic data obtained by CoRoT for the star HD 49933 enable us for the first time to measure directly the amplitudes and linewidths of solar-like oscillations for a star other than the Sun. From those measurements it is possible, as was done for the Sun, to constrain models of the excitation of acoustic modes by turbulent convection. Aims: We compare a stochastic excitation model described in Paper I with the asteroseismology data for HD 49933, a star that is rather metal poor and significantly hotter than the Sun. Methods: Using the seismic determinations of the mode linewidths detected by CoRoT for HD 49933 and the theoretical mode excitation rates computed in Paper I for the specific case of HD 49933, we derive the expected surface velocity amplitudes of the acoustic modes detected in HD 49933. Using a calibrated quasi-adiabatic approximation relating the mode amplitudes in intensity to those in velocity, we derive the expected values of the mode amplitude in intensity. Results: Except at rather high frequency, our amplitude calculations are within 1-? error bars of the mode surface velocity spectrum derived with the HARPS spectrograph. The same is found with respect to the mode amplitudes in intensity derived for HD 49933 from the CoRoT data. On the other hand, at high frequency (? ? 1.9 mHz), our calculations depart significantly from the CoRoT and HARPS measurements. We show that assuming a solar metal abundance rather than the actual metal abundance of the star would result in a larger discrepancy with the seismic data. Furthermore, we present calculations which assume the “new” solar chemical mixture to be in better agreement with the seismic data than those that assumed the “old” solar chemical mixture. Conclusions: These results validate in the case of a star significantly hotter than the Sun and ? Cen A the main assumptions in the model of stochastic excitation. However, the discrepancies seen at high frequency highlight some deficiencies of the modelling, whose origin remains to be understood. We also show that it is important to take the surface metal abundance of the solar-like pulsators into account. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27 2006, has been developped and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany and Spain.

Samadi, R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.; Benomar, O.; Mosser, B.; Dupret, M.-A.; Baudin, F.; Appourchaux, T.; Michel, E.



The demise of Comet 85P/Boethin, the first EPOXI mission target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet 85P/Boethin was selected as the original comet target for the Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. Because this comet had been only observed at two apparitions in 1975 and 1986 and consequently had a large ephemeris error, an early intense recovery effort similar to that of 1P/Halley was undertaken beginning in 2005 using the ESO Very Large Telescopes (VLTs) in a distant comet program. These were challenging observations because of the low galactic latitude, and an error ellipse (the line of variations) that was larger than the CCD FOV, and the comet was not seen. Dedicated recovery observing time was awarded on the Subaru telescope in April and May 2006, and June 2007, in addition to time on the VLT and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes during July-August 2007 with wide field mosaics and mosaicing techniques. The limiting V magnitudes from these observing runs ranged between 25.7 and 27.3 and again the comet was not seen in the individual nights. A new image processing technique was developed to stack images over extended runs and runs after distorting them to account for dilations and rotations in the line of variations using modifications of the world coordinate system. A candidate at V ˜ 27.3 was found in the CFHT data along the LOV, 2.5' west of the nominal ephemeris position. The EPOXI mission was unwilling to re-target the spacecraft without a confirmation. Additional time was secured using the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Gemini South 8-m telescope, the Clay and Baade (Magellan 6.5 m), CTIO 4 m, and SOAR 4 m telescopes during 2007 September and October A composite image made by stacking the new data showed no plausible candidate nucleus to a limiting magnitude of V = 28.5, corresponding to a nucleus radius between 0.1 and 0.2 km (assuming an albedo of 0.04). The comet was declared lost, presumably having disintegrated. Searches in the WISE data set revealed no debris trail, but no constraints on the possible time of disruption can be made. NASA approved the trajectory correction maneuver to go to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 2007 November 1. Many observers searched for the comet as it came to its December 2008 perihelion, but no trace of the nucleus was found. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope, Chile, in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, in part using data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, in part on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii, in part using data collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association for Research in Astronomy, under contract with the National Science Foundation, and in part on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). This work is also based in part on observations taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA.

Meech, K. J.; Kleyna, J.; Hainaut, O. R.; Lowry, S. C.; Fuse, T.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Chesley, S.; Yeomans, D. K.; Fernández, Y.; Lisse, C.; Reach, W.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Pittichová, J.; Christensen, E.; Osip, D.; Brink, T.; Mateo, M.; Motta, V.; Challis, P.; Holman, M.; Ferrín, I.



Energy expenditure and intensity of physical activity in soccer referees during match-play.  


The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint). The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m(-2). During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765), with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006), and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs) with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play. Key pointsIn order to elaborate a diet that sufficiently restores the athlete's energy expenditure during training and/or competition, the first step would be to measure energy expenditure during activity.We observed that during officials matches soccer referees perform physical aerobic activities of low and moderate intensity, and present a significant decline in energy expenditure between the first and second half.The pattern of movement observed in the present report confirms that soccer referees, like players undertake intermittent type exercise.Nutritional habits of soccer referees must be adapted to their daily physical activities, short training periods and moderate energy intensity physical activity, on average, during match refereeing. PMID:24149899

da Silva, Alberto Inácio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Fernandez, Ricardo



PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 2009 signals the birth of a new conference series under the name of Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG). The main purpose of this new series is to bring together physicists working on General Relativity, Field Theory, and related areas to discuss the present status and latest developments in the classical and quantum treatment of gravitational systems, as well as to support and strengthen the scientific communication between the physicists of the wide Mediterranean region, working in the field of Classical and Quantum Gravity. For the latter reason, we plan to organize all future conferences of this series in the Mediterranean region. The First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity took place at the Orthodox Academy of Crete (OAC) in Kolymbari (Crete, Greece) from 14-18 September 2009. Physicists from countries all around the world travelled to Kolymbari to discuss hot topics in the classical and quantum treatment of gravitational systems such as string theory and branes, classical gravity and alternative theories, gravitational waves and experiments, quantum gravity, cosmology, and black holes. The program consisted of invited plenary talks and contributed talks in parallel sessions. We were able to give full financial support for accommodation to all invited speakers and partial support to younger people at the beginning of their scientific careers. In particular, help was provided to students and scientists from non-EU countries. The financial support was provided by the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation. During the MCCQG two social events were organized. The first one was a half-day guided bus excursion to Knossos and the surrounding area which took place on 16 September. The second one was the conference dinner on 18 September at the OAC. Traditional Cretan dishes were served and dancers performing in traditional costumes entertained the participants. These events contributed to create a quite fruitful, enjoyable 'Mediterranean' atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and discussion. It is a pleasure to thank our administrative and technical staff Georgia Angelopoulou, Athina Pouri, Mando Zambeli and Manolis Zoulias for their untiring assistance. We also thank the staff of the OAC for the enthusiastic support and their hospitality. We are grateful to the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation for their generous financial support which made MCCQG possible. Finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting. The success of the MCCQG is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors March 2010 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Spyros Basilakos (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Mariano Cadoni (University and INFN Cagliari, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Elias Vagenas (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Advisory Committee Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Switzerland) Orfeu Bertolami (IST, Lisbon, Portugal) Loriano Bonora (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) George Contopoulos (Academy of Athens, Greece) Ruth Durrer (Geneva University, Switzerland) Enrique Gaztanaga (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain) Gabriela Gonzalez (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA) Marc Henneaux (Brussels University, Belgium) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Claus Kiefer (Cologne University, Germany) Stefano Liberati (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Ofer Lahav (University College London, UK) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Don Marolf (UC Santa Barbara, USA) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Augusto Sagnotti (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy) Mairi Sakellariadou (King's College London, UK) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Valdivia, Chile) SPONSORS Academy of Athens The Tomalla Foundation Università di Cagliari University of Mississippi University of Athens LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdalla, Elcio (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil) Antoniadis, Ignatios (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) Arminjon,

Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.



Internal architecture of mixed tide- and storm-influenced deposits: an example from the Alcántara Formation, northern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uppermost portion of the Itapecuru Group is exposed in the eastern margin of the Sao Luis Basin, northern Brazil, where it consists of two units: the Alcantara Formation (Cenomanian) and the Cujupe Formation (Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary? [Rossetti, D.F., Truckenbrodt, W., 1997. Revisão estratigrdfica para os depósitos do Albiano-Terciário Inferior (?) na Bacia de Sao Luis (MA), norte do Brasil. Bol. Mus. Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Ciênc. Terra), in press]). The Alcântara Formation, which contains the large-scale structures discussed in this paper, consists of deposits attributed to mid- to upper-shoreface, foreshore, tidal channel, and lagoon/washover environments attributed to a regressive, barred shoreline. Several types of large-scale cross bedding (i.e., simple foreset, compound, mixed, undulatory, and intricately bounded) were recognized in the shoreface facies association. These structures are interpreted to record the interaction of storm and tidal processes. The storm influence is suggested by a combination of factors, mostly including: (a) the genetic association with other storm-generated sedimentary structures (i.e., swaley cross stratification and undulating parallel lamination with internal truncations); (b) the deposition on prominent surfaces formed by storm erosion, which are defined by large-scale, either symmetrical or asymmetrical scours arranged in a regular, repeating pattern; (c) the sedimentary features formed under combined (unidirectional and oscillatory) flow processes (e.g., compound/mixed bedding with superimposed either swaley cross sets or complexly truncating cross sets with highly undulating boundaries; large-scale, undulatory and intricately bounded cross beddings); and (d) the lateral change in structural styles within short distances, which records frequent modification from asymmetrical to symmetrical/nearly symmetrical bedform profiles (more likely to occur under storm-generated combined flows). The tidal signature is locally recognized by regularly spaced, thick/thin sandstone bundles defined by reactivation surfaces and/or mud drapes, which are attributed to tidal (ebb/flood) cycles. The analysis of paleocurrent distribution suggests that vigorous, southwestward-oriented storm flows interacted with local tidal currents on the shoreface to promote the landward transport of significant volumes of sand, which resulted in the large-scale cross stratification described in this paper. In addition, a secondary, southeastward-directed (oblique- to shore-parallel) combined flow would have periodically interacted with the main flow. The origin of this oblique- to shore-parallel flow is attributed to either the refraction of the main storm waves as they approached the paleocoastline or the interference of a separate storm episode, which competed with the major, landward-moving one. This complex storm flow pattern can be related to past penecontemporaneous seismic activity (i.e., tsunamis), as suggested by the paleogeography of the study area during the Cenomanian, combined with the structural history of the Sao Luis Basin and the sedimentary features recognized in the Alcantara Formation.

de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce



Geochemistry and Magmagenesis of the Early May 2008 Rhyolitic Magma Erupted by Chaiten Volcano, Southern Andes Volcanic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaiten volcano, located in the southern portion of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, is a 2 km diameter Holocene obsidian rhyolitic dome inside a 3 km wide caldera formed by an Upper Pleistocene basaltic to andesitic sequence. Chaiten volcano started a plinian eruption on May 1 evolving to subplinian and weak strombolian with time. Eruption has produced a significant evolution of craters geometry, volume of pyroclastic materials, gas and water emissions, large amount of fall out ash, new rhyolitic dome that is still growing, minor pyroclastic flows to the north, lateral blast to the east, and several lahars and mud flows mainly to the south along the river partially burying the Chaiten city. Six glassy, fibrous and banded, highly porous, crystal poor (zoned and twinned plagioclase, hornblende, orthopyroxene and magnetite) rhyolitic pumice and obsidian (including explosion breccias with andesitic to basaltic country rock fragments)fragments and three ash samples (also crystal poor including cristoballite, quartz, feldspars and biotite) representative of the early stage of the explosive eruption have major, trace and REE whole rock geochemical composition indicating an important crustal input in the magmagenesis (high SiO2=73-75, low Al2O3=12.75-14.80, MgO=0.1-0.6, CaO=1.4-1.9, TiO2=0.15-0.28, S=0.01-0.13, moderated K2O=2,7-3.0, Na2O=3.9-4.8 and Rb=95-121ppm, high Ba= 619-665 and Cs=5.71-7.75 and low Sr =142-161, Nb=8.00- 8.75, Y=13-14, Zr=106-121 and La/Yb=20-23 ratios, depleted HREE and HREE patterns and Eu moderate negative anomaly), as also does the previously documented <9,370 yBP rhyolitic pumice and obsidian dome, the last also showing crustal Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic signature (Lopez et al., 1993, Stern et al., 2002, Naranjo and Stern, 2004). Early May samples are depleted in MHEE and HREE and have higher La/Yb (20- 23), Rb/Ba (0.15-0.18), Ba/Sr (3.8-4.7) and Rb/Sr (0.65-0.85) ratios compare to basaltic to andesitic lavas from the Michinmahuida volcano, located 15 km to the east and to the Upper Pleistocene rhyolite from Yate volcano, approximately 100 km to the north. Geochemical data suggest that Chaiten rhyolites (both old and current eruption) were not produced by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma derived from an astenospheric or lithospheric mantle source, as could be the case of the nearby Michinmahuida volcano. Also, Chaiten rhyolites appears to be derived from a less mafic source than the rhyolite from Yate volcano (Mella, 2008). Preliminary non-modal dynamic melting models for mafic and intermediate source suggests that 5-10 percent of partial melting of an intermediate source (modal composition including 10 Cpx, 30 Hb, 45 Pl, 4 Bt, 1 Mt) is the best fit model. As indicate by precursory and early eruption volcanotectonic seismicity, this intermediate source could be an amphibolite (facies either acquired during accretion or within the crust) located at 10-15 km depth, in a 30 km thickness crust with relatively high geothermal gradient, as it was previously proposed by Lopez et al. (1993). Crystals may be relict from the magma plumbing system. Lopez, L., Kilian, R., Kempton, P. D.., Tagiti, M. 1993. Rev. Geol.. Chile 22(1):33-55. Mella, M., 2008. Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 180 p. Brasil. Naranjo, J.A., Stern C., 2004. Rev. Geol. Chile 31(2): 225-240. Stern, C., Navarro, X. and Munoz, J. 2002. Anal. Inst. Patagonia 30: 167-174.

Munoz, J. O.; Basualto, D.; Moreno, H.; Peña, P.; Mella, M.



Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse application at 1 m depth were 117.23 Mg ha-1 and 126.92 Mg ha-1, and at 0.3 m depth we found 50.34 Mg ha-1 and 55.54 Mg ha-1, respectively. It represented an increase 8.3% and 10.3% in soil C stocks in areas with vinasse application at 1 m and 0.3 m soil depth. This information may be used as a basis for public policies decision which dealing of the land use and global warming. The scientific information obtained in this research will be included in carbon footprint calculation of ethanol production and its use as biofuel. References Ellert B.H., Bettany J.R. 1995. Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:529-538. Six J., Ogle S.M., Breidt F.J., Conant R.T., Mosier A.R., Paustian K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10:155-160. Soares L.H.B., Alves B.J.R., Urquiaga S., Boddey R.M. 2009. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ. 14p. (Circular Técnica, 27).

Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos