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1

Nova espécie de Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) dos rios Tapajós e Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from Tapajós and Tocantins rivers, Brazil. Pimelodus tetramerus sp. nov. differs from the other species of Pimelodus Lacepède by its typical coloration, with four dark stripes on the sides of the body, the most dorsal beginning just behind the pre-dorsal plate and finishing at the end of the adipose-fin base; the second, wider

Frank Raynner V. Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto S. de Lucena

2006-01-01

2

Caracterização citomorfológica, cultural, molecular e patogênica de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn associado ao arroz em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tocantins State, Northern Brazil, the incidence of Rhizoctonia sheath blight on rice is important, causing significant yield losses on rice crops under irrigation. The main objective of this research was to determine the anastomosis group (AG) of R. solani associated with rice in that area, testing the hypothesis that these isolates are from the AG- 1 IA, which is

Elaine Costa Souza; Eiko Eurya Kuramae; Andreia Kazumi Nakatani; Marco Antonio Basseto; Anne Sitarana Prabhu; Paulo Cezar Ceresini

2007-01-01

3

Novas observações e dados reprodutivos do pato-mergulhão Mergus octosetaceus na região do Jalapão, Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Endangered Brazilian Merganser Mergus octosetaceus is currently largely restricted to clear-water rivers and streams with rapids in the Brazilian Cerrado. The main extant populations occur in Minas Gerais, where the species is rather well known, Goiás and Tocantins states. In the Jalapão region of eastern Tocantins, six expeditions searching for mergansers were made in 2007 and 2008, along a

Marcelo de Oliveira Barbosa; Marissônia Lopes de Almeida

4

Calophyllaceae J. Agardh em Goiás e Tocantins & Hypericaceae Juss. No Distrito Federal, Brasil.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Botânica, 2014. Este trabalho faz parte dos projetos “Flora do Distrito Federal, Brasil” e “Flora… (more)

Alkimim, Wanderson de Oliveira

2014-01-01

5

ELEMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS PARA ANÁLISE DINÂMICA DA ESTRUTURA PRODUTIVA NAS REGIÕES DE INTEGRAÇÃO DO TOCANTINS E CARAJÁS, PARÁ – AMAZÔNIA - BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo tem a finalidade de analisar as atividades e estabelecimentos de duas Regiões de Integração do Estado do Pará - Tocantins e Carajás - nos anos de 2000, 2005 e 2010 através da análise de indicadores econômicos que definem as economias dos municípios de acordo com a Matriz Bidimensional do Dinamismo Econômico. O trabalho obteve resultados coerentes com a

Heriberto Wagner Amanajás Pena; João Alberto Feio Maynart Tenório; Júlia Helena Maia do Nascimento; Nayara Alencar Moriconi; Pamela da Silva Coelho

2012-01-01

6

Predação de Opisthocomus hoazin por Spizaetus ornatus e de Bubulcus ibis por Bubo virginianus em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation of Cattle Egret by the Great Horned Owl and Hoazin by the Ornate Hawk-Eagle in western Tocantins State, Brazil. We report the predation of Hoazin Opisthocomus hoazin by an immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, a new prey for this species in Brazil. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle roosted together with Hoazin assembly in branches of Sapium haematospermum, typical river borderline vegetation.

Túlio Dornas; Renato Torres Pinheiro

7

ÁREA DE USO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE HABITAT DE CACHORRO-DO-MATO (Cerdocyon thous LINNAEUS, 1766) NO CERRADO DA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO TOCANTINS, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home range and habitat use of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766), in the Cerrado of the central region of Tocantins, Brazil. Cerdocyon thous is a species widely distributed in Brazil, in a variety of habitats ranging from open area to forests and in the central region of Tocantins (Brazil) is relatively abundant. Nevertheless, literature related to habitat use and

Roberto Guilherme Trovati; Bernardo Alves de Brito; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte; Avenida Pádua Dias; Ed. Sede

2007-01-01

8

Gastrointestinal Helminths of Six Sympatric Species of Leptodactylus from Tocantins State, Brazil  

E-print Network

Gastrointestinal Helminths of Six Sympatric Species of Leptodactylus from Tocantins State, Brazil), and Leptodactylus pustulatus (n 5 19), collected in the Brazilian state of Tocantins, were examined for helminths, Tocantins, Brazil. The Brazilian state of Tocantins is exceptionally diverse because of its location

Shepard, Don

9

Neoproterozoic geotectonic evolution of Tocantins Structural Province, Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tocantins Structural Province (TSP) is the main tectonic feature in Central Brazil. It separates two main cratonic areas ( former continental plates): the Amazonian Craton to the West and the Sao Francisco Craton to the East. Recent geochronological data (U–Pb and Sm–Nd) and structural studies show that the actual structural framework of the province was developed during the Neoproterozoic. It

Adelir Jose Strieder; Marcos Tadeu de Freitas Suita

1999-01-01

10

A GESTO DAS GUAS SUBTERRNEAS NA REGIO SUDESTE DO ESTADO DE TOCANTINS  

E-print Network

A GEST�O DAS ÁGUAS SUBTERR�NEAS NA REGI�O SUDESTE DO ESTADO DE TOCANTINS Waldir Duarte Costa1 hidrogeológico da Região Sudeste do Estado do Tocantins foram cadastrados 1.080 em toda a área, distribuídos em três distintas províncias geológicas a saber: Província de Tocantins representada por metamorfitos e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Ensemble flood forecasting on the Tocantins River - Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tocantins River basin is located in the northern region of Brazil and has about 300.000 km2 of drainage area upstream of its confluence with river Araguaia, its major tributary. The Tocantins River is intensely used for hydropower production, with seven major dams, including Tucuruí, world's fourth largest in terms of installed capacity. In this context, the use of hydrological streamflow forecasts at this basin is very useful to support the decision making process for reservoir operation, and can produce benefits by reducing damages from floods, increasing dam safety and upgrading efficiency in power generation. The occurrence of floods along the Tocantins River is a relatively frequent event, where one recent example is the year of 2012, when a large flood occurred in the Tocantins River with discharge peaks exceeding 16.000m³/s, and causing damages to cities located along the river. After this flooding event, a hydrological forecasting system was developed and is operationally in use since mid-2012 in order to assist the decision making of dam operation along the river basin. The forecasting system is based on the MGB-IPH model, a large scale distributed hydrological model, and initially used only telemetric data as observed information and deterministic rainfall forecasts from the Brazilian Meteorological Forecasting Centre (CPTEC) with 7-days lead time as input. Since August-2013 the system has been updated and now works with two new features: (i) a technique for merging satellite TRMM real-time precipitation estimative with gauged information is applied to reduce the uncertainty due to the lack of observed information over a portion of the basin, since the total number of rain gages available is scarce compared to the total basin area; (ii) rainfall ensemble forecasts with 16-days lead time provided by the Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFs), from the 2nd Generation of NOAA Global Ensemble Reforecast Data Set, maintained by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-NOAA) of the United States, are added in the system as additional inputs. This system is one of the first operational ensemble forecasting systems in Brazil, and it is also one of the first based on mixed satellite-telemetric data. This work presents the Tocantins forecasting system and some hindcasting analysis of how recent floods could have been predicted with the use of the ensemble forecasts.

Fan, Fernando; Collischonn, Walter; Jiménez, Karena; Sorribas, Mino; Buarque, Diogo; Siqueira, Vinicius

2014-05-01

12

Lyme disease in the state of Tocantins, Brazil: report of the first cases.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is an underdiagnosed zoonosis in Brazil. There are no cases registered in the state of Tocantins, the newest Brazilian state. The cases of three patients in contact with rural areas in three Tocantins' districts are herein described, and the Brazilian literature is reviewed. PMID:23141972

Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Costa, José Nilton Gomes da; Bastos, Whisllay Maciel

2012-01-01

13

EQUAÇÕES DE INTENSIDADE-DURAÇÃO-FREQÜÊNCIA DA PRECIPITAÇÃO PLUVIAL PARA O ESTADO DE TOCANTINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensity-Duration Frequency Equations of Rainfall for Tocantins State This study was carried out to adjust some probabilistic models to rainfall storms data. The intensity- duration-frequency equations were obtained for 10 locations in Tocantins State. Series with the annual maximum rainfall intensities and durations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 720 and 1440 min were used.

Demetrius David da Silva; Sílvio Bueno Pereira; Fernando Falco Pruski; Raimundo Rodrigues; Gomes Filho; Ângela M. Quintão Lana

14

Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

Snell, Leonard J.

1979-01-01

15

Apareiodon Eigenmann, 1916 (Teleostei, Characiformes), from the Tocantins-Araguaia Basin, with Description of Three New Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apareiodon species from the Rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil, were investigat- ed to determine the recognizable species in that basin. Apareiodon machrisi Travas- sos, 1957, the only previously described species reported for the Rio Tocantins- Araguaia basin, is recognized as valid, and three new species inhabiting primarily headwater streams are described (Apareiodon argenteus, Apareiodon cavalcante, and Apareiodon tigrinus). The species are

Carla Simone Pavanelli; Heraldo Antonio Britski; S. A. Schaefer

2003-01-01

16

DISTRIBUIÇÃO E ABUNDÂNCIA DE VESPAS MYMAROMMATIDAE EM MATA ATLÂNTICA DO ESPÍRITO SANTO E NO CERRADO DO TOCANTINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF MYMAROMMATIDAE WASPS IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ESPÍRITO SANTO AND IN THE CERRADO OF TOCANTINS Mymarommatidae wasps are considered rare worldwide with only four individuals found in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate their abundance and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Aracruz (Espírito Santo State), and in the Cerrado (three localities of the Tocantins State).

Marcos Antonio Lima Bragança; Raquel da Silva Acácio; Rosiléia Silva Ribeiro; José Cola Zanuncio

17

Neoproterozoic geotectonic evolution of Tocantins Structural Province, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tocantins Structural Province (TSP) is the main tectonic feature in Central Brazil. It separates two main cratonic areas ( former continental plates): the Amazonian Craton to the West and the Sao Francisco Craton to the East. Recent geochronological data (U-Pb and Sm-Nd) and structural studies show that the actual structural framework of the province was developed during the Neoproterozoic. It is herein proposed that Brasiliano Orogenic Cycle in the TSP was developed in four broad tectonic stages: 1) an ocean opening stage began possibly 1270 Ma; 2) an island-arc system development stage started 1000 Ma and its amal- gamation lasted until ca. 800 Ma; 3) a continental collision stage began ca. 800 Ma with the accretion of the island-arcs to the upper Amazonian plate, the closure of the Goias Ocean and the development of a foreland basin upon the lower Sao Francisco plate; and 4) a post-collisional stage (650-500 Ma) with the development of transcurrent faults (Transbrasiliano lineaments), back-thrust reverse faults, and intrusion of alkalic granitic plutons.

Strieder, Adelir Jose; Suita, Marcos Tadeu de Freitas

1999-09-01

18

New Interpretation of Deep Seismic Refraction data from the Tocantins Province, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We interpret seismic refraction data in the central sector of the Tocantins Province, central Brazil, producing a seismic crustal model with a well-defined upper, middle, and lower crust with smooth velocity gradients in each layer. The depths to Moho vary from 32 to 43 km, and we find mean crustal P-wave velocity to be 6.3 - 6.4 km/s. The behavior of the lower crustal layer allows an improved understanding of regional gravimetric features of central and northern sectors of the Tocantins Province, and suggests that there was subduction of the Amazon plate beneath central Brazil. In the southeastern sector, the refraction experiment resulted in a detection of a thinner crust (38 km) below the Brasilia fold belt, and a thicker crust (41 km) below the Parana basin and Sao Francisco craton (42 km). The upper crust beneath the Parana basin is around 20 km thick, and thins to less than 10 km below the craton. Gravimetric measurements in the central sector of the Tocantins Province delineate a high and a low anomaly separated by a steep gradient with a NE direction. The axis of the gradient seems to bend still further to NE in the northern sector of that province, whereas the gravimetric high continuous northwards, defining a separation between them. This suggests those features belong to different tectonic processes. The gravimetric model, which incorporates seismically resolved structure beneath the Tocantins Province, matches the observed gravimetric data quite well. Although tectonic movements have been monitored with high precision GPS for only a short time interval (1999- 2001), the results suggest observable deformations. The main seismicity of central Brazil, the Goias-Tocantins seismic belt, seems to be spatially associated with a large gravimetric high and with observed tectonic deformation. These results bring new insights into the geological history of the central and southeastern sectors of the Tocantins Province.

Perosi, F.; Mooney, W. D.; Berrocal, J.

2004-12-01

19

Feeding habits of Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes: Gasteropelecidae) in the upper rio Tocantins, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver hatchetfish Thoracocharax stellatus is one of the approximately 200 fish species recorded for the upper rio Tocantins, in the region where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam. Analysis of the stomach contents of 88 specimens revealed a diet consisting almost entirely of insects (99.6%), most of which were terrestrial (87.6%). Ants, beetles, and mayflies

André L. Netto-Ferreira; Míriam P. Albrecht; Jorge L. Nessimian; Érica P. Caramaschi

2007-01-01

20

Hepatitis B and C in the hemodialysis unit of Tocantins, Brazil: serological and molecular profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Tocantins, Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to analyze associated risk factors, and also to investigate these viruses genotypes distribution. During January and March 2001, all patients (n = 100) were interviewed at the unique dialysis unit

Karla P Souza; Jônio A Luz; Sheila A Teles; Megmar AS Carneiro; Luciana A Oliveira; Adriane S Gomes; Márcia A Dias; Selma A Gomes; Clara FT Yoshida; Regina MB Martins

2003-01-01

21

REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE, MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF PAXYODON SYRMATOPHORUS (BIVALVIA: HYRIIDAE) FROM THE TOCANTINS RIVER, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive cycle of a population of Paxyodon syrmatophorus (Meuschen, 1781), a mussel exploited for its shells in the lower Tocantins River, Brazil, was studied between September 1997 and August 1998. Monthly examination of gonad sections and inspec- tion of the demibranchs of females showed that gametogenesis takes place all year round and that spawning occurs during the months of

C. R. BEASLEY; W. G. VALE; C. H. TAGLIARO

2000-01-01

22

Identificação de raças fisiológicas de Magnaporthe grisea em áreas de arroz irrigado no Estado do Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of physiological races of Magnaporthe grisea in areas of rice irrigated in the State of Tocantins In Brazil, the most important disease in rice is blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea. This disease is considered to be a limiting factor for rice productivity. This work aimed to determine the prevalent races of the rice blast pathogen

Liamar M. Anjos; Gil R. Santos; Justino J. Dias Neto; Wilson F. Oliveira; Manoel D. Castro Neto

2009-01-01

23

Deep seismic refraction and gravity crustal model and tectonic deformation in Tocantins Province, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of seismic refraction data in the central sector of Tocantins Province, Central Brazil, has produced a seismic crustal model with well-defined upper, intermediate, and lower crust layers having smooth velocity gradient in each layer. The depths to Moho vary from 32 to 43 km, and mean crustal P velocity varies from 6.3 km/s, beneath Goiás magmatic arc on the western side, to 6.4 km/s, below Goiás massif in the central portion and the foreland fold-and-thrust belt on the eastern side. The behaviour of the lower crust layer allows an improved understanding of regional gravimetric features of the central and northern sectors of Tocantins Province and suggests subduction of the Amazon plate in Central Brazil. In the southeastern sector, the refraction experiment resulted in the detection of a thinner crust (38 km) below Brasília fold belt and a thicker crust (41 km) below Paraná basin and São Francisco craton (42 km). The upper crust beneath Paraná Basin is around 20 km thick, whereas it is less than 10 km thick below the craton. These results bring new insights into the geological history of the central and southeastern sectors of Tocantins Province. Gravimetric measurements in the central sector of Tocantins Province delineate a high and a low anomaly separated by a steep gradient with a NE direction. The axis of the gradient seems to bend still further to NE in the northern sector of that province, whereas the gravimetric high continues northwards, defining a separation between them. This suggests that those features belong to different tectonic processes that occurred during Tocantins Province orogenesis. The gravimetric model, which incorporates seismically resolved structure beneath Tocantins Province, better matches the observed gravimetric data. Although tectonic movements have only been monitored with high-precision GPS for short time interval (1999-2001), the results suggest observable deformations. The main seismicity of Central Brazil, the Goiás-Tocantins seismic belt, seems to be spatially associated with the large gravimetric high anomaly and with the observed tectonic deformation.

Berrocal, Jesus; Marangoni, Yara; de Sá, Nelsí C.; Fuck, Reinhardt; Soares, José E. P.; Dantas, E.; Perosi, Fábio; Fernandes, Celia

2004-09-01

24

Avaliação do estado nutricional da comunidade indígena Parkatêjê, Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of the Mãe-Maria indigenous community in Bom Jesus do To- cantins, Pará State, Brazil, was ascertained in a descriptive study in which ninety percent of the total population (278 individuals) agreed to participate. Weight-for-height and height-for-age indices and Body Mass Index (BMI) were ascertained for children and adults by gender, respec- tively, as were weight and height

Jane de Carlos Santana Capelli; Sergio Koifman

2001-01-01

25

Deep seismic refraction and gravity crustal model and tectonic deformation in Tocantins Province, Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of seismic refraction data in the central sector of Tocantins Province, Central Brazil, has produced a seismic crustal model with well-defined upper, intermediate, and lower crust layers having smooth velocity gradient in each layer. The depths to Moho vary from 32 to 43 km, and mean crustal P velocity varies from 6.3 km\\/s, beneath Goiás magmatic arc on the

Jesus Berrocal; Yara Marangoni; Nelsí C. de Sá; Reinhardt Fuck; José E. P. Soares; E. Dantas; Fábio Perosi; Celia Fernandes

2004-01-01

26

VARIAÇÃO NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E QUÍMICAS DA ÁGUA DO RIO TOCANTINS A JUSANTE DA USINA HIDRELÉTRICA SERRA DA MESA (GO), EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DO ANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a avaliação das características físicas e químicas das águas do rio Tocantins (TO), a jusante da UHE Serra da Mesa, nas épocas seca e chuvosa. Os dados foram coletados junto ao Projeto de Monitoramento Limnológico do rio Tocantins a jusante da UHE Serra da Mesa, como integrante de um convênio firmado entre Universidade do

Daniela Alves Oliveira; Ricardo H. P. B. Peixoto; Cleverland Carvalho de Araújo; Oliveira Barros; Ana Márcia; Fernandes da Cruz

27

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).  

PubMed

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-06-01

28

Spatial and Temporal Drivers of Fire Dynamics in the Amazon/Tocantins Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines factors and processes explaining the current spatial and temporal distribution of fires in the Amazon/Tocantins basin. It combines mid-1990's observations of agricultural land-use and fires derived from the GOES-8 satellite with natural burned areas simulated using climatic and fuel load limitations. The spatial distributions of observed fires in 1995 and 1997 are generally similar, 1995 having significantly more fires (+10%). In several subregions, we find a significant correlation between spatial distributions of observed fires and land-use. Nevertheless, when considering the entire basin this relationship is not as pronounced due to land-use data set biases, as in Amazonas, or to inadequate spatial and temporal resolution needed to detect all fires, as in Tocantins and along the Andes. When comparing the spatial distributions of fires in 1995 to the different land-use types maps, planted pasture shows the best agreement with fire occurrence; cropland is often not a significant predictor, and natural pasture has an intermediate behavior. The main features of the 1997 minus 1995 differences of fire distribution can be explained by climatic anomalies. The strong 1997 El Niño event has a significant impact on the numbers and patterns of fire, especially in Bolivia and around Manaus where the associated precipitation changes are large. The 1997 minus 1995 differences in fire dynamics in regions with small changes in climate are probably the result of some anthropogenic factors. Interannual differences in climate factors, coupled with maps of land use, provide a strong basis for understanding and potentially predicting fire dynamics in this rapidly changing region.

Botta, A.; Cardille, J.; Prins, E.; Feltz, J.

2001-12-01

29

Deep Seismic Refraction Experiments in Brazil: the Tocantins Province and the Borborema Province Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years integrated geophysical and geological studies, including deep seismic refraction experiments, receiver function studies, teleseismic data tomography, and gravimetric surveys, were carried out in central Brazil with the purpose of improving our knowledge on the deep structure of Tocantins Province down to the lithosphere. A seismic velocity model of central Brazil crust and upper mantle was obtained from travel-time interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from three lines, two of them located in the central portion of that province, and the other one in its SE portion. The two central portion lines, 300 km long each, were deployed with an overlap of 50 km, forming an EW transect of around 500 km across the Tocantins Province, and the western extreme of São Francisco Craton. The resulting model in that central portion, sows the crust divided in upper (VP 5.7 km/s - 6.0 km/s), intermediate (VP 6.3 km/s - 6.5 km/s), and lower crust (VP 6.6 km/s - 7.1 km/s). Moho appears as an irregular interface with depts. varying from 36 km to 44.5 km, with discontinuities giving evidences for the existence of first order tectonic features. P wave velocities in the upper mantle are of the order of 8.0 km/s under the western side of the transect line, and 8.3 km/s beneath its eastern side. Seismic results allowed a reinterpretation of gravimetric data, showing gravimetric discontinuities mainly compensated by differences in lithospheric mantle. Paleoproterozoic mantle, under eastern terrains, is less dense, ticker and displays higher velocity than mantle beneath Neoproterozoic terrains.. Another large geotectonic project similar to the described above, including deep seismic refraction experiments with lines near 1000 km long, is under execution in the Borborema Province located in the Brazilian Northeastern region.

Berrocal, J. G.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; Perosi, F.

2008-05-01

30

The Mara Rosa Arch in the Tocantins Province: further evidence for Neoproterozoic crustal accretion in Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mara Rosa volcano-sedimentary sequence consists of several NNE-trending belts of metavolcanic (metabasalts to metarhyolites) and metasedimentary rocks (micaschists, quartzites, cherts), exposed over large areas of the Tocantins Province, a Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano) orogenic region in the central part of Brazil. The supracrustal belts are separated by terrains dominated by metatonalites and metadiorites and intruded by several post-orogenic granitic and dioritic

Márcio M. Pimentel; Martin J. Whitehouse; Maria das G. Viana; Reinhardt A. Fuck; Machado Nuno

1997-01-01

31

Epidemiological aspects of an infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study some epidemiological aspects of the infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins. For antibody research, 645 serum samples were analyzed by the complement fixation test (CF). A 4.0% frequency was found (26\\/645) in patients' serum and among those 4.1% (23\\/551) were slaughterhouses employees and 8.1%

Taciana Rabelo Ramalho Ramos; José Wilton Pinheiro Junior; Pedro Alves de Moura Sobrinho; Vânia Lúcia de Assis Santana; Neurisvan Ramos Guerra; Lúcio Esmeraldo Honório de Melo; Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

2008-01-01

32

Canine visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease among dogs in Araguaína, Tocantins.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed serum samples from 111 male and female dogs of various ages from the municipality of Araguaína in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was initially performed at the Central Laboratory (Laboratório Central - LACEN) of Araguaína, resulting in 61 positive samples by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) (?1:40) and 50 non-reactive samples. The same samples were analyzed at the São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine (Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo - IMTSP) by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), resulting in 57 positive samples (51.35%) and 54 negative samples (48.64%). The Kappa coefficient of agreement between the tests was 0.74. The serum samples were also subjected to a diagnostic assay for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens -TESA-blot) that detected five suspect animals; three of those animals were positive for leishmaniasis by ELISA but negative by IIFA. These findings suggest that the canine population of Araguaína may be simultaneously infected with Leishmania chagasi and T. cruzi. The results obtained demonstrate the difficulty of using serology to detect CVL, thus emphasizing the necessity for a reference test to diagnose CVL, particularly in regions where the infection is endemic. PMID:23802237

Morais, Arielle Nunes; Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Kesper, Norival; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu

2013-01-01

33

Crustal structure model of Central Section of Tocantins Province, Central Brazil, with deep seismic refraction and gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is based on the execution of two lines of deep seismic refraction of 300 km of extension (L1- Porangatu and L2-Cavalcante), crossing over central section of Tocantins Province in Central Brazil, from west to east by using, in each line, 120 seismographs with digital recording, and explosions with controlled time and explosive charges between 500 and 1,000 kg in each 50 km; GPS receivers were employed in order to control hour and geographical coordinates from recording points. This kind of experiment under those conditions is pioneer in Brazil. Initially the experiment data, which have been considered of good quality, allowed the elaboration of 1D models, using TTInvers program. Successive models were related to represent layers with similar characteristics in a preliminary model aiming of modelling in 2D, accomplished with MacRay program. The 2D models obtained in this work represent the final result of seismic velocity distribution from crust beneath L1 and L2 lines. Results show a crust under central section of Tocantins Province with thickness varying from 36 to 43 km, and whose parameters are correlated to main geological structures existents in surface. Vp as well as Vp/Vs ratio mean values vary about 6.5 km/s and 1.74, respectively, with the exception of fold-thrust belt, whose values are 6.3 km/s and 1.73. Those values reach 6.8 km/s and 1.74 beneath São Francisco craton. There are indicia of double subduction occurred in eastern portion of Tocantins Province with São Francisco craton subducting to west (in ~760 Ma), as well as in western portion, with São Francisco craton subducting to east (in ~620 Ma). The gravimetric model, obtained in this work based on this work seismic model, adequately adjusts with observed gravimetric data by using theoretical densities slightly modified, within the limits allowed by the function employed to calculating the densities based on modelled Vp values. Adopted mantle densities to modelling took in consideration Paleoproterozoic age, beneath São Francisco craton, less dense (3.31 g/cm3), and with higher Vp (8.26 km/s), as well as Neoproterozoic one, beneath Tocantins Province, denser (3.34 g/cm3), and with lower Vp (8.07 km/s).

Perosi, F. A.; Berrocal, J. A.

2006-05-01

34

Epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii dissemination among pregnant women is relevant because the parasite can be spread from mother to infant. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from February 2012 to June 2013. Methods The study population included 487 pregnant women. Sociodemographic, dietary and cultural data were collected using a standardized and validated form. Peripheral blood was collected for serologic testing using the ELISA test (IgM/IgG antibodies). The data were analyzed by comparing seropositivity with risk factors using crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results The prevalence rate for IgG and IgM antibodies was 68.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with toxoplasmosis risk included the following: education level ? 8 years (OR: 6.612; CI: 1.450-30.144), age ? 30 years (OR: 5.273; CI: 1.166-23.844), working outside the home (OR: 1.604; CI: 1.015-2.536), and family income of two minimum wages or lower (OR: 2.700; CI: 1.891-8.182). Regarding dietary habits, there was a significant association of seropositivity with meat intake (OR: 1.78; CI: 1.149-4.080), cutting vegetables without washing the cutting board beforehand (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.165-3.614), frequent intake of vegetables (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.368-3.006) and in natura milk intake (OR: 2.422; CI: 1.014-5.785). Conclusions The high prevalence rates of toxoplasmosis in Gurupi are related to age, raw meat and in natura milk intake, as well as education level, working outside the home, and poor hygienic habits during meal preparation. PMID:25229288

da Silva, Marcos Gontijo; Câmara, Joseneide Teixeira; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Castro, Ana Maria

2014-07-01

35

Genetic and phenotypic characterization of isolates of Pyricularia grisea from the rice cultivars epagri 108 and 109 in the State of Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemic of rice (Oryza sativa) blast occurred on cultivars Epagri 108 and 109 in the municipalities of Lagoa da Confusão and Duerê in the State of Tocantins, during the rice-growing season 1998- 99. DNA fingerprinting and virulence phenotype analysis were utilized to determine the diversity of Pyricularia grisea isolates collected from these cultivars in one epidemic year. Rep-PCR analysis

ANNE S. PRABHU; MARTA C. FILIPPI; LEILA G. ARAUJO; JOSIAS C. FARIA

2002-01-01

36

Gymnotocinclus anosteos, a new uniquely-plated genus and species of loricariid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from the upper rio Tocantins basin, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gymnotocinclus anosteos, a new genus and species, is described from a headwater stream of the upper rio Tocantins basin in central Brazil. The new taxon is distinguished from other loricariids by the extreme reduction of dermal plates, having an almost completely naked body. Three other diagnostic features are: the absence of the lateral connecting bone, absence of bifid hemal spines,

Tiago Pinto Carvalho; Roberto E. Reis

2008-01-01

37

Tucurui dam.and the populations of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum in the Lower Tocantins (Pa-Brazil): a four year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four year survey of the prawn Manobrachimi atnazonicum (HELLER, 1862) on the Tocantins river studies che shon term impact of the Tucurui hydroelectric project on downstream fishery and reservoir populations. The furthest downstream site below the dam has been the most affected. Before the closure of the dam, the annual prawn catch in Camera and the flood intensity were

OLGA ODINETZ COLLART

38

Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

Demendonca, F. (principal investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

1975-01-01

39

Effects of large-scale changes in land cover on the discharge of the Tocantins River, Southeastern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies that relate changes in land cover with changes in river discharge at the small scale (<1 km 2) are abundant. These studies generally indicate that deforestation causes an increase in the annual mean discharge. However, previous studies that evaluated the effects of changes in land cover in larger river basins (>100 km 2) usually have not found similar relationships. Here we analyse a 50-year long time series of discharge of a tropical river, the Tocantins River at Porto Nacional (175,360 km 2), as well as precipitation over this drainage area, during a period where substantial changes in land cover occurred in the basin (1949-1998). Based on agricultural census data, we estimate that, in 1960, about 30% of the basin was used for agriculture. Previous work indicates that by 1995, agriculture had increased substantially, with about 49% of the basin land used as cropland and pastures. Initially, we compare one period with little changes in land cover (period 1-1949-1968) with another with more intense changes in land cover (period 2-1979-1998). Our analysis indicates that, while precipitation over the basin is not statistically different between period 1 and period 2 ( ?=0.05), annual mean discharge in period 2 is 24% greater than in period 1 ( P<0.02), and the high-flow season discharge is greater by 28% ( P<0.01). Further analyses present additional evidence that the change in vegetation cover altered the hydrological response of this region. As the pressure for changes in land cover in that region continue to increase, one can expect important further changes in the hydrological regime of the Tocantins River.

Costa, Marcos Heil; Botta, Aurélie; Cardille, Jeffrey A.

2003-12-01

40

Anthropically dislodged assemblages of sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the River Araguaia at Araguatins, Tocantins State, Brazil Assembléias de esponjas desalojadas no Rio Araguaia em Araguatins, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent outbreak of an human ocular disease at Araguaia River by the town of Araguatins, TO, Central Amazonia, along the low water period of 2005 required pathological analyses of surgically extracted ocular tissues. Spicules which invest the gemmules of the freshwater sponges Drulia uruguayensis and D. ctenosclera were found inside these ocular materials. Such relation between an ocular disease

C. Volkmer-Ribeiro; Salvador França; Rodovia Washington Luís

41

Tectonic and fluid inclusion constraints on the origin of quartz veins with giant crystals in the Tocantins structural province (Cristalândia, central Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, lens-shaped quartz veins between the Cristalândia and Pium settlements (Tocantins, Brazil) occur in a N–S-oriented, up to 3km wide, dextral, orogen-parallel strike-slip shear zone. Formation PT conditions recorded by multiphase brine inclusions in quartz crystals from drusy cavities correspond to 280–400°C and up to 300MPa, as indicated by high-density CO2 bubbles (up to 0.96g\\/cm3) observed in some brine inclusions.

Frantisek Marko; Vratislav Hurai; Marian Dyda; Gervalino Almeida; Walter Prochaska; Rainer Thomas

2006-01-01

42

Timing and role of the Maranhão River Thrust in the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt and Tocantins Province, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-angle thrust fault places high-PT granulites (hangingwall) of the Internal Zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt (Tocantins Province, central Brazil) in contact with a lower-grade footwall (External Zone) comprised of nappes of distal passive margin- and back-arc basin-related supracrustals. The footwall units were emplaced at ?750 Ma onto proximal sedimentary rocks (Paranoá Group) of the São Francisco paleo-continent passive margin.

Luiz J. H. D’el-Rey Silva; Marcos A. R. de Vasconcelos; Dângelo V. G. Silva

2008-01-01

43

Review of the species of the genus Serrapinnus Malabarba, 1998 (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae) from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, with description of three new species.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Serrapinnus from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin are revised and three new species are described. Serrapinnus aster new species is diagnosed by the presence of scimitar-shaped ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays of mature males forming a semicircle and by the presence of 7-9 cusps on the premaxillary teeth; S. lucindai new species is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a higher number of ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays (17 to 19); and S. tocantinensis new species differs from the remaining species of the genus by the elongation of the unbranched dorsal and pelvic-fin rays into filaments in mature males. Serrapinnus sterbai is recognized as broadly distributed in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin and is redescribed based on specimens from across its entire distribution. A key for the cheirodontines occurring in the Atlantic drainages of northeastern Brazil, from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia to the rio Paraguaçú is provided. PMID:25112325

Malabarba, Luiz R; Jerep, Fernando C

2014-01-01

44

Effects of Large-Scale Changes in Land Cover and Climate Variability in the Discharge of the Tocantins River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the small scale (< 10 km2), studies that relate changes in land cover with changes in river discharge are abundant. Usually, these studies indicate that deforestation causes an increase in the annual mean discharge, and an increase in the wet season discharge and a decrease in the dry season discharge. However, previous studies that evaluated the effects of changes in land cover in large river basins (> 100 km2) could not find similar relationships. Here we analyze a 50-year long time series of discharge of the Tocantins River at Porto Nacional (175,360 km2), as well as precipitation over this drainage area, during a period where substantial changes in land cover happen in the basin (1949-1998). Initially, we compare one period with little changes in land cover (period 1 - 1949-1968) with another with more intense changes in land cover (period 2 - 1979-1998). Based on agricultural census data, we estimate that, in the middle of period 1 (1960), about 30% of the basin was used as natural pasture, while in the end of period 2 (1995), about 60% of the basin land was used as cropland and pastures. Our analysis indicates that: (a) annual mean precipitation over the basin is not different between period 1 and period 2, at the 95% level of significance (l.s.); (b) annual mean discharge in period 2 is greater than in period 1, at the 97% l.s.; (c) wet season precipitation in period 1 is not significantly different from the wet season precipitation in period 2, at the 95% l.s.; (d) wet season discharge in period 2 is greater than in period 1, at the 99.9% l.s. Our study indicates that, in this basin and for the period considered, the large-scale effects of land cover change are consistent with the effects observed at the small scale. Finally, we compare the effects of climate variability with the effects of changes in land use, by selecting the five wettest and five driest years in each 20-year period. We find that the variability of discharge of the Tocantins River is more affected by climate variability than by land cover change.

Costa, M. H.; Botta, A.; Cardille, J. A.

2002-12-01

45

Phlebotomine Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of Leishmaniases in Impacted Area by Hydroelectric Plant, State of Tocantins, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Although leishmaniases are regarded as serious public health issues in the State of Tocantins, as consequence of the impact of environmental changes, small advances in taxonomic and ecological studies of Phlebotominae fauna are taking place in this state. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge about the sand flies, as well as about the aspects of the bioecology of leishmaniases vectors from Porto Nacional, a city that was directly impacted by the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant (HEP – Lajeado). Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were collected monthly using CDC light traps and Shannon traps for a period of 40 consecutive months, at different monitoring stations, where 7162 specimens were collected and 48 species were detected. Among the species found, 22 are first records in the state and seven are considered important vectors of leishmaniases. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) showed higher frequency in urban compared to rural areas, and Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), predominated in rural areas. The frequency and habits of sand fly vectors are discussed considering environmental characteristics and climatic factors. Conclusions/Significance The construction of dams requires a great amount of labor, therefore attracting people from elsewhere. Increased migration, without adequate structure, leads to bad living conditions in new and unplanned settlements. It also leads to deforestation associated with environmental impacts, which can facilitate the spread of leishmaniases. This study discusses the importance of Lu. longipalpis and Ny. whitmani on the transmission cycles of leishmaniases in Porto Nacional and the record of Bi. flaviscutellata in periurban area of the city. PMID:22163271

Vilela, Mauricio Luiz; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

2011-01-01

46

The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guara?, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

Vilela, Mauricio Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Britto, Constanca; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2013-01-01

47

The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2013-08-01

48

Species diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) during different seasons and in different environments in the district of Taquaruçú, state of Tocantins, Brazil.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors for the protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. The present study investigated the species composition of sandfly fauna in the rural district of Taquaruçú, municipality of Palmas, state of Tocantins, Brazil and compared the diversity of species among intradomicile, peridomicile and forest environments during the dry and rainy seasons. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps over the course of three months during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 767 specimens were captured, belonging to different 32 species. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia goiana (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Evandromyia carmelinoi (Ryan Fraiha, Lainson & Shaw), Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). The highest species diversity (30) and the greatest percentage of specimens (78.3%) were obtained during the rainy season. During the dry season, the species richness and abundance were greater in domestic environments. However, during the rainy season, the forest displayed the highest species richness and the domestic environment exhibited the greatest species abundance. Several important vector species are reported in this study. PMID:23147157

Machado, Tâmara Oliveira; Bragança, Marcos Antônio Lima; Carvalho, Muzenilha Lima; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2012-11-01

49

[Risk factors associated with suicides in Palmas in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, between 2006 and 2009 investigated by psycho-social autopsy].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to analyze and describe the risk factors and determinants linked to 24 suicides in the city of Palmas in the state of Tocantins between 2006 and 2009. The psychological and psycho-social autopsy method was used in order to investigate the consummated suicides by interviewing family members. It contextualized the subjects' life characteristics to understand the family dynamics and the affective, social, economic and cultural background, based on the reconstruction of the history and personality of the individuals. The associated socio-economic factors were: being male, aged between 20 and 40, single, with mixed ethnicity and basic education. The major risk factors identified were: mental disorder, alcohol and other drug abuse, disturbed family relationship and a history of previous suicide attempts. An attempt was made to contextualize and reflect on some cases reported by family members, as well as on the response of the health care teams to the demands of the families. The need to implement prevention programs and to train the primary health care professionals was considered a priority. PMID:24473609

Sena-Ferreira, Neci; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Boechat-Barros, Raphael; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

2014-01-01

50

Tectonic and fluid inclusion constraints on the origin of quartz veins with giant crystals in the Tocantins structural province (Cristalândia, central Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large, lens-shaped quartz veins between the Cristalândia and Pium settlements (Tocantins, Brazil) occur in a N-S-oriented, up to 3 km wide, dextral, orogen-parallel strike-slip shear zone. Formation PT conditions recorded by multiphase brine inclusions in quartz crystals from drusy cavities correspond to 280-400 °C and up to 300 MPa, as indicated by high-density CO 2 bubbles (up to 0.96 g/cm 3) observed in some brine inclusions. The estimated crystallization pressures correspond to approximately 10-12 km of overburden, assuming a lithostatic load. The high salinity brines (up to 48 wt%) cannot be correlated with halite-fractionated seawater due to the low Br concentrations. Similarly, the high salt concentrations cannot be attributed to magmatic fluid released during crystallization of a silicic magma at such great pressures. The brines likely were liberated from a hydrated oceanic crust and cover sediments of the Goiás Ocean, subducting beneath the Amazonian plate during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogenic cycle. Fluids derived from the hydrated crust have been trapped in en échélon-arranged tension gashes during a superimposed transtensional/extensional orogenic stage.

Marko, František; Hurai, Vratislav; Dyda, Marian; Almeida, Gervalino; Prochaska, Walter; Thomas, Rainer

2006-07-01

51

Contributed Paper Effects of River Impoundment on Ecosystem Services  

E-print Network

@ksu.edu §Current address: N´ucleo de Estudos Ambientais (Neamb), Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Porto Nacional, Tocantins 77500-000, Brasil Current address: Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade de Mundo

Hoeinghaus, David J.

52

Processo do patrimônio no Tocantins.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Arquitetuta e Urbanismo, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, 2011. A intenção deste trabalho é procurar mostrar o… (more)

Porto, Marconio Ferreira

2011-01-01

53

Calling Site Fidelity and Call Structure of a Neotropical Toad, Rhinella ocellata (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

and calling behavior of a population of this species in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, in 2004. Unlike most of a river; similar calling sites were observed at another site in Tocantins in 2005. Home-range size¸a~o dessa espe´cie no estado do Tocantins, norte do Brasil, no ano de 2004. Diferentemente de outras espe

Shepard, Don

54

ADOÇÃO DE NOVOS PARADIGMAS NA ORGANIZAÇÃO E GESTÃO DE EMPREENDIMENTOS SOLIDÁRIOS: UM ESTUDO SOBRE O PROCESSO PRODUTIVO DO AÇAÍ ATRAVÉS DAS ASSOCIAÇÕES E COOPERATIVAS NO TERRITÓRIO RURAL DO BAIXO TOCANTINS – PARÁ – BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

As transformações no mundo do trabalho vividas, desde o final da década de 60, pelos países capitalistas e os impactos daí resultantes sobre a reestruturação do sistema produtivo têm definido novas práticas produtivas, que precarizam as relações de trabalho, favorecem o desemprego, baixos salários e exigem novas e melhores qualificações dos trabalhadores. Nesse contexto, estes se vêem diante de um

Lucia Cristina Andrade; Roselene Souza Portela; Euzalina Silva Ferrao; Armando Lirio Souza; Adebaro Alves Reis

2008-01-01

55

Relações Brasil-Argentina: Uma análise dos avanços e recuos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nada há de original em afirmar que as relações Brasil-Argentina foram erráticas durante grande parte da História. A real dimensão das convergências e divergências é, contudo, menos evidente. Este artigo tenta examinar de forma objetiva os ciclos de avanços e recuos, conforme esquematizado no gráfico ao lado. A política externa argentina sempre sofreu impulsos contraditórios de dependência e autonomia, isolacionismo

Alessandro Warley Candeas

2005-01-01

56

Um Estudo Exploratório sobre Inteligência Competitiva no Brasil AUTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an exploratory study and its main objective was to analyse the daily work from Competitive Intelligence Professionals, as analysts and managers in Brasil. It was developed under a sample based on 79 companies among 500 companies from Maiores and Melhores Guide 2007, with a structured questionnaire and interviews. The main results indicated that companies follow the competitors every

ALFREDO PASSOS DA SILVA

57

The complex impact structure Serra da Cangalha, Tocantins State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with a crater diameter of 13,700 m and a central uplift diameter of 5800 m. New findings of shatter cones, planar fractures, feather features, and possible planar deformation features are presented. Several ring-like features that are visible on remote sensing imagery are caused by selective erosion of tilted strata. The target at Serra da Cangalha is composed of Devonian to Permian sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstones that are interlayered with siltstone and claystones. NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE-striking joint sets were present prior to the impact and also overprinted the structure after its formation. As preferred zones of weakness, these joint sets partly controlled the shape of the outer perimeter of the structure and, in particular, affected the deformation within the central uplift. Joints in radial orientation to the impact center did not undergo a change in orientation during tilting of strata when the central uplift was formed. These planes were used as major displacement zones. The asymmetry of the central uplift, with preferred overturning of strata in the northern to western sector, may suggest a moderately oblique impact from a southerly direction. Buckle folding of tilted strata, as well as strata overturning, indicates that the central uplift became gravitationally unstable at the end of crater formation.

Kenkmann, Thomas; Vasconcelos, Marcos A. R.; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf U.

2011-06-01

58

HELMINTOS DE Myleus micans (LÜTKEN, 1875) (CHARACIFORMES: SERRASALMINAE) DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 ABSTRACT.- BRASIL-SATO, M. DE C.; SANTOS, M. D. DOS (Helminths of Myleus micans (Lütken, 1875) (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) from the São Francisco river, Brazil.) Helmintos de Myleus micans (Lütken, 1875) (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veteriná- ria, v. 12, n. 3, p. 131-134, 2003. Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFRRJ, Km 47, Antiga Rod. Rio-São

MARILIA DE C. BRASIL-SATO; MICHELLE D. DOS SANTOS

59

OS PRIMEIROS A MORRER: AS VANGUARDAS ARTÍSTICAS NO PERÍODO DA DITADURA MILITAR NO BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente estudo tem por objetivo verificar como as correntes artísticas responderam ao estabelecimento da ditadura militar no Brasil. Nosso objeto é a produção artística engajada do primeiro período de regime militar, de 1964 a 1968 (do golpe ao AI- 5). É necessário determinar o nível de engajamento de diferentes grupos artísticos e como os suportes foram utilizados para esta

Rodrigo Medina Zagni

60

ABORDAGEM FONÉTICA, FONOLÓGICA E SEMÂNTICA SOBRE A IMPORTÂNCIA DO ESTUDO DA LÍNGUA ESPANHOLA NO BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo : O presente artigo visa apontar a relevância do e studo da língua espanhola em países de língua portuguesa como o Brasil. Objetiva-se com is so alertar e chamar a atenção do leitor brasileiro, em especial, de que o fato de serem lí nguas (portuguesa-espanhola) parecidas nem sempre a comunicação (escrita, oral, leitora e audi tiva) pode ser entendida

MARCELO MARIO AMENDOLARA

61

Estudo etnobotânico em duas comunidades rurais (Limeira e Ribeirão Grande) de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Realizou-se levantamento etnobotânico em duas comunidades rurais etnicamente distintas (Limeira e Ribeirão Grande) de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil) para identificar plantas utilizadas na terapêutica popular, utilizando-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas (n= 11 e n= 7, respectivamente). Além de informações sócio-econômicas sobre a população amostrada, as seguintes informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais foram registradas: nome popular, indicação terapêutica, parte usada, modo

62

Religio e TeRRiTRio no BRasil: 1991/2010  

E-print Network

Carneiro de Andrade Capa e editoração José Antônio de Oliveira Este livro não pode ser comercializado;informação importante Este livro contém 60 mapas. O leitor poderá acessá-los por meio de hiperlinks a cada Religiosa e Indi- cadores Sociais no Brasil, publicado em 2003, e do livro Religião e Sociedade em Capitais

63

Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.  

PubMed

"Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

Fearnside, Philip M

2002-12-01

64

Diagnóstico de doença de Alzheimer no Brasil: avaliação cognitiva e funcional. Recomendações do Departamento Científico de Neurologia Cognitiva e do Envelhecimento da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - As heterogeneidades educacional e cultural da população brasileira condicionam características p e c u l i a res ao diagnóstico da doença de Alzheimer (DA) no Brasil. Este consenso teve o objetivo de recomendar condutas baseadas em evidências para este diagnóstico. Foram avaliados sistematicamente artigos sobre o diagnóstico de DA no Brasil disponíveis no PUBMED ou LILACS. Para

Ricardo Nitrini; Paulo Caramelli; Cássio Machado de Campos Bottino; Benito Pereira Damasceno; Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki; Renato Anghinah

2005-01-01

65

MODELAGEM MATEMÁTICA DOS NÍVEIS D'ÁGUA NO RIO ARAGUAIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho é pioneiro para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil e visa ao aprofundamento da problemática do aproveitamento do Rio Araguaia como via navegável para transportar as safras de grãos das regiões Centro-Norte. O Programa de Desenvolvimento da Hidrovia Tocantins- Araguaia é uma iniciativa do Ministério dos Transportes para estabelecer a navegação fluvial confiável e segura em 2.242

Rone Antônio de Azevedo

66

New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.  

PubMed

Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. PMID:25081759

Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

2014-01-01

67

LIVROS DIDTICOS E SUAS FUNES PARA O PROFESSOR DE MATEMTICA NO BRASIL E NA FRANA.  

E-print Network

LIVROS DIDÁTICOS E SUAS FUN��ES PARA O PROFESSOR DE MATEMÁTICA NO BRASIL E NA FRAN�A. Clovis Gomes-Claude.Regnier@univ-lyon2.fr RESUMO Esse texto aborda as funções do livro didático de matemática em dois n que visa pôr em evidência o livro didático de matemática como «vetor de formação continuada» para os

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

[Science, aesthetics and race: images and texts inO Brasil Médico, 1928-1945].  

PubMed

This study addresses the formation of discourse about race and eugenics in texts and images published in O Brasil Médico, between 1928 and 1945. The documental analysis inspired on Foucault's theoretical and methodological perspectives, especially the concept of biopolitics, encountered references to the problems of eugenics amongst the Brazilian population, as well as a set of illustrations, mostly photographs of black people's bodies. A contradiction was identified, where a universalistic discourse about race was expressed at the same time that discourses about eugenics and biotypes revealed concerns about the degeneration of the formation of the Brazilian race. These discourses describe a Brazilian race with an idealized standard of physical and moral normality to serve as a model for the development and modernization of the nation. PMID:24346202

Silva, Eliana Gesteira da; Fonseca, Alexandre Brasil

2013-11-30

69

Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.  

PubMed

The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-06-01

70

[Reproducibility and relative validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire used in the ELSA-Brasil].  

PubMed

This study evaluated the reproducibility and relative validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Participants (n = 281) completed the FFQ and three food records on two occasions during a 12-month period. Energy and nutrient values from food records were disattenuated and log-transformed. Reproducibility and validity were assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the two methods was evaluated by classification in tertiles. In the evaluation of reproducibility, ICC estimated ranged from 0.55 to 0.83 for protein and vitamin E, respectively. On relative validity, ICC ranged from 0.20 to 0.72 for selenium and calcium, respectively. Exact and adjacent agreement between methods varied from 82.9% for vitamin E to 89% for lipids and calcium (mean 86%). Average disagreement was 13.6%. In conclusion, this FFQ showed satisfactory reliability for all nutrients and reasonable validity, especially for energy, macronutrients, calcium, potassium, and vitamins E and C. PMID:23459823

Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Drehmer, Michele; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Melere, Cristiane; Manato, Lívia; Gomes, Andrea Lizabeth Costa; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Sichieri, Rosely

2013-02-01

71

Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).  

PubMed

Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. PMID:23818507

Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

2014-11-01

72

ARTIGO ARTICLE A sustentabilidade econômico-financeira no Proesf em municípios do Amapá, Maranhão, Pará e Tocantins The economic-financial sustainability of the PROESF in the States of Amapá, Maranhão, Pará and Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the baseline studies of the PROESF (Project for the Expansion and Consoli- dation of Family Health), this article studies the funding of the PSF (Program for Family Health) from the viewpoint of its financial sustainability. It approaches aspects related to the construction of measures and indicators for sustainability based on a recent Brazilian political experience of differentiating

Rua Santa; Rio Comprido; Nacional de Saúde; Ana Tereza da Silva; Ana Cecília; Fátima Scarparo Cunha; José Noronha; Telma Ruth Pereira

73

A formulação da nova política de saúde no Brasil em tempos de democratização : entre uma conduta estatista e uma concepção societal de atuação política  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente artigo tem por objetivo traçar o perfil dos atores constitutivos do movimento de saúde no Brasil a partir de meados da década de 70, focalizando seus aportes institucionais, nexos organizativos e articulações discursivas, com vistas a aferir o papel destes atores na formulação da nova política nacional de saúde no período da democratização. Como parte deste objetivo, pretendemos

Ana Maria Doimo; Marta M. Assumpção Rodrigues

74

Rev. Brasil. Biol., 60(2): 299-306 FLIGHT ACTIVITY AND COLONY STRENGTH IN THE STINGLESS BEE M. bicolor 299  

E-print Network

Rev. Brasil. Biol., 60(2): 299-306 FLIGHT ACTIVITY AND COLONY STRENGTH IN THE STINGLESS BEE M. bicolor 299 FLIGHT ACTIVITY AND COLONY STRENGTH IN THE STINGLESS BEE Melipona bicolor bicolor (APIDAE as the Atlantic forest. Key words: stingless bees, flight activity, climate conditions, resource collection

São Paulo, Universidade de

75

Hipertensão arterial sistêmica no Brasil: o que avançamos no conhecimento de sua epidemiologia? Systemic hypertension in Brazil: how much have we improved our knowledge about its epidemiology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), um dos prin- cipais determinantes da morbidade e mortalidade cardiovasculares, tem sido objeto de estudo em todo o mundo, seja por seus aspectos clínicos, fisiopatológicos ou como problema de saúde na coletividade. No Brasil, os primeiros estudos sobre prevalência surgiram na década de 1970, com produções crescentes na litera- tura e em congressos desde

Marta de Medeiros Neder; Arthur Augusto; Nogueira Borges

76

Effects of large-scale changes in land cover on the discharge of the Tocantins River, Southeastern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that relate changes in land cover with changes in river discharge at the small scale (<1 km2) are abundant. These studies generally indicate that deforestation causes an increase in the annual mean discharge. However, previous studies that evaluated the effects of changes in land cover in larger river basins (>100 km2) usually have not found similar relationships. Here we

Marcos Heil Costa; Aurélie Botta; Jeffrey A. Cardille

2003-01-01

77

Evaluation of CO2 flux modification as a function of aerosol optical depth at Bananal Island, Tocantins, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bananal Island is a flooded ecotonal area between the Amazon rain forest and the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). It is the largest fluvial island in the world and an ecological protected area. However, the surrounding areas are burned to expand agricultural and cattle farmer productions. During the dry season, large amounts of aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere interacting with solar radiation. The diffuse part of the light can penetrate better into complex canopies enhancing the ecosystem productivity, a phenomenon known as "The Diffuse Fertilization Effect". Considering a time frame of one year, the ecosystems productivity is mainly controlled by meteorological variables like temperature, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), etc, and by the natural cycles of vegetation (circadian cycles). The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) technique was used in this study to determinate the influence of smoke on CO2 flux at this site.

Braghiere, Renato K.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.

2013-05-01

78

Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de

Alan Kardec Elias Martins; Carlos Ernesto G. R. Schaefer; Elias Silva; Vicente Paulo Soares; Guilherme Resende Corrêa; Bruno Araújo Furtado de Mendonça

2006-01-01

79

Cancer cluster among young Indian adults living near power transmission lines in Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study was carried out to explore the occurrence of a cancer cluster in 1992 among young indian adults living in an Amazonian village near two 500 kV power transmission lines that began operating a decade ago. Current blood levels of DDT and organophosphorus pesticides and metal levels in hair samples were measured. Extremely low magnetic field expo- sure

Sergio Koifman; Iara Ferraz; Trajano S. Viana; Carmen L. P. Silveira; Maria T. D. Carneiro; Rosalina J. Koifman; Paula N. Sarcinelli; Rita de Cássia O. C. Mattos; Jaime S. Lima; Jefferson J. O. Silva; Josino C. Moreira; Maria de Fátima A. Ferreira; Chester Fernandes; Antonio Carlos Bulcão

1998-01-01

80

Serra da Cangalha, Tocantins, Brazil: Insights to the Structure of a Complex Impact Crater with an Overturned Central Uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a field study are presented. The 5.8-km central uplift shows sign of gravitational instability that resulted from the target's rheological stratification with clays in the center. Preexisting joint systems controlled crater modification.

Kenkmann, T.; Vasconcelos, M.; Crósta, A. P.; Reimold, W. U.

2010-03-01

81

Geographical patterns and partition of turnover and richness components of beta-diversity in faunas from Tocantins river valley.  

PubMed

There has been a resurging interest in patterns of ?-diversity, especially by the mechanisms driving broad-scale, continental and global patterns, and how partitioning ?-diversity into richness (or nestedness) and turnover components can be linked with such mechanisms. Here we compared two recent methodologies to find richness and turnover components of ?-diversity, using a large regional scale dataset of mammal, bird, reptiles and amphibian species found in seven regions of Central, North and Northeastern Brazil. As well as a simple comparison of the metrics available, we analyzed spatial patterns (i.e., distance-decay similarity) and the effects of biome type in these components using raw and partial Mantel tests. Our analyses revealed that turnover estimated using Baselga's (2010) approach is slightly higher than the estimate using Carvalho's et al. (2012) approach, but all analyses show consistent spatial patterns in species turnover using both methods. Spatial patterns in ?-diversity revealed by Mantel tests are also consistent with expectations based on differential dispersal abilities. Our results also reinforce that spatial patterns in ?-diversity, mainly in the turnover components expressing faunal differentiation, are determined by a mix or broad scale environmental effects and short distance spatially-structured dispersal. PMID:22990820

Tonial, M L S; Silva, H L R; Tonial, L J; Costa, M C; Silva Júnior, N J; Diniz-Filho, J A F

2012-08-01

82

Epidemiological and environmental aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in children under 15 years of age between 2007 and 2012 in the City of Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) stands out as a zoonosis observed on four continents and also in urban expansion zones in several regions of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study of VL cases in children under 15 years of age in the period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were gathered from medical reports; meteorological data were obtained at the Meteorological Measurement Department of UFT. Environmental variables were divided into two periods, rainy and dry. Results The study revealed no difference by gender (p=0.67) among the 821 patients. However, the most affected age group was between one and five years of age (58.6%; p<0.01); the highest prevalence of the disease (99.03%; p<0.01) occurred in urban zones; and the most affected ethnic group (85.5%; p<0.01) was mixed race. The highest incidence coefficients in this population occurred in 2007 and 2008 (578.39/100,000 inhabitants; 18.5/100,000 inhabitants, respectively), whereas the highest lethality coefficients occurred in 2008 and 2011 (0.85/100 deaths). There was no significant correlation between average rainfall and the number of VL cases. The correlation between temperature and number of VL cases was negative (r = -0.4039; p<0.01). Conclusions In Araguaína, visceral leishmaniasis in children under 15 years is an urban-based endemic disease distributed across all districts of the city wherein temperature as an environmental factor, a higher prevalence in mixed race children between one and five years of age, and a high incidence coefficient all strongly contribute to child mortality. PMID:25229289

Oliveira, Iara Brito Bucar; Batista, Hebert Lima; Peluzio, Joênes Mucci; Pfrimer, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann; Rodrigues, Flávia Melo; Carmo Filho, José Rodrigues do

2014-07-01

83

Statistically combining rainfall characteristics estimated from remote-sensed and rain gauge data sets in the Brazilian Amazon-Tocantins Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the use of a parametric geostatistical model for combining rainfall characteristics derived from rain gauge data with the same characteristics derived from remote-sensed data sets. Hypotheses can then be tested about which predictors significantly increase precision of an estimated characteristic. Although applicable wherever ground-level data and remote-sensed data are to be combined, the statistical procedure set out in the paper is developed for two examples of rainfall characteristics: (i) G, the mean annual rainfall at an ungauged site, conditional on knowledge of two predictor variables T (the mean annual rainfall calculated from the TRMM 3B42 data set for 1998-2009), and C (mean annual rainfall derived from the CMORPH data set for 2003-2009); (ii) the mean annual maximum 1 day rainfall H, interpolated using the same modeling procedure with predictor variables T and C derived from annual maximum 1 day rainfalls in the same remote-sensed data sets. Prediction errors showed no bias, skewness of distribution, or spatial heterogeneity. The model's generality means that it could be used with any predictors other than T and C, possibly derived from other satellite data sets or radar. Provided that predictor variables are correlated with the variable to be predicted, it is not necessary for the model relating them to be fitted using data from identical periods nor for the grid spacing of T and C to be identical. Model performance was evaluated by using a "leave-one-site-out" procedure, which showed that the root mean square error (RMSE) of model predictions at omitted sites was smaller than RMSEs obtained from five other well-known spatial predictors.

Clarke, Robin T.; Buarque, Diogo C.

2013-07-01

84

COMPARATIVE PARASITISM OF THE FISH PLAGIOSCION SQUAMOSISSIMUS IN NATIVE AND INVADED RIVER BASINS  

E-print Network

.e., Solimo~es River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Parana species is native to the Amazonas River basin, including the Tocantins-Araguaia sub-basin, in northern

Poulin, Robert

85

Intraspecific evolution of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA associated with soybean and rice in Brazil based on polymorphisms at the ITS-5.8S rDNA operon  

E-print Network

from Tocantins, one from Maranha~ o, and one from Cuba occupied the tips of the network, indicating, Piaui´, Tocantins, Para´ , and Roraima States (Meyer and Yorinori, 1999). Historically, the first w

McDonald, Bruce

86

Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75?m) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2?m) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7?m) and is adapted to a fisheye lens. The algorithm defines thresholds values for the saturation component of the IHS system to classify a pixel. Clear skies are identified by high values of saturation in the visible range while cloudy condition presents a mixture of various wavelengths and consequently lower saturation values. In this work we compare these three satellite techniques using data collected in the BSRN radiation station of Florianópolis (27° 28'S, 48° 29'W) with the data obtained from the camera in the ground platform. The main goal is to optimize the results obtained by each of these three satellite techniques when applied as input data for the BRASIL-SR model. The study encompasses the period from January/2002 to March/2002.

Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

87

This article is from the August 2008 issue of  

E-print Network

of admixture were observed for populations from Mato Grosso and Tocantins. After removing admixed genotypes, three out of five field populations (Maranhao, Mato Grosso, and Tocantins), were in Hardy-Weinberg (HW are favorable for the pathogen, such as Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, and Tocantins States (66,70). In the United

McDonald, Bruce

88

Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

2014-01-01

89

Prevalência de diarréia na população do Distrito Docente-Assistencial do Tucumã, Rio Branco, Estado do Acre, Brasil, em 2003 Prevalence of Diarrhoea in the Population of the Medical Care and Training District of Tucumã, Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo transversal foi determinar a prevalência da diarréia em amostra da população urbana da cidade de Rio Branco, Estado do Acre, Brasil, abrangendo pessoas de todas as faixas etárias. Após validação do questionário-pa- drão pelo estudo-piloto, foi selecionada amostra aleatória de 159 pessoas de 0 a 77 anos de idade. A prevalência geral da diarréia no

Raquel Rangel Cesario; José Tavares-Neto

90

Brasil-Senegal: Seminrio Internacional  

E-print Network

) A mulher africana e sua inserção social e econômica na história senegalesa. Profa. Maria Isabel Mendes de Guisse (Universidade Cheikh Anta Diop/IFAN, Senegal) Mulheres, imigração e família no Senegal. Profa

91

29/03/07 1/12 Approche cartographique de l'intgration d'un territoire amazonien  

E-print Network

Barreira Branca (Tocantins) Martine Droulers et François-Michel Le Tourneau (CNRS/CREDAL) L'expansion de la lieu a longtemps échappé à la déforestation généralisée qui touche le reste du nord-Tocantins, tout en divergence entre l'Etat du Tocantins, qui espérait y instituer une réserve naturelle de Barreira Branca, et l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

AN?LISE DA INSER??O DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ?TICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO M?DICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA P?BLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-?=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-?=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-?=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

2009-01-01

93

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 49. Four new species of the Diplectanidae (Dactylogyrinea) from the gills of some pachyurines (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from the Rio Tocantins and Rio Doce Basins, with the proposal of Anoplectanum n. g. and Spinomatrix n. g  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new species of the Diplectanidae from the gills of freshwater sciaenid species (Pachyurinae) in Brazil are described and two new genera, Anoplectanum n. g. and Spinomatrix n. g., are proposed. These are: Diplectanum copiosum n. sp. from Pachyurus junki and Petilipinnis grunniens; Anoplectanum haptorodynatum n. g., n. sp. from Pachyurus junki and Petilipinnis grunniens, and A. microsoma n. g.,

Walter A. Boeger; Karin H. Fehlauer; Elineide E. Marques

2006-01-01

94

SYNTHESE TERRAIN CIRIACO Martine Droulers (gographe, responsable du site)  

E-print Network

Tocantins, à proximité des �tats du Pará et du Tocantins, le municipe de Cidelândia est polarisé par les). Connectée à la "rodovia do arroz" (MA-125) qui ouvre les portes du Brésil, vers Rio Araguaia Rio Tocantins Cidelândia R.Ex. Mata Grande R.Ex. do Ciriáco R.Ex. do Ext. Norte do Tocantins Grajaú Marabá Jacundá Estreito

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this association was not mediated by these factors, suggesting that other pathways might play a role, especially among men. PMID:25309988

Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dora; Griep, Rosane Harter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

2014-01-01

96

261 VOL. 43(3) 2013: 261 -290 Florestas estacionais e reas de ectono no estado do  

E-print Network

Tocantins (Brazil). We aimed to provide information for conservation, management, environmental compensation beta, Fitogeografia, Tensão Ecológica, Cerrado, Amazônia Seasonal forests and ecotone areas in the state ofTocantins, Brazil: structure, classification and guidelines for conservation ABSTRACT

Fine, Paul V.A.

97

Neotropical Ichthyology, 4(4):401-409, 2006 Copyright 2006 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia  

E-print Network

of Brazil and has published, but unconfirmed localities in the rio Purus and rio Tocantins basin, and P dos rio Purus e Tocantins, e P. weberi é conhecida do río Marañon, río Ucayali, e drenagens do alto

Armbruster, Jonathan W.

98

VII Seminrio Tcnico Cientfico de Anlise dos Dados do Desmatamento na Amaznia Legal  

E-print Network

% Fortalecimento do Policentrismo no Entrocamento Pará-Tocantins-Maranhão 6.945,14 4.942,72 (2.002,42) -29% Readequação dos Sistemas Produtivos do Araguaia- Tocantins 594,60 212,16 (382,44) -64% Regulação e Inovação

99

Journal of Natural History Vol. 46, Nos. 1112, March 2012, 717727  

E-print Network

on adult speci- mens collected in a mountainous area in the Cerrado biome in Taquaruçú district, Tocantins Grosso do Sul state, Brazil; (3) Ribeirão Grande, São Paulo state, Brazil; (4) Taquaruçú, Tocantins state

Ribera, Ignacio

100

Talidomida no Brasil: vigilância com responsabilidade compartilhada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses issues related to the regulation and rational use of thalidomide in Brazil, by means of a historical approach comprising three different stages. The first part is a historical review of the controversial drug since it was first synthesized, then marketed and sub- sequently banned during the 1950s and 60s, until the present, when an apparently irreversible process

Maria Auxiliadora Oliveira; Jorge Antônio Zepeda Bermudez; Arthur Custódio Moreira de Souza

1999-01-01

101

O Desenvolvimento da Orientação Profissional no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o desenvolvimento da Orientação Profissional brasileira, desde suas origens até a atualidade. Inicialmente, é feita uma breve recapitulação histórica do desenvolvimento da Orientação Profissional no ambiente internacional. Em seguida, são descritos os fatos históricos de mai- or relevância para o nascimento e o desenvolvimento da Orientação Profissional em nosso país, as rela- ções

Mônica Sparta

102

Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

Toro, Leonor; And Others

103

Diagnóstico ambiental no contexto da paisagem de fragmentos florestais naturais \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este estudo foi conduzido em uma área localizada no município de Lagoa da Confusão, Estado do Tocantins, com os objetivos de diagnosticar fragmentos florestais naturais, denominados regionalmente de \\

Iracy Coelho de Menezes Martins; Vicente Paulo Soares; Elias Silva; Ricardo Seixas Brites

2002-01-01

104

Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (?) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and ? are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

2014-05-01

105

REE MINERALS IN CATALO II, GOIAS, BRASIL Essaid BILAL1  

E-print Network

pyrochlore and ground water are generally consistent with relatively low pH, low activities of Na+ , Ca2+ , F or from the pyrochlore themselves through selective immobilisation of Ce as Ce4+ . Keywords: pyrochlore with magnetite in abundant large crystals (mm-cm) and weathered white pyrochlore. However, this complex has been

Boyer, Edmond

106

Sistemas Complementares de Energia Eólica e Hidráulica no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important historical challenge to the operation planning of the Brazilian interconnected electrical system has been the seasonal stabilization of the energy supply, due to the stochastic nature of hydro resources. Most of the significant Brazilian hydro power stations rely on the hydrological regimes of the Southeast, which have a remarkable tendency for seasonal fluctuations of significant amplitude. In the

Dario Jackson Schultz; Nelson de Andrade Rocha; Rogério Motta Bittencourt; Camargo Schubert Engenheiros

107

Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) do município de Beruri, Amazonas, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawkmoths were collected at District of Beruri, low river Purus, State of Amazonas in three periods September-October\\/2002, July\\/ 2003 and November-December\\/2003. A 250W mixed mercury vapor lamp was used to atract insects on a white sheet in the nights collecting periods of 12 consecutive hours. 295 specimens were collected of 46 species, and 20 genera were identified, with predominance of

Catarina da Silva Motta; Francisco Felipe Xavier-Filho

2005-01-01

108

Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

2003-08-01

109

O DESENVOLVIMENTO DO BRASIL E A FORMAO DO ENGENHEIRO  

E-print Network

territorial e bom solo; Recursos naturais (minerais, petróleo) Grande potencial para energias renováveis (hidro, solar, vento, marés); Conhecimento científico; População criativa (jeitinho brasileiro...). #12

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

110

PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL NO BRASIL, INCLUSÃO SOCIAL E GANHOS AMBIENTAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to critically analyze the social inclusion and environmental impacts of the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). The results show that social and environmental gains were well below the Federal Government initial expectations. In the social area, the social inclusion potential of the program was severely impaired, mainly because the cultivation

Marcio Alvarenga Junior; Carlos Eduardo Frickmann Young

2013-01-01

111

The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

1999-01-01

112

Educação formal, mulher e gênero no Brasil contemporâneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: O objetivo do artigo é evidenciar o descompasso entre a situação de homens e mulheres no sistema educacional brasileiro e as metas nacionais e internacionais de igualdade de oportunidades de gênero na educação. Para tanto analisa e interpreta estatísticas educacionais, resoluções das conferências internacionais da década de 1990 e documentos de instâncias multilaterais, governamentais e

FÚLVIA ROSEMBERG

2001-01-01

113

Feminização e transmissão intergeneracional da pobreza no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palavras-chave: feminização da pobreza; transmissão intergeracional da pobreza; domicílios chefiados por mulher Resumo: A feminização da pobreza (FP) tem sido vista como um resultado de mudanças na estrutura familiar, as quais levam as mulheres a assumir o papel de provedoras dos domicílios onde vivem. Conseqüentemente, os estudos sobre FP tomam com indicador de pobreza, a prevalência de domicílios chefiados por

Maria Salet Ferreira Novellino; João Raposo Belchior

114

Teatro no Brasil: Como transmitir sinais de dentro das chamas.  

E-print Network

dentro das chamas. Muitos intelectualmente morrem sem consciência. Para outros, a consciência é a causa mortis. E o que acontece com o teatro, acontece também com o cinema, com a literatura, com a música, com as artes plásticas, etc. O impasse do... do divertimento. As poucas tentativas sérias são ainda superficiais. Em essência permanece um teatro alienado e, mesmo quando se propõe ao contrário, alienante. A esperança é que um novo saia das cinzas. Um teatro que mergulhe com firmeza e decisão...

Peixoto, Fernando

1973-10-01

115

21 a 26 de Maio de 2000 CURITIBA (PR) -BRASIL  

E-print Network

of the electric industry restructuring. We explain how in an energy only market, long term supply contracts one of the overriding concerns guiding the restructuring of the electric power industry. The slogan of step with the notion of a deregulated industry with competitive supply. In fact, the concept

Oren, Shmuel S.

116

[Neurological manifestations in riverine populations from areas exposed to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon].  

PubMed

This study evaluated current levels of mercury exposure and sensory symptoms in adults from three riverine communities in Pará State, Brazil, two of which located in the Tapajós River basin and one in the Tocantins basin. Participants in this study included 78 residents in Barreiras (Tapajós), 30 in São Luiz do Tapajós (Tapajós), and 49 in Furo do Maracujá (Tocantins). Total hair mercury concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and neurological evaluation was conducted by routine examination. Mercury concentrations in the Tapajós communities were higher than those in the Tocantins (p < 0.01). Evaluation of neurological changes showed no significant difference between the communities in exposed areas and control areas for the changes observed by conventional neurological examination, except for gait deviation (p < 0.05). The study concludes that despite the mercury exposure levels, there was a low frequency of sensory alterations according to conventional neurological testing. PMID:24233045

Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Costa, Carlos Araújo da; Araújo, Amélia A de; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

2013-11-01

117

Evolution of the lowest amazon basin modeled from the integration of geological and SRTM topographic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologic features obtained from SRTM data, integrated with geologic information, are emphasized in this paper in order to provide the basis for understanding the development of the lowest Amazon drainage basin, focusing on the history of one of the largest Amazonian tributaries, the Tocantins River, and on the origin of the Marajó Island, throughout the Quaternary. This approach led to

Dilce F. Rossetti; Márcio M. Valeriano

2007-01-01

118

The copper–gold and gold deposits of the Neoproterozoic Mara Rosa magmatic arc, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral exploration in the Neoproterozoic Goiás Magmatic Arc, central Brazil, dates back to the beginning of the 1970s. The Goiás Magmatic Arc extends for more than 1000 km in the western and northern parts of Goiás, into Tocantins, and disappears under the Phanerozoic Parna??ba Basin. Two main areas of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust, the Arenópolis and the Mara Rosa arcs, are

Claudinei G. de Oliveira; Márcio M. Pimentel; Luciana V. de Melo; Reinhardt A. Fuck

2004-01-01

119

Upper mantle anisotropy in SE and Central Brazil from SKS splitting: Evidence of asthenospheric flow around a cratonic keel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of upper mantle anisotropy derived from measurements of core refracted shear wave splitting (mainly SKS phases) recorded at 48 stations covering the major tectonic provinces in Central and SE Brazil, such as the Tocantins Province (Paraguay–Araguaia and Brasília belts between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons), the Paraná intracratonic basin, the southern part of the São Francisco

Marcelo Assumpção; Maggy Heintz; Alain Vauchez; Marcos Egydio Silva

2006-01-01

120

Neotropical Ichthyology, 6(3):419-424, 2008 Copyright 2008 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia  

E-print Network

cerrado is described from the tributaries of rio Araguaia, rio Tocantins basin. Hemiancistrus cerrado has A new species of Hemiancistrus from the rio Araguaia basin, Goiás state, Brazil and meristic data. Hemiancistrus cerrado é descrito de tributários da margem esquerda do rio Araguaia, bacia do

Armbruster, Jonathan W.

121

Rivers, refuges and population divergence of fire-eye antbirds (Pyriglena) in the Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

The identification of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that might account for the elevated biotic diversity in tropical forests is a central theme in evolutionary biology. This issue is especially relevant in the Neotropical region, where biological diversity is the highest in the world, but where few studies have been conducted to test factors causing population differentiation and speciation. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine the genetic structure within white-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) populations along the Tocantins River valley in the south-eastern Amazon Basin, and we confront the predictions of the river and the Pleistocene refuge hypotheses with patterns of genetic variation observed in these populations. We also investigated whether these patterns reflect the recently detected shift in the course of the Tocantins River. We sampled a total of 32 individuals east of, and 52 individuals west of, the Tocantins River. Coalescent simulations and phylogeographical and population genetics analytical approaches revealed that mtDNA variation observed for fire-eye populations provides little support for the hypothesis that populations were isolated in glacial forest refuges. Instead, our data strongly support a key prediction of the river hypothesis. Our study shows that the Tocantins River has probably been the historical barrier promoting population divergence in fire-eye antbirds. Our results have important implications for a better understanding of the importance of large Amazonian rivers in vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics. PMID:23442128

Maldonado-Coelho, M; Blake, J G; Silveira, L F; Batalha-Filho, H; Ricklefs, R E

2013-05-01

122

Collecting Texts in Craho and Portuguese for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Crao are an indigenous group of Tocantins in Brazil who speak a Je language of the Timbira group. In the Aldeias, Crao students often use the same materials as other Brazilian students. The Indians often do not consider these educational materials good because textbook content does not pertain to their culture and they cannot make sense out of…

de Souza, Sueli Maria

123

Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.  

PubMed

Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics. PMID:22317399

Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

2012-01-01

124

MORFOLOGIA POLÍNICA DAS ESPÉCIES DE HELIOTROPIUM L. (BORAGINACEAE) OCORRENTES EM PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to contribute to the inter-specific delimitation of Pernambucan species of Heliotropium by a pollen morphology study. The species studied were H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. elongatum (Lehm.)

José Iranildo; Miranda de Melo; Margareth Ferreira de Sales

125

Contratos de transferência tecnológica: um estudo sobre aquisição de tecnologia em polímeros no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the Brazilian polymer producers (plastics, rubbers and fibers) access the technologies they need for the maintenance of their business. A study was made in INPI (Brazilian Patent Office) to ascertain what type of contract of technology transfer was registered in that office, over a period of 17 years. In addition, employees that deal with technology were

Carlos A. Hemais; Henrique M. Barros; Elizabeth O. R. Rosa

2004-01-01

126

Alphitobius diaperinus como veiculador de Clostridium perfringens em granjas avícolas do interior paulista - Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm) is considered an important world poultry plague. Due to its behavior characteristics and biological habits that make its control difficult it is considered a vector of pathogenic agents. The objective of this research was to investigate the little mealworm as possible vector of Clostridium perfringens in broiler houses, located in different parts of the state

Juliano VittoriI Rubén; Pablo Schocken-IturrinoI; César Augusto Martins; Gislaine Gomes; Caroline Peters

127

ZONEAMENTO BIOCLIMÁTICO DA REGIÃO SUDESTE DO BRASIL PARA O CONFORTO TÉRMICO ANIMAL E HUMANO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the Southeastern Brazilian climate conditions through temperature-humidity index (THI) and to present a bioclimatic mapping relating to animal and human thermal comfort. The THI values were estimated by air-temperature and relative humidity for a period from 1980 to 2000. Four intervals of THI were used to classify human performance (THI <

ARTIGO TÉCNICO; LUTÉRCIA M. F. DE OLIVEIRA; TADAYUKI YANAGI JUNIOR; ELIZABETH FERREIRA; LUIZ G. DE CARVALHO; MARIANO P. DA SILVA

128

Mapeamento dos ambientes aquáticos e da cobertura da terra na Bacia do Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to map and characterize the aquatic environments and the ways of use and occupancy of land along the basin of purus river. To implement this work were used images of optical sensor TM \\/ satellite Landsat 5. The software was used SPRING. the floodplain covers an area of 22,184 km2. The lakes dendritic present the largest

Alberto Furtado; Martins Junior

129

Zooarqueologia dos mamferos aquticos e semi-aquticos da Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil  

E-print Network

) and b) cetaceans: Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822), Delphinus delphis Linnaeus,1758, Stenella, 1804.. Three species of semi-aquatic mammals were also recorded: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1758), Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818). Both sites presented

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

130

PONSETI BRASIL: A NATIONAL PROGRAM TO ERADICATE NEGLECTED CLUBFOOT - PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

PubMed Central

Background After hearing about the reproducible and excellent results of the Ponseti method for clubfoot treatment, a group of Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons organized and participated in a standardized national program to teach the Ponseti technique in 21 different cities across Brazil. Methods A total of 21 Ponseti symposiums were organized in a standard fashion from January, 2007 to December, 2008. They consisted of a two-day program with lectures, hands-on cast application, and discussion of local clinical cases presented by orthopaedic surgeons. Thirteen Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons, who had been trained by the University of Iowa or centers recognized by them, taught the method. Financial support for travel was provided by an English charity: La Vida (Vital Investment for Developing Aid in Latin America). The physicians who attended the symposiums answered questionnaires before and after the training. Results About 7% of the 8000 orthopaedic surgeons in Brazil (556 orthopaedic surgeons) were trained. These orthopaedic surgeons stated that they had treated about 4905 babies in the previous year via other methods, including extensive surgery. Seventeen percent of the surgeons did not know about the Ponseti technique at the start of the symposium. Eighty-eight percent reported they felt able to treat children with the Ponseti technique after the symposium. Ninety-four percent of respondents reported that the symposium changed their way of treating clubfoot Conclusions These Ponseti symposiums brought about an exchange of medical information and empowered the participants. This program is a good educational tool which can be used in eradicating neglected clubfoot in Brazil. PMID:22096418

Nogueira, Monica Paschoal; Pereira, Julio Cesar Rodrigues; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Lourenco, Alexandre; Tedesco, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Laura Alves; Forlin, Edilson; Volpi, Reinaldo; Violante, Francisco; Brandao, Gilberto; Novaes, Eduardo; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amin; Kim, Jung Ho; Aguiar, Carlos; Merlotti, Maria Henriqueta Renno

2011-01-01

131

Gastrópodes e bivalves límnicos do trecho médio da bacia do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastropods and freshwater bivalves from the median region of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A survey of the lymnic malacofauna from the mid-segment of the Rio Doce basin was carried out from 1999 to 2001. The studied region is permanently submitted to the impact of mining, reforestation, urban waste, metallurgy, and includes two areas of high priority preservation.

Teofânia H. D. A. Vidigal; Maria M. G. S. M. Marques; Henry P. Lima; Francisco A. R. Barbosa

132

Strigiformes e Caprimulgiformes em Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil: Registros relevantes e novas localidades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strigiformes and Caprimulgiformes in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil: Relevant records and new localities. With the growing ornithological research in Santa Catarina, many localities have already acquired good knowledge about their avifauna, but, some groups of birds are still sub-sampled in most of these ornithological studies. This sub-sampling of certain avian groups, such as the nocturnal (Strigiformes and Caprimulgiformes), may

Evair Legal; Tiago João Cadorin; Glauco Ubiratan Kohler

2009-01-01

133

Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRESENCE OF PUMA CONCOLOR (LINNAEUS) (FELIDAE, CARNIVORA) ON REMNANT HABITATS IN SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL. Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been done in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with the altitude and mostly with the habitat quality. In

Marcelo Mazzolli

1993-01-01

134

Distribuição Espacial da Ocupação no Setor de Turismo: Brasil e Regiões  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento está embasado em uma série de estudos e pesquisas que o Ipea desenvolve desde 2003, a respeito do mercado de trabalho no setor de turismo, com o objetivo de subsidiar a formulação de políticas públicas, o planejamento e a monitoração do desempenho desse setor, bem como seu impacto econômico e social, nos níveis nacional, regional e estadual. Aqui

Margarida Hatem Pinto Coelho

2008-01-01

135

RESORTS TURÍSTICOS E CASSINOS: OS IMPACTOS SOCIAIS POSITIVOS E NEGATIVOS DA REIMPLANTAÇÃO DO JOGO NO BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, it is perceptible a very significant growth in tourism and its segmentations are developing expressively. All these activities increase the income of the destination and improve the quality of life of its population. The focused segment in this article concerns about people who travel to gaming and gambling, their main motivation. This area in tourism brings high profits; improves

Dario Luiz Dias Paixão

136

Uso e disponibilidade de recursos medicinais no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, GO, Brasil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use and availability of medicinal resources in Ouro Verde de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil). The goal of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by rural and urban communities in the town of Ouro Verde de Goiás, situated in the mato grosso goiano meso-region of the state of Goiás; to pinpoint species native to

Cristiane Soares; Pereira da Silva; Carolyn Elinore; Barnes Proença

137

La exportación de servicios en América Latina: Los casos de Argentina, Brasil y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

La exportación de servicios es uno de los fenómenos más dinámicos de la economía internacional contemporánea. Actividades que anteriormente se prestaban fundamentalmente dentro de las fronteras de cada país hoy son internacionalmente transables —desde la salud y la educación, hasta los servicios contables, legales o de investigación y desarrollo, pasando por la publicidad y el diseño. Esto es producto fundamentalmente

Paulo Bastos Tigre; Marta Calmon; Jorge Martínez; Andrés Niembro; Ramón Padilla; Eduardo Portas; Claudia Schatan; Verónica Vega

138

Novas opções, antigos dilemas: mulher, família, carreira e relacionamento no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents part of the results of a research project on the identity of the urban middle class Brazilian women, and on how they perceive maternity, close relationships, sexuality, marriage and career, among other aspects of their lives. We interviewed 25 university students, aged 18 to 28, and enrolled in different courses of private and public universities of Rio

Maria Lúcia Rocha-Coutinho

2004-01-01

139

Mapas de irradiação solar para o Brasil - Resultados do Projeto SWERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SWERA project is an international project financed by GEF\\/UNEP which aims at providing a consistent and easily accessible database to increase confidence levels of investors and influence decision centers to foster the insertion of renewable energies on the energy matrix of selected pilot countries. The project is now at the stage of formatting information, validating of energy resource models,

Fernando Ramos Martins; Enio Bueno Pereira; Samuel Luna de Abreu

2005-01-01

140

Leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana e canina no Município de Mariluz, Estado do Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmani- asis was reported in 2002 in Mariluz, northwest- ern Paraná State, Brazil. Of 38 humans who were investigated, four had healed lesions, ten showed lesions in the healing process, and 24 had active lesions. Of the 126 dogs, 20 (15.9%) presented suggestive lesions and 24 (19%) had positive se- rology. Parasites isolated from two

Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Waneska Alexandra Alves; Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury; Umberto Assis Membrive; Norberto Assis Membrive; Gesse Rodrigues; Nélio Reis; Paulo Donizete Zanzarini; Edna Ishikawa; Ueslei Teodoro

2006-01-01

141

Geração e transmissão da energia elétrica: impacto sobre os povos indígenas no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the effects of electric power generation and trans- mission on indigenous communities in Brazil. According to data from FUNAI (the Brazilian gov- ernment's Board of Indian Affairs), there are 156 cases of direct impact, present or future, of the electric power sector on Indian settlements geographically distributed throughout Brazil, 65% of which are located

Sergio Koifman

2001-01-01

142

Distribuição sazonal de vetores da malária em Machadinho d'Oeste, Rondônia, Região Amazônica, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the seasonal distribution of malaria vectors in Machadinho d'Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. The study was based on data from the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FUNASA) for the period from April 1993 to November 1994. A total of 97 field visits were conducted, and 93 intradomiciliary and 95 peridomiciliary collections were performed. The

Reinaldo Souza-Santos

2002-01-01

143

PREDACAo DE NINHOS ARTIFICIAIS EM FRAGMENTOS DE MATAS DO BRASIL CENTRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation has some negative consequences to bird populations, including high nest predation rates due to the access of predators to the interior of small fragments. Qur purpose was to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates is inversely related to forest fragment size in forests at 'Tri~ngulo Mineiro', Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We conducted two experiments with artificial nests,

Celine Melo; Miguel Angelo Marini

144

Queda dos homic?dios em S?o Paulo, Brasil: uma an?lise descritiva  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (?74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (?78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (?79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (?74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sergio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sergio

2012-01-01

145

Transferencias entre gobiernos y representación política: elementos empíricos de juicio de Argentina, Brasil y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En los países en desarrollo, las transferencias entre gobiernos desde el nivel central son una fuente importante de ingresos para la mayoría de los gobiernos subnacionales. Y es probable que su importancia aumente aún más, si se toman en cuenta las iniciativas de descentralización en América Latina y otras regiones. En este trabajo se investiga

Moritz Kraemer

1997-01-01

146

Dirofilariose canina na Ilha de São Luís, Nordeste do Brasil: uma zoonose potencial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm was conducted in 1,495 dogs from Maranhão Island, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, from 1991 to 1994, by testing for mi- crofilariae in blood. Of the total, 1,358 (12.8% of which were infected) were dogs with no known history; they included 1,265 homeless animals (10.3% with microfilariae) and 93 kept by owners

Silvia Maria Mendes Ahid; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Lauro Queiroz Saraiva

1999-01-01

147

Primeiro registro documentado do gavião-pega-macaco, Spizaetus tyrannus, para o estado do Ceará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

First documented record of the Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus to the state of Ceará, Brazil. The Black Hawk-Eagle has a wide but discontinuous range along Latin American rainforests. We present the first documented record of the species to the state of Ceará, in a montane moist forest enclave surrounded by semi-arid lowlands. The record was documented by a tape recording

Ciro Albano; Weber Girão; Thieres Pinto

148

Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (?8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 ?gC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

2010-04-01

149

Perfil psicológico de prestação de jogadores profissionais de futebol do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance psychological profile of Brazilian professional soccer players The aim of the present research was to evaluate the psychological per- formance of professional Brazilan soccer players has measured by self- confidence, negativity, attention, motivation, imagery, positivity and competitive attitude. The sample consisted of 529 players: 266 played at the regional and 263 competed at the national championships. The instrument used

Álvaro C. Mahl

150

O estado da arte dos estudos do jornalismo digital no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, with the publication of the Manual for Internet Journalism by Bahia Federal University's College of Communication, Brazilian researchers have studied the emergence and growth of digital journalism. This article presents the current state of research into Brazilian digital journalism as it has evolved from the Research Group in Online Journalism (GJOL), an influential team of researchers that has

Carla Schwingel

151

Análise filogenética de potyvírus causando endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro no Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amostras foliares de plantas de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) com sintomas típicos de endurecimento dos frutos foram coletadas nos estados de Pernambuco, Paraíba e Sergipe. A infecção viral foi comprovada por meio de teste sorológico e gama de hospedeiros. Os seis isolados virais obtidos foram capazes de infetar várias espécies testadas, porém apresentando diferenças na intensidade dos sintomas induzidos

Ana Verônica S. Nascimento; Ana R. R. Souza; Poliane F. Alfenas; Genira P. Andrade; Murilo G. Carvalho; Gilvan Pio-Ribeiro; F. Murilo Zerbini

2004-01-01

152

UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASLIA (UnB) PROGRAMA UNIVERSIDADE ABERTA DO BRASIL (UAB)  

E-print Network

/ 10001636, Domingas Pereira da Cruz / 10008397, Fabiana Rosa do Amaral / 10001803, Faustina Pereira da Cunha / 10004368, Flavia Danieli Santos Rodrigues / 10001274, Glaucineia Lemos Vicente / 10002204, Janaina Pereira candidato em ordem alfabética. 10003292, Eric Douglas Ribeiro da Silva / 10002938, Jucicleide Pereira

Maier, Rudolf Richard

153

Magnetˆ ometros Fluxgates amorfos robustos para pesquisa em Sondagens Geomagn´ eticas Profundas no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty portable fluxgate magnetometers have been constructed with amorphous cores (metallic glass ribbon wound in a polycarbonate spool) to sense variations of the field in three orthogonal axes. The field is measured from the second harmonic induced voltage at the same time interval of the core saturation. The magnetic sensors are lodged in a case specially designed for rugged field

Wanderli Kabata; Icaro Vitorello; Marcelo Banik; Nalin B. Trivedi; Wagner C. Cunha

2004-01-01

154

USO E ABUSO DE DROGAS PSICOTRÓPICAS NO BRASIL Use and abuse psychotrophics drugs in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the studies performed by CEBRID on the drugs consumptiom in the country, commenting the main results, with emphasis in the surveys among students and the 1 st household survey in São Paulo's State.

José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz; Aldous Huxley

155

Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

2000-01-01

156

Prontidão do Capital Humano: vetores, funções e competências estratégicas - caso Brasil Telecom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work vectors, functions and competence are analyzed within a learning and growing perspective. The main objective of the analysis is to evince one of the most important strategic assets in the present organizations, the promptness of the human capital. The research undertaken had a qualitative and exploratory quality. The application of the analysis occurred through the data

José Moreira da Silva; Rosilene Locks; Selma Netto Borges

157

POLÍTICAS FISCAIS E CRESCIMENTO DISTRIBUTIVO NO BRASIL: SIMULAÇÕES COM UM MODELO APLICADO DE EQUILÍBRIO GERAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of different fiscal policies over the national economic growth and income distribution. The simulations were done using a general equilibrium model. The results show the existence of alternative policies, which can, at the same time to promote economic growth and income distribution. Among the applied simulation, the following were identified

Adelar Fochezatto; Izete Pengo Bagolin

2006-01-01

158

The case of Magneti Marelli Brasil: Endogenous and exogenous factors in local dominant technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries and automotive companies are searching for ways to reduce vehicle dependence on oil and its environmental impacts. Hybrid engines, as well as hydrogen, natural gas, alcohol, and other fuels, have been proposed and tested as options to the currently dominant gasoline paradigm. Through a case study, this paper presents the endogenous and exogenous factors that allowed Magneti Marelli Sistemas

P. T. de Souza Nascimento; A. S. O. Yu; Francisco Nigro; Robson Quinello; R. de Fatima S. Macri Russo; N. C. Lima

2009-01-01

159

Neoproterozoic crustal accretion in central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent geochronological studies have demonstrated the existence of several Neoproterozoic orthogneiss and metavolcanic are suites (ca. 900 to 600 Ma) in the southern part of the Tocantins province, a major Neoproterozoic orogenic area in central Brazil, exposed between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. Nd and Sr isotopic characteristics of these metamorphic suites are primitive: initial 87Sr/87Sr ratios vary from ˜0.7024 to ˜0.7042 and initial ?Nd values are positive, varying between +0.2 and +6.9. The most primitive initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are very similar to model depleted- mantle compositions at the time of formation of the original magmas. The mantle- like characteristics of these are suites in western Goiás contradict previous ensialic evolution models for the Tocantins province and reveal that crustal accretion processes were important in large areas of central Brazil during Neoproterozoic time.

Martins Pimentel, Márcio; Adolfo Fuck, Reinhardt

1992-04-01

160

Description of Karyotype of Kerodon acrobata, an endemic rodent in Brazilian Cerrado.  

PubMed

Kerodon acrobata is a caviidae rodent endemic from Brazilian Cerrado. It was described only in 1997 and the data about it is very scarce. The aim of this work was to characterize the karyotype of K. acrobata. Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) banding, C-positive heterochromatin banding and DAPI fluorescence were used in N metaphases of a specimen collected in Asa Branca Farm, in Aurora do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil. K. acrobata showed the same diploid number, fundamental number and chromosome morphology as Kerodon rupestris. But its NOR location and heterochromatin distribution patterns indicated a unique cytogenetic profile when compared to its sister species, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this relatively new and unknown species. This record also extends the distribution of this species northward. PMID:25055111

Zappes, I A; Portella, A S; Lessa, G M

2014-02-01

161

Revision of the South American freshwater fish genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Anostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anostomid genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872, is redefined.Various morphological, especially osteological characters in addi- tion to the commonly utilized features of dentition proved useful for its characterization. A taxonomic revision of all species was made using meristics, morphometrics and color pattern. Five species are recognized: Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950, from the río Orinoco (Venezuela) and the sub-basins Tocantins\\/Araguaia and Xingu,

Kelly Cristina Mautari; Naércio Aquino Menezes

2006-01-01

162

Morphometric comparisons of the scanning electron micrographs of the eggs of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Anopheles darlingi Root is the principal vector of Plasmodium in Brazil, but its biological variability is not well known. Morphometric analyses of scanning electron microscopy images of the eggs of An. darlingi were conducted using individuals collected in nine states of Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Espírito Santo, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo, and Tocantins). Ten attributes of the eggs (seven continuous variables and three discrete variables) were respectively measured or counted and analyzed to determine if populations from different geographical regions or biomes could be distinguished. Univariate analysis showed that the eggs from Espírito Santo were the narrowest whereas representatives from Tocantins populations had the smallest floats. Results of multivariate analyses of continuous variables showed that the first principal component (PC1), mainly represented by all four float attributes, helped to differentiate populations. The second principal component (PC2) comprised roughly the length and width of the egg. PC1 of discrete variables corresponded to the number of ribs on the float whereas PC2 was approximately equivalent to the number of discs on the micropyle. Based on those variables (continuous and discrete separately), multivariate discriminant analysis indicated that eggs from individuals collected in Tocantins were distinct from the other populations. Among sampled localities, the one from the state of Tocantins was situated within the Cerrado biome whereas the locality from São Paulo state was at the border of Cerrado, within a transition zone of the Atlantic Forest biome. Generally, the climate in the Cerrado biome was more arid than in areas of the Amazon and Atlantic Forest biomes, and the temperature had the highest range. Coincidentally, based on morphometric data, cluster analysis distinguished the population from Cerrado, Tocantins from all other populations. Results of multiple regression analysis of the variables showed no correlation between egg variables and latitude or climatic variables. We concluded that eggs were polymorphic and that some morphological patterns were regional. Although no environmental influence on the egg attributes was unequivocally detected, a potential association cannot be entirely discarded. Consequently, we hypothesize that morphological traits of the immature stages, especially from the eggs, convey evolutionary information regarding to this species. PMID:25077432

Almeida, Fabio; Suesdek, Lincoln; Motoki, Maysa T; Bergo, Eduardo S; Sallum, Maria Anice M

2014-11-01

163

DOIS PERDIDOS NUMA NOITE SUJA E O BRASIL NO PÓS-1964: PLÍNIO MARCOS, ATUAÇÃO ARTÍSTICA E ENGAJAMENTO SOCIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal that article is to discuss Dois perdidos numa noite suja (1966) of Plínio Marcos, performed by various theater groups, among them the Group of Theater Forja, linked to the Union of Metalworkers of São Bernardo do Campo, in 1984. For this, trying examine the themes of engagement, violence, marginalization, misery, loneliness, social inclusion perverse, the individual and the

POLIANA LACERDA DA SILVA; KÁTIA RODRIGUES PARANHOS

164

Prevalência de cárie radicular em adultos e idosos na região sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades there has been an increase in the occurrence of dental root surface caries, es- pecially among adults and senior citizens. This study aimed to identify root surface caries prevalence in adults and seniors from southeast São Paulo State, Brazil. An epidemiological sur- vey was carried out among 1,475 dentate adults, ages 35 to 44 and 65 to

Lilian Berta Rihs; Ronaldo Seichi Wada

2005-01-01

165

The Effect of an Organic Pesticide on Mortality and Learning in Africanized Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven experiments were conducted. First, the influence of the consumption of different concentrations of the organic pesticide Bioganic ® on mortality was assessed at 11 different time intervals in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) as was direct application of the pesticide to the abdomen. Results indicated that the pesticide was not lethal to bees regardless of concentration at any

Charles I. Abramson; Jordan B. Singleton; Maritza K. Wilson; Paulo A. Wanderley

2006-01-01

166

Brazilian Conference on Dynamics, Control and their Applications Dincon'2007 UNESP Campus de So Jos do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil  

E-print Network

for a four rotor aircraft with fixed pitch blades are considered. The purpose of this study is to investigate describes the rotor dynamics. The main simplifying assumptions adopted with respect to flight dynamics rotor aircraft. After introducing simplifying assumptions, the flight dynamics equations for the four

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Jornal da Cincia, Ano XXI, no. 595, 13 Abril 2007 Como o Brasil evitar o apago de imagens  

E-print Network

Espacial Internacional e no ainda mais questionável programa de missão tripulada a Marte. No final de 2005 NASA? Não seria melhor fazer um satélite brasileiro com tecnologia americana ou francesa? O tempo se

168

A assembléia de aves de áreas úmidas em dois sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado no extremo sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetland bird assemblage in two irrigated rice fields in southern Brazil. Seventeen wetland bird counts were conducted from November 1998 to March 1999 in two 52 ha rice paddies using no-tillage and \\

Rafael A. Dias; Maria Inês Burger

169

PRÁTICAS CULTURAIS DE CUIDADOS DE MULHERES MÃES DE RECÉM-NASCIDOS DE RISCO DO SUL DO BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Nowadays, the issues related to woman health, seek to get a new integrality focus. It will be able to go beyond the limited effects of a biomedical model in health. Not considering the life experience and cultural aspects of the women and their family. This study aimed to understand the influence of the cultural context during pregnancy and in

Maria de Lourdes; Denardin Budó; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Marcio Rossato Badke

170

ANÁLISE ECONOMÉTRICA DO CONSUMO DE AÇAÍ NO EVIEWS 3.1 NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE BELÉM – PARÁ – BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

O estudo descrito neste trabalho pretende realizar uma análise econométrica a cerca do consumo de açaí, fruto regional de alto consumo pelos Paraenses, realizada na região metropolitana de Belém no Eviews 3.1 utilizando a relação do consumo com algumas variáveis definidas para a pesquisa (preço da farinha de tapioca, da farinha, das despesas familiares com alimentação e quantidade de pessoas

Carlos Gilberto Vieira da Silva Júnior; Edivaldo Lima Sousa Filho; Rafaela Casseb e Silva; Heriberto Wagner Amanajás Pena

2012-01-01

171

Retrospective prevalence and incidence of drug-induced agranulocytosis in the city of São Paulo-Brasil.  

PubMed

Retrospective study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, from September 1981 through March 1990. During this period the study investigated 19,389 hematological patients, aiming to assess the prevalence and estimate the incidence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. To assess the Hematology Center's catch population, where the study took place, we adopted the incidence of hemophilia A, chronic myeloid leukemia and acute leukemia, described by the international literature as reference for our catch population estimate. Our findings revealed a prevalence of 1 case of agranulocytosis per 3,878 subjects treated at the São Paulo Hematology Center which translates into an incidence of 0.44 to 0.82 cases of agranulocytosis per million inhabitants, per year. PMID:8235248

Hamerschlak, N; Montezuma, M P; Bacal, N; Szterling, L N; Rosenfeld, L G; Guerra, C C

1993-01-01

172

Diálogos com o ensino médio 5: a escola de ensino médio no Brasil analisada a partir de dados do INEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper discusses schooling performance in secondary schools in Brazil using the ENEM as the database. Initially, we obtained different dimensions related to the student’s perception concerning himself, his school and his socioeconomic level with the use of factorial analyses. Private and public schools were compared. We observed that federal and private ones showed some resemblance, with a much

André Braz Golgher

2010-01-01

173

Diálogos com o ensino médio 6 : o estudante de ensino médio no Brasil analisado a partir de dados do INEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper discusses the correlation between different factors and school performance in the secondary school with the use of data from INEP, such as the ENEM, and also the Demographic Census. We compared state, municipal, federal and private schools in topics, such as: student performance, sex, age and ethnic distribution, socioeconomic levels, school’s physical infrastructure, etc. Moreover, different dimensions

André Braz Golgher

2010-01-01

174

Límites de la cooperación internacional ambiental: el caso del Programa Piloto para la Protección de los Bosques Tropicales de Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond its many achievements, an analysis of the green alliances of the Pilot Program for the Protection of the Tropical Forests of Brazil (PPG7, Portuguese acronym), as well as the conflicts present in its cre- ation and implementation, of the results achieved, and of the circumstances in which it came to an end, demonstrate that the PPG7 contributed little to

Joseph S. Weiss

2010-01-01

175

Monitoramento de florestas plantadas no Brasil: indicadores sociais e econômicos Monitoring of planted forests in Brazil: socio-economic Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Define-se o bom manejo como sendo aquele que é ecologicamente adequado, socialmente justo e economicamente viável. Critérios e indicadores sócio-econômicos para o monitoramento de sustentabilidade oferecem os meios para se avaliar a justiça social e a viabilidade econômica do manejo de florestas plantadas. O objetivo principal desta apresen- tação é sugerir alguns indicadores e instigar os participantes a pensar

Luiz Carlos; Estraviz Rodriguez

176

Exigências Líquidas e Dietéticas de Energia, Proteína e Macroelementos Minerais de Bovinos de Corte no Brasil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial or total data, from several works, on nutritional requirements of bovine, were utilized. In all the experiments, the comparative slaughter technique was used, with the slaughter of a representative sample of the experimental animals at the beginning of the feeding period and the determination of the empty body composition. The fat, protein, energy, Ca, P, Mg, Na and K

Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Sebastião de Campos; Valadares Filho; Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo; Cristina Mattos Veloso; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Eduardo Henrique

177

Desnutrição e obesidade infantis em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of anthropometric deficits and of obesity were studied in two population- based birth cohort studies in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil, in 1982 and 1993. All hospital delivered babies in each one-year period were identified, and samples of approximately 20% were visited at home at around 12 months of age, totalling 1,449 children submitted to anthropometric examination

Cora L. Post; Cesar G. Victora; Fernando C. Barros; Bernardo L. Horta; Paula R. V. Guimarães

1996-01-01

178

Inventário de macroliquens epífi tos sobre árvores utilizadas na arborização urbana em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil: Subsídio para biomonitoramento urbano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inventory of epiphytic macrolichens on trees used in urban arborization in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The fl oristic composition of epiphytic macrolichens on the following tree species used in urban arborization in Curitiba was analysed: Acer negundo , Lagerstroemia indica , Ligustrum lucidum , Parapiptadenia rigida , Cassia leptophylla , Syagrus romanzofÞ ana , Tabebuia alba , Tabebuia chrysotricha , Tabebuia

Sionara Eliasaro; Patrícia Wolf Veiga; Cristine Gobel Donha; Lucas Nogueira

2009-01-01

179

Tabaco, álcool e outras drogas entre adolescentes em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: uma perspectiva de gênero  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the relationship between gender and use of psychoactive substances (al- cohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs) by teenagers. In 2002, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sam- ple of adolescents, 15 to 18 years of age. Subjects were interviewed using a self-applied confiden-

Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Blanca Morales; Marlene Neves Strey

2007-01-01

180

Chuva de sementes sob Ficus cestrifolia (Moraceae) em áreas com vegetação secundária no Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed rain from Ficus cestrifolia was analysed on degraded lands in the Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Five traps (1 m x 1 m) were installed underneath four Ficus cestrifolia fig trees for the purpose of seed rain collection and subsequent analysis. The vegetation was in its initial stage of regeneration. Experiments were realized from June 2001 to May

Carlos Augusto Krieck; Daniela Fink; Carlos Eduardo Zimmermann

181

ASPECTOS DA MOTIVAÇÃO PARA O TRABALHO VOLUNTÁRIO COM DOENTES ONCOLÓGICOS: UM ESTUDO COLABORATIVO ENTRE BRASIL E PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil and Portugal, for reasons of history and immigration, share a similar culture and language. This is a inter cultural research for to compare a specific motivational processes and psychological functions involved in volunteer work. The work of volunteers is also a very important activity in the social support of cancer patients and needs further evaluation in both of countries.

Camila B. de Souza; Maria do Rosário; N. Bacalhau; Maria de Jesus Moura; José Henrique Volpi; Sónia Marques; Maria Rosalina; G. Rodrigues

182

Analise e Avaliacao Teorica dos Leiloes de Compra de Energia Eletrica Proveniente de Empreendimentos Existentes no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform process that the Brazilian electric industry has been undergoing since the mid 90's suffered a great inflection after the energy rationing of 2001 and the financial Revista EconomiA Set\\/Dez 2006

Tiago B. Correia; Elbia Melo

183

FACTORES DE RIESGO PARA LA ENFERMEDAD TUBERCULOSA EN LOS CASOS DE SIDA NOTIFICADOS EN BRASIL, 1980 A 200 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in the AIDS Cases Reported in Brazil, 1980-200 0 Background: Aids affects the epidemiological characteristics o f tuberculosis, due to both the changes in the clinical progress of th e jointly affected patients, as well as the increase in the number o f tuberculosis cases among individuals having tested positive fo r hiv\\/aids. This may lead

Josué Laguardia; Edgar Merchán-Hamann

2003-01-01

184

Obstetric care in Brazil: An analysis of the situation Assistência obstétrica no Brasil: Uma análise de situação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the situation of obstetric care in Brazil. Methods: Analysis of data from the Ministry of Health: Information System on Mortality; Information System on Live Births; Information System on Ambulatory Care of the Brazilian Unified Health System; Information System on Hospital Care of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Others source of data: the Brazilian Institute of Geography and

Marcia de Freitas; Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre; Arnaldo Augusto Franco de Siqueira

185

Queimadas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil: efeitos à saúde respiratória Sugar cane burning in Brazil: respiratory health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aimed to update scientifi c literature information about respiratory health effects caused by sugarcane burning, considering the expansion of sugarcane plantations in Brazil and in the state of São Paulo. Articles published between 1996 and 2006, which deal with the health effects of sugarcane burning and\\/or air pollutants originating from this burning, were discussed. These studies suggest that

Helena Ribeiro

186

NOTA SOBRE OS FUNGOS AGARICALES (BASIDIOMYCOTA) DA ESTAÇÃO ECOLÓGICA DE ARACURI, ESMERALDA, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Realiza-se a primeira notificação sobre as espécies de fungos Agaricales da Estação Ecológica de Aracuri, localizada no município de Esmeralda, Rio Grande do Sul. São apresentadas descrições e\\/ou discussões e ilustrações das seguintes espécies: Hypholoma subviride (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Dennis, Pholiota spumosa (Fr.) Singer, Stropharia rugosoannulata Farl. ex Murrill, Cyptotrama asprata (Berk.) Redhead & Ginns, Lepista sordida (Fr.)

Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher; Jair Putzke; Marisa Terezinha; Lopes Putzke; Vagner Gularte Cortez

2007-01-01

187

A proteinase inhibitor from Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil) seeds for plasma kallikrein, plasmin and factor XIIa.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia echinata is a tree belonging to the Leguminosae family. The red color of the trunk, looking like burning wood ('brasa' in Portuguese), is the origin of the name Brazil. Seeds of leguminous plants contain high amounts of serine proteinase inhibitors that can affect different biological processes. Here we show that a protein isolated from seeds of C. echinata is able to inhibit enzymes that participate in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. This inhibitor (CeKI) was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. SDS-PAGE indicated a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. CeKI inhibits human plasma kallikrein ( K i =3.1 nM), plasmin ( K i =0.18 nM), factor XIIa ( K i =0.18 nM), trypsin ( K i =21.5 nM) and factor Xa ( K i =0.49 mM). CeKI inhibited kinin release from highmolecular- mass kininogen by kallikrein in vitro . The N-terminal sequence, determined by automatic Edman degradation, identified the inhibitor as a member of the Kunitz family. The secondary structure, determined by circular dichroism, is mainly a random coil followed by beta-sheet structure. The action of CeKI on enzymes of the blood-clotting intrinsic pathway was confirmed by prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time. PMID:15576329

Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Gozzo, Andrezza J; Nunes, Viviane A; Carmona, Adriana K; Faljoni-Alario, Adelaide; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Sampaio, Misako U; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Araujo, Mariana S

2004-11-01

188

GEOPROCESSAMENTO APLICADO A ECOLOGIA DE PAISAGEM: UMA ANÁLISE DA DINÂMICA ESPACIAL DA ILHA DO PAPAGAIO – PA, AMAZÔNIA-BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

O geoprocessamento é uma importante ferramenta para se compreender a estrutura e a dinâmica das paisagens em diversas escalas temporais e espaciais, quando aplicado à ecologia de paisagem traz elementos tanto para o estudo das interações do homem com o meio ambiente, quanto para compreender os processos ecológicos. Dessa forma objetiva-se com este artigo, levantar as situações ambientais associadas à

Joyse Tatiane Souza dos Santos; Heriberto Wagner Amanajás Pena

2011-01-01

189

Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

190

Registros documentados de cinco novos trinta-réis (Charadriiformes: Sternidae) no estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documented records of five terns (Charadriiformes: Sternidae) new for the State of Ceará, north-east Brazil. We present new records, based on museum specimens and\\/or photographs, of five species of Sternidade for the State of Ceará in north- east Brazil, namely, Black Noddy Anous minutus (apparently the first from Brazilian mainland), Least Tern Sternula antillarum, Black Tern Chlidonias niger, Arctic Tern

Weber Girão; Ciro Albano; Alberto A. Campos; Thieres Pinto; Caio J. Carlos

191

Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western São Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the São Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goiás ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goiás magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasília Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goiás-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain.

Soares, José E.; Berrocal, Jesus; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Mooney, Walter D.; Ventura, DhéBora B. R.

2006-12-01

192

Seismic Characteristics of Central Brazil Crust and Upper Mantle: A Deep Seismic refraction Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the travel-time interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an EW transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sao Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sao Francisco, the Paranapanema and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goias Ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first order tectonic structures. 8.0 km/s and 8.3 km/s P-wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of: i) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, ii) the absence of the mafic- ultramafic root beneath the Goias magmatic arc; and iii) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasilia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goias-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain.

Soares, J.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.; Mooney, W. D.; Ventura, D. B.

2007-05-01

193

Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam  

SciTech Connect

The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.

Fearnside, P.M.

1999-11-01

194

Uneventful benznidazole treatment of acute Chagas disease during pregnancy: a case report.  

PubMed

This report describes the case of a patient with acute Chagas disease in Tocantins, Brazil, who was unaware of her pregnancy during benznidazole treatment. She presented with impaired cardiac function during the acute phase (pericarditis and incomplete right bundle-branch block) that resolved favorably after benznidazole therapy. Serological results also became negative, as determined by hemagglutination assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence assays. The child was born without sequelae and showed no evidence of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection at birth or 24 days later. PMID:25075496

Corrêa, Valeria Rita; Barbosa, Fernanda Gama; Melo Junior, Claudimar Américo de; D'Albuquerque e Castro, Luis Fernando; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Nascimento, Nanci

2014-01-01

195

Review on the Precambrian geotectonics of the Brazilian Shield and its correlations within West Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Brazilian Shield, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic rocks are widespread in the large Amazonian Craton, as well as in the São Francisco, São Luiz, Rio de La Plata and other smaller cratonic fragments. Archean nuclei are present as granite-greenstone terrains in the Carajás region and in Central Bahia, and as medium to high-grade crustal fragments within younger belts. The Neoproterozoic tectonic provinces of Borborema, Tocantins and Mantiqueira, that include several orogenic belts active between 950 and 520 Ma, are associated to the process of agglutination of West Gondwana. Their correlative tectonic units in West and South-West Africa are the Trans-Saharan, West Congo, Damara, Gariep and Saldania belts. Juvenile, mantle derived, intra-oceanic magmatic arcs are found within the Tocantins province and the Trans-Saharan belt. They are associated to the Transbrasiliano lineament in South America, and indicate the existence of a large oceanic domain separating Amazonia and West-Africa from the São Francisco-Congo craton in the Neoproterozoic. On the other hand, the crustal signature of granitoid rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean may not have been very large, and that the Rio de La Plata and Kalahari cratons were always relatively close together and to the São Francisco-Congo.

Cordani, U. G.

2003-04-01

196

Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants. PMID:24741469

de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

2014-01-01

197

Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

2011-02-01

198

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

2013-01-01

199

A new cryptic species of South American freshwater pufferfish of the genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), based on both morphology and DNA data.  

PubMed

The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected. PMID:24040239

Amaral, Cesar R L; Brito, Paulo M; Silva, Dayse A; Carvalho, Elizeu F

2013-01-01

200

Long-term simulations of discharge and floods in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terrestrial ecosystem model (integrated biosphere simulator (IBIS)) and a hydrological routing algorithm (HYDRA) are used in conjunction with long time series climate data to simulate the river discharge and flooded area of the Amazon/Tocantins River basin over the last 60 years. Evaluating the results of this modeling exercise over the entire basin yields three major results: (1) Observations at 121 stations throughout the basin show that discharge is well simulated for most tributaries originating in Brazil. However, the discharge is consistently underestimated, by greater than 20%, for tributaries draining regions outside of Brazil and the main stem of the Amazon. The discharge underestimation is most likely a result of underestimated precipitation in the data set used as model input. (2) A new flooding algorithm within HYDRA captures the magnitude and timing of the river height and flooded area in relatively good agreement with observations, particularly downstream of the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers. (3) Climatic variability strongly impacts the hydrology of the basin. Specifically, we find that short (~3-4 years) and long (~28 years) modes of precipitation variability drive spatial and temporal variability in river discharge and flooded area throughout the Amazon/Tocantins River basins.

Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Botta, Aurélie; Birkett, Charon

2002-08-01

201

Geology, petrology and geochronology of the layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Porto Nacional area, central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large layered intrusions of the Porto Nacional area include two distinctively different groups. Mafic intrusions located west of the Tocantins River (Group 1) follow a tholeiitic (Fenner-trend) fractionation trend characterized by olivine compositions from moderately primitive (Fo 68) to highly fractionated (Fo 07). Zircon fractions of an olivine gabbronorite from a Group 1 intrusion yield a U-Pb concordia age of 526 ± 5 Ma. Highly variable TDM ages and negative ?Nd(530 Ma) values of samples from this Group 1 intrusion indicate crystallization in ca. 530 Ma from a magma highly contaminated with older crustal rocks. The layered intrusions located east of the Tocantins River (Group 2) have a large proportion of ultramafics (mainly wehrlite) and follow an Opx-free crystallization sequence. The compositional variation of olivine (Fo 85-84) and Cpx (En 49-45) of cumulates from Group 2 intrusions indicates moderately primitive compositions and very limited fractionation. Sm-Nd isotopic data for Group 2 intrusions are highly scattered and do not yield a crystallization age. Highly variable TDM ages and negative ?Nd(530 Ma) values suggest that the parental magmas of Group 2 intrusions were heterogeneously contaminated with old crustal material. These two petrologically distinct groups of layered intrusions open new opportunities for exploration for Ni-PGE deposits in central Brazil.

Lima, Humberto Alcântara Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Dantas, Elton Luiz; de Araújo, Sylvia Maria

202

Variability in land water storage from GRACE and ENVISAT, and rainfall in South American river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has demonstrated the capability of GRACE to capture important aspects of the hydrological cycle, in particular seasonal and interannual fluctuations in land water storage of large river basins. Part of this behaviour can be immediately assigned to seasonal/interannual fluctuations of precipitation. In this study, we investigate existing correlations between GRACE water storage (two GRACE products are used and compared, the GRGS and GSFC/Mascons solutions), ENVISAT-based surface water levels and precipitation data over four large river basins of South America (Orinoco, Amazon, Tocantins and Parana). At the seasonal time scale, precipitation and total water storage correlate well in the Parana basin, with a few weeks lag of storage with respect to forcing. Over the Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco, the two variables also correlate well. But in some years, storage response to forcing is enhanced, suggesting that other terms of the water balance (e.g., runoff) play a significant role. To investigate this, discharge data at the most downstream stations in these river basins are analysed, while the water balance is studied using outputs of global hydrological models available over the same time span as GRACE data. We also analyse water level data from ENVISAT altimetry over the main rivers. Finally, we study the interannual connection between rainfall and water storage, using among others, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). Compared to the seasonal cycle, the interannual signal displays larger regional variability both in precipitation and water storage.

Xavier, L.; Cazenave, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rotunno, O.

2008-12-01

203

Long-term Simulations of Discharge and Floods in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terrestrial ecosystem model (IBIS) and a hydrological routing algorithm (HYDRA) are used in conjunction with long time-series climate data to simulate the river discharge and flooded area of the Amazon/Tocantins River Basin over the last 60 years. Evaluating the results of this modeling exercise over the entire basin against land and satellite based observations yields three major results: (1) Observations at 121 stations throughout the basin show that discharge is well simulated for most tributaries originating in Brazil. However, the discharge is consistently underestimated, by greater than 20%, for tributaries draining regions outside of Brazil and the main stem of the Amazon. The discharge underestimation is most likely a result of underestimated precipitation in the data set used as model input. (2) A new flooding algorithm within HYDRA captures the magnitude and timing of the river height, and flooded area in relatively good agreement with satellite based observations, particularly downstream of the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers. (3) Climatic variability strongly impacts the hydrology of the basin. Specifically, we find that short ( ~3-4 year) and long ( ~28 year) modes of precipitation variability drive spatial and temporal variability in river discharge and flooded area throughout the Amazon/Tocantins River basins.

Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Botta, A.; Birkett, C.

2001-12-01

204

Diversity and microdistribution of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) assemblages in the tropical savanna streams of the Brazilian cerrado.  

PubMed

We describe the abiotic factors affecting the distribution of black flies at a microhabitat scale, rather than at the regional scale usually present in the literature on the Neotropics. Black fly larvae were sampled from the Tocantins River and three tributaries, located in the Brazilian savanna (state of Tocantins, Brazil) during six bi-monthly sampling periods from October 2004-August 2005. At each sampling site, 15 random quadrats (30 x 30 cm) were sampled each period and for each quadrat were determined mean water velocity, predominant substrate type (rocks, riffle litter or riparian vegetation) and depth detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to determine associations with current velocity, whereas correspondence analysis (CA) was used to estimate site specific current velocity associations. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to identify general microhabitat associations. The CCA showed that most species had a trend towards riffle litter, except for Simulium nigrimanum associated with rocky substrate and Simulium cuasiexiguum associated with riparian vegetation. The DCA showed a well defined pattern of water velocity associations. The CA revealed that the species showed different speed associations from one site to another, suggesting different competitive pressures resulting in the occurrence of different realized niches. PMID:22510832

Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira

2012-05-01

205

A New Cryptic Species of South American Freshwater Pufferfish of the Genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), Based on Both Morphology and DNA Data  

PubMed Central

The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected. PMID:24040239

Amaral, Cesar R. L.; Brito, Paulo M.; Silva, Dayse A.; Carvalho, Elizeu F.

2013-01-01

206

Aptidão Física Relacionada à Saúde em Escolares de Jequié, BA, Brasil Health-Related Physical Fitness in Students from Jequié, BA, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the health-related physical fitness (HRPF) in students from Jequié, BA, Brazil. Therefore, the HRPF of 182 boys and 160 girls aged 7-12 years, students from public schools, was assessed by the application of 9-minute-run\\/walk (indicator of cardiorespiratory capacity), modified in one minute abdominal (indicator of abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (indicator of

Valfredo Dórea; Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; Helio Serassuelo Junior; Luís Alberto Gobbo; Ferdinando Oliveira Carvalho; Carine Ferreira de Souza; Juliana Cordeiro de Melo; Patrícia Aparecida Gaion; Sudoeste da Bahia

2008-01-01

207

Caracterização do microhabitat e vulnerabilidade de cinco espécies de arapaçus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) em um fragmento florestal do norte do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microhabitat characterization and vulnerability of five woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptidae) species in a forest fragment in northern state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Little information is available on the ecological requirements of the woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae), and on the causes of their tendency to disappear from forest fragments in the Neotropics. Here, we documented microhabitat selection of five syntopic species of woodcreepers in

Fabíola Poletto; Luiz dos Anjos; Edson Varga Lopes; Graziele Hernandes Volpato

2004-01-01

208

Estudo molecular e comparado de linhagens de Shigella sonnei e Shigella flexneri, isoladas de casos de shiguelose das regiões metropolitanas de Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil.  

E-print Network

??As bactérias do gênero Shigella spp. são responsáveis por infecções intestinais endêmicas e epidêmicas denominadas shigueloses. As shigueloses, transmitidas por via fecal-oral, principalmente através das… (more)

Michelle Angelini

2009-01-01

209

XXI CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA SÃO PEDRO, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL, OCTUBRE, 2004 CARACTERIZAÇÃO HIDRODINÂMICA DE REATOR AERÓBIO DE LEITO FLUIDIZADO COM CIRCULAÇÃO EM TUBOS CONCÊNTRICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed reactors with circulating flow in concentric tubes have been showing good results in the treatment of sanitary wastewater in several reported papers. However, the present state of the hydraulic and hydrodynamic models is unable to offer suitable design tools for this type of reactors, in face of the complexities of the three-phase bed's behavior and the interdependence with

Fernando Henrique Rufato; Dib Gebara; Humberto Carlos Ruggeri Jr; Wagner Nunes; Milton Dall; Aglio Sobrinho

210

Dinâmica populacional de Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) em um riacho impactado da Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil.  

E-print Network

??Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) é um gastrópode dulceaquícola de origem afroasiática, atualmente com uma distribuição cosmopolita, devido a seu comportamento invasivo. Utilizamos em nosso trabalho… (more)

Igor Christo Miyahira

2010-01-01

211

Área temática: Estratégia e Organizações Empreendedorismo Feminino: Características, Considerações e Entendimentos de Mulheres Gerentes de Micro e Pequenas Empresas de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry of women into the labour market, their ascension assuming positions of direction, and the constant search for new challenges makes the female entrepreneurship issue that arouses a natural interest of study. Currently, it is increasing the number of women managers of companies in Brazil. Thus, it was aimed to analyze the characteristics, considerations and understandings of these women

AMELIA SILVEIRA; ANNA BEATRIZ; CAUTELA TVRZSKA DE GOUVEA; MARIANNE HOELTGEBAUM

212

Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

Germano, Jose Willington

1995-01-01

213

Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (?13C) and 15N/14N (?15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to ?13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

2013-12-01

214

Anais XI SBSR, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 05 -10 abril 2003, INPE, p. 2193 -2200. MAPSAR: A NEW L-BAND SPACEBORNE SAR MISSION FOR ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

and Urban Studies. To accomplish the overall requirements, an L-band SAR has been chosen as the only payload. The modular system consists of the satellite bus (platform) and a payload module for the SAR sensor accommodation. A dawn/dusk sun-synchronous orbit with a repeating cycle of 37 days at 620 km has been chosen

Domingues, Margarete Oliveira

215

Hábito alimentar da rã invasora Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) e sua relação com anuros nativos na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, Brasil.  

E-print Network

??The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was introduced into several countries for commercial breeding, settling invasive populations during this process. In Brazil the beginning of its… (more)

Emanuel Teixeira da Silva

2010-01-01

216

Variação sazonal na sociabilidade de forrageamento das garças Ardea alba (Linnaeus, 1758) e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in the foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil. The seasonal variation of foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) on the lagoons of the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil, was analyzed. Quarterly samplings of birds were

Márcio Rodrigo

217

Magnetic fabric and emplacement mechanisms in a co-mingled mafic and felsic magma chamber: the Espinharas granite (Borborema Province, NE Brasil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Espinharas granite is a co-mingled mafic and felsic magmatic complex forming part of the widespread Brasiliano plutonism that affected the Borborema Province during the Neoproterozoic. Syenogranite is mixed and mingled with diorite generating a range of aluminous shoshonitic hybrid rocks containing mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of various shapes and orientations. Geochemical modelling shows that the pluton originated by upper-mantle magma underplating and fault-assisted intrusion of diorite, which would supply heat for partial melting of the crust and formation of syenogranite. The Espinharas granite comprises syenogranites and diorites associated with quartz-monzonites, monzodiorites and syenites mainly deformed in the magmatic state. The pluton is emplaced within Paleoproterozoic augen gneisses from the basement and is bounded by high-temperature NE-trending mylonitic shear zones at its western and eastern borders. To the south, the pluton is in contact with the E-trending high-grade transpressional Patos shear zone. Magmatic foliations can be observed throughout the syenogranite and in the felsic rocks, being defined by a SPO of feldspars and quartz. However, they appear to be absent in the diorite. The microgranular enclaves display irregular contacts with the host syenogranite and may be often aligned in agreement with the magmatic foliation; they are also randomly dispersed and disrupted by monzo- to syenogranitic veins. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique was employed in order to investigate the mechanical relationships between mingled mafic and felsic magmas, as well as their emplacement mechanisms. Susceptibilities are usually high (k > 1.3 mSI), suggesting that Ti-magnetite is the main carrier of the magnetic signal. The magnetic lineation plunges shallowly to NE, parallel to the pluton main elongation axis. Zircons from diorite and syenogranite yield U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages of ~ 620 Ma, which are attributed to the crystallization of the granite and are younger than the main metamorphic event in the Seridó Belt (~ 575 Ma). These data suggest that the magnetic fabric of the Espinharas granite records the high-temperature deformation observed in the Seridó Belt. This deformation was active during a prolonged time range (~ 100 Ma) in a hybrid magmatic chamber emplaced in the middle- to shallow continental crust. These conditions indicate that the Patos shear zone controlled the development of the magmatic- to solid-state fabric of the Espinharas granite, highlighting the contribution of strain partitioning in the mechanical mingling of magmas in the continental crust.

Viegas, G.; Gouveia, F.; Archanjo, C.; Hollanda, M.

2013-12-01

218

Surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brasil An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Em 1993, um surto leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) foi detectado no povoado rural de Canoa, município de Santo Amaro, Bahia. Um estudo observacional prospectivo delineou- se, com objetivo de determinar as taxas de freqüência e caracterizar clinicamente a doença. Foram acompanhados 555 indivíduos, registrando-se 29 casos de LTA, 11 casos sugestivos de LTA pregressa e 529 sadios. Desses 529

Ivonise Follador; Cibele Araujo; Maria Amélia Cardoso; Aldina Barral; José Carlos Miranda; Achiléa Bittencourt; Edgar M. Carvalho

219

4 Jornada de Educao em Sensoriamento Remoto no mbito do Mercosul 11 a 13 de agosto de 2004 So Leopoldo, RS, Brasil UTILIZAO DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO COMO  

E-print Network

Fundamental e Médio Suely Franco S. Lima1 Rosa Maria D. Gonçalves1 1 Professoras da E.E. "DINORÁ PEREIRA RAMOS High School (E E Profª Dinorá Pereira Ramos Brito), at Environmental Education discipline. The specific Dinorá Pereira Ra

220

Physical demands during the hauling of fishing nets for artisan fishing using rafts in beach of Ponta Negra, Natal--Brasil.  

PubMed

The current article aims to analyse the activity and the repercussions in the health of the artisan fishermen who use rafts in the urban Beach of Ponta Negra in Natal - RN, with emphasis on the physical demands at the step of hauling the nets from the ocean. It has been taken as a reference the methodology of Work Ergonomic Analysis-WEA. 21 fishermen participated in the study (50% of the population). It was used applying observational techniques and methodologies (open and sistematic observations and simulations) interactional ( social and economic questionnaire, conversational actions, verbalizations, self confrontations and collective analysis) and health assessment (static postural assessment, movement flexibility of flexo extension of the shoulder and the ischiotibial muscle, lumbar region and hang grip. Applying the diagram of painful areas and the Nordic Questionnaire of mucleskeletal symptoms). The results were submeted to restitutions and validations with the raftmen. The hauling of the nets represents a high muscleskeletal risk, joining physical effort, adopting forced postures with the rotation of the spine and movement repetition, mainly flexo extension of vertebral spine, aggravated by the demand of strength fo the stabilizing muscles of the human body to keep the poise. The impacts of the activity of the fisherman of Ponta Negra, related to postures and strength demand were observed in the postural assessment and are related to the activity. PMID:22316760

Jaeschke, Anelena; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba

2012-01-01

221

Utilização de imagens do satélite CBERS-2 na atualização do sistema de informação de recursos hídricos do estado do Ceará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, there is a substantial deficit in the Bra zilian cartography, in terms of updating and generation of new maps and charts. Twenty-five percent of the Brazilian territory, including Amazon, st ill do not have charts in the 1:100.000 scale. The coverage is considerably less if the scale raises, for example to 1:25.000 scale, absent in 99 % of the

Guilherme Marques; Marcus Vinícius; Chagas da Silva

222

O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

Gebara, Ademir

2000-01-01

223

Os determinantes da rotativade do trabalho no Brasil: instituições x ciclos econômicos [Determinants of labour turnover in Brazil: institutions X business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the determinants of labour turnover in Brazil. We contrast the view suggesting that severance payments (FGTS) induce labour turnover with arguments suggesting that turnover rates are a function of the characteristics of supply and demand for labour in Brazil. Additionally, we present econometric evidence that changes in the level of turnover rates observed at the end of

Carlos Alberto Ramos; Francisco Galrão Carneiro

2002-01-01

224

STATO NOME SEDE Promotori Posti disponibili  

E-print Network

pagamento di una tassa (c.a. US$ 100 - cfr. accordo al 09/11/2011 sono 400R$) BRASILE UEL - UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE LONDRINA Giovanni Conti 2 LM http://www.uel.br/ari/ BRASILE UFPR - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO

225

Regional scale analysis of landform configuration with base-level (isobase) maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Base-level maps (or "isobase maps", as originally defined by Filosofov, 1960), express a relationship between valley order and topography. The base-level map can be seen as a "simplified" version of the original topographic surface, from which the "noise" of the low-order stream erosion was removed. This method is able to identify areas with possible tectonic influence even within lithologically uniform domains. Base-level maps have been recently applied in semi-detail scale (e.g., 1:50 000 or larger) morphotectonic analysis. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the method's applicability in regional-scale analysis (e.g., 1:250 000 or smaller). A test area was selected in northern Brazil, at the lower course of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers. The drainage network extracted from SRTM30_PLUS DEMs with spatial resolution of approximately 900 m was visually compared with available topographic maps and considered to be compatible with a 1:1,000 000 scale. Regarding the interpretation of regional-scale morphostructures, the map constructed with 2nd and 3rd-order valleys was considered to present the best results. Some of the interpreted base-level anomalies correspond to important shear zones and geological contacts present in the 1:5 000 000 Geological Map of South America. Others have no correspondence with mapped Precambrian structures and are considered to represent younger, probably neotectonic, features. A strong E-W orientation of the base-level lines over the inflexion of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers, suggest a major drainage capture. A N-S topographic swath profile over the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers reveals a topographic pattern which, allied with seismic data showing a roughly N-S direction of extension in the area, lead us to interpret this lineament as an E-W, southward-dipping normal fault. There is also a good visual correspondence between the base-level lineaments and geophysical anomalies. A NW-SE lineament in the southeast of the study area partially corresponds to the northern border of the Mosquito lava field, of Jurassic age, and a NW-SE lineament traced in the northeastern sector of the study area can be interpreted as the Picos-Santa Inês lineament, identifiable in geophysical maps but with little expression in hypsometric or topographic maps.

Grohmann, C. H.; Riccomini, C.; Chamani, M. A. C.

2011-05-01

226

Results from deep seismic refraction experiments and teleseismic broadband studies carried out in Central Brazil, and future geotectonic studies in North-Eastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined crustal models have been obtained in Central and Southeastern sectors of Tocantins Province, Central Brazil, from travel time interpretation of deep seismic refraction data using three 300 km long lines with 120 digital seismographs and explosions with controlled time in each 50 km with charges between 500 and 1,000 kg of IBEMUX emulsion. In the Southeastern sector the upper crust is thin, less than 4 km thick and VP 5.65 km/s, the middle crust with VP 6.13 km/s is thicker in the western side of the section, around 15 km thick getting thinner to the east, less than 10 km, and a thicker VP 6.7 km/s lower crust with Moho reaching 41 km of depth beneath the Paraná Basin in the west extreme, shallowing to 38 km in the central part of the section and getting thicker again, 42 km, in the eastern extreme beneath the São Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province in the Central sector has two layers in the upper crust a thin one with less than 4 km thick and VP 5.9 km/s, and a 10 km thick layer with VP 6.15 km/s, the middle crust is thinner in the west half of this section with around 8 km thick and VP 6.48 km/s, and thicker in the eastern half, with more than 15 km thick and VP 6.28 km/s, and a 15 km thick lower crust with 6.82 km/s getting slightly thinner and faster in the eastern side reaching VP 6.96 km/s. Several broadband stations were used in the central sector of Tocantins Province to study the regional patterns of crustal and upper mantle structure with teleseismic data; receiver functions and surface wave dispersion results confirmed the deep refraction 2D model of a thin crust, less than 37 km thick, and high average crustal VP/VS ratios (1.74-1.76) in the western end of that region occupied by the Neoproterozoic Magmatic Arc, and a 43 km thick crust with low VP/VS ratios (1.71-1.72) was found beneath foreland fold and trust zone of Brasília belt, next to the São Francisco craton. The same kind of experiments are being planned to be executed in the Borborema Province in the North- eastern region of Brazil with very long deep refraction lines and, if possible, a network of interlocking refraction profiles, together with the a network of broadband stations to collect teleseismic data for receiver function and surface wave dispersion studies.

Berrocal, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Fuck, R.; Pereira Soares, J. E.; Perosi, F. A.

2006-05-01

227

Social Impacts of Brazil's Tucuruí Dam.  

PubMed

/ The Tucuruí Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Pará, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucuruí reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucuruí offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.KEY WORDS: Tucuruí Dam; Amazonia; Hydroelectric dams; Brazil; Reservoirs; Mercuryhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n4p483.html

Fearnside

1999-11-01

228

Spectral reflectance of the Tucurui Reservoir waters in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tucurui reservoir was formed by damming the Tocantins river and flooding around 2430 Km2 of forest land. Its average depth is 18 meters with a dendritic shoreline which is responsible for a large variety of water masses with distinctive properties. This aquatic system therefore offers an unique opportunity for collection of wide variety of spectral data representative of the conditions usually found in Amazon reservoirs. These could be used as an spectral library for interpretation of imaging spectrometric data. This paper reports an experiment performed in April 1992 in which spectrometric data were collected over the Tucurui reservoir concurrently to water sampling at surface, at 50% light penetration depth, and at Secchi depth. Water samples were analyzed to obtain chlorophyll pigment, total suspended solids concentration and yellow substance attenuation. The preliminary results show two different types of optical waters, influenced mainly by total suspended solids concentration.

Steffen, Carlos A.; Costa, Maycira P.; Gama, Fabio F.

1993-09-01

229

Migration among individuals with leprosy: a population-based study in central Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigates social and clinical factors associated with migration among individuals affected by leprosy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among those newly diagnosed with leprosy (2006-2008), in 79 endemic municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (N = 1,074). In total, 76.2% were born in a municipality different from their current residence. In the five years before diagnosis 16.7% migrated, and 3.6% migrated after leprosy diagnosis. Findings reflect aspects associated with historical rural-urban population movement in Brazil. Indicators of poverty were prominent among before-diagnosis migrants but not after-diagnosis migrants. Migration after diagnosis was associated with prior migration. The association of multibacillary leprosy with migration indicates healthcare access may be an obstacle to early diagnosis among before-diagnosis migrants, which may also be related to the high mobility of this group. PMID:24714939

Murto, Christine; Ariza, Liana; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Chichava, Olga André; Oliveira, Alexcian Rodrigues; Kaplan, Charles; Silva, Luciana Ferreira Marques da; Heukelbach, Jorg

2014-03-01

230

Impurity Content Characterization of Brazilian Quartz Lascas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lattice impurities (Al, Li, Fe) free from the influence of cations in inclusion liquid were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in quartz lascas taken from 10 deposits with known localities in three states, Minas Gerais, Tocantins and Bahia. Levels of Al content and associated Li content depend on the localities of deposits. Quartz deposit regions with high Al content are composed of granite, gneiss, and pegmatite as surrounding rocks. It was concluded that the charge compensation for Al-Si substitution in quartz lascas was realized substantially by the formation of Al-Li and Al-OH centers which were confirmed from the linear relation of Al-Li plots by AAS data and IR spectra due to Al-OH center. The variety in Al-Li and Al-OH correlations was attributed to the fluctuation of growing conditions of quartz in nature.

Iwasaki, Hideo; Iwasaki, Fumiko; Oliveira, Virginia A. R.; Hummel, Daniele C. A.; Pasquali, Maria A.; Guzzo, Pedro L.; Watanabe, Noêmia; Suzuki, Carlos K.

1991-07-01

231

Flood forecasting for Tucurui Hydroelectrical Plant, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the Tucurui Hydroelectric Plant on the Tocantins River basin in Brazil requires flood forecasting to ensure the safety of the cofferdam. The latter has been initially designed for a flood with a return frequency of one in 25 years. Lack of adequate forecasting facilities during the earlier stages of construction has resulted in significant damages and construction delays. Statistical forecasting models were developed by Projeto de Hidrologia y Climatologie da Amazonia (PHCA) for the purpose of preventing further damage at the site. The application of these models during the 1980 flood season, when the highest flood on record occurred at the Tucurui site, proved of great assistance in preventing the flooding of the cofferdam. In conjunction with the development of these models a number of data collection platforms using data transmission through the GOES system were installed to provide the data required for forecasting.

Solomon, S.I.; Basso, E.; Osorio, C.; Melo de Moraes, H.; Serrano, A.

1986-04-01

232

Investigating error metrics of a multidimensional satellite rainfall error model for hydrological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The good performance of hydrological models depends on the reliability and availability of precipitation data. Thus, if the satellite precipitation data are critically evaluated, you can get better accuracy in predicting the flooding of large basins with a sparse network of measures of precipitation. There is a work on the way implementing the multidimensional stochastic error model SREM2D, developed by Hossain and Anagnostou (2006, IEEE TGARS, 44, 1511-1522), to simulate the error propagation in hydrological models for different rainfall retrieval algorithms (such as HYDROE, GSMAP, 3B42RT, CMORPH and COSCH) over the Brazilian Tocantins basin for three years from 2008 to 2010. However, this implementation needs to estimate the input parameters for each retrieval algorithm in SREM2D. Thus the purpose of this presentation is to estimate these parameters.

Falck, A. S.; Vila, D. A.; Tomasella, J.

2013-05-01

233

Carajas transport system and port  

SciTech Connect

Rich iron ore deposits were discovered during the 1960's in the mountain range of Serra dos Carajas, State of Para, Brazil, near the headwaters of the Tocantins River some 400 miles southwest from the state capital of Belem. The key to the successful exploitation of this deposit was the development of an efficient an economical transportation system. Starting in 1972 extensive surveys and studies were carried out by Soros Associates on behalf of CVRD to determine the optimum way of transporting the ore from the mine site to the markets, most of which are located overseas. Overland transportation to the coast, loading into seagoing vessels and the ocean voyage to the ports of destination was treated as an integrated system in these studies.

Soros, P.; Koman, B.

1986-01-01

234

Satellite telemetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic application of satellite data collection systems in Brazil is discussed. The Data Collection Platform (DCP) is a telemetry station used for the acquisition of environmental parameters. Artificial satellites are employed to relay the data to receiving centers. Two meteorologic satellite data collection systems are in operation in Brazil: the ARGOS system, on board low-orbit (850 km) satellites of the TIROS-NOAA series, and the Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) system, on board geostationary satellites (36,000 km) of the SMS/GOES series. DCPs have been used mainly in the field of hydrology to obtain timely data, to make decisions, and to compose historical records. The first DCP network established in Brazil was in the Tocantins Basin, which has 10 telemetry stations. Other networks are currently being planned. Prototypes of ARGOS and GOES DCPs are being developed that are aimed at further industrialization and improved supply of national demand.

Deolveira, J. R.

1983-08-01

235

Three new species of Fufius Simon, 1888 (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae) from Brazil with the redescription of Fufius funebris Vellard, 1924 and description of the female of Fufius lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004  

PubMed Central

Abstract The mygalomorph neotropical genus Fufius Simon, 1888 comprises ten species, distributed from Guatemala in Central America to southeastern Brazil, in South America. Most of the species were described from northern South America, in the Amazonian region. Only F. funebris Vellard, 1924 and F. lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004 are known from regions more to the south of the continent. Herein we describe three new Brazilian species, Fufius minusculus sp. n. and F. jalapensis sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, and F. candango sp. n. from Distrito Federal. The female of F. lucasae is described for first time and the male and female of F. funebris are redescribed based on specimens collected at the type locality. PMID:24294093

Ortega, Diego Ribeiro Migueis; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Motta, Paulo Cesar; Bertani, Rogerio

2013-01-01

236

Kin structure and parallel dispersal in the black-and-gold howler monkey Alouatta caraya (Platyrrhini, Atelidae).  

PubMed

We here investigated the kin structure and pattern of dispersal in the black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya, Platyrrhini, Atelidae) based on genotype differences at nine microsatellite loci of 48 individuals from eight social groups along the riparian forest of the Tocantins River, Brazil. The genetic diversity (HE = 0.647) was similar to or higher than previously reported values in other Alouatta species. Given that no spatial kinship structure was detected, we found no evidence that dispersal was constrained by distance within the spatial scale analyzed (<25 km). Although no evidence was found for sex-biased dispersal, our results strongly suggest that extra-group copulations are common in A. caraya, and that both males and females disperse from their natal group. PMID:24338396

Collevatti, R G; Souza-Neto, A C; Silva-Jr, N J; Telles, M P C

2013-01-01

237

Three new species of Fufius Simon, 1888 (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae) from Brazil with the redescription of Fufius funebris Vellard, 1924 and description of the female of Fufius lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004.  

PubMed

The mygalomorph neotropical genus Fufius Simon, 1888 comprises ten species, distributed from Guatemala in Central America to southeastern Brazil, in South America. Most of the species were described from northern South America, in the Amazonian region. Only F. funebris Vellard, 1924 and F. lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004 are known from regions more to the south of the continent. Herein we describe three new Brazilian species, Fufius minusculus sp. n. and F. jalapensis sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, and F. candango sp. n. from Distrito Federal. The female of F. lucasae is described for first time and the male and female of F. funebris are redescribed based on specimens collected at the type locality. PMID:24294093

Ortega, Diego Ribeiro Migueis; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Motta, Paulo Cesar; Bertani, Rogério

2013-01-01

238

The northernmost record of Catagonus stenocephalus (Lund in Reinhardt, 1880) (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During fieldwork carried out in January 2009 at Aurora do Tocantins (Tocantins State, northern Brazil), we recovered a fragmentary right maxilla (UNIRIO-PM 1006) of Catagonus stenocephalus from a sedimentary deposit of presumed late Pleistocene age in a karstic cave. This paper aims to: (1) provide the first record of C. stenocephalus in the northern region of Brazil (and consequently, also the northernmost one); (2) update the geographic distribution of C. stenocephalus; (3) present a date for the specimen; and (4) discuss the palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical implications of the finding. The species C. stenocephalus (Lund) is known from the Bonaerian (middle Pleistocene) and Lujanian (late Pleistocene to earliest Holocene) ages in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia. The new record presented here extends the geographical distribution of C. stenocephalus more than 1000 km north from the former northernmost record (caves of Lagoa Santa region). Peccaries of the genus Catagonus have several morphological features associated with cursorial habits in relatively open and dry environments. The new distributional range of C. stenocephalus is coincident with the Chacoan subregion, characterized by dry climates and open areas. As the studied material comes from the top of the carbonate layer, this may suggest that the deposition of the C. stenocephalus remains described here is synchronous with the onset of a wetter climate phase. This argument is also in accordance with the datation results, around 20 ky BP, just after the last glacial maximum. This increasingly wet climate, which may also be related to the climatic changes that occurred during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, could be a factor in the extinction of C. stenocephalus in South America.

Avilla, Leonardo S.; Müller, Lisiane; Gasparini, German M.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Absolon, Bruno; Pêgo, Frederico Bonissoni; Silva, Rafael C.; Kinoshita, Angela; Graciano Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Baffa, Oswaldo

2013-03-01

239

Population dynamics of Aceodromus convolvuli (Acari: Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) on spontaneous plants associated with Jatropha curcas in central Brazil.  

PubMed

Spontaneously growing plants are commonly considered competitors of cultivated plants. Owing to the lack of specificity of many arthropods, spontaneous plants may be attacked by the same arthropods that attack cultivated plants and they may also harbor natural enemies of organisms harmful to cultivated plants. Aceodromus convolvuli Muma (Blattisociidae) has been reported recently in relatively large numbers in Tocantins state, central Brazil, mostly on Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth (Malvaceae). Very little has been reported about the population dynamics of blattisociid mites under field conditions. The objective of this work was to study the population dynamics of A. convolvuli in Gurupi, Tocantins state, to evaluate its possible interaction with associated mites. Monthly samples were taken from leaves of the 11 most abundant and frequent spontaneous plants in a Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) plantation. About 96.5 % of the specimens of A. convolvuli were collected in the rainy season. The patterns of variation of the population of A. convolvuli and of predators belonging to the family Phytoseiidae were similar, but A. convolvuli was much more numerous than all phytoseiid specimens combined. Highly significant correlations were observed between A. convolvuli densities and relative humidity or diversity of spontaneous plants. When only mites on H. guazumifolia were considered, highly significant correlation was also observed between densities of A. convolvuli and of mites of the family Tetranychidae. The results suggested that A. convolvuli could be a predator of tenuipalpid and/or tetranychid mites. Studies about its biology are needed to determine its preferred food sources and potential as biological control agent. PMID:24943489

Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir V; Rodrigues, Diego M; de Moraes, Gilberto J

2014-11-01

240

Characterizing patterns of agricultural land use in Amazonia by merging satellite classifications and census data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia has been under considerable development pressure as croplands and pasture are established in areas formerly occupied by tropical forest and cerrado. Although this region is an important part of several important planetary biogeochemical cycles, the location and impact of human land use are not well understood. In particular, there is no existing satellite-based map of agriculture across the Amazon or Tocantins river drainage basins. Recent efforts have classified land cover across this vast region, although they disagree on the location and amount of cropland and do not directly address pasture, a land use that has grown in importance in the last 2 decades. Here we present an analysis of land cover and land use practices over the Amazon and Tocantins basins of South America. In this study, we demonstrate how satellite imagery and agricultural censuses can be merged in order to provide a geographically explicit, fine-scale description of land cover and land use practices. The result depicts the fraction of each 5-min (9 × 9 km) grid cell that was devoted to agricultural activity during the mid-1990s. The resultant map retains many of the characteristics of the agricultural census data, but with a much finer spatial resolution. During the mid-1990s, cultivated area is estimated to have been 1.7 × 107 ha (2.5% of the basin), natural pasture is estimated at 3.3 × 107 ha (4.9% of the basin), and planted pasture is estimated to cover 3.3 × 107 ha (4.9% of the basin). Perhaps more important than the quantities, however, is that these data sets provide a new blend of ground-based and satellite-based spatially explicit data. This snapshot can be used as a basis to project either forward or backward in time, as a new check of finer scale land use classifications or as a driver of ecosystem models.

Cardille, Jeffrey A.; Foley, Jonathan A.; Costa, Marcos Heil

2002-08-01

241

Regional scale analysis of landform configuration with base-level maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Base-level maps (or "isobase maps", as originally defined by Filosofov, 1960), express a relationship between valley order and topography. The base-level map can be seen as a "simplified" version of the original topographic surface, from which was removed the "noise" of the low-order streams erosion. This method is able to identify areas with possible tectonic influence even within lithological uniform domains. Base-level maps are usually applied in semi-detail scale (e.g., 1:50 000 or larger) morphotectonic analysis. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the method's applicability in regional-scale analysis (e.g., 1:250 000 or smaller). A test area was selected in Northern Brazil, at the lower course of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers. The method provided results consistent with the scale of the data used as topographic base and with the drainage network (1:1 000 000). Some of the base-level anomalies interpreted correspond to important faultlines and geological contacts present at the 1:5 000 000 Geological Map of South America. Others have no correspondence with mapped structures and are considered to represent more recent morphotectonic features. The E-W inflexion of the lower Tocantins is considered as a major drainage capture, originated by an E-W, southward-dipping normal fault. The base-level map also presented a good correlation with anomalies in geophysical data, which shows that the method is sensitive enough to detect features with little topographic expression.

Grohmann, C. H.; Riccomini, C.; Chamani, M. A. C.

2011-01-01

242

Genetic algorithm inversion of the average 1D crustal structure using local and regional earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the best 1D model of the crustal and upper mantle structure is useful not only for routine hypocenter determination, but also for linearized joint inversions of hypocenters and 3D crustal structure, where a good choice of the initial model can be very important. Here, we tested the combination of a simple GA inversion with the widely used HYPO71 program to find the best three-layer model (upper crust, lower crust, and upper mantle) by minimizing the overall P- and S-arrival residuals, using local and regional earthquakes in two areas of the Brazilian shield. Results from the Tocantins Province (Central Brazil) and the southern border of the São Francisco craton (SE Brazil) indicated an average crustal thickness of 38 and 43 km, respectively, consistent with previous estimates from receiver functions and seismic refraction lines. The GA+HYPO71 inversion produced correct Vp/Vs ratios (1.73 and 1.71, respectively), as expected from Wadati diagrams. Tests with synthetic data showed that the method is robust for the crustal thickness, Pn velocity, and Vp/Vs ratio when using events with distance up to about 400 km, despite the small number of events available (7 and 22, respectively). The velocities of the upper and lower crusts, however, are less well constrained. Interestingly, in the Tocantins Province, the GA+HYPO71 inversion showed a secondary solution (local minimum) for the average crustal thickness, besides the global minimum solution, which was caused by the existence of two distinct domains in the Central Brazil with very different crustal thicknesses.

de Vasconcelos Lopes, Afonso Emidio; Assumpção, Marcelo

2011-09-01

243

Nutritional, clinical and socioeconomic profile of patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in northeastern Brazil* Perfil nutricional, clínico e socioeconômico de pacientes com fibrose cística atendidos em um centro de referência no nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the profile of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving CF patients ? 18 years of age, evaluated between March and July of 2006 at a referral center in northeastern Brazil. Nutritional assessment was performed using Z scores for height\\/age (H\\/A), weight\\/age (W\\/A) and weight\\/height (W\\/H), as well as %weight\\/height (%W\\/H) and body

Silva Pinto; Cristiane Pereira da Silva; Murilo Carlos; Amorim de Britto

2009-01-01

244

Prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis in the state of Bahia, Brazil* Prevalência de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica em pacientes com fibrose cística na Bahia, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with prospective data collection, carried out at the Cystic Fibrosis Referral Center of Bahia of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital. We evaluated 74 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, older than

Ana Cláudia; Costa Carneiro; Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos; Sérgio Marcos Arruda; Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Santos Santana

2008-01-01

245

Artigo Original Prevalência de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica em pacientes com fibrose cística na Bahia, Brasil* Prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis in the state of Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with prospective data collection, carried out at the Cystic Fibrosis Referral Center of Bahia of the Octavio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital. We evaluated 74 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, older than

Ana Cláudia Costa Carneiro; Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos; Sérgio Marcos Arruda; Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Santos Santana

2008-01-01

246

Perfil nutricional, clínico e socioeconômico de pacientes com fibrose cística atendidos em um centro de referência no nordeste do Brasil* Nutritional, clinical and socioeconomic profile of patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the profile of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving CF patients ? 18 years of age, evaluated between March and July of 2006 at a referral center in northeastern Brazil. Nutritional assessment was performed using Z scores for height\\/age (H\\/A), weight\\/age (W\\/A) and weight\\/height (W\\/H), as well as %weight\\/height (%W\\/H) and body

Silva Pinto; Cristiane Pereira da Silva; Murilo Carlos; Amorim de Britto

247

ARTIGO ARTICLE Desempenho do PSF no Sul e no Nordeste do Brasil: avaliação institucional e epidemiológica da Atenção Básica à Saúde Performance of the PSF in the Brazilian South and Northeast: institutional and epidemiological Assessment of Primary Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research developed in the context of the baseline studies of the PROESF analyzed the performance of the PSF in 41 municipalities of the States Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. This article describes a transversal study using an external group for comparison (tradi- tional primary care). Forty-one Presidents of Mu-

Roberto Xavier Piccini; Elaine Tomasi; Elaine Thumé; Denise Silva Silveira; Fernando Vinholes Siqueira; Maria Aparecida Rodrigues

248

XXI CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA SÃO PEDRO, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL, OCTUBRE, 2004 BALANCE TÉRMICO EN UN TRAMO DE RÍO, CASO DEL RÍO EBRO COMPRENDIDO ENTRE LA CENTRAL HIDROELÉCTRICA FLIX Y LA CENTRAL NUCLEAR DE ASCÓ (ESPAÑA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

River water temperature after a dam is conditioned by the reservoir. The case of regions with medirranean climate, special in summer, is frequently observed a significant decrease of the temperature in comparison with a river zone without the influence of a reservoir. This thermal unbalance in the river water is corrected and the water increase its temperature after the dam

Rafael Val Segura; Daniel Niñerola Chifoni; Joan Armengol Bachero; Josep Dolz Ripollés

249

Tendência de mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios no Brasil, 1980-2003* Lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer: mortality trends in Brazil, 1980-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the mortality trends for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer in relation to gender and age brackets in Brazil. Methods: Data related to mortality between 1980 and 2003 were collected from the Brazilian Mortality Database. A trend analysis of mortality was carried out, nationwide and in selected states, using the LOWESS technique for rate

Deborah Carvalho Malta; Lenildo de Moura; Maria de Fátima; Marinho de Souza; Maria Paula Curado; Airlane Pereira Alencar

250

Bol. Mus. Para. Emlio Goeldi. Cincias Humanas, Belm, v. 3, n. 2, p. 195-211, maio-ago. 2008 A cidade, um foco de diversidade agrcola no Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brasil)?  

E-print Network

and forest contexts. Relations among the diversity of managed spaces, biological diversity and social of agrobiodiversity in the Negro River region (Amazonas, Brazil)? Laure EmperaireI Ludivine EloyII Resumo: As regiões connectivity between rural or forest areas, pertaining to communities, and urban areas, i.e. small towns along

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Urbanidades de uma universidade pública e inclusiva. A implantação da Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da USP (Universidade de São Paulo\\/ Brasil) na Zona Leste de São Paulo (região ‘periférica’): lições e aprendizados  

Microsoft Academic Search

A implantação da Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades (EACH), a mais nova unidade da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), na Zona Leste da capital paulista, tem caráter eminentemente urbanizador com marcante influência no entorno físico imediato e no próprio âmbito acadêmico em que se insere. Tal caráter apresenta potencial de se transformar em foco indutor de “urbanidades”, pois, além

Marcos Bernardino de Carvalho; Diamantino Alves Pereira

2010-01-01

252

Cesio-137 E Radionuclideos Naturais Em Solos Do Sul Do Brasil E Em Solos E Outras Amostras Ambientais DA Antartica (Cesium-137 and Natural Radionuclides in Soils from Southern Brazil and in Soils and Others Environmental Samples from Antarctic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples from Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is...

L. A. Schuch

1993-01-01

253

Cesio-137 e radionuclideos naturais em solos do sul do Brasil e em solos e outras amostras ambientais da Antarctica. (Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 whic...

L. A. Schuch

1993-01-01

254

Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

Chareille, Samantha

2003-01-01

255

EFICÁCIA DO ACONSELHAMENTO PARA DOENÇAS SEXUALMENTE TRANSMISSÍVEIS EM UNIDADES DE REFERÊNCIA DA CIDADE DE FORTALEZA, CE, BRASIL EFFICACY OF COUSELLING IN STD REFERENCE HEALTH UNITS IN THE CITY OF FORTALEZA, CE, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: STD specific counselling is part of the national Brasilian strategy for interrupting STD transmission and preventing its complications. Objective: was to assess the efficacy of a STD counselling following national recommendations. This study was design with STD patients seen in outpa- tients department of four referral units of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Results: 306 patient were recruited and randomly assigned

Maria Alix L Araújo; Júlia SNF Bucher; Pierre Yves Bello

256

Organização e qualidade da assistência à saúde dos índios Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Organization and quality of health care for Kaingáng Indians in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the health care provided to Kaingáng Indians in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Deaths preventable by primary health care among the Indians and occurring from 1985 to 1995 were compared to the same rates for the State of Rio Grande do Sul as a whole. Sec- ondary data on health care services were supplemented by field interviews

Christovam Barcellos

2001-01-01

257

Institutional Entrepreneurship and Collective Identity: the emergence of the HIV\\/AIDS policy field in Brazil Empreendedorismo Institucional e Identidade Coletiva: a emergência do campo da política em HIV\\/AIDS no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to qualify the action of social entrepreneurs looking at the collective identity as an important resource and a defining element of discursive strategies directed to promote changes. We understand institutional entrepreneurship as a collective action that is both means of and a resource to promote changes. We examined the emergence of the Brazilian HIV\\/ AIDS policy and

Patricia Mendonça; Mario Aquino Alves; Luiz Claudio Campos

258

Perfil do nível de atividade física na vida diária de pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil* Profile of the level of physical activity in the daily lives of patients with COPD in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in COPD patients in Brazil, correlating those characteristics with physiological variables. Methods: Physical activities in daily life were evaluated in 40 COPD patients (18 males; 66 ± 8 years of age; FEV 1 = 46 ± 16 % of predicted; body mass index = 27 ± 6 kg\\/m 2 )

Nidia Aparecida Hernandes; Denilson de Castro Teixeira; Vanessa Suziane Probst; Antonio Fernando Brunetto; Ercy Mara; Cipulo Ramos; Fábio Pitta

2009-01-01

259

Publicações indexadas geradas a partir de resumos de congressos de angiologia e cirurgia vascular no Brasil Indexed publications generated from abstracts of angiology and vascular surgery congresses in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Great part of the scientific production presented in congresses is not published. Even in developed countries, figures show an expressive difference between presentations and publications. Objective: To evaluate the number of published and indexed articles, based on available national and international databases, searching for titles and authors of papers and panels from Brazilian vascular surgery congresses held in 2001

Winston Bonetti Yoshida; Nicole França Holmo; Gabriela Tieme Corregliano; Karina Marcellino Baldon

260

I processi cumulativi nella crisi del debito degli anni 80: una lettura dai casi di Argentina, Brasile e Messico Cumulative processes in the 1980s debt crisis: an analysis from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico's case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the 1980s Latin American debt crisis in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and, in particular, the influence of cumulative processes at work in its early and final stages. The paper is organised in three sections. The first examines the crisis<92> features in the three countries, and maps the key macroeconomic and behavioural relationships at its onset and resolution.

Andrea de Panizza

2003-01-01

261

Uso da combinação dos anestésicos tiletamina e zolazepam na imobilização de Ctenomys lami (Rodentia-Ctenomyidae) no sul do Brasil Use of the anesthetic combination of tiletamine and zolazepam for immobilization of Ctenomys lami (Rodentia-Ctenomyidae) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies about chemical contention are extremely important for wildlife animal's manipulation, to guaranty safety of it and the people who are manipulating them. Zoletil ® was used for contention of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys lami) captured in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil) between May and June of 2008. The dosage utilized was 8mg\\/kg by intramuscular injection. The induction time was 2,5±1,05min.

Gisele Guiomara Stein; José Francisco Bonini Stolz; Ingrid Vera Stein; Marina Estrázulas; Vanessa Lipp; Thales Renato; Ochotorena Freitas; André Silva Caríssimi

2009-01-01

262

ARTIGO ARTICLE Doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis no Brasil: um desafio para a complexa tarefa da vigilância Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: a challenge for the complex task of surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a scarcity of literature in the field of public health with regard to the surveil- lance of non-communicable diseases but there are various proposals for programs and various net- works in operation throughout the 5 continents. The subject is in debate all over the world not on- ly because cardiovascular disease is now the lead- ing cause of

Ines Lessa

263

Inovação em fármacos e medicamentos: estado-da-arte no Brasil e políticas de P&D Innovation for pharmaceuticals and drugs: state of the art in Brazil and R&D policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O tema central do artigo é a inovação na indústria farmacêutica (IF), no que se refere ao processo de descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos fármacos e medicamentos, utilizando-se como referência a rota de síntese química. Apontam-se alguns fatores a serem considerados no planejamento estratégico, para que uma empresa possa estabelecer um portfólio de projetos e construir seu pipeline, de

Vera Maria da Motta; Pierre Ohayon

2006-01-01

264

Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees. PMID:18400468

Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

2008-06-01

265

Desenvolvimento de comprimidos e isolamento de marcadores a partir do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.  

E-print Network

??A espécie Copaifera langsdorffii pertence à família Leguminosae Juss., sub-família Caesalpinioideae Kunth. No Brasil, espécies de copaifera são amplamente distribuídas nos estados do Amazonas, Pará… (more)

Mauro Nogueira da Silva

2011-01-01

266

Turismo Náutico em Angra dos Reis – RJ : a sustentabilidade em questão.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentável, 2011. O turismo está em franca expansão e se desenvolvendo a taxas bastante significativas no Brasil. Em… (more)

Medeiros, Márcio Bastos

2011-01-01

267

Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost all dry years occurred when the NTA index was positive. Annual streamflows were regressed on climatic indexes NINO 3.4 and NTA. At 95% level of significance, NINO3.4 and NTA indexes are significant variables in predicting streamflows at the Amazon (p=0.01% for NINO3.4 and p=0.30% for NTA) and at the Parana river basins (p=0.23% for NINO3.4 and p=1.11% for NTA). The values of R2 were significant high, 0.59 for Amazon and 0.26 for Parana, compared to very low values for Xingu (0.10), Araguaia-Tocantins (0.06) and Sao Francisco (0.04) river basins. The low correlation at central basins can be explained from the regression coefficients values. The coefficients for NTA index are all negative (except for Xingu river), indicating that negative NTA implies in greater streamflow and vice-versa. However, coefficients for NINO3.4 are negative at the Amazon and positive at Parana which means that negative anomalies (La Nina years) implies in greater streamflows at Amazon and lower streamflows at Parana and vice-versa. Opposite effects of El Nino/La Nina on north and south river basins seems to be neutralized in the central river basins so the correlation gets weaker: during El Nino (La Nina) events, the reduction (increasing) in rainfall at north is counter balanced by the enhancement (reduction) of rainfall at south associated with cold fronts.

Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.

2010-12-01

268

77 FR 72776 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos-SP- BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12...Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55...

2012-12-06

269

76 FR 444 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 38/2, BRASIL, telephone...Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 38/2, BRASIL,...

2011-01-05

270

76 FR 40286 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-07-08

271

77 FR 65144 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-10-25

272

78 FR 67018 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-11-08

273

77 FR 33334 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-06-06

274

78 FR 12256 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-02-22

275

UFF/PROGEPE/CASQ/DPVS Diviso de Promoo e Vigilncia em Sade-DPVS  

E-print Network

fumantes sendo 47% homens e 12% mulheres. No Brasil, em pesquisa recente do INCA/MS, os dados apontaram para 18,8% da população brasileira como fumante, sendo 22,7% homens e 16% mulheres. Também no Brasil

Souza, Max O.

276

ANUARIO AMERICANISTA EUROPEO, 22213872, N 11, 2013, Seccin Tema Central p. 93108 Recibido 20130930 Aceptado 20140203  

E-print Network

20130930 Aceptado 20140203 93 Mulheres do sul também migram para o sul, paraguaias no Brasil Delia Dutra* Resumen: O presente texto analisa a expe riência vivida por mulheres migrantes para guaias residentes no Brasil. Tomase como ponto de partida para a análise a perspecti va das próprias mulheres

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa

278

Seismic waveforms inversion of earthquakes in the Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central region of Brazil, Tocantins (TO) province, the distribution of tectonic stresses are not well known; there is only a measurement of stress and no data from focal mechanisms.To understand the processes that occur during an earthquake, it is necessary to have a precise knowledge of the earthquake source parameters. This work shows that the focal mechanism of an earthquake can be obtained in reliable way using only information contained in its band-pass-filtered waveforms registered at a few stations.The inversion for the focal mechanism was made using the package ISOLA (Zahradnik et al., 2005, Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008) and MATLAB. The seismicity is associated with the Goiás -Tocantins (GO-TO) Seismic Range (SR) that crosses the central part of Brazil in a NE-SW direction. The obtained focal mechanisms are in agreement with the results obtained by Barros et al. (2012) for 5.0 mb earthquake in this region.The Green functions were calculated using the 1-D velocity model determined by Soares et al (2006) for a model of point source located above and below the hypocenter. Ten hypocenters were tested, 5 above and 5 below to the given hypocenter. All seismograms were corrected for instrument response, band-pass-filtered, integrated to obtain displacement, and finally inverted for the DC (double couple) focal mechanism. The optimal solution produced the best correlation between the observed and synthetic seismograms, in one of the 10 points tested. However, a new search was attempted for each point source located on a plane passing through the hypocenter's optimal previous solution. This plane is divided into a rectangular grid, whose separation depends on the physical dimensions of the source investigated. The centroid (center of gravity of the fault displaced), corresponds to the solution that produces the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations. the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations.

Sayao, E. A.; Barros, L. V.; Maffia, N.; Schmidt, K.; Quintero, R.

2013-05-01

279

Flexural Stresses are a Major Factor to Enhance Intraplate Seismicity in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explaining intraplate seismic activity has been a challenging task. Several different models have been proposed combining weak crustal zones and mechanisms of stress concentration. Here we propose that stress concentration due to flexural deformation is one of the most important factors to explain seismicity in Central Brazil, especially the SW-NE oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons, called "Goiás-Tocantins Seismic Zone" (GTSZ). This activity has been usually associated with the TransBrasiliano Lineament (TBL), a major Paleozoic transcontinental feature. However, two observations cast doubt on a direct relationship with the Lineament. First, the seismic activity in the Tocantins province is parallel but not coincident with the TBL; secondly, the continental scale TransBrasiliano Lineament shows no seismic activity further to the NE (beneath the Parnaíba basin), while to the SW, the seismic activity follows an E-W and then N-S direction, not coincident with the TBL. On the other hand, the seismic zone coincides exactly with the trend of high isostatic gravity anomalies (above -20 mGal), which were interpreted as due to high-density mantle rocks beneath a belt of thin crust (roughly beneath the Goiás Magmatic Arc and the Central Massif). Upper crustal stresses due to flexural deformation were calculated with finite-element methods assuming a visco-elastic lithosphere overlying a very soft asthenosphere. The lithospheric load due to the shallow, high-density mantle rocks produces compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide GTSZ. Regional compressive stresses from plate boundary forces combine with the local flexural stresses to reach seismogenic levels in the GTSZ. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses (related to the peripheral bulge) balance the regional compression, which explains the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters (the N-S belt along the Eastern border of the Amazon craton near Carajás, the cluster of seismicity at the northern border of the Parecis Basin (Porto dos Gauchos Seismic Zone), and the active Pantanal Basin overlying the Paraguay foldbelt) are also located in areas of predominantly positive isostatic anomalies. For this reason we propose that similar compressional flexural stresses enhance the regional, plate-wide stresses up to seismogenic levels in other areas and are an important factor to explain the mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.

Assumpcao, M.; Sacek, V.

2012-12-01

280

Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and Parnaiba intracontinental syneclises with almost continuous traces. Main direction is N45E, connected with splays of E-W and N-S secondary lineaments. Magnetic lineaments developed dominantly along the borders of crustal/lithospheric blocks, determining their limits. Magnetic Euler deconvolution preliminary results indicates depths up to 5 km. The magnetic lineaments continue below the intracratonic Phanerozoic basins, where brittle fault zones characterize several tectonic reactivation events from the Cambrian up to the Cenozoic. These results stress the outstanding role of the Transbrasiliano lineament in the tectonic framework of the Brazilian continental crust/lithosphere and the relevance of its set of faults in the infilling and evolution of large intracontinental Phanerozoic syneclises.

Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

2011-12-01

281

Continental-scale models of water balance and fluvial transport: An application to South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled water balance and water transport model (WBM / WTM) was constructed as part of a larger study of global biogeochemistry. The WBM / WTM provides critical hydrologic information to models of terrestrial primary production, organic matter decay, riverine nutrient flux and trace gas exchanges with the troposphere. Specifically, it creates high-resolution data sets for monthly soil moisture, evapotranspiration, runoff, river discharge and floodplain inundation. As a first step toward eventual global coverage, the WBM / WTM was applied to South America, represented by more than 5700 1/2° (latitude / longitude) grid cells. The WBM transforms spatially complex data on long-term climate, vegetation, soils and topography into predictions of soil moisture (SM), evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff (RO). For South America, field capacity in soils ranged from 27 to 582 mm of water, and computed values for mean annual SM, ET and RO were 284 mm, 1059 mm/yr and 619 mm/yr, respectively. There were large differences regionally and over the year. The transport model uses WBM-derived runoff, information on fluvial topology, linear transfer through river channels and a simple representation of floodplain inundation to generate monthly discharge estimates for any cell within a simulated catchment. The WTM successfully determined the timing and magnitude of discharge at selected locations within the Amazon / Tocantins basin. It also demonstrated the importance of floodplain inundation in defining flow regime on the mainstem Amazon. Estimated mean annual discharge was 207,000 m3/s for the Amazon River and 17,000 m3/s for the Tocantins. In these basins, 45% of the incident precipitation emerges as river flow; 55% is lost to ET. The model described in this paper will be expanded to include the dynamics of carbon, major nutrients and sediments. It will serve as a semimechanistic tool to quantify the transport of materials from the landscape to the world's oceans. Such a capability becomes increasingly important as we seek to understand the impacts of climate and land use change on major river systems of the globe.

VöRöSmarty, Charles J.; Moore, Berrien; Grace, Annette L.; Gildea, M. Patricia; Melillo, Jerry M.; Peterson, Bruce J.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Steudler, Paul A.

1989-09-01

282

Upper mantle anisotropy in SE and Central Brazil from SKS splitting: Evidence of asthenospheric flow around a cratonic keel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of upper mantle anisotropy derived from measurements of core refracted shear wave splitting (mainly SKS phases) recorded at 48 stations covering the major tectonic provinces in Central and SE Brazil, such as the Tocantins Province (Paraguay-Araguaia and Brasília belts between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons), the Paraná intracratonic basin, the southern part of the São Francisco craton, and the Mantiqueira province (with the coastal Ribeira belt). Although the fast polarization directions vary across the region, consistent orientations are observed over hundreds of kilometers. The fast polarization directions tend to be close to the absolute plate motion given by the hot-spot reference model HS3-NUVEL1A. However, correlations with geological structures are also observed in the southern Brasilia belt and in the Ribeira belt, respectively located SW and S of the São Francisco craton. On the other hand, in the northern Tocantins province, the fast shear-wave direction (˜ N60°S) is oblique to the SW-NE trend of the geological units and faults, and no anisotropy contribution from lithospheric sources can be clearly identified. Overall, the fast polarization directions show a fan-shaped pattern strongly suggesting asthenosperic flow around a thick and stiff keel in the southern part of the São Francisco craton, consistent with the high-velocity anomaly revealed by recent surface-wave tomography. The observed NW-SE directions in the southern part of the Brasília belt may also be interpreted as resulting from asthenospheric flow channeled between the São Francisco craton and a cratonic block beneath the Paraná basin. The largest splitting delays observed in the southern Brasília belt and in the Ribeira belt (up to 2.4 s) suggest contributions from both lithospheric and asthenospheric sources in those two areas. Our preferred model for the anisotropy causing the observed pattern of SKS splitting consists of flow-induced deformation in the asthenosphere caused by the absolute plate motion (roughly towards W or WSW) with flow channeled around a thick cratonic keel. In the southern Brasília and in the Ribeira fold belts, the large delays and the parallelism with geological structures indicate additional anisotropy contribution from lithospheric sources.

Assumpção, Marcelo; Heintz, Maggy; Vauchez, Alain; Silva, Marcos Egydio

2006-10-01

283

Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as detailed spatial and temporal inputs to computer models and data analysis of tropospheric chemistry over the tropical region.

Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

2002-10-01

284

Polytypic and polymorphic cytogenetic variations in the widespread anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae) with emphasis on nucleolar organizing regions.  

PubMed

We investigated the NOR distribution in ten populations of Physalaemus cuvieri from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. A high variability in NOR pattern was observed and provided a useful tool in grouping several populations. The specimens from the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil, could easily be distinguished from all the other analyzed populations, since its karyotype presented NORs in the chromosome pairs 1,3,4 and 10 (and sometimes also in chromosome 5), and several pericentromeric C-bands. A NOR-site in chromosome 9 characterized three populations from the northeastern region of Brazil. Interestingly, the P. cuvieri populations located in opposite extremes of the geographic distribution had, as a fixed condition, the presence of NORs in 8q int and llp. Besides interpopulational divergences, intrapopulational variability was observed in the number of NORs, except for populations from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, which are boundary states respectively in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In relation to NOR size, interindividual variations occurred in all Brazilian and Argentinean populations. Additionally, intraindividual variability in NOR size was detected in specimens from Minas Gerais. The data presented herein revealed substantial geographic polytypic variation in P. cuvieri and indicated that a taxonomic reexamination of this species is necessary. PMID:19621135

Quinderé, Yeda R S D; Lourenço, Luciana B; Andrade, Gilda V; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2009-01-01

285

First record of Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in stratigraphic context in the Late Pleistocene of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although five genera of procyonids are currently present in South America, only two of the extant genera, Procyon and Nasua are represented in the South American fossil record. A recent discovery of a procyonid lower second molar in Late Pleistocene deposits of Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil, offers potential to further our understanding of the stratigraphic and temporal range of South American fossil procyonids. We use geometric morphometric analysis of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks to explore morphological variation in the lower second molars of extant Procyon lotor and Procyon cancrivorus and multivariate methods to support the identification of the Pleistocene specimen as P. cancrivorus. This material represents the second fossil record of P. cancrivorus in South America Procyonids entered South America in two phases: the first comprising by Cyonasua and Chapadmalania during the Late Miocene, and the other recent genera, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. These Late Miocene procyonids were more carnivorous than Late Pleistocene-Recent omnivorous taxa and possible went extinct due to competition with other placental carnivorans that entered South America and diversified during the latest Pliocene-Early Pleistocene.

Rodriguez, Sergio G.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H.; Rodrigues, Shirlley; Morgan, Cecilia C.; Bernardes, Camila; Avilla, Leonardo; Lynch, Eric

2013-08-01

286

Dangerous waters: outbreak of eye lesions caused by fresh water sponge spicules  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe an extremely uncommon outbreak of eye lesions in a specific area of the Brazilian Amazonia. Methods Prospective noncomparative case series. Fifty-nine patients who developed eye lesions after swimming in the Araguaia river of Tocantins state in Brazil were examined. A team of ophthalmologists equipped with a slit-lamp, gonioscopic lenses, and indirect ophthalmoscopy performed full eye examination. Analysis of the flora and fauna of the river water was undertaken by a group of experts. Results and Conclusions Eighty-three eyes were affected. The most common lesions were corneal opacities seen in 34 eyes and conjunctival nodules diagnosed in 12 eyes. Severe visual acuity loss was detected in seven children with unilateral anterior chamber lesions. Spicules of the sponge species Drulia uruguayensis and Drulia ctenosclera were found inside three blind eyes that have been enucleated for diagnostic purposes. All eye lesions could be attributed to an outbreak of foreign bodies from fresh water sponges. Organic enrichment of the water resulting from the absence of sanitation probably was the key factor, which initiated a cycle of ecological imbalance that provoked human disease. PMID:23306731

Cruz, A A V; Alencar, V M; Medina, N H; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C; Gattas, V L; Luna, E

2013-01-01

287

Genetic and morphological diversity of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Characiformes: Characidae) populations in the tributaries of the Araguaia River, Brazil: implications for taxonomy and conservation.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic assessments that consider ecological information, in addition to endogamy levels, genetic diversity, and the genetic differentiation among species and populations, are particularly important for the conservation of biological diversity. Prime candidates for conservation genetic review are those subject to human use, including harvests for the ornamental fish trade. Colorful South American tetra, such as Moenkhausia oligolepis and M. forestii, are good examples of fish species that are widely collected and exported worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the population-specific characteristics of M. oligolepis and M. forestii by comparing morphometric and molecular analyses based on ISSR markers, to provide information that would facilitate the sustainable management of these 2 species. Seventy-two specimens were collected from the Araguaia-Tocantins and Paraguay River Basins in Brazil. All specimens were measured and analyzed using ISSR markers. Population-exclusive bands were found among the 86 detected bands, while morphometric clusters reflected the geographical distribution of individuals. Correlated genetic and morphological variation supported the presence of 3 distinct groups from tributaries of the Araguaia and Mortes Rivers. Using the same techniques, all M. oligolepis populations were isolated from M. forestii. This study on Moenkhausia presents an interesting example that could be used to construct a framework of South American ichthyodiversity, and reinforces the necessity of habitat conservation to prevent the loss of biological diversity. PMID:25299113

Domingos, T J; Moraes, L N; Moresco, R M; Margarido, V P; Venere, P C

2014-01-01

288

Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).  

PubMed

The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. PMID:21717855

Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

2011-06-01

289

Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l . (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939)(Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): geographical distribution and the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil--mini-review.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study, in view of the widespread geographical distribution of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l. in Brazil, in close association with the regions of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) shawi, is to investigate the distribution of this sand fly species and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in relationship to vegetation and landscape ecology throughout Brazil. Thematic maps were elaborated by the MapInfo programme, giving information on the spatial distribution of L. whitmani s.l., in accordance with types of vegetation and foci of ACL. With regards to the known areas of transmission of ACL in Brazil, it is notable that L. (N.) whitmani s.l. occurs in most of them, where it has been implicated as a possible vector of L. (V.) braziliensis. The presence of L. whitmani s.l. has been registered in 26 states, the one exception being Santa Catarina; in some states such as Roraima, Acre, Tocantins, and Mato Grosso do Sul this sand fly species has been recorded in a large number of municipalities. L. whitmani s.l. has been found in association with a variety of vegetation types, including the Amazonian forest, savanna ("campos cerrados"), and northeastern savanna ("caatingas nordestinas" or "savana estépica"). PMID:17426877

da Costa, Simone M; Cechinel, Michela; Bandeira, Valdenir; Zannuncio, José C; Lainson, Ralph; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2007-05-01

290

Modeling the hydrological effects of secondary forest growth in abandoned deforested areas in Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The replacement of tropical forest by pasture or agriculture affects the hydrological cycle decreasing the evapotranspiration and increasing the runoff. However, in situ measurements have shown evidences of an increase of the evaporative fraction and of the radiation efficiency, and a decrease of the albedo as function of years after abandonment of deforested areas, what indicates that the effects of deforestation on hydrological cycle may be minimized by the secondary forest growth process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the possible effects of secondary growth in deforested areas of two large sub basins of the Amazon river: Madeira and Tocantins; two basins that are under constant anthropic changes and governmental policies plans of hydropower and navigation. The Hydrological Model for Large Basins developed at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (MGB-INPE), calibrated through observed discharges for 1970-1990 using actual land use conditions, will be driven by dynamics downscaling from the regional atmospheric model Eta-CPTEC and land use scenarios, both from 2000 to 2050 (or 2100). The original land cover maps will be modified by a statistical model to take into account the growth of secondary forest in abandoned areas, to analyze the large scale integration of the impact of the secondary growth observed at small scales and its effects on water production in the basin.

Von Randow, R. C.; De Siqueira, J. L., Jr.; Rodriguez, D. A.; Tomasella, J.

2012-12-01

291

Disrupted peridotites and basalts from the Neoproterozoic Araguaia belt (northern Brazil): Remnants of a poorly evolved oceanic crust?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault-bound slices of serpentinized peridotites and pillow basalts interbedded with the metasedimentary rocks of the Tocantins Group in the central western Araguaia belt are probably remnants of poorly developed oceanic crust dismembered into a melange. The hydrothermally altered basalts display a fairly well-defined T-MORB, whereas the serpentinite lenses appear to be derived from moderately depleted upper mantle rocks, such as harzburgites and dunites. Neither sheeted dykes nor gabbros, which characterize a normal ophiolitic sequence, have been identified. The restricted volume of mafic volcanics, their moderate REE fractionation, the LREE enrichment of the serpentinized upper mantle peridotites, and the lack of other ophiolitic lithologies suggest that no appropriate geotectonic conditions were reached for normal oceanic crust development. Instead, it appears that the rifting of a large cratonic block resulted in local mantle exhumation and the formation of a partially mantle-floored basin, with sporadic basaltic magma supply. Thus, only a thin and discontinuous oceanic crust formed, somewhat similar to the Alpine-Apennine poorly evolved oceanic basins. Basin inversion occurred during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano tectonic event before it reached an advanced ocean stage. The sedimentary sequence underwent intense deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism and was transformed into a complex system of westward to northwestward, overthrusted, imbricated slabs with slivers of basalt and serpentinized peridotites.

Kotschoubey, Basile; Hieronymus, Bernard; de Albuquerque, Carlos Alberto R.

2005-12-01

292

Water level dynamics in the Amazon floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear analysis of Amazonian River systems suggests that water level variability is due to Brownian-like motions BH. Dynamical properties of the water level is probably a response of rainfall and runoff smoothing by the stored water in the floodplain; additional inputs of water results in attenuated perturbations of the water level. This implies that noise is a self-affine fractal with scale invariance, and in accordance with surrogate and correlation dimension analysis, which refused the hypothesis of low dimensional chaos for water level dynamics. Opposing to the chaotic approach, we present a fractal model formed by a periodic signal and a BH process that mimics original water level variability. Dynamical exponents are remarkably similar between real and modeled data when BH influence is about 1% the amplitude of the periodic signal. In comparison to natural systems, a hydroelectric reservoir produces different exponents, due to the control of the water level, as demonstrated for the Tucuru?´ dam in the Tocantins River. The Amazon floodplain at Óbidos and Curuai exhibits a fortnight cycle most probably due to bore tide influence in the river mouth.

Lima, Ivan Bergier Tavares; Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto; Ramos, Fernando Manuel; de Moraes Novo, Evlyn Márcia Leão

293

Land water storage contribution to sea level from GRACE geoid data over 2003 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and inter-annual change in land water storage (expressed in terms of water volume change) over 27 large river basins worldwide are estimated from monthly GRACE geoids solutions computed at GFZ from February 2003 to February 2006. The largest annual water volume change is found in the Amazon basin, followed by the Parana, Ob, Orinoco, Tocantins, Niger, Congo, Ganges, Mekong, and Brahmaputra. In terms of trend over the 3-year period, positive and negative values are observed but in a number of cases computed trends are at the noise level. However significant negative trends are found in the Amazon, Ganges, Mississippi, Nile, Parana, and Zambezi basins, indicating water mass loss over that period. Positive trends (water mass gain) are marginally significant. We have computed the land water contribution to sea level change. On average over the 3-year time span, we find that the net effect is positive (net loss of water in terrestrial reservoirs), on the order of 0.19 +/- 0.06 mm/yr. If sustained over a longer time span than considered here, such a value may become comparable to the ice sheets contribution to sea level rise.

Ramillien, G.; Bouhours, S.; Lombard, A.; Cazenave, A.; Flechtner, F.; Schmidt, R.

2008-02-01

294

Uvá complex, the oldest orthogneisses of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil is an exotic and allochthonous part of the Tocantins Province, a large Brasiliano/Pan-African orogen of the South American Platform formed during the Brasiliano orogeny. The terrane amalgamated to the province during the late stages of the orogeny as a crustal segment consisting of six Archean orthogneiss complexes and five low-grade metamorphic, in part Paleoproterozoic (Rhyacian) greenstone belts. The Uvá complex is the southernmost orthogneiss association of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS data from zircon crystals show that the complex formed at least during two magmatic stages. The older consists of polydeformed tonalite and granodiorite batholitic and diorite stock protoliths with igneous age of 3040 Ma to 2930 Ma. The youngest comprises tonalite, monzogranite and granodiorite tabular bodies formed between 2876 and 2846 Ma. As compared to the orthogneisses of the northern portion of the terrane, both the oldest and youngest granitogenesis stages of the Uvá complex are, in average, about 150 Ma older. This suggests that the northern and southern orthogneisses formed during different times as independent crustal segments, but when and why they amalgamated is still under investigation.

Jost, Hardy; Junior, Farid Chemale; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dussin, Ivo Antônio

2013-11-01

295

The effect of river plume nutrient input on ocean chlorophyll levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River runoff has a great effect on the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients in the oceans. These nutrient inputs have been increasing in recent years due to anthropogenic activities such as the use of fertilizer, runoff of sewage, and the burning of fossil fuels. This nutrient increase enhances phytoplankton production, which can stress ecosystems if oxygen is depleted. We seek to examine the effect of river plume nutrient inputs on oceanic chlorophyll values. Monthly SeaWiFS satellite estimates of surface chlorophyll concentration were examined in the vicinity of large river plumes in the oceans over a six year period. A particular focus was the equatorial Atlantic region, as it receives the largest nutrient inputs from rivers. We defined a study region in the western equatorial Atlantic (~76.5E - 36.5W, 3.5S - 20.5N). Three large regions drain to this area bringing substantial nutrients to the ocean (the Amazon, Orinoco, and Tocantins rivers). In this western equatorial Atlantic region, we find that river-plume nutrients increase chlorophyll concentrations over about 25% of the total area during summer months, declining to ~ 10% during winter. Chlorophyll levels in the plume and coastal waters are about 14 times greater than those in the open ocean. Riverine nutrient inputs significantly impact ocean biogeochemistry in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

Graziano, G. N.; Moore, K.

2009-12-01

296

Gold deposits and occurrences of the Crixás Goldfield, central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crixás Goldfield is a part of the Tocantins province and consists of a ~2.9 Ga Archean granite-greenstone terrane. The gold field contains one large deposit (Mina III, 65 tons Au) and several smaller occurrences, which are structurally controlled by regional shear zones that are either thrust or strike-slip faults. The deposits can be classified as auriferous massive sulfide (pyrrhotite + arsenopyrite) hosted ores within sulfidized banded iron formations, auriferous quartz veins, and disseminated gold ores in carbonaceous schists. On a more local scale, the ore bodies coincide with dilation zones surrounded by hydrothermal alteration haloes of various widths within carbonaceous schists, iron formations, and metabasalts. Hydrothermal alteration related to deposits within thrust faults consists of sulfidization and carbonatization, whereas, within strike-slip faults, propylitic, potassic, and sericitic alteration zones occur in concentric haloes. In both cases, quartz veins and veinlets may be abundant. Absolute ages of mineralization are uncertain, but structural data suggest multiple events probably occurred during Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic tectonic events.

Jost, Hardy; de Tarso Ferro de Oliveira Fortes, Paulo

2001-07-01

297

[Physical disabilities in leprosy patients after discharge from multidrug therapy in Northern Brazil].  

PubMed

Chronic sequelae and disabilities are one of the main problems in leprosy. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of disabilities in leprosy patients after successfully completing multidrug therapy in Araguaína, Tocantins State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study including 282 cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2009. The degrees of disability at diagnosis and at discharge from treatment were collected from medical records and the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A simplified neurological workup was performed after discharge from treatment. The prevalence of disabilities at diagnosis was 29.4%, and 8.9% of then was grade II. Between diagnosis and discharge, the degree of physical disability worsened in 25% of cases. At diagnosis, the proportion of deformities was significantly higher in men (RR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.23-2.37). There was a significant association between disability and multibacillary disease (p < 0.001) and occurrence of reactions (p < 0.001). The data show that after discharge from multidrug therapy, in order to prevent chronic sequelae and functional limitations, continuous monitoring is still needed for individuals that have been recorded as cured and thus deleted from the records. PMID:23702997

Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais de; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas; Braga, Katiane Pereira; Castro, Milene Damous de; Heukelbach, Jorg

2013-05-01

298

Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic Brasiliano-Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36-40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

de Castro, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

2014-02-01

299

Surface ozone enhancements in the south of Brazil owing to large-scale air mass transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone mixing ratios were monitored in the north-west region of the state of Parana (at a site near the city of Maringa, 23.1°S, 53.1°W), from August 2001 to November 2002, in a specific experiment to determine the impact of large-scale transport, over a region of small biomass burning activity (non-source regions). Surface ozone measurements, backward trajectories and meteorological conditions were used to determine the influence of large-scale transport. Surface ozone enhancements were observed when the anticyclonic circulation was well defined and the air masses came from significant source regions of biomass burning (states of Tocantins, Para, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul). An example of such enhancement is obtained between 25 and 31 August 2001, when the measured average ozone mixing ratio was 89 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) ± 7.4, with maximum values between 93 and 173 ppbv. Comparison of this and the background concentration during the wet season (January, for example) shows a significant enhancement of 76 ppbv. During the same month, but under the influence of a different transport regime, 8-24 August 2001, considerably lower values were measured (47.2±7.2 ppbv).

Boian, C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

300

Chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) and feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds of the Cerrado in Central Brazil.  

PubMed

The association of chewing lice and feather mites with wild birds of riparian forest was investigated in the Cerrado biome, Tocantins State, Brazil. The birds were captured with mist nets between July 2008 and March 2009. Ectoparasites were collected by the dust-ruffling technique. Infestation rates were determined by the sampling prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of ectoparasites. A total of 1,479 chewing lice were collected that were distributed in 3 families and 18 genera, of which 15 taxa were identified to the species level. Sixteen genera of feather mites were found, and 10 species were identified. A high prevalence rate of chewing lice and feather mites was found in non-Passeriformes (66.7 and 50.0%) and Passeriformes (57.8 and 75.6%) birds. New host-parasite associations were registered for two species of chewing lice and for four species of feather mites, thus expanding the geographical distribution in Brazil of six chewing lice species. This is the first study of the ectoparasites of wild birds to be conducted in this region of Brazil. PMID:22773045

Enout, Alexandre Magno Junqueira; Lobato, Débora Nogueira Campos; Diniz, Francisco Carvalho; Antonini, Yasmine

2012-10-01

301

Cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil: 1980-2009.  

PubMed

The objective was to describe time trends in cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil as a whole and in the country's major geographic regions and States from 1980 to 2009. This was an ecological time series study using data recorded in the Mortality Information System (SIM) and census data collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Analysis of mortality trends was performed using Poisson regression. Cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize. In the geographic regions, a downward trend was observed in the South (-4.1%), Southeast (-3.3%), and Central-West (-1%) and an upward trend in the Northeast (3.5%) and North (2.7%). The largest decreases were observed in the States of São Paulo (-5.1%), Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Paraná (-4.0%). The largest increases in mortality trends occurred in Paraíba (12.4%), Maranhão (9.8%), and Tocantins (8.9%). Cervical cancer mortality rates stabilized in the country as a whole, but there was a downward trend in three geographic regions and 10 States, while two geographic regions and another 10 States showed increasing rates. PMID:23532294

Gonzaga, Carolina Maciel Reis; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Barbaresco, Aline Almeida; Martins, Edesio; Bernardes, Bruno Teixeira; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães

2013-03-01

302

Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

2012-01-01

303

Coeval perpendicular shortenings in the Brasília belt: Collision of irregular plate margins leading to oroclinal bending in the Neoproterozoic of central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three belts which form the Tocantins province (central Brazil) records Neoproterozoic-EoPaleozoic collisions involving the Amazon and São Francisco paleocontinents and the Paraná continental block. The Brasília belt is a typical orocline bended around the WNW-ESE striking Pirineus Zone of High Strain (PZHS) and is comprised of the NE-trending (northern) and SE-trending (southern) segments. The Brasília dome is an N-S elliptical structural window situated in the center of the belt, at the eastern end of the PZHS. It evidences D 1-D 2 and D 3N shortenings (˜750-590 Ma) due to ocean closure and Amazon-São Francisco collision following a WNW-ESE path, and demonstrates similar evolution for both segments of the belt. However, in the southern segment, D 1-D 2 structures are deformed by shortening in the SW-NE direction (D 3S). New data demonstrating D 1-D 2 and D 3N tectonites deformed by D 3S structures in the area close to the dome's SW margin and SE of the PZHS support understanding the Brasília belt and oroclinal bending as a consequence of the collision of two (Amazon and São Francisco) irregular continental margins leading to separation-rotation of the Paraná block from the Amazon paleocontinent and the Paraná-São Francisco collision.

D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz J. H.; de Oliveira, Ítalo L.; Pohren, Camila B.; Tanizaki, Maria Luiza N.; Carneiro, Rodolfo C.; Fernandes, Gabriel L. de F.; Aragão, Priscila E.

2011-07-01

304

A macroscale hydrological data set of river flow routing parameters for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental-scale hydrologic routing models, also known as macrohydrological routing models, have evolved considerably in the past few years. As the models have become more sophisticated, they have represented a variety of new processes and expanded their data requirements-either as input data or as validation for the model output. This paper presents a new data set of large-scale hydrological river flow routing parameters for the Amazon and Tocantins basins. Part of this data set was required by the development of the continental-scale hydrological routing model HYDRA and its application to the Amazon Basin. HYDRA represents phenomenalike floods, backwater effects, and seasonal hydrograph much more realistically than the previous generation of macrohydrological routing models. The data set contains data on (1) river network at 5-min (~9 km) resolution, (2) time series of monthly means of river discharge and river stage for 122 fluviometric stations spread throughout the basin, (3) sinuosity of each of the main rivers measured at 111 river sections in the basin, and (4) depth to the water table and transmissivity of the aquifer derived from measurements taken at 81 points throughout the basin.

Costa, Marcos Heil; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique C.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Bustamante, Thiago R.; Silva, Fabrício A.; Coe, Michael T.

2002-08-01

305

Sensitivity of Satellite Rainfall Estimates Using a Multidimensional Error Stochastic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error propagation models of satellite precipitation fields are a key element in the response and performance of hydrological models, which depend on the reliability and availability of rainfall data. However, most of these models treat the error as an unidimensional measurement, with no consideration of the type of process involved. The limitations of unidimensional error propagation models were overcome by multidimensional error propagation stochastic models. In this study, the SREM2D (A Two-Dimensional Satellite Rainfall Error Model) was used to simulate satellite precipitation fields by inverse calibration parameters based on real data called "reference", in this case, gauge rainfall data. Sensitivity of satellite rainfall estimates from different satellite-based algorithms were investigated to be used for hydrologic simulation over the Tocantins basin, a transition area between the Amazon basin and the relative drier northeast region, using the SREM2D error propagation model. Preliminary results show that SREM2D has the potential to generate realistic ensembles of satellite rain fields to feed hydrologic models. Ongoing research is focused on the impact of rainfall ensembles simulated by SREM2D for the hydrologic modeling using the Model of Large Basin of the National Institute For Space Research (MGB-INPE) developed for Brazilian basins.

Falck, A. S.; Vila, D. A.; Tomasella, J.

2011-12-01

306

Neoproterozoic granites of the Lajeado intrusive suite, north-center Brazil: A late Ediacaran remelting of a Paleoproterozoic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In north-central Brazil, a number of granite plutons, which intrude Paleoproterozoic gneiss-granulite terrains of the Goiás Massif, crop out along a thermal axis parallel to the Transbrasiliano Lineament. Single zircon lead evaporation ages from three granitic bodies span between 552 and 545 Ma. Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) vary between 2.1 and 1.7 Ga and negative ?Nd(0.55 Ga) values between -10 and -13 show that Paleoproterozoic crust was involved in the genesis of these granites. These plutons, which form the Lajeado Intrusive Suite are part of an important Ediacaran magmatic event in central-northern of the Tocantins Tectonic Province, composed of metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granites with geochemical characteristics similar to A-type granites, whose crystallization occurred under low water activity during magmatic emplacement. The granitic intrusive bodies are related to a crustal extensional/transtensional tectonic event at the end of the Neoproterozoic. They may have connection with the granitic plutons of similar age (0.56-0.52 Ga) in northwestern Ceará state, on the other side of the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin in northwest of Borborema Province, along the Transbrasiliano Lineament.

de Sousa Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio; Chaves, César Lisboa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; da Silva Lobo, Luciano Ricardo

2013-08-01

307

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs caught in Palmas, TO, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated occurrences of Leishmania infantum in dogs in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, comparing diagnostic data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and parasitological diagnosis. Blood samples and lymph node aspirates were collected from 63 dogs of males and females and various ages and races, with or without owners, between August 2009 and June 2010. Slides containing smears of lymph node aspirates were stained with Giemsa stained. In PCR, the 145 bp target sequence of the LT1 fragment, located in the Leishmania donovani kDNA minicircle was detected using the RV1 and RV2 oligonucleotide primers. The chi-square test revealed that there was a significant relationship between the symptoms and dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The parasitological investigation showed concordance of 66.7% with PCR on blood and 84.1% with PCR on lymph node aspirate. In addition to these tests, evaluations of the diagnoses in parallel and in series were conducted, which showed concordances with the parasitological test of 76.2% and 74.6%, respectively. The results make it possible to suggest that PCR on lymph nodes should be used in evaluating large populations (surveys) and that the parasitological test should be used for initial clinical evaluations in veterinary consultation offices. PMID:23070439

Teles, Natália Melquie Monteiro; Agostini, Maria Augusta Paes; Bigeli, Júlio Gomes; Noleto, Rosalba Valadares; Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias; de Oliveira Junior, Waldesse Piragé

2012-01-01

308

Crust and upper mantle structure in central Brazil derived by receiver functions and SKS splitting analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three broadband stations were installed in central Brazil to survey possible induced seismic activity during the building of a new power plant. From the continuous recordings more than 30 receiver functions were calculated and used to derive MOHO depth values (38-41 km), average vp/ vs ratio (1.68-1.71) and the average arrival times for the upper mantle discontinuities in this region. Arrival times, not otherwise sampled by global stations, were delayed by about 1.5 s compared to IASP91. SKS shear-wave splitting results suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle. The orientation of the fast splitting axis (E-W) follows major deep tectonic structures. The observed E-W splitting direction also correlates well with the current South America plate motion ( i.e. relative to mesosphere). The splitting direction also correlates with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In the area of the former foredeep and fold-and-thrust belt of the Tocantins province in central Brazil, as in other Precambrian geologic areas, the measured SKS anisotropy parallels the major geologic features in the shield. The non-uniformity of the measured anisotropy directions in the center of the South American plate and the correlation with aeromagnetic trends suggest that the anisotropy maybe produced by crustal structure rather than by mantle flow.

Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2012-03-01

309

Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: A case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin.  

PubMed

Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil), in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13(th) pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks. PMID:24130442

Gunski, Ricardo José; Cunha, Isabel Souza; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Ledesma, Mario; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

2013-09-01

310

[Leprosy diagnosis in municipalities other than the patients' place of residence: spatial analysis, 2001-2009].  

PubMed

The study analyzed the flow of persons with leprosy from their municipality (county) of residence to that of their diagnosis in a highly endemic area in Brazil. The study was based on data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2009 in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins, and Piauí. Of the 373 municipalities, 349 (93.6%) had at least one resident with leprosy that had been diagnosed in a different municipality (4,325 cases, or 5.2% of the total). The municipalities with the most cases reported elsewhere were Timon (248) and São José de Ribamar (201), Maranhão State. The municipalities that received the most exogenous cases for diagnosis were São Luís (719), capital of Maranhão, and Teresina (516), capital of Piauí. Goiânia (146), capital of Goiás, and the Federal District (42) also reported numerous cases, even though they are located more than 1,000 km from the endemic area. The flow indicates gaps in the decentralization of comprehensive care for persons with leprosy and calls attention to the difficulties associated with patient monitoring during and after multidrug therapy. PMID:23033184

Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais de; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Sena Neto, Sebastião Alves de; Murto, Christine; Alencar, Maria de Jesus Freitas de; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-09-01

311

Purplish-red almandine garnets with alexandrite-like effect: causes of colors and color-enhancing treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine gem-quality, purplish-red garnets from the Tocantins State, Brazil, were investigated for their crystal chemistry and optical properties by several spectroscopic techniques, including electron microprobe analysis, Mössbauer, Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption. Although most garnets are purplish-red, some specimens show color zoning, with deep red color in the core and purple in the outer parts. Electron microprobe analysis showed that these garnets are principally almandine-pyrope solid solution at the rim. However, at the red core, they contain also up to 7 % of spessartine. Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals that the iron content is predominantly Fe2+ (>99 %) in the natural garnets. The optical absorption spectra are dominated by spin-allowed and unusual high-intense spin-forbidden transitions from eightfold coordinated Fe(II) in the near infrared and visible spectral region, respectively. For the red core, in addition, three sharp bands centered in the blue part of the visible spectral range and a broad charge transfer band in the near-UV region are observed. All garnets with purplish colors show also a remarkable color-changing effect from purple in daylight light to red in incandescent light called alexandrite-like effect. Heat treatments in the 700-900 °C temperature range in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres lead to reversible and irreversible color changes which are discussed based on the microscopic changes in the Fe ion coordination and valence states.

Krambrock, K.; Guimarães, F. S.; Pinheiro, M. V. B.; Paniago, R.; Righi, A.; Persiano, A. I. C.; Karfunkel, J.; Hoover, D. B.

2013-07-01

312

A new species of river dolphin from Brazil or: how little do we know our biodiversity.  

PubMed

True river dolphins are some of the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates. They comprise relict evolutionary lineages of high taxonomic distinctness and conservation value, but are afforded little protection. We report the discovery of a new species of a river dolphin from the Araguaia River basin of Brazil, the first such discovery in nearly 100 years. The species is diagnosable by a series of molecular and morphological characters and diverged from its Amazonian sister taxon 2.08 million years ago. The estimated time of divergence corresponds to the separation of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin from the Amazon basin. This discovery highlights the immensity of the deficit in our knowledge of Neotropical biodiversity, as well as vulnerability of biodiversity to anthropogenic actions in an increasingly threatened landscape. We anticipate that this study will provide an impetus for the taxonomic and conservation reanalysis of other taxa shared between the Araguaia and Amazon aquatic ecosystems, as well as stimulate historical biogeographical analyses of the two basins. PMID:24465386

Hrbek, Tomas; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Dutra, Nicole; Gravena, Waleska; Martin, Anthony R; Farias, Izeni Pires

2014-01-01

313

Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: A case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin  

PubMed Central

Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil), in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13th pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks. PMID:24130442

Gunski, Ricardo Jose; Cunha, Isabel Souza; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Ledesma, Mario; Garnero, Analia Del Valle

2013-01-01

314

Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks. PMID:25173521

Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

2015-01-25

315

Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

2014-01-01

316

Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.  

PubMed

The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity. PMID:24068089

Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

2013-09-01

317

Para africano ver: African-Bahian Exchanges in the Reinvention of Brazils Racial Democracy, 1961“63  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conjuntura política, cultural e intelectual do início dos anos 60 no Brasil (e no mundo atlântico de forma mais geral) produziu novas concepções sobre a natureza das relações entre o Brasil e a África e, ao mesmo tempo, sobre a natureza da noção de africanidade e da inclusão racial no Brasil. Embora o enfoque da produção acadêmica tenha ressaltado

Paulina Alberto

2008-01-01

318

Volume 11(2) Malacofauna fssil  

E-print Network

as cepas de Yersinia pestis isoladas durante epizootia no foco da chapada do Araripe, Pernambuco, Brasil, por MLVA 7 Relationship analysis of Yersinia pestis strains isolated during the epidemic focus

Morandini, Andre C.

319

Separation-Sensitive Collision Detection for Convex Objects Je Erickson y Leonidas J. Guibas z Jorge Stol x Li Zhang {  

E-print Network

. Guibas z Jorge Stol#12; x Li Zhang { Collision detection is an algorithmic problem arising in all areas- inas, Brasil; stol#12;@dcc.unicamp.br; http://www:dcc:unicamp:br/ #24; stol#12;/. Research partially

Erickson, Jeff

320

TOOKIMA 2.0 -An Interactive Animation System Alberto Barbosa Raposo1, Leo Pini Magalh~aes1 3, Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza2,  

E-print Network

, Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza2, Jose Tarc sio Franco de Camargo1, Fernando Jose Lamanna1 1 Image Computing Engineering (FEEC) { UNICAMP C.P. 6101, 13083{970 Campinas, SP, Brasil alberto,leopini,tarcisio,lamanna

Barbosa, Alberto

321

Journal homepage: www.arvore.org.br/seer  

E-print Network

Journal homepage: www.arvore.org.br/seer Scire Salutis (ISSN 2236-9600) © 2013 Escola Superior de, Sergipe, Brasil WEB: www.arvore.org.br/seer ­ Contact: contato@arvore.org.br ­ Phone: +055 (79) 9979

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Rubber tappers of the Upper Juruá River, Brazil: the making of a forest peasant economy  

E-print Network

throughout the Amazon, where social relations and technical patterns could vary tremendously (Novo Aripuaml on the Madeira River, Amazonas; Xapuri, Brasi]eia and Assis Brasil on the Purus Valley, eastern Acre; Rondonia State). I am thus aware...

Barbosa de Almeida, Mauro William

1993-03-16

323

19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...name of the country of origin, such as “Brasil” for “Brazil” and “Italie” for “Italy,” are acceptable. (c) Adjectival...product. For example, such terms as “English walnuts” or “Brazil nuts” are unacceptable. (d) Colonies, possessions,...

2013-04-01

324

19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...name of the country of origin, such as “Brasil” for “Brazil” and “Italie” for “Italy,” are acceptable. (c) Adjectival...product. For example, such terms as “English walnuts” or “Brazil nuts” are unacceptable. (d) Colonies, possessions,...

2011-04-01

325

19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...name of the country of origin, such as “Brasil” for “Brazil” and “Italie” for “Italy,” are acceptable. (c) Adjectival...product. For example, such terms as “English walnuts” or “Brazil nuts” are unacceptable. (d) Colonies, possessions,...

2010-04-01

326

19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...name of the country of origin, such as “Brasil” for “Brazil” and “Italie” for “Italy,” are acceptable. (c) Adjectival...product. For example, such terms as “English walnuts” or “Brazil nuts” are unacceptable. (d) Colonies, possessions,...

2012-04-01

327

19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.  

...name of the country of origin, such as “Brasil” for “Brazil” and “Italie” for “Italy,” are acceptable. (c) Adjectival...product. For example, such terms as “English walnuts” or “Brazil nuts” are unacceptable. (d) Colonies, possessions,...

2014-04-01

328

Supplement 16, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Protozoa  

E-print Network

Cephaloidophora Mawrodiadi Cerathomyxa [lapsus for: Ceratomyxa] Ceratomyxa [lapsus as: Cerathomyxa] Ceratomyxa diloba n. sp. (gall bladder) Sphaeroides rubripes S. pardalis Ceratomyxa filicornis n.sp. Sardinella melanosticta (gall bladder) Cerathomyxa... longispina Petruschewski [Myoxoc ephalus sp.] Ceratomyxa opisthocentri n. sp. Opisthocentrus ocellatus (gall bladder) Amaro, ?., 1963 b, 3 Brasil Amaro, ?., 1964 a, 5-9? figs. 1-6 Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Estado da Guanabara, 'Brasil Amaro...

Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1966-01-01

329

Eventos e estratégia de desenvolvimiento turístico. O caso de Aracajú  

Microsoft Academic Search

A atividade turística tem se constituindo atualmente num importante instrumento de desenvolvimento local. No Brasil, apesar de apenas 24 por cento da população se constituir na demanda do mercado doméstico de turismo, este gera receitas de R$48,4 bilhões, representando 4,1 por cento do Produto Interno Bruto. Em relação às diversas modalidades de viagens praticadas no Brasil, as relacionadas a eventos

José Roberto de Lima Andrade; Cristiane Alcântara de Jesús Santos

2007-01-01

330

Prevalence of hereditary factors predisposing to thrombosis in 260 patients diagnosed as thrombosis and investigated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de fatores hereditários que predispõem à trombose em 260 pacientes com diagnóstico de trombose e investigados no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of genetic polymorphism in coagulation factors in thromboembolic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of thrombosis. Methods: A retrospective case collection was performed searching all patients with clinical suspicion of thrombosis who were submitted to coagulation factor analysis at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from November 2003 to April 2004. We included 260 patients, 118

Campos Guerra; Marden Rene Ferreira; Claudio Albers Mendes; Valdir Aranda

331

V Seminário de Pesquisa em Turismo do MERCOSUL (SeminTUR) Turismo: Inovações da Pesquisa na América Latina Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS, Brasil, 27 e 28 de Junho de 2008 Lazer, turismo e questões do patrimônio ambiental em áreas naturais: estudo de comparativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho tem o objetivo de fazer uma analise da importância das questões ambientais, vinculadas ao lazer e ao turismo sustentável em ambientes naturais no município de Pindamonhangaba, caracterizando a natureza destas atividades, verificando seus impactos e identificando possíveis ações planejadas que possam levar a um manejo equilibrado nestas áreas. Tendo como estudo de caso estas áreas naturais, o

Edésio da Silva Santos

332

Comparação das informações sobre as prevalências de doenças crônicas obtidas pelo suplemento saúde da PNAD\\/98 e as estimadas pelo estudo Carga de Doença no Brasil Comparison of the information on prevalences of chronic diseases obtained by the health suplement of PNAD\\/98 and the estimated ones by the study Burden of Disease in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, prevalence estimates of five chronic disease cirrhosis, depression, di- abetes, chronic rhenal insufficiency and tu- berculosis based on the 1998 PNAD Health Supplement were compared to those obtained by the Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Pro- ject. These estimates were based on systematic literature review as well as on available data set of morbidities. The results show

Angela Maria Jourdan Gadelha; Joaquim Gonçalves Valente; Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Margareth Crisóstomo Portela; Marques Hokerberg; Andréia Ferreira de Oliveira; Luciana Tricai Cavalini; Vanja Maria Bessa Ferreira; Sonia Azevedo Bittencourt

333

Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

334

Prevalência de tripanossomíase americana, sífilis, toxoplasmose, rubéola, hepatite B, hepatite C e da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, avaliada por intermédio de testes sorológicos, em gestantes atendidas no período de 1996 a 1998 no Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná (Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the seroprevalence of the american trypanosomiasis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women attended at the Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná, Londrina State University, Paraná, a retrospective study of the serologic results performed in the prenatal routine during the period of June 1996 to June

Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche; Helena Kaminami Morimoto; Grazieli Nogueira Farias; Kátia Regina Hisatsugu; Lilian Geller; Ana Carolina Lima Frade Gomes; Helena Yurika Inoue; Gisele Rodrigues; Tiemi Matsuo

2000-01-01

335

Age and gender as risk factors for the transmission of HIV in a sample of drug users of Porto Alegre, Brazil Idade e gênero como fatores de risco para a transmissão do HIV em uma amostra de usuários de drogas, Porto Alegre, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To verify the association between age and gender regarding HIV seropositivity in drug users who seek public health centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: The authors designed a cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling of 695 men and women aged above 15, who reported recent drug use and risk behaviors to HIV exposure. We used a standard questionnaire (CRA,

Raquel De Boni; Flavio Pechansky

336

Water quality of an urban reservoir subjected to periodic applications of copper sulphate: the case of Ibirité reservoir, southeast Brazil A qualidade da água de um reservatório urbano sujeito a aplicações periódicas de sulfato de cobre: o caso do reservatório de Ibirité, sudeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of the work was to identify the stratification patterns and characterize the water quality of Ibirité reservoir considering, among other aspects, the effects of additions of copper-sulphate as a way of controlling algae blooming; Methods: Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were measured in the reservoir and in Pintados and Ibirité streams. Water column samples were taken

S. Braz; Bairro Pampulha

337

Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.  

PubMed

The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity. PMID:23634590

Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

2013-03-01

338

Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

2013-12-01

339

Seismic studies of the Brasília fold belt at the western border of the São Francisco Craton, Central Brazil, using receiver function, surface-wave dispersion and teleseismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tocantins Province in Central Brazil is composed of a series of SSW-NNE trending terranes of mainly Proterozoic ages, which stabilized in the Neoproterozoic in the final collision between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. No previous information on crustal seismic properties was available for this region. Several broadband stations were used to study the regional patterns of crustal and upper mantle structure, extending the results of a recent E-W seismic refraction profile. Receiver functions and surface wave dispersion showed a thin crust (33-37 km) in the Neoproterozoic Magmatic Arc terrane. High average crustal Vp/Vs ratios (1.74-1.76) were consistently observed in this unit. The foreland domain of the Brasília foldbelt, on the other hand, is characterized by thicker crust (42-43 km). Low Vp/Vs ratios (1.70-1.72) were observed in the low-grade foreland fold and thrust zone of the Brasília belt adjacent to the São Francisco craton. Teleseismic P-wave tomography shows that the lithospheric upper mantle has lower velocities beneath the Magmatic Arc and Goiás Massif compared with the foreland zone of the belt and São Francisco craton. The variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocities observed with the broadband stations correlate well with the measurements along the seismic refraction profile. The integration of all seismic observations and gravity data indicates a strong lithospheric contrast between the Goiás Massif and the foreland domain of the Brasília belt, whereas little variation was found across the foldbelt/craton surface boundary. These results support the hypothesis that the Brasília foreland domain and the São Francisco craton were part of a larger São Francisco-Congo continental plate in the final collision with the Amazon plate.

Assumpção, Marcelo; An, Meijian; Bianchi, Marcelo; França, George S. L.; Rocha, Marcelo; Barbosa, José Roberto; Berrocal, Jesús

2004-09-01

340

Zircon and sphene U-Pb geochronology of Upper Proterozoic volcanic-arc rock units from southwestern Goiás, central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-Pb isotopic measurements were performed on zircon and sphene fractions separated from three different calc-alkaline, arc-type metaplutonic and metavolcanic rock units from southwestern Goiás, central Brazil. An upper intercept age of 899±7 Ma was obtained for the Arenópolis orthogneisses. Metamorphic recrystallization of these rocks occurred at ca. 637 Ma, as revealed by a concordant sphene analysis. Zircons from a meta-rhyolite from a metamorphosed island arc complex in the same area (the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence), yielded an upper intercept age of 929±8 Ma. Sphenes from the same sample revealed a metamorphic recrystallization age of ca. 594 Ma. A sheared meta-rhyolite from the Jaupaci volcano-sedimentary sequence, exposed ca. 80 km further to the east, is considerably younger, with an upper intercept age of 764±14 Ma. The sphene ages in the Arenópolis rocks are similar to whole-rock Rb-Sr isochrons obtained for strongly sheared meta-rhyolites of the Jaupaci sequence (594±37 Ma) and in the Fazenda Nova area (600±31 Ma). These dates most probably reflect the development of important steep-dipping strike slip shear zones that characterize the metamorphic basement of southwestern Goiás. The protoliths of all three rock units originated in the Upper Proterozoic supracrustal fold belts of Tocantins Province in central Brazil. The zircon U-Pb ages suggest more than one period of arc magmatism in southwestern Goiás between ca. 900 and 700 Ma, preceding the main tectonic/metamorphic event of the Brasiliano Orogeny at ca. 600 Ma.

Pimentel, M. M.; Heaman, L.; Fuck, R. A.

341

The influence of historical and potential future deforestation on the stream flow of the Amazon River - Land surface processes and atmospheric feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn this study, results from two sets of numerical simulations are evaluated and presented; one with the land surface model IBIS forced with prescribed climate and another with the fully coupled atmospheric general circulation and land surface model CCM3-IBIS. The results illustrate the influence of historical and potential future deforestation on local evapotranspiration and discharge of the Amazon River system with and without atmospheric feedbacks and clarify a few important points about the impact of deforestation on the Amazon River. In the absence of a continental scale precipitation change, large-scale deforestation can have a significant impact on large river systems and appears to have already done so in the Tocantins and Araguaia Rivers, where discharge has increased 25% with little change in precipitation. However, with extensive deforestation (e.g. >30% of the Amazon basin) atmospheric feedbacks, brought about by differences in the physical structure of the crops and pasture replacing natural vegetation, cause water balance changes of the same order of magnitude as the changes due to local land surface processes, but of opposite sign. Additionally, changes in the water balance caused by atmospheric feedbacks are not limited to those basins where deforestation has occurred but are spread unevenly throughout the entire Amazon by atmospheric circulation. As a result, changes to discharge and aquatic environments with future deforestation of the Amazon will likely be significant and a complex function of how much vegetation has been removed from that particular watershed and how much has been removed from the entire Amazon Basin.

Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

2009-05-01

342

3D gravity inversion through an adaptive learning procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a gravity anomaly inversion to estimate a 3D density-contrast distribution that gives rise to an interfering gravity field. We use an interpretation model consists of a grid of 3D vertical, juxtaposed prisms in both horizontal and vertical directions. Iteratively, our approach estimates the 3D density-contrast distribution that fits the observed anomaly within the measurement errors and favors compact gravity sources closest to pre- specified geometric elements such as axes and points. This method retrieves the geometry of multiple gravity sources with prescribed density contrasts (positive and negative values) assigned to each geometric element. At the first iteration, we set an initial interpretation model, specifies the first-guess geometric elements and the corresponding target density contrasts. Each geometric element operates as the first-guess skeletal outline of a presumed gravity source (or its homogeneous section) to be reconstructed. From the second iteration on, our method redefines automatically a new set of geometric elements, the associated target density contrasts and a new interpretation model whose number of prisms is greater than the previous iteration. The iteration stops when the geometries of the estimated sources are invariant along successive iterations of our method. The examples with synthetic data illustrate the good performance of the method in retrieving the geometries of multiple gravity sources that gives rise to an interfering gravity field. Our method can be used to interpret gravity data from any complex geological settings, e.g., sedimentary environments, shallow or deep intrusions (laccoliths and sills) with complex shapes, mineral environments. Test on field data collected over a mafic-ultramafic body and a volcano-sedimentary sequence, located in the Tocantins provinve that lies between the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Brazil, illustrate that our method makes its possible to reconstruct a sharp image of multiple and adjacent bodies. Finally, our method can be extended to invert magnetic, MT, EM, and seismic data.

Barbosa, V. C.; Silva Dias, F. J.; Silva, J. B.

2008-05-01

343

Upper-mantle seismic structure beneath SE and Central Brazil from P- and S-wave regional traveltime tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present models for the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath SE and Central Brazil using independent tomographic inversions of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals (including core phases) from teleseismic earthquakes. The events were recorded by a total of 92 stations deployed through different projects, institutions and time periods during the years 1992-2004. Our results show correlations with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. All interpretations are based on robust anomalies, which appear in the different inversions for P- and S-waves. The resolution is variable through our study volume and has been analyzed through different theoretical test inversions. High-velocity anomalies are observed in the western portion of the São Francisco Craton, supporting the hypothesis that this Craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate (San Franciscan Plate). Low-velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning, which is consistent with the good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low-velocity anomalies in this region. Our results show that the basement of the Paraná Basin is formed by several blocks, separated by suture zones, according to model of Milani & Ramos. The slab of the Nazca Plate can be observed as a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Paraná Basin, between the depths of 700 and 1200 km. Further, we confirm the low-velocity anomaly in the NE area of the Paraná Basin which has been interpreted by VanDecar et al. as a fossil conduct of the Tristan da Cunha Plume related to the Paraná flood basalt eruptions during the opening of the South Atlantic.

Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Schimmel, Martin; Assumpção, Marcelo

2011-01-01

344

Effects of climatic variability and deforestation on surface water regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river flow regime of the Amazon basin exhibits considerable variability at the interannual and interdecadal scales. A major source of variation is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. El Niño events cause a decrease in rainfall, river flow, and inundation patterns throughout the entire region, with the strongest reductions happening in the northern part of the basin. On the other hand, La Niña events cause increased river flow for the northern tributaries and the main stream, but apparently do not cause a discernible pattern of climate variability in the southern part of the basin. ENSO events are different one from the other. While most El Niño events cause reductions in precipitation and river flow over the entire area of northern Amazonia, some El Niño events change precipitation only over northwestern Amazonia. The strength of the ENSO events through the decades is modulated by an interdecadal signal possibly associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. La Niña (rainy) events are rainier during the 1940s-1950s and 1970s, while El Niño (dry) events are drier during the 1960s and since the 1980s. It is also apparent that the interannual variability was damped during the 1930s-1960s. In addition to these modes of variability caused by varying rainfall patterns, in some regions where changes in land cover are extensive, changes in evapotranspiration may drive increases in river flow, increasing the runoff coefficient. This has been clearly documented for the Tocantins basin, and there is evidence that the Óbidos runoff coefficient is also increasing.

Heil Costa, Marcos; Coe, Michael T.; Loup Guyot, Jean

345

Land water storage change from satellite altimetry and GRACE; Inference on sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 6-year time span (mid-2002 to mid-2008) using satellite altimetry and space gravimetry data from GRACE. Satellite altimetry allows determination of surface water volume change while GRACE data provide vertically-integrated water storage change. The 32 largest river basins are considered as well as lakes not included in the 32 basins (Caspian and Aral seas). We focus on the year to year variability and construct a combined water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The mean trend in total water storage adjusted over this 6-year time span is positive and amounts to 114 +/- 24 km3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Orinoco, Ob, Nile, Niger, Zambezi, Tocantins and Volga. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Yukon, Eyre, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Eyre, Murray and Mekong basins. Lakes volume change is slightly negative over the 2002-2008 time span (~ -16 km3/yr). Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2008 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.27 +/- 0.07 mm/yr. The time series for each basins clearly show that year to year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. Another interesting results of the study is the significant correlation (0.7) between (detrended) year-to- year variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion) and GRACE-based land water storage contribution.

Cazenave, A. A.; Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cretaux, J.

2009-12-01

346

Comparative parasitism of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in native and invaded river basins.  

PubMed

Biological invasions are considered a major threat to biodiversity around the world, but the role of parasites in this process is still little investigated. Here, we compared parasite infections of a host species in the areas where it originated and where it was introduced, and in native and introduced species in the same environment, using the endoparasites of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) in 3 Brazilian basins. Samples were taken in 2 rivers where the species is native, i.e., Solimões River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Paraná River (PR). In addition, abundances of diplostomids and larval nematodes were compared between P. squamosissimus and 2 native competitors in the PR, Hoplias malabaricus and Raphiodon vulpinus. In total, 13 species of endoparasites were recorded, but only Austrodiplostomum sp. and cestode cysts were present in all localities. Although infracommunity richness was similar, their species composition was slightly different among localities. General linear models using the relative condition factor of fish as response variables, and abundance of the most prevalent parasites as possible predictors showed that the condition of fish is negatively correlated with parasite abundance only in the native range (TO). Abundance of diplostomid eye flukes was higher in the PR, and in the native species H. malabaricus when compared to the invader, which might present an advantage for P. squamosissimus if they compete for prey. However, although P. squamosissimus may have lost some of its native parasites during its introduction to the PR, it is now possibly acting as a host for native generalist parasites. PMID:22468610

Lacerda, A C F; Takemoto, R M; Tavares-Dias, M; Poulin, R; Pavanelli, G C

2012-08-01

347

Crustal thickness map of Brazil: Data compilation and main features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a crustal thickness map of Brazil and adjacent areas based on a compilation of data published in the literature as well as new measurements. We used crustal thicknesses mainly derived from seismic datasets such as deep seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion velocities. Crustal thicknesses derived from modelling gravity anomalies commonly depend on assumptions, such as constant density contrast across the Moho interface, which are not always easily verifiable and were considered only along the continental shelf to fill large gaps in the seismic data. Our compilation shows that the crust in the stable continental area onshore has an average thickness of 39 ± 5 km (1-? deviation) and that no clear difference can be observed between low altitude, intracratonic sedimentary basins, NeoProterozoic foldbelts (except for the Borborema Province), and cratonic areas. The thinnest crust is found in the Borborema Province of NE Brazil (30-35 km) and along a narrow belt within Tocantins Province (˜35 km), roughly parallel to the Eastern border of the Amazon craton, while the thickest crust is found in the Amazon and São Francisco cratons (41 ± 4 km), and the Paraná Basin (42 ± 4 km). Both the Ponta Grossa and the Rio Grande Arches are areas of thinned crust, and the western border of the Brazilian platform, near the sub-Andean region, seems to be characterized by a crustal thickness of less than 40 km. Although sparse in data coverage, we expect the resulting crustal thickness map to be useful for future studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the country.

Assumpção, Marcelo; Bianchi, Marcelo; Julià, Jordi; Dias, Fábio L.; Sand França, George; Nascimento, Rosana; Drouet, Stéphane; Pavão, César Garcia; Albuquerque, Diogo Farrapo; Lopes, Afonso E. V.

2013-04-01

348

The Caldas Novas dome, central Brazil: structural evolution and implications for the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caldas Novas dome (Goiaás state, central Brazil) lies in the southern segment of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt (center of the Tocantins Province) between the Goiás magmatic arc and the margin of the ancient São Francisco plate. The core of the dome comprises rocks of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Paranoá group (passive margin psamitic-pelitic sediments and subgreenschist facies) covered by a nappe of the Neoproterozoic Araxá group (backarc basin pelitic-psamitic sediments and volcanics of greenschist facies, bitotite zone). Hot underground waters that emerge along fractures in the Paranoá quartzite and wells in the Araxá schist have made the Caldas Novas dome an international tourist attraction. A recent detailed structural analysis demonstrates that the dome area was affected by a D 1-D 3 Brasiliano cycle progressive deformation in the ˜750-600 Ma interval (published U-Pb and Sm-Nd data). During event D 1, a pervasive layer-parallel foliation developed coeval the regional metamorphism. Event D 2 (intense F 2 isoclinal folding) was responsible for the emplacement of the nappe. D 1 and D 2 record a regime of simple shear (top-to-SE relative regional movement) due to a WNW-ESE subhorizontal compression ( ?1). Event D 3 records a WSW-ENE compression, during which the dome rose as a large-scale F 3 fold, possibly associated with a duplex structure at depth. During the dome's uplift, the layers slid back and down in all directions, giving way to gravity-slide folds and an extensional crenulation cleavage. A set of brittle fractures and quartz veins constitutes the record of a late-stage D 4 event important for understanding the thermal water reservoir.

D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Wolf Klein, Percy Boris; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gert

2004-10-01

349

Airborne measurements of aerosols from burning biomass in Brazil related to the TRACE A experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are reported from an airborne campaign to investigate the impacts of burning biomass upon the loading of lower-tropospheric aerosols and its composition over the Brazilian tropics. The flights, conducted as part of the NASA/Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) mission, started on September 1, 1992, when the dry (fire) season still prevailed in the central part of Brazil, and ended on September 29. Of the total number of burnings detected in Brazil by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)/NOAA satellite sensor, 74% were concentrated in the states of Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, and Tocantins during this period. Aerosol particles were sampled from a twin-engine aircraft in transit and vertical profile flights were made up to 4,000 m altitude. Black carbon measurements made in real time and in areas of burning biomass peaked at ˜2,500 m above the ground, increasing to ˜12,000 ng/m3. In other areas these values were lower by 1 order of magnitude. A condensation nuclei counter measuring small particles (>0.014 ?m) produced values ranging from 2,000 to 16,000/cm3 for areas with low and high burning biomass, respectively. Deposition filters in a two-stage cascade impactor, and Nuclepore filters collected aerosols for analysis of 13 elements through particle-induced X ray emissions (PIXE). Primary elements associated with soil dust (Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ni) prevailed in the aerosol coarse mode (>1 ?m) while the fine mode aerosols were enriched in S, K, Br, and Rb, which are tracers normally associated with burning of biomass. The good correlation between fire spot counts, obtained via AVHRR aboard NOAA satellites, and black carbon, counts of small particles and total aerosol mass, suggests the determining of local concentrations of fire-derived aerosol fire emissions by satellite to be a new and useful approach.

Pereira, E. B.; Setzer, A. W.; Gerab, F.; Artaxo, P. E.; Pereira, M. C.; Monroe, G.

1996-10-01

350

Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

2011-01-01

351

Vestiges of The Peri-rodinian Ocean: Sliced, Diced, Recycled But Preserved In Younger Orogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as the amalgamation and dispersal of Pangea exerted a first-order influence on tectonothermal events in the Phanerozoic, Middle to late Proterozoic global scale tec- tonics were profoundly influenced by the amalgamation and subsequent breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. Most tectonic studies of the evolution of Rodinia concentrate on the near-field effects of these events such as the collisional orogenies that result in its amalgamation and the sedimentary rift-drift record of its breakup. However, ves- tiges of the far field effects of these events are also preserved and their tectonothermal evolution can provide additional constraints on supercontinent configuration and the timing of breakup. During the time interval of Rodinian amalgamation, for exam- ple, ensimatic subduction and plume activity in the peri-Rodinian ocean resulted in the formation of oceanic crust with ca. 1.0 Ga Sm-Nd depleted mantle model (TDM) ages. Vestiges of this crust are now preserved in the terranes that subsequently accreted along the margins of the dispersing continents, including the peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Avalonia, Carolina, Iberia) of eastern North America and Europe, the Tocantins orogenic belt of Brazil, and the terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Neopro- terozoic tectonothermal evolution of these terranes was a far-field response to Rodinia breakup, in the same way that the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of western North America was a far-field response to the breakup of Pangea. Hence, the Neoproterozoic histories of these terranes are geodynamically linked to that of Rodinia and so provide constraints on its configuration and the timing of its major tectonothermal events.

Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D.; Keppie, J. D.; Dostal, J.

352

Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

2011-11-01

353

Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases, Part 8: Supergenera and Genera T-Z  

E-print Network

; Brasil).-Wharton, G. W., 1940a, 504, 506. --Yamaguti, S. , 1933b, 77. bonnerensis Waitz, J. A. , 1960a, 815-817, 818, figs. 1-2 (Ambystoma macrodacty- lum, Thamnophis sirtalis; intestine ?Bon- ner Co. ,Idaho). caballeroi Herrera Rosales, ?., 1951a, 55...; Brasil).-Wharton, G. W., 1940a, 504, 506. --Yamaguti, S. , 1933b, 77. bonnerensis Waitz, J. A. , 1960a, 815-817, 818, figs. 1-2 (Ambystoma macrodacty- lum, Thamnophis sirtalis; intestine ?Bon- ner Co. ,Idaho). caballeroi Herrera Rosales, ?., 1951a, 55...

Doss, Mildred A.; Roach, Katharine F.; Farr, Marion M.; Breen, Virginia L.

1968-01-01

354

CRÍTICA LITERÁRIA FEMINIST A ENTRE ERÓTICA E ENGAJAMENTO POLÍTICO : UMA QUESTÃO POLÊMICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo:A partir de exame bibliográfico, perspectiva interdisciplinar e observação empírica, este estudo pretende, dentro do contexto latino-americano (Brasil e América Hispânica) das ditaduras militares, discutir algumas das possíveis relações entre temas polêmicos como o feminismo, crítica literária feminista e engajamento político, debatidos em certos setores da mídia e refletidos em obras literárias. Textos da ar gentina Marta Pynch, da costaricense

Vera Lúcia Dietzel

355

Em busca da caixa mágica: o Estado Novo e a televisão  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A análise histórica sobre a Exposição de Televisão (Rio de Janeiro, 1939), evento promovido pelo Estado Novo em parce- ria com o Terceiro Reich alemão, permi- te trazer, além de dados sobre a história da TV no Brasil, elementos de compreen- são sobre as primeiras relações entre po- der político e esse meio de comunicação no país. Pois, a

Áureo Busetto

2007-01-01

356

O FRACASSO DO REFORMISMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chegada da esquerda ao poder, na França em 1981 como no Brasil em 2003, suscitou no seio das classes populares uma real esperança de mudanças. Em um e outro caso, essa esperança foi frustrada. Outubro de 2002 não é a réplica de maio de 1981. Os homens, os partidos, os tempos são diferentes. Em 1981, as idéias da esquerda

Rémy HERRERA; Mauricio SABADINI

357

Simply-Typed Ayala-Rinc on  

E-print Network

Computer and Electrical Engineering Universidade de Bras#19; #16;lia Heriot-Watt University Bras#19; #16;lia D. F., Brasil Edinburgh, Scotland WoLLIC 2001 | August 21 st , 2001 Universidade de Bras#19; #16. Related work 6. Future work and Conclusions Universidade de Bras#19; #16;lia / Heriot-Watt University 1

Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

358

Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 70 No. 6 (2002) URL: http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/entcs/volume70.html 16 pages  

E-print Network

Mauricio Ayala-Rinc#19;on 2 Departamento de Matem#19;atica, Universidade de Bras#19;#16;lia Bras#19;#16;lia~ao, Universidade de Bras#19;#16;lia Bras#19;#16;lia D.F., Brasil Carlos H. Llanos 4 IESB, Bras#19;#16;lia D

Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

359

76 FR 20503 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail:...

2011-04-13

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170- Putim-12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos-SP-BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail...

2010-08-05

361

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail...

2011-10-19

362

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim-- 12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail:...

2010-02-23

363

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail:...

2010-06-01

364

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-Putim- 12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos-SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927- 5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail...

2011-01-13

365

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail...

2011-09-09

366

75 FR 30287 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail:...

2010-06-01

367

78 FR 52416 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S[atilde]o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email...

2013-08-23

368

75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2, BRASIL...Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2,...

2010-11-09

369

Reciclaje Sostenible de Botellas de PET en Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo presenta un estudio de caso exitoso implementado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, evidenciando la utilización de un instrumento basado en el mercado con el propósito de perfeccionar la calidad de los servicios de aseo urbano de la ciudad. En esto estudio de caso se demuestra la viabilidad técnica y económica del proceso de reciclaje de

Luiz Edmundo Costa Leite; José Henrique Penido Monteiro

2003-01-01

370

Modeling the Impact of Tuberculosis Control Strategies in Highly Endemic Overcrowded Prisons  

E-print Network

Modeling the Impact of Tuberculosis Control Strategies in Highly Endemic Overcrowded Prisons Judith, Fundac¸a~o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in prisons (2008) Modeling the Impact of Tuberculosis Control Strategies in Highly Endemic Overcrowded Prisons. PLo

371

CARACTERíSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA COM ÊNFASE NA FIABILlDADE DE CULTIVARES DE ALGODÃO HERBÁCEO DO MERCOSUL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Com o objetivo de se estudar as características tecnológicas da fibra, inclusive a fiabilidade de cultivares de algodão herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch) cultivadas nos países do Mercosul, um ensaio internacional foi instalado no município de Ipanguaçu, RN, em 199.8, envolvendo dez cultivares provenientes da Argentina, Brasil, Bolívia e Paraguai. Quatorze características da fibra foram investigadas, sendo

FARIAS DE SANTANA; JOAQUIM NUNES DA COSTA; LUIZ PAULO DE CARVALH; ROBSON DE MACÊDO; JOSÉ EDILSON OLIVEIRA ANDRADE

372

Broadening the scope of regulation: a prerequisite for a positive contribution of transgenic crop use to sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ex-ante regulation of transgenic crop use generally prevails, before the authorization of commercial release. This kind of regulation addresses the concerns of biosafety and coexistence, under pressure of pros and\\/or cons of GMO. After fifteen years of large scale use of transgenic crops (notably soybean and cotton) in various countries (USA, China, Brasil, India...), ecological and economic phenomena are observed

Michel Fok

2010-01-01

373

Gravity and magnetic anomalies and the deep structure of the Parnaiba cratonic basin, Brazil  

E-print Network

Gravity and magnetic anomalies and the deep structure of the Parnaiba cratonic basin, Brazil A. B. Watts and S. L. Fontes (Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) Cratonic basins comprise profile across the Parnaiba cratonic basin in NorthEast Brazil. The purpose of this project is to acquire

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

374

Toward Standardization in Privacy-Preserving Data Mining Stanley R. M. Oliveira1,2  

E-print Network

Toward Standardization in Privacy-Preserving Data Mining Stanley R. M. Oliveira1,2 and Osmar R, Edmonton, Canada, T6G 2E8 2 Embrapa Informática Agropecuária Av. André Tosello, 209 13083-886 - Campinas, SP, Brasil Abstract. Issues about privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM) have emerged globally

Zaiane, Osmar R.

375

Estados Unidos y cuatro países de América Latina se unen para combatir el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) de Estados Unidos formalizó esta semana alianzas bilaterales con los gobiernos de Argentina, Brasil, México y Uruguay, para acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana de Estados Unidos y de América Latina y mejorar la investigación del cáncer.

376

CERIMNIA DO 25 ANIVERSRIO DO LABORATRIO DE INTEGRAO E TESTES DO INPE  

E-print Network

órgão de execução para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas espaciais, no âmbito civil", no Brasil a responsabilidade pelo projeto, fabricação, integração e operação de 4 satélites, bem como a implantação da

377

AUDITORA SOCIAL EN EMPRESA BRASILEA TRANSNACIONAL DEL SECTOR PECUARIO QUE ACTA  

E-print Network

­ UFF ­ Rio de Janeiro ­ Brasil fatimapinel@vm.uff.br Palabras Clave: Informe Anual, Responsabilidad siguientes ítems: formación de Capital Social, la provisión para pagamento de pasivo laboral, civil y con sus stakehoders. Palabras Clave: Informe Anual, Responsabilidad Social, Au

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 95 PISSODES CASTANEUS (DE GEER, 1775) (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE), THE  

E-print Network

triggers within plantations. Thus, during the planning of a forest management program, it is necessary-000 - Colombo, Paraná, Brasil ABSTRACT The risk of introduction of exotic forest pests is a global problem and was introduced into Argentina and Uruguay and recently into Brazil where it was first recorded in Rio Grande do

379

O mercado de carbono como instrumento de conservação da floresta amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho analisa a questão ambiental presente nas políticas públicas para a região amazônica, incluindo a Lei de Gestão de Florestas Públicas (Lei 11.284\\/06), sancionada com o objetivo de regulamentar a gestão de florestas públicas no Brasil e promover o desenvolvimento sustentável. O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL) do Protocolo de Kyoto é sugerido como instrumento de conservação florestal. Por

Mariano Rua Lamarca Junior; Cesar Roberto Leite da Silva

2008-01-01

380

Mudanças estruturais incluídas no WAIS-III: três novos subtestes e quatro Índices fatoriais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar as principais características dos novos subtestes e domínios (Índices fatoriais) tanto na versão americana quanto na adaptada para uso no Brasil, do teste WAIS-III. Três subtestes foram incluídos (Raciocínio Matricial, Seqüência de Números e Letras e Procurar Símbolos) com o objetivo de aumentar a medida do raciocínio fluido, memória de trabalho e

Elizabeth do Nascimento

381

POTENCIAL GE OTURÍST ICO D A PAISAGEM CÁRSTICA GEOTOURISTIC P OTENTIAL OF THE KARSTIC LANDSCAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O geoturismo é um segmento emergente do turismo de natureza, sendo motivado pelo meio físico. A diversidade de elementos da paisagem cárstica a coloca como uma das mais propícias para o desenvolvimento do geoturismo. Este potencial é evidenciado no Brasil, país com grande expressividade territorial de rochas carstificáveis. Desta forma, o presente artigo investigou as possibilidades do geoturismo em

Heros Augusto; Santos Lobo; César Ulisses; Vieira Veríssimo; William Sallun Filho; Luiz Afonso; Vaz Figueiredo; Marcelo Augusto Rasteiro

382

UMA ANÁLISE DO CUSTO DE VIAGEM PARA A PRAIA DA AVENIDA EM MACEIÓ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cidade de Maceió em Alagoas constitui uma cidade litorânea da Região Nordeste do Brasil dotada de beleza natural tais como praias e lagoas, as quais constituem atrativos para o turismo tanto nacional como internacional. Todavia, nesta o crescimento do setor turístico tem sido afetado pela poluição dos recursos ambientais, mais especificamente o despejo do esgoto em praias e lagoas.

Eliane Aparecida Pereira De Abreu; Agnaldo Gomes da Silva; Gilberto Gomes Da Silva Junior; Rebecca Suzannah Nascimento De Melo

2008-01-01

383

Industria, Comercio Exterior y Desarrollo en Argentina y Mercosur, 1976-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analizamos la evolucion de la industria, el comercio exterior y el turismo en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, durante la decada 1990-2000. Se presentan modelos econometricos que muestran el importante impacto positivo que el crecimiento industrial tiene sobre el PIB, y se analiza la contribucion del comercio exterior y de los ingresos por turismo el desarrollo. Los resultados muestran que

Rodrigo J. Gardella; Federico J. Lupo

2003-01-01

384

Chemical and biological studies on Licania genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the phytochemical and biological studies carried out on several species of the Licania genus (Chrysobalanaceae). This genus includes many species mainly distributed in neotropical South American countries such as Venezuela, Brasil, and Mexico, most of them not yet investigated from the chemical and biological point of view. The name Licania derives from the anagram of the indigenous

Alessandra Braca; Anna Rita Bilia; Jeannette Mendez; Cosimo Pizza; Ivano Morelli; Nunziatina de Tommasi

2003-01-01

385

A Trust-Region Method for Unconstrained Multiobjective Problems ...  

E-print Network

May 19, 2013 ... of the scalar trust-region method, we prove that our trust-region method gener- ates a sequence ... by CNPq - Brasil. †This author's research was partially supported by CNPq. 1 ...... aspects (a more quantitative view). ..... multi-objective trust-region method, expected advantages to change are mk(0)?mk(dk).

2013-05-19

386

Elementos de política, riesgos ante el cambio climático, complementariedad entre las FNCE y el sin, y costos indicativos de las FNCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presentan y analizan las experiencias internacionales en políticas para el desarrollo de las FNCE en la Unión Europea y en varios países de la Unión (Alemania, España y Croacia). También se presentan y analizan estas experiencias en varios países de América Latina (Méjico, Perú y Brasil). En el capítulo tercero, se analizan elementos de política en

Ernesto Torres; José Maria Rincón; Edinson Lozano

2011-01-01

387

Revue de presse hebdomadaire 21 27 novembre 2011  

E-print Network

­ Domingo 27 de noviembre de 2011 1989: UNA MIRADA �NICA Buscadores de oro (Fotografía Sebastião Salgado entrega dirigía el foco a los últimos buscadores de oro en Sierra Pelada (Brasil). Locos por el fútbol

Rennes, Université de

388

ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES  

E-print Network

, Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Rochester, NY, USA 3 Institute of Health and Society Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo Brasil 12 of Preventive Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea 14 The Generation R Study Group

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Quim. Nova, Vol. 25, Supl. 1, 7-11, 2002 *e-mail: amozeto@dq.ufscar.br  

E-print Network

, 13083-970 Campinas - SP ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY IN BRASIL. Defining environmental chemistry of a classical textbook of Environmental Chemistry, this branch could be defined as the one centered in the study shows that environmental chemistry is a multi-inter disciplinary science by nature; therefore, it needs

Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

390

Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1–1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial

Christopher Potter; Vanessa Brooks Genovese; Steven Klooster; Matthew Bobo; Alicia Torregrosa

2001-01-01

391

Trabalho emocional: o caso dos teleatendentes de uma central de atendimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo desta pesquisa empírica sobre o trabalho e as manifestações de adoecimento em uma empresa de telecomunicações é demonstrar a necessidade de trabalho emocional, de acordo com os conceitos de Hochschild (1983) na execução de tarefas pelos teleatendentes. Tais conceitos ainda não foram devidamente explorados no Brasil, apesar de muito utilizados em diversos países. O estudo utiliza-se de dados

Lailah Vasconcelos; Ada Ávila Assunção

2007-01-01

392

SELEÇÃO PRECOCE DE CLONES DE BATATA PARA CARACTERES DO TUBÉRCULO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Nos últimos anos, foi despertado um grande interesse para o pr ocessamento da batata na forma de fritura no Brasil. Visando à obtenção de culti- vares nacionais que atendam aos padrões de qualidade culinária exigidos pelas indústrias de processamento, os programas de melhoramento de batata têm estabelecido estratégias para a redução de custos e de tempo. Reali- zou-se

GEOVANI BERNARDO AMARO; CÉSAR AUGUSTO; BRASIL PEREIRA; EDUARDO DE SOUZA LAMBERT; LEITE MARTINS

393

FIFTH EDITION CEC-300-2005-001-ED5F  

E-print Network

. Payment Claim Process 29 9. System Operation 29 10. Program Evaluation 30 B. SPECIAL FUNDING.B. Blevins Executive Director Tony Brasil Supervisor EMERGING RENEWABLES PROGRAM Bill Blackburn Lead EMERGING. WHAT SYSTEM COSTS ARE ELIGIBLE? 24 #12;B. WHAT COSTS ARE NOT ELIGIBLE? 24 VIII. SPECIAL FUNDING 25 A

394

FOURTH EDITION JANUARY 2005  

E-print Network

. Payment Claim Process 29 9. System Operation 29 10. Program Evaluation 30 B. SPECIAL FUNDING. Therkelsen, Executive Director Tony Brasil, Supervisor EMERGING RENEWABLES PROGRAM Payam Narvand, Acting Lead. WHAT SYSTEM COSTS ARE ELIGIBLE? 24 #12;B. WHAT COSTS ARE NOT ELIGIBLE? 24 VIII. SPECIAL FUNDING 25 A

395

The impact of the Brazilian Science without Borders programme on  

E-print Network

The impact of the Brazilian Science without Borders programme on university internationalization without Borders Programme National Development Strategy �Massive investment in education & research skills. #12;Science without Border... in Italy A NEW WAY OF LOOKING AT BRASIL �Boost in interest in Italy

Di Pillo, Gianni

396

Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

2009-06-01

397

Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels  

SciTech Connect

Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

Baptista, Tatyana S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto Butantan Av Vital Brasil 1500 05503-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G. [Instituto Butantan Av Vital Brasil 1500 05503-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2009-06-03

398

2013 by Delma Pessanha Neves e Leonilde Servolo de Medeiros (organizadoras) Direitos desta edio reservados s Organizadoras.  

E-print Network

­ Doutoranda no PPGA/UFF Rodrigo Pennutt da Cruz ­ Mestrando no PPGA /UFF M956 Mulheres camponesas: trabalho). ­ Niterói : Alternativa, 2013. 431 p. ; 23 cm. ISBN 978-85-63749-07-9 1. Mulheres do Campo ­ Brasil. 2. Mulheres ­ Sociologia. I. Neves, Delma Pes- sanha. II. Medeiros, Leonilde Servolo. CDD 305

Boyer, Edmond

399

A Gestão Estratégica das Instituições de Ensino Superior: uma contribuição ao melhor desempenho no caso brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O crescimento no número de instituições de Ensino Superior no Brasil tem provocado inadequações, decorrentes da má gestão e do baixo comprometimento em relação à qualidade do processo educacional. O não alinhamento da educação superior com políticas de desenvolvimento e a falta de uma efetiva regulamentação institucional, no atendimento às demandas regionais, representam uma grave dispersão de esforços e

Alfredo Colenci Júnior; Ana Lúcia Spigolon; Marco Anselmo de Godoi; Maria Elizete Luz Sáes

400

Exotic Nuclei in South America  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R. [Instituto de Fisica da USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 (Brazil); Assuncao, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Unifesp, Campus de Diadema, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

2010-08-04

401

Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

1985-01-01

402

Caracterização da Clientela das Clínicas-Escola de Cursos de Psicologia da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre Client's Profile of University's Psychology Clinics from Porto Alegre's Metropolitan Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo São diversos os estudos sobre a caracterização da clientela de clínicas-escola de Psicologia no Brasil. Todavia, há escassez de pesquisas desta natureza no Rio Grande do Sul. Este trabalho se propõe a realizar uma pesquisa de levantamento das características sociodemográficas e clínicas da população que buscou atendimento em 2004 nas dez clínicas-escola da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. É

Paula von Mengden Campezatto; Maria Lúcia Tiellet Nunes

403

CARLOS FRANCO Nace en Madrid en 1951  

E-print Network

, Costa Rica. Carlos Franco, Puerto Rico. Carlos Franco, Museo Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brasil. Carlos-2000. Harenes, comidas y paisajes. Centro Cultural del Conde Duque, Madrid. Elaboración de la escultura Maternidad ­ Madre para la XVII convocatoria del Premio Penagos de Dibujo, Fundación Cultural Mapfre Vida

404

Indicadores fiscales en América Latina y el Caribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación, basada en un documento de trabajo con el mismo nombre, discute las finanzas públicas y las innovaciones presupuestarias, incluye comparaciones internacionales en América Latina y evolución del Gobierno Central. Contiene ejemplos de Brasil, Chile y México. Esta presentación fue realizada en la 6ta Reunión Hemisférica de la Red de Gestión Pública y Transparencia del Diálogo Regional de Política

Ricardo Martner

2005-01-01

405

LOS DESAFÍOS DE LA GESTIÓN INTEGRADA DE CUENCAS Y RECURSOS HÍDRICOS EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE  

Microsoft Academic Search

En prácticamente todos los países de la región las nuevas leyes de aguas que se formulan luego de más de 30 a 40 años de promulgadas, algunas ya aprobadas como la de México, Brasil, Venezuela y Perú y otras en debate como la del Ecuador, tienen sendos artículos que establecen la creación de organizaciones de gestión de recursos hídricos por

Axel C. Dourojeanni

2010-01-01

406

Células-tronco embrionárias: implicações bioéticas e jurídicasa Embrionyc stem-cells: bioethical and legal implications Células troncales embrionarias: implicaciones bioéticas e legales  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A pesquisa e terapia com as células-tronco embrionárias, reguladas no Brasil pela Lei de Biossegurança são fontes de questionamentos controversos nos aspectos bioético, moral e jurídico porque resultam na destruição de embriões. Com seus princípios e paradigmas, a Bioética con- tribui para a compreensão de eventuais benefícios que a terapia celular poderá trazer para a medicina. As grandes questões

Delci Gomes

407

Ecological Applications, 14(4) Supplement, 2004, pp. S299S312 2004 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

Department of Geography, 315 Natural Science Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 USA 2Geography and Earth Science Department, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, Pennsylvania-Bahia-Brasil, Cep.44.380­000 5IMAZON, Bele´m, Brazil Abstract. This paper presents the prototype of a predictive

Walker, Robert T.

408

O que pretendemos fazer nos prximos anos  

E-print Network

Intensity(CPS) AFM XPS #12;14 Rationale Passivação de Si �xidos nanoestruturados Traçagem isotópica IBA XPS;16 IBA 2011 no Brasil! #12;17 XPS, LEIS #12;18 FIB #12;19 Tomografia MRS Bulletin, vol. 32, May 2007. #12

dos Santos, C.A.

409

Comportamento espectral de fitofisionomias do Cerrado e desenvolvimento de ndices utilizando bandas sintticas derivadas de Modelos Lineares de Mistura Espectral  

E-print Network

, Brasil sano@cpac.embrapa.br Abstract. The Cerrado biome covers more than two million km² in the central region of Brazil. It is the second largest biome in this country, presenting rich biodiversity. Remote. This paper analyzes the behavior of vegetation cover in the Cerrado biome through the Landsat5/TM spectral

Hammerton, James

410

Curriculum Vitae Elena Cherkaev  

E-print Network

1400 East, JWB 233 Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Phone: (801) 581 7315, Fax: (801) 581 4148, e­mail: elena ­ August 8, 2003, Salt Lake City, UT ffl SIAM representative and Co­organizer: Sixth International University, Palo Alto, 1998; University of Bath, England, 1997; University of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1997

Cherkaev, Elena

411

Earth System History Geochronology: The ages and origins of rocks  

E-print Network

determinations (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-Pb) #12;How do we know what is older than what? Start with simple observations Relative ages of things "What came before?" #12;$200. The world's most expensive sandwich! #12 Maranhenses National Park, Maranhao, Brasil. #12;#12;Steno's Three Laws for sedimentary rocks: 1

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

412

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA CENTRO DE CINCIAS BIOLGICAS  

E-print Network

final. X. NOVA AVALIA��O Será solicitada dispensa desta avaliação conforme normas vigentes XI Angeles. 789pp. PINEDO, M.C.; ROSAS, F.W.C & MARMONTEL, M. 1992. Cetáceos e Pinípedes do Brasil. UNEP

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

413

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014�o. A confer�ncia Adaptation Futures 2014 buscou atingir o sucesso da primeira confer�ncia Climate Adaptation PROVIA, a confer�ncia Adaptation Futures 2014 foi realizada em Fortaleza, Cear�, Brasil. Essa confer

414

Granulados bioclásticos: algas calcárias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os granulados bioclásticos marinhos, no Brasil, são formados principalmente por algas calcárias (Maerl e Lithothamnium, na França). Apenas as formas livres (free-living) das algas calcárias, tais como rodolitos, nódulos, e seus fragmentos, são viáveis para a exploração econômica, pois constituem depósitos sedimentares inconsolidados, facilmente coletados através de dragagens. As algas calcárias são compostas basicamente por carbonato de cálcio e carbonato

Gilberto T. M. Dias

2000-01-01

415

ANÁLISE DA EFICIÊNCIA ECONÔMICA DOS PRODUTORES DE LEITE NO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

O aumento da eficiência produtiva e econômica é fator decisivo para a competitividade do setor leiteiro que, produzindo com menor custo, beneficiará toda a cadeia do leite. Dessa maneira, a unidade de produção pode ter, na eficiência produtiva, a condição necessária para a sobrevivência e o crescimento dentro da economia de mercado. Considerado o maior produtor de leite do Brasil,

Andre Luis Ribeiro Lima; Ricardo Pereira Reis; Luiz Eduardo Gaio; Fabricio Teixeira Andrade; Claudia Salgado Gomes

2008-01-01

416

White-tailed Deer Browse Preferences for South Texas and the Edwards Plateau  

E-print Network

snailseed Flameleaf sumac Guajillo Mountain mahogany Chinqapin oak Fragrant mimosa Honey mesquite Plum Clematis Hogplum Javelinabush Rusty blackhaw Elbowbush Live oak Little walnut Shrubby boneset Elm Littleleaf sumac Lotebush Texas madrone Ephedra.... High Moderate Low Least Used Chomonque Bluewood (Brasil) Blackbrush Agarito Elbowbush Catclaw acacia Cenizo Allthorn Ephedra Guayacan Desert yaupon Amargosa Fourwing saltbush Guajillo Hogplum Coyotillo...

Wright, Byron D.; Lyons, Robert K.; Cooper, Susan; Cathey, James

2003-01-06

417

AVALIAÇÃO DAS DEMANDAS E OFERTAS HÍDRICAS NA BACIA DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO USANDO MODELO DE REDE DE FLUXO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Estima-se, atualmente, que existam no Brasil cerca de três milhões de hectares irrigados e algo em torno de 355.000 hectares de área irrigada na bacia do rio São Francisco. Sendo a irrigação considerada um uso consuntivo, grande parte da água empregada fica indisponível para a produção de energia e demais usos. O abastecimento humano, a dessedentação animal e o

Alan Vaz Lopes; Marcos Airton de Sousa Freitas

418

Los estudios transnacionales y las adopciones (o trafico?) de niños y niñas. Algunas reflexiones a partir de la experiencia argentina. Transnational Studies and adoptions (or Trafficking?) of children. Some reflections about Argentinian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La provincia argentina de Misiones, situada en el noroeste del país y que limita con Brasil y Paraguay, ha sido históricamente un lugar privilegiado para adoptar niños rápidamente, de manera legal o no, por medio de procedimientos que son siempre sospechados de constituir \\

Mónica Tarducci

419

Non-conventional application of AC drives - Use of AC drives in emergency systems. Case study: tilting system of torpedo car in CST BOF shop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, variable speed drives (VSD's) are very often used in many industrial systems, but almost always in traditional applications. This paper describes the successful application of VSD's in the CST-Arcelor Brasil torpedo car tilting system in the basic oxygen furnace BOF (steelmaking plant), in normal operation condition and also in emergency system condition during blackouts. The electrical system uses a

P. H. Zanandrea; A. C. V. Goncalves; E. V. Ardisson; E. V. Dias; J. F. Campos; E. D. Gomes

2006-01-01

420

As influências do positivismo e do higienismo nos primórdios da Educação Física Brasileira e na Ginástica Nacional Br asileira (capoeira) The influences of positivism and hygienism in the first stages of Brazilian Physical Education and in Brazilian National Gymnastics (capoeira) Las influencias del positivismo y del higienismo en las primeras etapas de la Educación Física Brasileña y en la Gimnástica Nacional Brasileña (capoeira)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho analisa as influências dos pensamentos filosóficos do positivismo e do higienismo nos primórdios da Educação Física e da Capoeira no Brasil. Trata-se do resultado de uma pesquisa histórica baseada em fontes primárias. Os parâmetros metodo- lógicos tiveram como referencial analítico os estudos de documentos encontrados em arquivos públicos, bem como de levantamentos bibliográficos e estudos correlacionais. Tem

Sergio Luiz de Souza

421

Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had moderate severity (58.9%), thus requiring intervention. Type A reactions were the most common (82.1%). At least one predisposing factor was present in 79.9% of the reports examined, and the most common predisposing factor was polypharmacy. Conclusions The results obtained will contribute to the development of strategies for the pharmacovigilance service at HGP and other hospitals throughout the country, which will improve the quality of ADR reporting and ensure safer drug use in Brazilian hospitals. PMID:23298396

2013-01-01

422

Potential geodynamic relationships between the development of peripheral orogens along the northern margin of Gondwana and the amalgamation of West Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian evolution of peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Avalonia, Carolinia, Cadomia) along the northern (Amazonia, West Africa) margin of Gondwana provides insights into the amalgamation of West Gondwana. The main phase of tectonothermal activity occurred between ca. 640-540 Ma and produced voluminous arc-related igneous and sedimentary successions related to subduction beneath the northern Gondwana margin. Subduction was not terminated by continental collision so that these terranes continued to face an open ocean into the Cambrian. Prior to the main phase of tectonothermal activity, Sm-Nd isotopic studies suggest that the basement of Avalonia, Carolinia and part of Cadomia was juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga within the peri-Rodinian (Mirovoi) ocean. Vestiges of primitive 760-670 Ma arcs developed upon this lithosphere are preserved. Juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga also underlies arcs formed in the Brazilide Ocean between the converging Congo/São Francisco and West Africa/Amazonia cratons (e.g. the Tocantins province of Brazil). Together, these juvenile arc assemblages with similar isotopic characteristics may reflect subduction in the Mirovoi and Brazilide oceans as a compensation for the ongoing breakup of Rodinia and the generation of the Paleopacific. Unlike the peri-Gondwanan terranes, however, arc magmatism in the Brazilide Ocean was terminated by continent-continent collisions and the resulting orogens became located within the interior of an amalgamated West Gondwana. Accretion of juvenile peri-Gondwanan terranes to the northern Gondwanan margin occurred in a piecemeal fashion between 650 and 600 Ma, after which subduction stepped outboard to produce the relatively mature and voluminous main arc phase along the periphery of West Gondwana. This accretionary event may be a far-field response to the breakup of Rodinia. The geodynamic relationship between the closure of the Brazilide Ocean, the collision between the Congo/São Francisco and Amazonia/West Africa cratons, and the tectonic evolution of the peri-Gondwanan terranes may be broadly analogous to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic closure of the Tethys Ocean, the collision between India and Asia beginning at ca. 50 Ma, and the tectonic evolution of the western Pacific Ocean.

Murphy, J. Brendan; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Nance, R. Damian

2013-10-01

423

Mutual evaluation of global gravity models (EGM2008 and GOCE) and terrestrial data in Amazon Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity observations of the satellite GOCE have a global homogeneous coverage and precision. This data set constitutes an independent new tool to control the quality of terrestrial gravity data. Terrestrial data reach higher resolution and precision, but can be affected by errors due to factors such as different vertical geodetic datums, wrong position in latitude and longitude, geodynamic effects and gravimeter drift, which tends to accumulate over long distances. Terrestrial data recover gravity signals at shorter wavelengths compared to the GOCE satellite, but the average gravity anomaly values can be compared to the GOCE derived values which are bandlimited to lower frequencies. We consider the area of the Amazon Craton, and in particular the Solimões, Amazon and Parnaiba Basins, and part of the Tocantins and São Francisco Provinces in Brazil, to estimate the systematic errors in terrestrial gravity data. We calculate the average terrestrial gravity anomaly by spatial averages applying Gaussian, inverse distance and simple averages, which allows to compare the long- and medium-wavelength part of the terrestrial gravity anomalies with the gravity field derived from GOCE. We also consider the combined satellite-terrestrial model EGM2008 up to degree and order 250 (i.e. maximum expansion from satellite GOCE). The results show that the systematic errors range from about -28.1 to 25.2 mGal with a standard deviation value of 6.4 mGal. The mean value over the study area is about zero, obtaining 0.27 mGal difference between the Gaussian average of the terrestrial gravity data and the gravity data from the GOCE satellite-only model and is smaller than the commission error associated to the geopotential model. Also, we verified that 64.8 per cent of the study area does not present systematic errors, as their difference is within the commission error of 5.1 mGal of the GOCE model in the harmonic expansion up to degree 250. The comparison of the terrestrial data with the model EGM2008 gives slightly smaller differences, which can be attributed to the fact that the EGM2008 contains terrestrial data. The results vary only slightly according to the type of averaging used, with improved values for the Gaussian average. The analysis also shows where the terrestrial data are scarce and require an improvement in data coverage in order to correctly represent the gravity field. The method we propose can be directly used to control other gravity databases and constitutes a tool for the quality assessment of terrestrial gravity observations.

Bomfim, E. P.; Braitenberg, C.; Molina, E. C.

2013-11-01

424

Agricultural land use changes in Amazonia since the mid-1990s: preliminary results of merging agricultural census data with satellite reflectances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of our research within the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), we are developing a time series of the spatial distribution and abundance of major agricultural activities within the Amazon and Tocantins basins. In previous papers, we have described a new method for integrating land cover classifications from remote sensors with land use information from agricultural censuses. These fused data products, available for the mid-1980s and mid-1990s at five minute (9 km) resolution, have much of the spatial detail of the satellite information and useful attribute detail from censuses; they show snapshots of the density of cropland, natural pasture, and planted pasture across Amazonia in these two periods. In this presentation we extend, refine, and update the time series in two major ways. Because the initial method for merging land use and land cover information used already-created land cover classifications as input, it was limited by both the classification accuracy and the similarity of land cover classes to the agricultural categories of cropland and pasture. In a sense the products relied, of necessity, on uncertainties in the mapped land cover classes as a basis for the fusion. Additionally, half a decade has passed since the nominal snapshot date of the latest land use map product. Here we present the preliminary results of merging unclassified raw satellite imagery with agricultural census data. In particular, we explore the ability of weekly NDVI composites from the mid-1990s to identify areas of known land use during the period. By investigating the relationship between density of agricultural area and composite reflectances we expect to train the classifier to identify likely agricultural land use areas within Amazonia. The adopted technique differs from typical classification algorithms that identify "pure" pixels of desired classes and seek similar characteristics in the image. Instead, the method simultaneously considers the relation between reflectance characteristics and agricultural census values across administrative units, and optimizes the relation between them to produce the classification. Where this relationship is strong, we also present an update of land use patterns for the past year to identify likely land use changes in the region.

Cardille, J. A.

2001-12-01

425

El Niño-Southern oscillation and the climate, ecosystems and rivers of Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is one of the dominant drivers of environmental variability in the tropics. In this study, we examine the connections between ENSO and the climate, ecosystem carbon balance, surface water balance, and river hydrology of the Amazon and Tocantins river basins in South America. First we examine the climatic variability associated with ENSO. We analyze long-term historical climate records to document the "average" climatic signature of the El Niño and La Niña phases of the ENSO cycle. Generally speaking, the "average El Niño" is drier and warmer than normal in Amazonia, while the "average La Niña" is wetter and cooler. While temperature changes are mostly uniform through the whole year and are spatially homogeneous, precipitation changes are stronger during the wet season (January-February-March) and are concentrated in the northern and southeastern portions of the basin. Next we use a land surface/ecosystem model (IBIS), coupled to a hydrological routing algorithm (HYDRA), to examine how ENSO affects land surface water and carbon fluxes, as well as changes in river discharge and flooding. The model results suggest several responses to ENSO: (1) During the average El Niño, there is an anomalous source of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems, mainly due to a decreased net primary production (NPP) in the north of the basin. There is also a decrease in river discharge along many of the rivers in the basin, which causes a decrease in flooded area along the main stem of the Amazon. (2) During the average La Niña, there is an anomalous sink of CO2 into terrestrial ecosystems, largely due to an increase in NPP in the northern portion of the basin. In addition, there is a large increase in river discharge in the Amazon basin, especially from the northern and western tributaries. There is a corresponding increase in flooded area, largely in the northern rivers. These results illustrate that changes in water and carbon balance associated with ENSO have complex, spatially heterogeneous features across the basin. This underscores the need for comprehensive analyses, using long-term observational data and model simulations, of regional environmental systems and their response to climatic variability.

Foley, Jonathan A.; Botta, AuréLie; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos Heil

2002-12-01

426

Crustal thickness and structure of Precambrian South America from receiver function analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other Precambrian regions of the Earth, relatively few and only local geophysical studies have targeted the Precambrian portion of South America. Considering the size of this region (about 10^{7} km2), this means a major piece for understanding of the Earth's early history is somewhat unresolved. Here we analyse new data of 13 strategically placed temporary broadband seismometers, deployed in different tectonic regions of eastern Brazil to fill gaps in seismic data coverage in the South American craton. We compute receiver functions (RF) from these data, and analyse them using two gridsearch methods (Zhu and Kanamori, 2000; Van der Meijde et al., 2003) to obtain the crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio beneath the station locations. We combine our results with constraints from previous RF studies, to provide the most comprehensive set of geophysical constraints of Precambrian crust in South America to date. The large number of locations (56) means we can reliably estimate trends in the crust that occur over time or in different geological settings. Averaging at 41.0 km, the thickest crust is found in sediment covered intracratonic basin regions. However, we also observe the largest variability in crustal thickness in these regions. The other two tectonic settings we distinguish, exposed shields and fold belts, have very similar average crustal thicknesses of 37.9 and 38.0 km, respectively. We see no systematic behaviour of crustal thickness with time, in particular there is no significant difference in crustal thickness between Archean and Proterozoic regions. The Poisson's ratio does, unlike crustal thickness, appear to increase in younger crust. Compared to Crust2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000), our results deviate as much as 10 km. This is caused by underestimating the crustal thickness in the Parana basin and some stations on the eastern margin; the crust is not as uniformly thin there as predicted by Crust2.0. Conversely, in the Tocantins orogenic region and at northern locations the crust is actually thinner and again laterally more variable than the predicted values.

Lloyd, S. M.; van der Lee, S.; França, G. S.; Assumpção, M.

2006-12-01

427

Water balance of the Amazon Basin: Dependence on vegetation cover and canopy conductance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability and geographic distribution of fresh water resources may undergo significant changes in response to global environmental change. In this study, we examine the water balance of the Amazon Basin using a modified version of the LSX land surface model [Pollard and Thompson, 1995; Thompson and Pollard, 1995a, b] which includes a representation of land surface processes, canopy physiology (stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis), and continental-scale hydrological routing. The model operates on a 0.5°C by 0.5°C grid and is forced with observed long-term climatological data. As an initial application of the model, we examine the seasonal variability of water balance within the Amazon Basin. The simulation is evaluated by comparing (1) simulated evapotranspiration with observations for different vegetation cover types and (2) simulated river discharge against the long-term records of 56 fluviometric stations spread throughout the basin. The model results show that evapotranspiration is strongly dependent on the vegetation cover, especially during the rainy season. Overall, we find good agreement between the simulated and the observed water balance: for most of the fluviometric stations the error is less than 25%. In addition, we perform a model sensitivity study to determine the role of changes in vegetation cover on the water balance, without considering feedbacks on climate. When forests, woodlands, and savannas are replaced with grasslands, annual average evapotranspiration decreases by ~0.5mmd-1 (~12%), which is comparable to observations. Finally, we perform a model sensitivity study in order to assess the potential physiological effects of increased CO2 on stomatal (canopy) conductance and, as a consequence, on the water balance of the Amazon Basin, again without considering feedbacks on the atmosphere. The model results suggest that doubling atmospheric CO2 concentrations (from 325 to 650 ppmv) would decrease the canopy conductance by 20 to 35% (depending on the vegetation type) and would decrease evapotranspiration by ~4% throughout the region. As a consequence, annual river discharge increases by between 3% and 16.5%, depending on the position within the basin. At the mouth of the Amazon and Tocantins Rivers, annual discharge increases by 5 and 9%, respectively.

Heil Costa, Marcos; Foley, Jonathan A.

428

Regional Seismic Tomography in Brazil and Uncertainty Evaluation Through Jackknife Re- Sampling Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the regional seismic tomography to study the upper mantle beneath SE and Central Brazil. This method is based on the inversion of P- and S-wave relative travel time residuals (VanDecar, 1991) obtained from more than 80 stations in an area of 20 x 20 degrees. The ~11000 P and PKP residuals and ~8000 S, ScS, SKS, and SKKS residuals have been obtained from waveform cross-correlations for up to 12 simultaneous stations. Our results show correlations of seismic anomalies with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. High velocity anomalies in the western portion of the Sao Francisco Craton support the hypothesis that this craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate. Low velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning. Assumpcao et al. (2004) showed a good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low velocity anomalies in this region. The slab of the Nazca Plate is observed as a high velocity anomaly beneath the Parana basin (at 700-1200 km depths). At these depths, large low velocity anomalies appear accompanying the slab. Synthetic tests show that these anomalies are artifacts of the inversion generated by the presence of the slab. We use the Jackknife re-sampling method to evaluate the robustness of the tomographic results with respect to the data. The main advantage is that it is not necessary to assume a particular error distribution, since the model variability is accessed directly from the data variability. The approach is based on a random removal of a small percentage of the data (1%) to generate various new subsets, which are inverted to evaluate the model variability. These local estimates include inherently the highly variable ray coverage and measurement errors and can provide confidence in the interpretation of anomalies. This measure should not be interpreted as the resolution. As expected, the Jackknife approach shows that the inversions are less robust at shallow depth and at the margins of the study volume. The model variability is also used as an additional criterion to determine the optimum number of iterations in the inversion.

Rocha, M. P.; Schimmel, M.; Assumpcao, M.

2007-05-01

429

Neoproterozoic evolution of the basement of the South-American platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic geologic and geotectonic processes were of utmost importance in forming and structuring the basement framework of the South-American platform. Two large domains with distinct evolutionary histories are identified with respect to the Neoproterozoic era: the northwest-west (Amazonian craton and surroundings) and the central-southeast (the extra-Amazonian domain). In the first domain, Neoproterozoic events occurred only locally and were of secondary significance, and the geologic events, processes, and structures of the pre-Neoproterozoic (and syn-Brasiliano) cratonic block were much more influential. In the second, the extra-Amazonian domain, the final evolution, structures and forms are assigned to events related to the development of a complex net of Neoproterozoic mobile belts. These in turn resulted in strong reworking of the older pre-Neoproterozoic basement. In this domain, four distinct structural provinces circumscribe or are separated by relatively small pre-Neoproterozoic cratonic nuclei, namely the Pampean, Tocantins, Borborema and Mantiqueira provinces. These extra-Amazonian provinces were formed by a complex framework of orogenic branching systems following a diversified post-Mesoproterozoic paleogeographic scenario. This scenario included many types of basement inliers as well as a diversified organization of accretionary and collisional orogens. The basement inliers date from the Archean to Mesoproterozoic periods and are different in nature. The escape tectonics that operated during the final consolidation stages of the provinces were important to and responsible for the final forms currently observed. These latest events, which occurred from the Late Ediacaran to the Early Ordovician, present serious obstacles to paleogeographic reconstructions. Two groups of orogenic collage systems are identified. The older system from the Tonian (>850 Ma) period is of restricted occurrence and is not fully understood due to strong reworking subsequent to Tonian times. The second group of orogenies is more extensive and more important. Its development began with diachronic taphrogenic processes in the Early Cryogenian period (ca. 850-750 Ma) and preceded a complex scenario of continental, transitional and oceanic basins. Subsequent orogenies (post 800 Ma) were also created by diachronic processes that ended in the Early Ordovician. More than one orogeny (plate interaction) can be identified either in space or in time in every province. The orogenic processes were not necessarily synchronous in different parts of the orogenic system, even within the same province. This particular group of orogenic collage events is known as the “Brasiliano”. All of the structural provinces of the extra-Amazonian domain exhibit final events that are marked by extrusion processes, are represented by long lineaments, and are fundamental to unraveling the structural history of the Phanerozoic sedimentary basins.

de Brito Neves, Benjamim Bley; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2013-11-01

430

Effect of dry-season biomass burning on Amazon basin aerosol concentrations and optical properties, 1992-1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol concentrations and properties have been derived from a network of ground-based Sun-sky radiometer measurements in Brazil's Amazon basin region since 1992. The measurements characterize the background aerosol environment and aerosol emissions from biomass burning at eight selected sites. The duration and frequency of the measurements provide the foundation of an aerosol climatology based on direct sun measurements of aerosol optical thickness and retrievals of size distribution from solar aureole measurements. The aerosol optical thickness measurements clearly illustrate that for sites located within regions of biomass burning the duration of smoke above background levels often exceeds 2 months and frequently at levels an order of magnitude above background. The aerosol optical thickness range during preburning conditions was 0.11 to 0.27 at 440 nm. Under these conditions, stratospheric aerosols from Pinatubo constituted a significant part of the signal in 1993 but were about 50% less in 1994. During the burning season, smoke elevated the aerosol optical thickness above 1.0 for seasonally averaged values measured at 440 nm at sites located in active source regions in Mato Grosso, Rondonia, and Tocantins states. The measurement sites are located in the cerrado and forest conversion areas. Analysis of the size distribution of the particles indicated that the increase in aerosol optical thickness was associated with an increase of an accumulation and coarse particle modes. The asymmetry factor "g", computed from the phase function, showed considerable spectral dependence between the preburning and burning seasonal phases. The 1020-nm channel was reduced from 0.66 to ˜0.53, while at 440 nm little seasonal phase variation was noted. Conditions of burning were sufficiently strong that the atmospheric conditions associated with the climatological definition of a dry season was subdivided into (1) preburning, (2) transition to burning, (3) burning, and (4) transition to wet season phases for most sites. Averages and frequency distributions were used to characterize each seasonal phase by site. Changes in total column water vapor amount, also retrieved from direct sun measurements, did not have an apparent effect on the optical properties of the aerosols.

Holben, B. N.; Setzer, A.; Eck, T. F.; Pereira, A.; Slutsker, I.

1996-08-01

431

The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where upland terra-firme forest develop. The youngest landsurfaces thus appear to lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion from a northward (Caribbean) outlet to a generally eastward, Atlantic Ocean outlet. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. The bird DNA data appears to confirm the role of Amazonian rivers as primary diversification barriers, and thus probably as promoters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers of apparently different ages ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

2011-12-01

432

Imaging the mantle tranzition zone beneath the South American platform using P- and S-wave receiver functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the Andean cordillera grab most of the seismological attention due to it's active tectonics, the stable platform is of mainly importance in understanding what could be considered the normal, out of anomaly earth and, may help to understand what are the final and long term results from such a dynamic process like subduction and other types of convergent and divergent plate boundaries interaction. During the last 15 year the Brazilian Lithospheric Seismological Project (BLSP) has been operating more than 60 temporary three-component broadband seismological stations, collecting seismological data mainly in the Brazilian part of the platform. The stations are mainly distributed from 35°W to 60°W and from 10°S to 25°S, covering most of the Parana basin, Tocantins fold beld, Ribeira fold belt and the San Francisco craton. Beyond this central region, there are still some stations distributed over the northern Brazilian margin, covering parts of the Amazon craton and the Parnaiba basin. To complement our dataset we use data from the GT/CPUP station (Vila Florinda/PY FDSN/IRIS). The processing steps included event selection, rotation to LQT coordinate system using an automatic algorithm based on diagonalization of the coherence matrix (for P-wave receiver function only) and deconvolution of the Q by L component for P-wave receiver function and L by Q for S-wave receiver function. The profile images were made by stacking the resulted receiver functions by piercing points locations following pre-defined lines crossing the main tectonic units. At each profile we highlighted the desired Ps and Sp conversion phase for each of the discontinuities and its time readings and errors were estimated by bootstrapping the traces during the stacking procedure. For drawing the conclusions we compared the times each other and with theoretical times computed from the IASPEI91 model and models that presented a ± 5% change in the P- and S-wave mantle velocities. The most important results observed are: 1) A clear cratonic signature, consisting of higher wave velocities for the mantle under the cratons and normal (410km and 660km) depths for the discontinuities 2) Strong presence of the Nazca subducted plate near 410 and 660 km discontinuities under the Southern part of the Parana basin 3) Lack of variation in the Transition Zone thickness and in the mantle velocities due to the presence of the possible plume proposed in 1995 by Vandecar at the Northern Parana basin region and 4) A possible transition zone thinning near the Matiqueira complex, at the Ribeira fold beld, near the Atlantic passive margin.

Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Assumpcao, M.; Kind, R.

2009-04-01

433

1674 -XIV Encuentro de Latinoamericanistas Espaoles DITADURA MILITAR NA  

E-print Network

1674 - XIV Encuentro de Latinoamericanistas Españoles DITADURA MILITAR NA AM�RICA LATINA E O, significativas decisões sobre o legado autoritário das ditaduras militares na América Latina das décadas de 1970 transição. No entanto, no Brasil, não só não houve responsabilização pelos crimes da ditadura, como há uma

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Tubular microporous alumina structure for demulsifying vegetable oil\\/water emulsions and concentrating macromolecular suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microstructure composed of alumina–silica (mullite, 3Al2O3·2SiO2) was molded into tubes to be used in a microfiltration process for separating water\\/vegetable oil emulsions and to concentrate macromolecular suspensions. The microporous tubes were produced by the precipitation method using raw material supplied by Rhodia do Brasil Ltda, and sintered at a final temperature of 1450°C. The microporous medium was characterized by

Sérgio R. Fontes; Viviane M. Silva Queiroz; Elson Longo; Marcus V. Antunes

2005-01-01

435

No h qualquer restrio reproduo total ou parcial desta publicao desde que citada a fonte. Tiragem de 2.500 exemplares  

E-print Network

, Jeferson Nepomuceno, Ana Carolina Bayer Fotografia dos entrevistados e edição: Marco Fernandes e Alex Costa Souza Revisão: Mônica Aggio Estagiários: Alex Costa Souza e Luanda Chaves Botelho Capa: Márcia Carnaval ­ Brasil. I. Título. CDD 371.81 #12;EQUIPE DO CACO ORGANIZA��O Alex Costa Souza, Carolina Clemente Bassim

Liu, I-Shih

436

ANÁLISE ESTRUTURAL DE PÓRTICOS PLANOS DE ELEMENTOS PRÉ-FABRICADOS DE CONCRETO CONSIDERANDO A DEFORMABILIDADE DAS LIGAÇÕES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os sistemas pré-fabricados vêm conquistando espaço em todo o Brasil. Dentre eles, os pórticos planos de elementos pré-fabricados de concreto com sistema estrutural para telhado de duas águas, comumente denominados de galpões, tem sido amplamente aplicados. Os galpões, como a maioria das estruturas pré-moldadas de concreto, apresentam suas ligações, em maior ou menor grau, deformáveis. Portanto, este artigo refere-se ao

Anamaria Malachini; Miotto Soares; João Bento de Hanai

437

2/13/2014 Moinhos de vento anexados ao celular recarregam bateria -EXAME.com http://exame.abril.com.br/tecnologia/noticias/cientistas-criam-moinhos-de-vento-que-recarregam-bateria 1/4  

E-print Network

Mercados Economia Brasil Mundo Tecnologia Marketing Carreira Seu Dinheiro PME Estilo Notícias | iPhone | i no iPhone 60 minutos Reprodução Smartphone | 12/01/2014 13:19 Comentários (0) Views (8.738) Imprimir Share 4 Salvar notícia Home / Tecnologia #12;2/13/2014 Moinhos de vento anexados ao celular recarregam

Chiao, Jung-Chih

438

Pas: Portugal Period.: Diria  

E-print Network

Primeiras imagens do iPhone 5S n Controlo parental nos Vaio da Sony n Apple conquista novas patentes n Apple portugueses falam do "New Style Bo... n iPhone tem uma app de visita guiada do Museu dos Coches n IDC!T School B!T Brasil Geral Indústrias Criativas Software Hardware Telemóveis BIT Pro Mac Jogos n iPhone

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

439

Geologia estrutural Haakon Fossen  

E-print Network

a Statoil Brasil apresenta a 1ª edição em português do livro Geologia Estrutural. Publicado pela primeira vez em inglês em 2010 pela editora britânica Cambridge Press, o livro tem como objetivo apresentar ao livro como este e decidiu subsidiar seus custos, sua tradução e produção. A Statoil é uma empresa de

Fossen, Haakon

440

Energy expenditure and intensity of physical activity in soccer referees during match-play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equiva- lent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005\\/2006.

Alberto Inácio da Silva; Luiz Cláudio Fernandes; Ricardo Fernandez

2008-01-01

441

UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DE INVESTIGACIONES TURSTICAS  

E-print Network

2008, que causó graves problemas a la economía mundial, afectando también el turismo. El impacto fue DIRECCI�N Y PLANIFICACI�N DEL TURISMO Ewerton Monti tonmonti@hotmail.com LA CRISIS ECON�MICA DE 2008 Y EL TURISMO: Análisis de efectos y medidas de respuesta en Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Alicante 2011 #12

Escolano, Francisco

442

TÉCNICAS DE OTIMIZAÇÃO NO PROCESSO DE APROVEITAMENTO DO PALHIÇO DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR PARA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA 1 Optimization Techniques for Processing Sugarcane Residual Biomass for Electric Energy Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A cana-de-açúcar é matéria-prima de grande flexibilidade. Com ela é possível produzir açúcar e álcool de vários tipos, fabricar alimentos e bebidas e gerar eletricidade. A cana pode ser completamente aproveitada: palhiço, bagaço, méis, torta e outros resíduos. Mas hoje a grande preocupação com esta cultura é o resíduo de colheita, pois é gerado em grande quantidade; no Brasil

Helenice de Oliveira Florentino; Socorro Rangel; Edmea Cássia Baptista

2007-01-01

443

Colquio Interinstitucional Modelos Estocsticos e Aplicaes  

E-print Network

ener- gias renováveis - usinas hidrelétricas sem reservatório, usinas eólicas e solares - a energia energia renovável A comercialização de energia elétrica no Brasil pode ser realizada em dois ambientes: um caso, se, no momento da entrega da energia, o gerador não for capaz de produzir o necessário, ele

Liu, I-Shih

444

Um Mtodo de Reconhecimento Sinttico de Caracteres para Identificao de Placas de Veculos  

E-print Network

­ 220 Goiânia, GO, Brasil dibio@eee.ufg.br Abstract. This paper proposes an automatic method system the preprocessing methods, necessary for solving the problem, are given here. The results present high quality alfanuméricos que compõem a placa de um veículo [Polidório e Borges (1996)], [Cowell (1995)] e [Nijhuis at al

445

Um Mtodo de Reconhecimento Sinttico de Caracteres para Identificao de Placas de Veculos  

E-print Network

- 220 Goiânia, GO, Brasil dibio@eee.ufg.br Abstract. This paper proposes an automatic method system the preprocessing methods, necessary for solving the problem, are given here. The results present high quality alfanuméricos que compõem a placa de um veículo [Polidório e Borges (1996)], [Cowell (1995)] e [Nijhuis at al

446

Effects of an induced drought on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and soil CO2 production in an Eastern  

E-print Network

in an Eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil E L E N E I D E D O F F S O T TA *, E D Z O V E L D K A M P *, L U I 66075900, Belem, PA, Brasil Abstract In the next few decades, climate of the Amazon basin is expected to change, as a result of deforestation and rising temperatures, which may lead to feedback mechanisms

Saleska, Scott

447

Phytochemical and antiprotozoal activity of Ocotea lancifolia.  

PubMed

Thirteen known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ocotea lancifolia, popularly known as < canela pilosa > in Brasil and < laurel né > by the Guarani people which means smell laurel. Their activities against the promastigote forms of three Leishmania strains and the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated, as well as their hepatocytotoxicity. Among them, the noraporphine alkaloid (-) caaverine has shown the most interesting antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania and T. cruzi parasites. PMID:17499454

Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Guy, Isabelle; Guinaudeau, Hélène; Heinzen, Horacio

2007-07-01

448

DEPARTAMENTO DE ECONOMIA MESTRADO EM ECONOMIA  

E-print Network

DEPARTAMENTO DE ECONOMIA MESTRADO EM ECONOMIA EDITAL DE CONVOCA��O ­ 2014 Estão abertas as inscrições para o Mestrado em Economia da PUC-Rio, a iniciar-se em janeiro de 2014. Para candidatos residentes no Brasil: A admissão é feita através do Exame Nacional de Economia, organizado pela ANPEC

449

Florianpolis 03 a 08 de dezembro de 2012  

E-print Network

a violência doméstica na América Latina. Direito da Mulher #12;Silêncio das Inocentes - Ique Gazzola (Brasil, que alterou o Código Penal Brasileiro, permitindo que agressores de mulheres no âmbito doméstico sejam cearense que ficou paraplégica após ser baleada pelo marido. Direito à justiça Direito das mulheres

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

450

N 184, segunda-feira, 23 de setembro de 2013 5ISSN 1677-7050 Este documento pode ser verificado no endereo eletrnico http://www.in.gov.br/autenticidade.html,  

E-print Network

Públicas Brasileira - ICP-Brasil. 2 SECRETARIA DE POLÍTICAS PARA AS MULHERES DESPACHOS DA MINISTRA Em 20 de- lência da Secretaria de Enfrentamento à Violência Contra as Mulheres da Secretaria de Políticas para as Mulheres da Presidência da Re- pública, código DAS 101.4, no período de 24 a 28 de setembro de 2013

451

Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn  

SciTech Connect

The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J. [Instituto de Fisica-Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Campus Diadema, 09941-510 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2010-04-15

452

Brazil: The Evolution of the Law and Politics of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's natural beauties were exploited during and after Portuguese colonization as if they were infinite. Red dyewood deforestation\\u000a gave a name to the country (‘pau brasil’). Non-sustainable economic activities of the colonial era, including sugar cane production,\\u000a cattle ranching and mining, overused the land and water resources. After independence, deforestation continued, justified\\u000a by narrow economic perspectives, resulting in increasing destruction

Paulo José Leite Farias

453

CRIMINALIDAD EN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia tiene una tasa de criminalidad excepcionalmente alta. Esta información se sostiene al menos para los últimos 20 años y se puede comprobar con las cifras sobre asesinatos en Colombia y en otros países. Mientras que en Colombia la tasa de homicidios fue de 77.5 por cada 100.000 habitantes en el período 1987-1992, en países como Brasil fue 24.6, Bahamas

Carlos Esteban Posada; Armando Montenegro

1994-01-01

454

Vice-Reitoria para Assuntos Comunitrios Coordenao de Bolsas e Auxlios  

E-print Network

Vicente, 225 ­ Gávea 22451-900 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ ­ Brasil Tel./Fax: (21) 3527 ­ 1356 LISTA DE DOCUMENTOS PROUNI 2014.1 1) DOCUMENTO DE IDENTIFICA��O do candidato e dos Membros do seu Grupo Familiar RG e Portaria Nº 02 de 06/01/2014); Certidão de Nascimento ou RG de todos os membros do grupo familiar menores

455

N E U R O C I N C I A 4 2 G A L I L E U | S E T E M B R O 2 0 0 7  

E-print Network

EUA em relação ao programa nuclear de seu país e analisa acidentes aéreos no Brasil >> Não é incomum com dados do Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM), o perfil do médico que está mais sujeito a cometer Meshkati é um especialista em segurança industrial nas áreas de energia nuclear, química e aeronáutica

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

456

Lecciones del de comerciode la  

E-print Network

Udios china-méxico © 2011 Por características tipográficas y de diseño editorial miGUel ÁnGel porrúa, librero Estudios del Desarrollo Universidad nacional aUtónoma de méxico, Centro de Estudios China-México t Desarrollo Económico y Social (Brasil) cafta: Tratado de Libre Comercio de Centro América (Republica

Tufts University

457

Realizacao domestica e escolar de foto e video 3D  

E-print Network

English: Industry does not give attention to the small domestic or professional market of digital technologies for 3D images. What was done on the XX century by using photographic film is not know available to the common people, though the facilities are even better. Some technique developed in Brasil twenty years ago and the use of conventional domestic photo or video cameras allows fot making pictures and films at home by using digital conversions for editing, and two-color goggles. The anaglyphic technique, the same NASA employs to show Mars images to the public, is not employed in Brazil yet. We must analize the reasons for that. Portugues: A industria nao tem dado atencao ao mercado domestico ou profissional de pequena escala nas novas tecnologias digitais para imagem 3D. O que foi feito ao longo do seculo XX usando filme fotografico nao esta hoje ao alcance das pessoas, sendo que a facilidade de uso e muito maior. Tecnicas desenvolvidas no Brasil ha mais de vinte anos, e o uso de simples cameras convencionais de fotografia e video permitem realizar fotos e filmes caseiros por meio de conversoes digitais na edicao e o uso de oculos bicolor. A tecnica anagifica, a mesma que a NASA usa para mostrar ao publico as imagens de Marte, por exemplo, nao teve espaco no Brasil ainda. Devemos analisar os motivos que podem estar influenciando e os caminhos para mudar isso.

Jose J. Lunazzi

2012-12-19

458

Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

Steiner, João

2004-04-01

459

Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil.  

PubMed

As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in the following Brazilian regions: Northeast (NE) region and the states of Goiás (GO), Tocantins (TO), and Minas Gerais (MG). The suitability maps were generated by crossing the crop climate requirements with the interpolated climate conditions of the selected regions. The maps showed that only 22.65 % of the areas in the NE region are suitable for jatropha as a rain-fed crop. The other areas of the region are classified as marginal (62.61 %) and unsuitable (14.74 %). In the states of GO and TO, the majority of the areas (47.78 %) is classified as suitable, and in the state of MG, 33.92 % of the territory has suitability for the crop. These results prove that jatropha cannot be cultivated everywhere and will require, as any other crop, minimum climatic conditions to have sustainable performance and high yields. PMID:24691855

Yamada, Eliane S M; Sentelhas, Paulo C

2014-11-01

460

Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, while the organic aerosol component was observed to oxidise rapidly upon advection and dilution downwind of major smoke plumes. Significant differences in the coating thickness of the BC-containing particles were observed when comparing the Rainforest and Cerrado environments. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, as well as their optical and radiative properties. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

2014-05-01

461

Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in the following Brazilian regions: Northeast (NE) region and the states of Goiás (GO), Tocantins (TO), and Minas Gerais (MG). The suitability maps were generated by crossing the crop climate requirements with the interpolated climate conditions of the selected regions. The maps showed that only 22.65 % of the areas in the NE region are suitable for jatropha as a rain-fed crop. The other areas of the region are classified as marginal (62.61 %) and unsuitable (14.74 %). In the states of GO and TO, the majority of the areas (47.78 %) is classified as suitable, and in the state of MG, 33.92 % of the territory has suitability for the crop. These results prove that jatropha cannot be cultivated everywhere and will require, as any other crop, minimum climatic conditions to have sustainable performance and high yields.

Yamada, Eliane S. M.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

2014-04-01

462

The evolution of organic matter along the lower Amazon River continuum - Óbidos to the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the Amazon River on global hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling is well recognized. The Amazon River provides roughly 16% of the global freshwater supply to the ocean and is a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere, outgassing 0.5 Pg C y-1 to the atmosphere--a flux roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon 'sequestered' by the Amazon rainforest (Field et al, 1998; Richey et al., 2002; Malhi et al., 2008). However, much of our understanding of the flux of matter from the Amazon River into the Atlantic Ocean (and atmosphere) is limited to measurements made at and upstream of Óbidos, 900 km upstream from the actual river mouth. Further, there are few to no observations documenting the transformation of organic matter in a parcel of water as it travels downstream of Óbidos into the ocean. Here we explore the hydrological and biogeochemical evolution of the lower Amazon River continuum, from Óbidos to the Atlantic Ocean. A suite of dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) parameters were measured during a series of five river expeditions with stations at Óbidos, the Tapajós tributary, the mouth of the Lago Grande de Curuai floodplain lake, both the north and south channels of the Amazon River mouth near Macapá, and the confluence of the Amazon and Tocantins Rivers near Belém. In addition to bulk carbon isotopic signatures, a suite of biomarkers including dissolved and particulate lignin-derived phenols were measured to trace the sources and degradation history of terrestrial vascular plant derived OM throughout the continuum. Dissolved and particulate lignin phenol concentrations both correlated positively with river discharge in the Amazon River mainstem, with variable export patterns from the tributaries and floodplains. As organic matter travels along the continuum it is degraded by microbial composition, fuelling gross respiration and CO2 outgassing. The flux of organic carbon to the ocean is chemically recalcitrant as a result of the constant biological processing of labile OM throughout the lower river. We estimate that 40% of the vascular plant-derived organic carbon sequestered by the terrestrial biosphere is degraded within soils, 55% is degraded along the river continuum, and less than 5% is delivered to the ocean (Ward et al., 2013) References Cited Field, C., M. Behrenfeld, J. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281, 237-240. Malhi, Y., Roberts, J.T., Betts, R.A., Killeen, T.J., Li, W., Nobre, C.A. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319, 169-172. Richey, J. E., Melack, J. M., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Ballester, V. M. & Hess, L. L. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416, 617-620. Ward, N.D.; Keil, R.G.; Medeiros, P.M.; Brito, D.C.; Cunha, A.C.; Dittmar, T.; Yager, P.L.; Krusche, A.V.; Richey, J.E. 2013. Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River. Nature Geoscience. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1817

Ward, N. D.; Keil, R. G.; Medeiros, P. M.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Moura, J. S.; Yager, P. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.

2013-12-01

463

Overview of an aircraft expedition into the Brazilian cerrado for the observation of atmospheric trace gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric trace gases were measured from an aircraft platform. The flights were organized to sample air masses from the geographic area of central Brazil, where the vegetation, a savanna-type environment with the local name of "cerrado", is subject to burning every year, especially through August, September, and October. These measurements were made as a Brazilian local contribution to the international field campaign organized by NASA, the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) mission, and the Southern African Fire Atmospheric Research Initiative (SAFARI). The major NASA TRACE A mission used the NASA DC 8 aircraft, with most flights over the South Atlantic Ocean region. In Brazil, missions using small aircraft measured ozone and carbon dioxide continuously, and carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, and methane using grab sampling. In addition, ground-based measurements were made continuously over most of the dry months of 1992, and ozonesondes were launched at three different sites. Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite-East (GOES E) images and a special network of radio soundings provided meteorological information, and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images indicated the distribution of fire pixels in the region of interest. Most of the biomass burning in 1992 occurred in the state of Tocantins, with about 22% of all the burning in Brazil. The state of Mato Grosso was second, with 19% of all burning. The Brazilian aircraft was used mostly in these two states, near the cities of Porto Nacional and Cuiabá, for in situ sampling; 31 vertical profiles were made in air masses considered to be well mixed, that is, not in fresh plumes. Although the major interest was the dry season, sampling was also made during the previous wet season period in April 1992 for comparison; 10 vertical profiles were obtained using the same aircraft and measurement techniques. There is a clear difference between these two opposite seasonal periods, most evident in the O3 and CO data. Both Cuiabá and Porto Nacional show some 30-60 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) larger methane concentrations, for example, during the dry season, in comparison to the wet season, the difference at Cuiabá being larger. The methane data for the wet season show no significant differences between Cuiabá and Porto Nacional mixing ratios, which seems to exclude the existence of significant sources or sinks at these sites during this wet season. The ozone mixing ratios vary around 15 ± 5 ppbv in the wet season, and from a minimum of 35 to a maximum of 70 ± 10 ppbv, depending on height, in the dry season. The largest variability is seen in the carbon monoxide mixing ratios which vary from 90-100 ppbv in the wet season to maxima of 300 at 3.3 km and 600 ppbv at 1.2 km height in the dry season.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Alvalá, P. C.

1996-10-01

464

Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of episodic melting of Archean-Paleoproterozoic supracrustal gneisses related to the Svecofennian orogeny. Petrographic traverses across the boundary between widespread, foliation-parallel units of aplitic to pegmatitic pink granite and hosting biotite gneiss directly capture the process of ore formation. Dehydration breakdown of zircon-rich biotite aligned with the foliation in the gneiss is accompanied by formation of new pristine, post-deformational biotite plus sulfides, oxides, hydrothermal zircon and fluorite, all associated with microcline-dominant leucosomes. This process has profound implication for the traditional leucogranite, intrusion-related genesis attributed to the broad classification of Mo-W-Sn-base and precious metal mineralization (e.g., South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia; Okiep, Namaqualand, South Africa; Mactung, Yukon; Pogo-Liese, Tintina, Alaska; Carajás and Goiás-Rio Tocantins, Brazil; New England Batholith, NSW, Australia; Bergslagen, Sweden; Nevoria, Western Australia; Alpeinerscharte, Austria; Erzgebirge, Germany; Sardinia-Corsica Batholith). In addition to biotite, metallogenic contributions (e.g., Mo, W, Sn, U, Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni, Co, Au, Ag, Te, As, Sb, REE) in various combinations may also be controlled by breakdown of amphibole. In effect, the trace element composition of dehydrating or recrystallizing components in a gneissic rock essentially defines the local and district metallogenic suite. In the absence of focusing structures (e.g., shear zones, sheeted vein development), this process will generally form small and disconnected subeconomic deposits with erratic and unpredictable grades. Low Re content in associated molybdenite is a key indicator for a subeconomic origin by local melting of biotite gneiss (Mo-W) or muscovite schist (Sn-W).

Stein, Holly J.

2006-04-01

465

Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simpli?ed river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood warning thresholds, showed that the upper quantiles of the ensemble (e.g. 80th and 90th quantiles) over performed the deterministic forecast and even the ensemble mean. In most cases we observed an increase in the proportion of correctly forecasted events while keeping false alarm rates at low levels. This benefit was generally higher for higher flow thresholds and for longer lead times, which are the most important situations for flood impact mitigation. In parallel with the ensemble forecasts studies, a forecasting system platform fully coupled to a GIS tool (Mapwindow GIS) is being developed, which facilitates the system operation and interpretation of results. Currently, this system is being tested, however using only deterministic precipitation forecasts, in two large scale river basins in Brazil: the São Francisco River upstream of Pirapora (60 thousand km2) and the Tocantins River (300 thousand km2). Results obtained in the Paraopeba River are now motivating the incorporation of NWP ensemble outputs in these systems to make probabilistic predictions.

Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

2013-04-01

466

O Teatro Brasileiro na Década de Oitenta  

E-print Network

Buenos Aires. O crepúsculo da década de setenta e o raiar dos anos oitenta também testemunharam as primeiras edições e/ou encenações de vários tratamentos dramáticos de um dos pilares da ditadura-a tortura. Milagre na cela, de Jorge Andrade, estreou... década de oitenta explica-se, ao menos em parte, pelas experiências dos que foram mais de perto atingidos pela censura da ditadura. Com a liberalização política, Boal voltou ao Brasil pela primeira vez em oito anos para dar palestras e dirigir...

Albuquerque, Severino Joã o

1992-04-01

467

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANLISE DE EPISDIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA  

E-print Network

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANÁLISE DE EPIS�DIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA: CARACTERIZA��O SIN�TICA E. Análise de episódios de tornados em Santa Catarina: caracterização sinótica e mineração de dados / I. P. O(meteorologia). 3.Meteorologia sinótica. 4.Imagem de satélite. 5.Mineração de dados. 6.Paisagem. 7.Brasil. 8.Santa

468

Democracia en Latinoamérica: De la Ideología al Pragmatismo en el Pensamiento de José Carlos Mariátegui, Paulo Freire y Luis Villoro  

E-print Network

.A., University of New Mexico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Juan Carlos Galdo El siguiente estudio es una cr?tica de las ambiciones democr?ticas en Latinoam?rica. Esta tesis se enfoca en los desarrollos pol?ticos del siglo XX en el Per?, Brasil y M... conclusiones de Jos? Carlos Mari?tegui (1894 -1930), el m?todo pedag?gico de conscientiza??o de Paulo Freire (1921-1997) y la democracia radical de Luis Villoro (1922- ). Los tres tienen como meta una sociedad caracterizada por la igualdad entre los...

Diaz, Kim

2012-02-14

469

IAU (Maser) Symposium 287 Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost exactly twenty years ago, the first of a series of conferences dedicated to cosmic masers took place in Arlington, Virginia in the USA (March 9-11, 1992). Two more followed, each on a different continent, in Mangaratiba, near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (March 5-10, 2001) and in Alice Springs, Australia (March 12-16, 2007). As at all others, a large part of the international maser community convened from January 29 to February 3, 2012 in splendid Stellenbosch, South Africa, to discuss the state of the art of the field.

Menten, Karl M.

2012-07-01

470

O quadro político e institucional do setor energético brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo pretende oferecer uma síntese do quadro político e institucional do setor energético brasileiro, com ênfase especial ao papel exercido pelas fontes de energia alternativas. Ele está dividido em quatro partes. A primeira apresenta um panorama das energias renováveis no Brasil, detalhando o situação da bioenergia, da energia eólica, das pequenas centrais hidrelétricas, da energia solar fotovoltaica e da

Guilherme Crippa Ursaia; Youssef Ahmad Youssef; Javier Aliaga Lordemann

2012-01-01

471

Distributional potential of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex at present and under scenarios of future climate conditions  

E-print Network

aspects of six sylvatic species of triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from the collection of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, Central America. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2001, 96:757–764. 31. Galvão C, Jurberg J, Carcavallo RU, Segura CAM... taxa in the group are Costa et al. Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:238 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/238dispersal abilities [11-19].(UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brasil Full list of author information is available at the end of the articlecruzi...

Costa, Jane; Dornak, L. Lynnette; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, A. Townsend

2014-05-22

472

[Toxicological and immunological aspects of scorpion venom (Tytius pachyurus): neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in Latin America].  

PubMed

The toxicity and immunochemical properties of Tityus pachyurus Pocock scorpion venom was characterized, as well as the neutralization capacity against it by three anti-scorpion antivenoms (Alacramyn, Instituto Bioclón, México; Suero antiescorpiónico, Instituto Butantán, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Suero antiescorpiónico, Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela). The venom yield, obtained by manual milking, 680+/-20 microg venom, a 50% lethal dose in mice was 4.8 microg/kg (90 microg for an 18-20 g mouse). The most common symptoms of venom poisoning in mice were sialorrhea, respiratory distress, profuse sweating, ataxia, behavior alterations (restlessness, somnolence) and hyperglycemia at 3 and 24 hours after subcutaneous venom injection (0.5 LD50). The neutralizing capacity of Bioclón (México City) and Butantán (Sao Paulo) antivenoms (for a 50% effective dose) was 330 and 292 microg venom/ml antivenom, respectively. The Biotecnología (Caracas) antivenom did not neutralize the lethal effect of venom. By electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was demonstrated that the venom contains proteins from less than 14 kd to 97 kd. The Western blots indicated immunological reactivity of the three antivenoms with most of venom components, including proteins of low molecular mass (<14 kd). The results allow to conclude that T. pachyurus venom is neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brasil. PMID:15239600

Barona, Jacqueline; Otero, Rafael; Núñez, Vitelbina

2004-03-01

473

Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

Douglas G. Hall

2011-09-01

474

Realizacao domestica e escolar de foto e video 3D  

E-print Network

English: Industry does not give attention to the small domestic or professional market of digital technologies for 3D images. What was done on the XX century by using photographic film is not know available to the common people, though the facilities are even better. Some technique developed in Brasil twenty years ago and the use of conventional domestic photo or video cameras allows fot making pictures and films at home by using digital conversions for editing, and two-color goggles. The anaglyphic technique, the same NASA employs to show Mars images to the public, is not employed in Brazil yet. We must analize the reasons for that. Portugues: A industria nao tem dado atencao ao mercado domestico ou profissional de pequena escala nas novas tecnologias digitais para imagem 3D. O que foi feito ao longo do seculo XX usando filme fotografico nao esta hoje ao alcance das pessoas, sendo que a facilidade de uso e muito maior. Tecnicas desenvolvidas no Brasil ha mais de vinte anos, e o uso de simples cameras convenc...

Lunazzi, Jose J

2012-01-01