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Sample records for arbitrary time dependent

  1. Exactly solvable model for nonlinear light-matter interaction in an arbitrary time-dependent field

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. M.; Lotti, A.; Teleki, A.; Kolesik, M.

    2011-12-15

    Exact analytic expressions are derived for the dipole moment and nonlinear current of a one-dimensional quantum particle subject to a short-range attractive potential and an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. An efficient algorithm for the current evaluation is described and a robust implementation suitable for numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  2. A Hybrid Nodal Method for Time-Dependent Incompressible Flow in Two-Dimensional Arbitrary Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Toreja, A J; Uddin, R

    2002-10-21

    A hybrid nodal-integral/finite-analytic method (NI-FAM) is developed for time-dependent, incompressible flow in two-dimensional arbitrary geometries. In this hybrid approach, the computational domain is divided into parallelepiped and wedge-shaped space-time nodes (cells). The conventional nodal integral method (NIM) is applied to the interfaces between adjacent parallelepiped nodes (cells), while a finite analytic approach is applied to the interfaces between parallelepiped and wedge-shaped nodes (cells). In this paper, the hybrid method is formally developed and an application of the NI-FAM to fluid flow in an enclosed cavity is presented. Results are compared with those obtained using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code.

  3. Domain-wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires driven by arbitrary time-dependent fields: an exact result.

    PubMed

    Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J M; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2010-04-01

    We address the dynamics of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires under the influence of external time-dependent magnetic fields. We report a new exact spatiotemporal solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the case of soft ferromagnetic wires and nanostructures with uniaxial anisotropy. The solution holds for applied fields with arbitrary strength and time dependence. We further extend this solution to applied fields slowly varying in space and to multiple domain walls. PMID:20481956

  4. Evolution of Arbitrary States under Fock—Darwin Hamiltonian and a Time-Dependent Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Tao; Zhai, Zhi-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The method of path integral is employed to calculate the time evolution of the eigenstates of a charged particle under the Fock—Darwin (FD) Hamiltonian subjected to a time-dependent electric field in the plane of the system. An exact analytical expression is established for the evolution of the eigenstates. This result then provides a general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  5. Time-dependent Landauer—Büttiker formalism for superconducting junctions at arbitrary temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuovinen, Riku; van Leeuwen, Robert; Perfetto, Enrico; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    We discuss an extension of our earlier work on the time-dependent Landauer- Buttiker formalism for noninteracting electronic transport. The formalism can without complication be extended to superconducting central regions since the Green's functions in the Nambu representation satisfy the same equations of motion which, in turn, leads to the same closed expression for the equal-time lesser Green's function, i.e., for the time-dependent reduced one-particle density matrix. We further write the finite-temperature frequency integrals in terms of known special functions thereby considerably speeding up the computation. Simulations in simple normal metal - superconductor - normal metal junctions are also presented.

  6. First-passage-time statistics of a Brownian particle driven by an arbitrary unidimensional potential with a superimposed exponential time-dependent drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    In one-dimensional systems, the dynamics of a Brownian particle are governed by the force derived from a potential as well as by diffusion properties. In this work, we obtain the first-passage-time statistics of a Brownian particle driven by an arbitrary potential with an exponential temporally decaying superimposed field up to a prescribed threshold. The general system analyzed here describes the sub-threshold signal integration of integrate-and-fire neuron models, of any kind, supplemented by an adaptation-like current, whereas the first-passage-time corresponds to the declaration of a spike. Following our previous studies, we base our analysis on the backward Fokker-Planck equation and study the survival probability and the first-passage-time density function in the space of the initial condition. By proposing a series solution we obtain a system of recurrence equations, which given the specific structure of the exponential time-dependent drift, easily admit a simpler Laplace representation. Naturally, the present general derivation agrees with the explicit solution we found previously for the Wiener process in (2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 185001). However, to demonstrate the generality of the approach, we further explicitly evaluate the first-passage-time statistics of the underlying Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. To test the validity of the series solution, we extensively compare theoretical expressions with the data obtained from numerical simulations in different regimes. As shown, agreement is precise whenever the series is truncated at an appropriate order. Beyond the fact that both the Wiener and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes have a direct interpretation in the context of neuronal models, given their ubiquity in different fields, our present results will be of interest in other settings where an additive state-independent temporal relaxation process is being developed as the particle diffuses.

  7. Simulating system dynamics with arbitrary time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorovich, L.

    2007-02-01

    We suggest a dynamic simulation method that allows efficient and realistic modeling of kinetic processes, such as atomic diffusion, in which time has its actual meaning. Our method is similar in spirit to widely used kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) techniques; however, in our approach, the time step can be chosen arbitrarily. This has an advantage in some cases, e.g., when the transition rates change with time sufficiently fast over the period of the KMC time step (e.g., due to time dependence of some external factors influencing kinetics such as moving scanning probe microscopy tip or external time-dependent field) or when the clock time is set by some external conditions, and it is convenient to use equal time steps instead of the random choice of the KMC algorithm in order to build up probability distribution functions. We show that an arbitrary choice of the time step can be afforded by building up the complete list of events including the “residence site” and multihop transitions. The idea of the method is illustrated in a simple “toy” model of a finite one-dimensional lattice of potential wells with unequal jump rates to either side, which can be studied analytically. We show that for any choice of the time step, our general kinetics method reproduces exactly the solution of the corresponding master equations for any choice of the time steps. The final kinetics also matches the standard KMC, and this allows better understanding of this algorithm, in which the time step is chosen in a certain way and the system always advances by a single hop.

  8. Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2001-05-01

    The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.

  9. Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.

    PubMed

    Kowligy, Abijith S; Manurkar, Paritosh; Corzo, Neil V; Velev, Vesselin G; Silver, Michael; Scott, Ryan P; Yoo, S J B; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2014-11-17

    We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing. PMID:25402035

  10. Time-synchronized visualization of arbitrary data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolano, Paul Z.

    2015-01-01

    Savors is a visualization framework that supports the ingestion of data streams created by arbitrary command pipelines. Multiple data streams can be shown synchronized by time in the same or different views, which can be arranged in any layout. These capabilities combined with a powerful parallelization mechanism and interaction models already familiar to administrators allows Savors to display complex visualizations of data streamed from many different systems with minimal effort. This paper presents the design and implementation of Savors and provides example use cases that illustrate many of the supported visualization types.

  11. Time reversed photonic beamforming of arbitrary waveform ladar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Joseph L.; Zmuda, Henry; Bussjaeger, Rebecca J.; Erdmann, Reinhard K.; Fanto, Michael L.; Hayduk, Michael J.; Malowicki, John E.

    2007-04-01

    Herein is described a novel approach of performing adaptive photonic beam forming of an array of optical fibers with the expressed purpose of performing laser ranging. The beam forming technique leverages the concepts of time reversal, previously implemented in the sonar community, and wherein photonic implementation has recently been described for use by beamforming of ultra-wideband radar arrays. Photonic beam forming is also capable of combining the optical output of several fiber lasers into a coherent source, exactly phase matched on a pre-determined target. By implementing electro-optically modulated pulses from frequency chirped femtosecond-scale laser pulses, ladar waveforms can be generated with arbitrary spectral and temporal characteristics within the limitations of the wide-band system. Also described is a means of generating angle/angle/range measurements of illuminated targets.

  12. Voter model with arbitrary degree dependence: clout, confidence and irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2014-03-01

    The voter model is widely used to model opinion dynamics in society. In this paper, we propose three modifications to incorporate heterogeneity into the model. We address the corresponding oversimplifications of the conventional voter model which are unrealistic. We first consider the voter model with popularity bias. The influence of each node on its neighbors depends on its degree. We find the consensus probabilities and expected consensus times for each of the states. We also find the fixation probability, which is the probability that a single node whose state differs from every other node imposes its state on the entire system. In addition, we find the expected fixation time. Then two other extensions to the model are proposed and the motivations behind them are discussed. The first one is confidence, where in addition to the states of neighbors, nodes take their own state into account at each update. We repeat the calculations for the augmented model and investigate the effects of adding confidence to the model. The second proposed extension is irreversibility, where one of the states is given the property that once nodes adopt it, they cannot switch back. This is motivated by applications where, agents take an irreversible action such as seeing a movie, purchasing a music album online, or buying a new product. The dynamics of densities, fixation times and consensus times are obtained.

  13. Realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; He, Yongli; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-07-27

    We report the realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces. Compared with the plasmonic metasurfaces, the all-dielectric metasurface exhibits more high transmission efficiency and conversion efficiency, which makes it possible to achieve the spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns. Our findings suggest a way for generation and manipulation of spin photons, and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.

  14. A simple method to calculate first-passage time densities with arbitrary initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Markus; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig

    2016-06-01

    Numerous applications all the way from biology and physics to economics depend on the density of first crossings over a boundary. Motivated by the lack of general purpose analytical tools for computing first-passage time densities (FPTDs) for complex problems, we propose a new simple method based on the independent interval approximation (IIA). We generalise previous formulations of the IIA to include arbitrary initial conditions as well as to deal with discrete time and non-smooth continuous time processes. We derive a closed form expression for the FPTD in z and Laplace-transform space to a boundary in one dimension. Two classes of problems are analysed in detail: discrete time symmetric random walks (Markovian) and continuous time Gaussian stationary processes (Markovian and non-Markovian). Our results are in good agreement with Langevin dynamics simulations.

  15. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testingmore » policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.« less

  16. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  17. Time dependent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Diptarka

    One of the most important results emerging from string theory is the gauge gravity duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) which tells us that certain problems in particular gravitational backgrounds can be exactly mapped to a particular dual gauge theory a quantum theory very similar to the one explaining the interactions between fundamental subatomic particles. The chief merit of the duality is that a difficult problem in one theory can be mapped to a simpler and solvable problem in the other theory. The duality can be used both ways. Most of the current theoretical framework is suited to study equilibrium systems, or systems where time dependence is at most adiabatic. However in the real world, systems are almost always out of equilibrium. Generically these scenarios are described by quenches, where a parameter of the theory is made time dependent. In this dissertation I describe some of the work done in the context of studying quantum quench using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We recover certain universal scaling type of behavior as the quenching is done through a quantum critical point. Another question that has been explored in the dissertation is time dependence of the gravity theory. Present cosmological observations indicate that our universe is accelerating and is described by a spacetime called de-Sitter(dS). In 2011 there had been a speculation over a possible duality between de-Sitter gravity and a particular field theory (Euclidean SP(N) CFT). However a concrete realization of this proposition was still lacking. Here we explicitly derive the dS/CFT duality using well known methods in field theory. We discovered that the time dimension emerges naturally in the derivation. We also describe further applications and extensions of dS/CFT. KEYWORDS: Holography, AdS/CFT correspondence, Quantum Quench, dS/CFT correspondence, Chaos.

  18. Time dependent seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold

  19. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  20. Generalized shot noise model for time-reversal in multiple-scattering media allowing for arbitrary inputs and windowing

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655

  1. Extension of the Time-Spectral Approach to Overset Solvers for Arbitrary Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leffell, Joshua Isaac; Murman, Scott M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    demonstrated marked success in reducing the computational costs associated with simulating periodic forced flows, but have yet to be fully applied to overset or Cartesian solvers for arbitrary motion with dynamic hole-cutting. Overset and Cartesian grid methodologies are versatile techniques capable of handling complex geometry configurations in practical engineering applications, and the combination of the Time-Spectral approach with this general capability potentially provides an enabling new design and analysis tool. In an arbitrary moving-body scenario for these approaches, a Lagrangian body moves through a fixed Eulerian mesh and mesh points in the Eulerian mesh interior to the solid body are removed (cut or blanked), leaving a hole in the Eulerian mesh. During the dynamic motion some gridpoints in the domain are blanked and do not have a complete set of time-samples preventing a direct implementation of the Time-Spectral method. Murman[6] demonstrated the Time-Spectral approach for a Cartesian solver with a rigid domain motion, wherein the hole cutting remains constant. Similarly, Custer et al. [15, 16] used the NASA overset OVERFLOW solver and limited the amount of relative motion to ensure static hole-cutting and interpolation. Recently, Mavriplis and Mundis[17] demonstrated a qualitative method for applying the Time-Spectral approach to an unstructured overset solver for arbitrary motion. The goal of the current work is to develop a robust and general method for handling arbitrary motion with the Time-Spectral approach within an overset or Cartesian mesh method, while still approaching the spectral convergence rate of the original Time-Spectral approach. The viscous OVERFLOW solver will be augmented with the new Time-Spectral algorithm and the capability of the method for benchmark problems in rotorcraft and turbomachinery will be demonstrated. This abstract begins with a brief synopsis of the Time-Spectral approach for overset grids and provides details of e current

  2. Asymmetry through time dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

    2016-03-01

    Given a single network of interactions, asymmetry arises when the links are directed. For example, if protein A upregulates protein B and protein B upregulates protein C, then (in the absence of any further relationships between them) A may affect C but not vice versa. This type of imbalance is reflected in the associated adjacency matrix, which will lack symmetry. A different type of imbalance can arise when interactions appear and disappear over time. If A meets B today and B meets C tomorrow, then (in the absence of any further relationships between them) A may pass a message or disease to C, but not vice versa. Hence, even when each interaction is a two-way exchange, the effect of time ordering can introduce asymmetry. This observation is very closely related to the fact that matrix multiplication is not commutative. In this work, we describe a method that has been designed to reveal asymmetry in static networks and show how it may be combined with a measure that summarizes the potential information flow between nodes in the temporal case. This results in a new method that quantifies the asymmetry arising through time ordering. We show by example that the new tool can be used to visualize and quantify the amount of asymmetry caused by the arrow of time.

  3. Direct space-to-time pulse shaping and applications in arbitrary electromagnetic waveform generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jason Dwight

    2003-10-01

    Direct space-to-time (DST) pulse shaping, with its straightforward mapping of an input spatial pattern to an output temporal pattern, has been shown to be an effective method to create ultrafast optical data packets. To our knowledge, we introduce the first DST pulse shaper operating in the 1.5 mum lightwave communications band, which is compatible with high-speed (≥100 Gb/s) optical communication systems. Novel features of our pulse shaper include polarization-independent operation, utilization of diffractive optical elements for spatial pattern generation, and a telescopic, fiber-coupled configuration. These features collectively enable the creation of equal intensity optical pulse sequences over a time aperture in excess of 100 ps and at rates of ˜100 GHz. These pulse sequences enable us to overcome electrical limitations and generate arbitrary electromagnetic waveforms in the GHz to multiple tens of GHz range through a novel optical technique. Although creation of arbitrary optical waveforms is achievable through established methods---such as Fourier transform pulse shaping---arbitrary waveform generation capabilities in the microwave and millimeter-wave range are quite limited. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, cycle-by-cycle generation of broadband burst and continuous electromagnetic waveforms at center frequencies from ˜2--50 GHz. Our simple, reconfigurable method uses tailored optical pulse sequences from our 1.5 mum DST pulse shaper to drive a high-speed optical-to-electrical converter. By appropriately tailoring the input optical spatial pattern of the pulse shaper, arbitrarily phase- and frequency-modulated electromagnetic waveforms are achieved.

  4. Extending quantum control of time-independent systems to time-dependent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhenyu; Liu Renbao

    2011-06-15

    We establish that if a scheme can control a time-independent system arbitrarily coupled to a generic finite bath over a short period of time T with control precision O(T{sup N+1}), it can also realize the control with the same order of precision on smoothly time-dependent systems. This result extends the validity of various universal dynamical control schemes to arbitrary analytically time-dependent systems.

  5. Operator description for thermal quantum field theories on an arbitrary path in the real time formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashok; Kalauni, Pushpa

    2016-06-01

    We develop an operator description, much like thermofield dynamics, for quantum field theories on a real time path with an arbitrary parameter σ (0 ≤σ ≤β ) . We point out new features which arise when σ ≠β/2 in that the Hilbert space develops a natural, modified inner product different from the standard Dirac inner product. We construct the Bogoliubov transformation which connects the doubled vacuum state at zero temperature to the thermal vacuum in this case. We obtain the thermal Green's function (propagator) for the real massive Klein-Gordon theory as an expectation value in this thermal vacuum (with a modified inner product). The factorization of the thermal Green's function follows from this analysis. We also discuss, in the main text as well as in two appendices, various other interesting features which arise in such a description.

  6. Finite-time arbitrary-motion unsteady cascade airfoil theory for helicopter rotors in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinyavari, M. A. H.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    A complete and detailed derivation of finite-time arbitrary-motion cascade theory is presented for both Laplace and frequency domains. This theory includes the effect of returning wakes for both single- and multibladed rotors. The generalized cascade lift-deficiency function (CLDF) is shown to be consistent with the generalized Theodorsen lift-deficiency function when the wake spacing approaches infinity or when the reduced frequency tends to infinity. This function predicts correct zero-reduced-frequency limit. Accurate and efficient numerical procedures are presented for the evaluation of the CLDF. Numerical examples comparing the CLDF with Loewy's lift deficiency function in frequency domain are presented. Accurate Pade approximants of the CLDF are constructed using a Bode-plot approach which allows for complex poles.

  7. Nearly real-time visualization of arbitrary two-dimensional sections from three-dimensional acquisition.

    PubMed

    Capineri, L; Masotti, L; Rocchi, S; Andreuccetti, F; Cerofolini, M; Tondini, A

    1996-01-01

    This work presents a system for the reconstruction of cross-sections with arbitrary orientations derived from three-dimensional (3D) echographic scanners. The interest for this powerful diagnostic tool has prompted us to develop a low-cost processing board that inserts easily into a stand-alone echograph. The proposed system is able to reconstruct high-resolution cross-sections at one frame per second with a time lag of about 60 s due the 3D acquisition process. The board, based on three pipelined DSP devices, has been designed to process volumetric data collected with a commercial echograph by means a rotating probe synchronized with the ECG signal. The resolution of the reconstruction algorithm implemented on the processing unit has been evaluated both with synthetic 3D data and with experimental data from a phantom. PMID:8783464

  8. Time-dependent drift Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The lowest-order drift equations are given in a canonical magnetic coordinate form for time-dependent magnetic and electric fields. The advantages of the canonical Hamiltonian form are also discussed.

  9. Formation of the system indicators analytic dependence during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an analytical model of calculating the values of parametric clusters, a matrix of the parameters compliance and a model of the analyzed parameter values calculation allowing to form an analytical matrix of the indicators system during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects and to identify the quantitative relationship of the parameters values. The results are useful for solving problems of control over both technical and socio-economic systems for evaluating objects using parameter systems generated by different subjects taking into account their performance and priorities of decision-making.

  10. Unsteady aerodynamics in time and frequency domains for finite time arbitrary motion of rotary wings in hover and forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinyavari, M. A. H.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Several incompressible finite-time arbitrary-motion airfoil theories suitable for coupled flap-lag-torsional aeroelastic analysis of helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight are derived. These theories include generalized Greenberg's theory, generalized Loewy's theory, and a staggered cascade theory. The generalized Greenberg's and staggered cascade theories were derived directly in Laplace domain considering the finite length of the wake and using operational methods. The load expressions are presented in Laplace, frequency, and time domains. Approximate time domain loads for the various generalized theories, discussed in the paper, are obtained by developing finite state models using the Pade approximant of the appropriate lift deficiency functions. Three different methods for constructing Pade approximants of the lift deficiency functions were considered and the more flexible one was used. Pade approximants of Loewy's lift deficiency function, for various wake spacing and radial location parameters of a helicopter typical rotor blade section, are presented.

  11. Stability Switches of Arbitrary High-Order Consensus in Multiagent Networks with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High-order consensus seeking, in which individual high-order dynamic agents share a consistent view of the objectives and the world in a distributed manner, finds its potential broad applications in the field of cooperative control. This paper presents stability switches analysis of arbitrary high-order consensus in multiagent networks with time delays. By employing a frequency domain method, we explicitly derive analytical equations that clarify a rigorous connection between the stability of general high-order consensus and the system parameters such as the network topology, communication time-delays, and feedback gains. Particularly, our results provide a general and a fairly precise notion of how increasing communication time-delay causes the stability switches of consensus. Furthermore, under communication constraints, the stability and robustness problems of consensus algorithms up to third order are discussed in details to illustrate our central results. Numerical examples and simulation results for fourth-order consensus are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:24109207

  12. Gaze-contingent real-time simulation of arbitrary visual fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Jeffrey S.; Geisler, Wilson S.

    2002-06-01

    We describe an algorithm and software for creating variable resolution displays in real time, contingent upon the direction of gaze. The algorithm takes as input a video sequence and an arbitrary, real-valued, two-dimensional map that specifies a desired amount of filtering (blur) at each pixel location relative to direction of gaze. For each input video image the follow operations are performed: (1) the image is coded as a multi-resolution pyramid, (2) the gaze direction is measured, (3) the resolution map is shifted to the gaze direction, (4) the desired filtering at each pixel location is achieved by interpolating between levels of the pyramid using the resolution map, and (5) the interpolated image is displayed. The transfer function associated with each level of the pyramid is calibrated beforehand so that the interpolation produces exactly the desired amount of filtering at each pixel. This algorithm produces precision, artifact-free displays in 8-bit grayscale or 24-bit color. The software can process live or prerecorded video at over 60 frames per second on ordinary personal computers without special hardware. Direction of gaze for each processed video frame may be taken from an eye-tracker, from a sequence of directions saved on disk, or from another pointing device (such as a mouse). The software is demonstrated by simulating the visual fields of normals and of patients with low vision. We are currently using the software to precisely control retinal stimulation during complex tasks such as extended visual search.

  13. Time dependent view factor methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence.

  14. Analytic Time Depending Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Considerando las hip6tesis de Chandrasekhar para el estudjo de la GalActicaq se han desarrollado varios modelos analiticos integrables con simetria axial y dependientes del . . By considering Chandrasekhar hypotheses +or the study o+ Galactic Dynamics, several integrable analytic axisymmetric time-depending galactic models have been developed. Ke ords; GALAXY-DYNAMICS - GALAXY-STRUCTURE

  15. Real-time aware rendering of scalable arbitrary-shaped MPEG-4 decoder for multiprocessor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrnak, Milan; de With, Peter H. N.; van Meerbergen, Jef

    2007-02-01

    The MPEG-4 video standard extends the traditional frame-based processing with the option to compose several video objects (VO) superimposed on a background sprite image. In our previous work, we presented a distributed, multiprocessor based, scalable implementation of an MPEG-4 arbitrary-shaped decoder, which forms together with the background sprite decoder an essential part for further scene rendering. For control of the multiprocessor architecture, we have constructed a Quality-of-Service (QoS) management that monitors the availability of required data and distributes the processing of individual tasks with guaranteed or best-effort services of the platform. However, the proposed architecture with the combined guaranteed and best-effort services poses problems for real-time scene rendering. In this paper, we present a technique for proper run-time rendering of the final scene after decoding one VO Layer. The individual video-object monitors check the data availability and select the highest quality for the final scene rendering. The algorithm operates hierarchically both at the scene level and at the task level of the video object processing. Whereas the earlier work on scalable implementation concentrated only on guaranteed services, we now introduce a new element in the system architecture for the real-time control and fall back mechanism of the best-effort services. This element is based on first, controlling data availability at task level, and second, introducing the propagation service to QoS management. We present our simulation results in the comparison with the standard "frame-skipping" technique that is the only currently available solution to this type of rendering a scalable processing.

  16. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Anthony; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events). These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file andmore » roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage). The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.« less

  17. Real-time arbitrary view synthesis method for ultra-HD auto-stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuanfa; Sang, Xinzhu; Duo, Chen; Zhao, Tianqi; Fan, Xin; Guo, Nan; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    An arbitrary view synthesis method from 2D-Plus-Depth image for real-time auto-stereoscopic display is presented. Traditional methods use depth image based rendering (DIBR) technology, which is a process of synthesizing "virtual" views of a scene from still or moving images and associated per-pixel depth information. All the virtual view images are generated and then the ultimate stereo-image is synthesized. DIBR can greatly decrease the number of reference images and is flexible and efficient as the depth images are used. However it causes some problems such as the appearance of holes in the rendered image, and the occurrence of depth discontinuity on the surface of the object at virtual image plane. Here, reversed disparity shift pixel rendering is used to generate the stereo-image directly, and the target image won't generate holes. To avoid duplication of calculation and also to be able to match with any specific three-dimensional display, a selecting table is designed to pick up appropriate virtual viewpoints for auto-stereoscopic display. According to the selecting table, only sub-pixels of the appropriate virtual viewpoints are calculated, so calculation amount is independent of the number of virtual viewpoints. In addition, 3D image warping technology is used to translate depth information to parallax between virtual viewpoints and parallax, and the viewer can adjust the zero-parallax-setting-plane (ZPS) and change parallax conveniently to suit his/her personal preferences. The proposed method is implemented with OPENGL and demonstrated on a laptop computer with a 2.3 GHz Intel Core i5 CPU and NVIDA GeForce GT540m GPU. We got a frame rate 30 frames per second with 4096×2340 video. High synthesis efficiency and good stereoscopic sense can be obtained. The presented method can meet the requirements of real-time ultra-HD super multi-view auto-stereoscopic display.

  18. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  19. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  20. Time-dependent interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    Some current problems in interstellar chemistry are considered in the context of time-dependent calculations. The limitations of steady-state models of interstellar gas-phase chemistry are discussed, and attempts to chemically date interstellar clouds are reviewed. The importance of studying the physical and chemical properties of interstellar dust is emphasized. Finally, the results of a series of studies of collapsing clouds are described.

  1. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  2. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  3. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-08-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  4. Equation for disentangling time-ordered exponentials with arbitrary quadratic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Budanov, V.G.

    1987-12-01

    In many quantum-mechanical constructions, it is necessary to disentangle an operator-valued time-ordered exponential with time-dependent generators quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. By disentangling, one understands the finding of the matrix elements of the time-ordered exponential or, in a more general formulation. The solution of the problem can also be reduced to calculation of a matrix time-ordered exponential that solves the corresponding classical problem. However, in either case the evolution equations in their usual form do not enable one to take into account explicitly the symmetry of the system. In this paper the methods of Weyl analysis are used to find an ordinary differential equation on a matrix Lie algebra that is invariant with respect to the adjoint action of the dynamical symmetry group of a quadratic Hamiltonian and replaces the operator evolution equation for the Green's function.

  5. Comparison of arbitrary definitions of circadian time periods with those determined by wrist actigraphy in analysis of ABPM data.

    PubMed

    Eissa, M A; Yetman, R J; Poffenbarger, T; Portman, R J

    1999-07-01

    Determining blood pressure (BP) values at different daily time periods is a well recognised measure to assess the risk of end-organ damage. However, the use of various definitions of these periods, eg, day vs night, sleep vs wake or arbitrary definitions, makes clinical decisions based on available data difficult. In the present study, we compared BP loads in actual sleep-wake periods to default day-night definition provided by the ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) software (day 06.00-22.00; night 22.00-06.00) as well as to an arbitrary definition of sleep-wake periods in children published in Journal of Pediatrics (Soergel et al, 1997) (awake 08.00-20:00 and sleep 00.00-06.00). We used an actigraph, an accelerometer, to define the actual sleep-wake periods in 46 patients with essential hypertension who are on various treatment regimens. BP data were obtained by using Spacelabs 90207 monitors for a full 24 hours. There were significant differences between actual sleep-wake and default definition for BP load. No similar findings were noted when arbitrary definition was used. The proportion of hypertensives was not significantly different when default and arbitrary definitions were used. Classification of dippers and non-dippers is greatly affected by the definition of sleep interval using the default method. Although some of the misclassifications were not statistically significant, their clinical importance must be considered. Determination of sleep and wake periods for analysis of ABPM data should be based on careful determination of actual periods. Using other definitions may not provide complete information or accommodate for individual variation. PMID:10449208

  6. Comparison of arbitrary definitions of circadian time periods with those determined by wrist actigraphy in analysis of ABPM data.

    PubMed

    Eissa, M A; Yetman, R J; Poffenbarger, T; Portman, R J

    1999-11-01

    Determining blood pressure (BP) values at different daily time periods is a well recognised measure to assess the risk of end-organ damage. However, the use of various definitions of these periods, eg, day vs night, sleep vs wake or arbitrary definitions, makes clinical decisions based on available data difficult. In the present study, we compared BP loads in actual sleep-wake periods to default day-night definition provided by the ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) software (day 06.00 to 22.00; night 22.00 to 06.00) as well as to an arbitrary definition of sleep-wake periods in children published in Soergel et al (J Pediatr 1997; 130: 178-184)1 (awake 08.00 to 20.00 and sleep 00.00 to 06.00. We used an actigraphy, an accelerometer, to define the actual sleep-wake periods in 46 patients with essential hypertension who are on various treatment regimens. BP data was obtained by using Spacelabs 90207 monitors for a full 24 h. There were significant differences between actual sleep-wake and default definition for BP load. No similar finding was noted when arbitrary definition was used. The proportion of hypertensives was not significantly different when default and arbitrary definitions were used. Classification of dippers and non-dippers is greatly affected by the definition of sleep interval using the default method. Although some of the misclassifications were not statistically significant, their clinical importance must be considered. Determination of sleep and wake periods for analysis of ABPM data should be based on careful determination of actual periods. Using other definitions may not provide complete information or accommodate for individual variation. PMID:10578220

  7. High-speed multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2016-02-23

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses each being of a programmable pulse duration, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has a plurality of plates. A control system having a digital sequencer controls the laser and a plurality of switching components, synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to enable programmable pulse durations and programmable inter-pulse spacings.

  8. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.; Dehope, William J; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M

    2016-06-21

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  9. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2015-10-20

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  10. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermal conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.

  11. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermalmore » conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.« less

  12. Time-Dependent Coupled Harmonic Oscillators: Classical and Quantum Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Diego Ximenes; Guedes, Ilde

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne-Pinney equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m1 = m2 = m0eγt, ω1 = ω01e-γt/2, ω2 = ω02e-γt/2 and k = k0.

  13. Time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators: Classical and quantum solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, D. X.; Guedes, I.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions, we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld (LR) invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne-Pinney (MP) equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m1 = m2 = m0eγt, ω1 = ω01e-γt/2, ω2 = ω02e-γt/2 and k = k0.

  14. The control of high-dimensional chaos in time-delay systems to an arbitrary goal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünner, M. J.

    1999-03-01

    We present the control of high-dimensional chaos, with possibly a large number of positive Lyapunov exponents, of unknown time-delay systems to an arbitrary goal dynamics. We give an existence-and-uniqueness theorem for the control force. In the case of an unknown system, a formula to compute a model-based control force is derived. We give an example by demonstrating the control of the Mackey-Glass system toward a fixed point and a Rössler dynamics.

  15. Time-dependent diffusive acceleration of test particles at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, L. O'C.

    1991-07-01

    A theoretical description is developed for the acceleration of test particles at a steady plane nonrelativistic shock. The mean and the variance of the acceleration-time distribution are expressed analytically for the condition under which the diffusion coefficient is arbitrarily dependent on position and momentum. The formula for an acceleration rate with arbitrary spatial variation in the diffusion coefficient developed by Drury (1987) is supplemented by a general theory of time dependence. An approximation scheme is developed by means of the analysis which permits the description of the spectral cutoff resulting from the finite shock age. The formulas developed in the analysis are also of interest for analyzing the observations of heliospheric shocks made from spacecraft.

  16. Counterrotating prop-fan simulations which feature a relative-motion multiblock grid decomposition enabling arbitrary time-steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, J. Mark; Whitfield, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Improvements are presented of a computer algorithm developed for the time-accurate flow analysis of rotating machines. The flow model is a finite volume method utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for interface flux definitions. The numerical scheme is a block LU implicit iterative-refinement method which possesses apparent unconditional stability. Multiblock composite gridding is used to orderly partition the field into a specified arrangement of blocks exhibiting varying degrees of similarity. Block-block relative motion is achieved using local grid distortion to reduce grid skewness and accommodate arbitrary time step selection. A general high-order numerical scheme is applied to satisfy the geometric conservation law. An even-blade-count counterrotating unducted fan configuration is chosen for a computational study comparing solutions resulting from altering parameters such as time step size and iteration count. The solutions are compared with measured data.

  17. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  18. Arbitrary eigenvalue assignments for linear time-varying multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of eigenvalue assignments for a class of linear time-varying multivariable systems is considered. Using matrix operators and canonical transformations, it is shown that a time-varying system that is 'lexicography-fixedly controllable' can be made via state feedback to be equivalent to a time-invariant system whose eigenvalues are arbitrarily assignable. A simple algorithm for the design of the state feedback is provided.

  19. Time dependent parallel viscosity and relaxation rate of poloidal rotation in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.T.; Shaing, K.C.; Gormley, R. )

    1994-01-01

    Time dependent ion parallel viscous force in the banana regime with arbitrary inverse aspect ratio [epsilon] is calculated using the eigenfunction approach. The flux surface averaged viscosity is then used to study the relaxation process of the poloidal rotation which leads to oscillatory relaxation behavior. The relaxation rate [nu][sub [ital p

  20. Time dependent solution for acceleration of tau-leaping

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Petzold, Linda R.

    2013-02-15

    The tau-leaping method is often effective for speeding up discrete stochastic simulation of chemically reacting systems. However, when fast reactions are involved, the speed-up for this method can be quite limited. One way to address this is to apply a stochastic quasi-steady state assumption. However we must be careful when using this assumption. If the fast subsystem cannot reach a steady distribution fast enough, the quasi-steady-state assumption will propagate error into the simulation. To avoid these errors, we propose to use the time dependent solution rather than the quasi-steady-state. Generally speaking, the time dependent solution is not easy to derive for an arbitrary network. However, for some common motifs we do have time dependent solutions. We derive the time dependent solutions for these motifs, and then show how they can be used with tau-leaping to achieve substantial speed-ups, including for a realistic model of blood coagulation. Although the method is complicated, we have automated it.

  1. Adjoint-Based Methodology for Time-Dependent Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, N. K.; Diskin, B.; Nielsen, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete adjoint method for a broad class of time-dependent optimization problems. The time-dependent adjoint equations are derived in terms of the discrete residual of an arbitrary finite volume scheme which approximates unsteady conservation law equations. Although only the 2-D unsteady Euler equations are considered in the present analysis, this time-dependent adjoint method is applicable to the 3-D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with minor modifications. The discrete adjoint operators involving the derivatives of the discrete residual and the cost functional with respect to the flow variables are computed using a complex-variable approach, which provides discrete consistency and drastically reduces the implementation and debugging cycle. The implementation of the time-dependent adjoint method is validated by comparing the sensitivity derivative with that obtained by forward mode differentiation. Our numerical results show that O(10) optimization iterations of the steepest descent method are needed to reduce the objective functional by 3-6 orders of magnitude for test problems considered.

  2. Spectral methods for time dependent problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Spectral approximations are reviewed for time dependent problems. Some basic ingredients from the spectral Fourier and Chebyshev approximations theory are discussed. A brief survey was made of hyperbolic and parabolic time dependent problems which are dealt with by both the energy method and the related Fourier analysis. The ideas presented above are combined in the study of accuracy stability and convergence of the spectral Fourier approximation to time dependent problems.

  3. Mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds of arbitrary polarisation using pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Romano, Joseph D.; Taylor, Stephen R.

    2015-11-01

    We extend our previous work on mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds using techniques borrowed from the analysis of cosmic microwave background data to backgrounds which have non-general-relativity (non-GR) polarisations. Our analysis and results are presented in the context of pulsar timing array observations, but the overarching methods are general, and can be easily applied to LIGO or eLISA observations using appropriately modified response functions. Analytic expressions for the pulsar timing response to gravitational waves with non-GR polarisation are given for each mode of a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the background, which permit the signal to be mapped across the sky to any desired resolution. We also derive the pulsar timing overlap reduction functions for the various non-GR polarisations, finding analytic forms for anisotropic backgrounds with scalar-transverse ("breathing") and vector-longitudinal polarisations, and a semianalytic form for scalar-longitudinal backgrounds. Our results indicate that pulsar timing observations will be completely insensitive to scalar-transverse mode anisotropies in the polarisation amplitude beyond dipole, and anisotropies in the power beyond quadrupole. Analogous to our previous findings that pulsar timing observations lack sensitivity to tensor-curl modes for a transverse-traceless tensor background, we also find insensitivity to vector-curl modes for a vector-longitudinal background.

  4. The necking time of gas bubbles in liquids of arbitrary viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños-Jiménez, R.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical study of the collapse time of a gas bubble injected into an otherwise stagnant liquid under quasi-static conditions and for a wide range of liquid viscosities. The experiments were performed by injecting a constant flow rate of air through a needle with inner radius a into several water/glycerine mixtures, providing a viscosity range of 20 cP ≲ μ ≲ 1500 cP. By analyzing the temporal evolution of the neck radius, R0(t), the collapse time has been extracted for three different stages during the collapse process, namely, Ri/a = 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2, being Ri = R0(t = 0) the initial neck radius. The collapse time is shown to monotonically increase with both Ri/a and with the Ohnesorge number, Oh = μ / √{ ρ σ R i } , where ρ and σ represent the liquid density and the surface tension coefficient, respectively. The theoretical approach is based on the cylindrical Rayleigh-Plesset equation for the radial liquid flow around the neck, which is the appropriate leading-order representation of the collapse dynamics, thanks to the slenderness condition R0(t) r1(t) ≪ 1, where r1(t) is half the axial curvature of the interface evaluated at the neck. The Rayleigh-Plesset equation can be integrated numerically to obtain the collapse time, τcol, which is made dimensionless using the capillary time, t σ = √{ ρ Ri 3 / σ } . We present a novel scaling law for τcol as a function of Ri/a and Oh that closely follows the experimental data for the entire range of both parameters, and provide analytical expressions in the inviscid and Stokes regimes, i.e., τ col ( Oh → 0 ) → √{ 2 ln C } and τcol(Oh → ∞) → 2Oh, respectively, where C is a constant of order unity that increases with Ri/a.

  5. Electromagnetic interaction of arbitrary radial-dependent anisotropic spheres and improved invisibility for nonlinear-transformation-based cloaks.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Novitsky, Andrey; Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo

    2009-07-01

    An analytical method of electromagnetic wave interactions with a general radially anisotropic cloak is established. It is able to deal with arbitrary parameters [ epsilon r (r) , mu r (r) , epsilon t (r) , and mu t (r) ] of a radially anisotropic inhomogeneous shell. The general cloaking condition is proposed from the wave relations, in contrast to the method of transformation optics. Spherical metamaterial cloaks with improved invisibility performance are achieved with optimal nonlinearity in transformation and core-shell ratio. PMID:19658829

  6. Prospective Real-Time Correction for Arbitrary Head Motion Using Active Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Melvyn B.; Krueger, Sascha; Thomas, William J.; Swaminathan, Srirama V.; Brown, Truman R.

    2011-01-01

    Patient motion during an MRI exam can result in major degradation of image quality, and is of increasing concern due to the aging population and its associated diseases. This work presents a general strategy for real-time, intra-image compensation of rigid-body motion that is compatible with multiple imaging sequences. Image quality improvements are established for structural brain MRI acquired during volunteer motion. A headband integrated with three active markers is secured to the forehead. Prospective correction is achieved by interleaving a rapid track-and-update module into the imaging sequence. For every repetition of this module, a short tracking pulse-sequence re-measures the marker positions; during head motion, the rigid-body transformation that realigns the markers to their initial positions is fed back to adaptively update the image-plane – maintaining it at a fixed orientation relative to the head – before the next imaging segment of k-space is acquired. In cases of extreme motion, corrupted lines of k-space are rejected and re-acquired with the updated geometry. High precision tracking measurements (0.01 mm) and corrections are accomplished in a temporal resolution (37 ms) suitable for real-time application. The correction package requires minimal additional hardware and is fully integrated into the standard user interface, promoting transferability to clinical practice. PMID:19488989

  7. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyang

    1999-09-01

    I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.

  8. Birefringence in time-dependent moving media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shirong; Zhang, Ruoyang; Zhai, Yanwang; Wei, Jianye; Zhao, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional time-dependent moving media is investigated in this paper. We identify another origin of linear birefringence caused by the component of the flow perpendicular to the wave vector. Previously, birefringence is induced by applying external electric and magnetic fields to non-crystalline material. Here it is shown that the time-varying velocity field also contributes to such a phenomenon. Our results indicate that the parallel component, time-dependent or not, will not yield birefringence. Furthermore, the time-dependent flow also results in a frequency shift. One-dimensional simulation is conducted to demonstrate these effects.

  9. Focusing waves at arbitrary locations in a ray-chaotic enclosure using time-reversed synthetic sonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

    2016-05-01

    Time-reversal methods are widely used to achieve wave focusing in acoustics and electromagnetics. Past time-reversal experiments typically require that a transmitter be initially present at the target focusing point, which limits the application of this technique. In this paper, we propose a method to focus waves at an arbitrary location inside a complex enclosure using a numerically calculated wave excitation signal. We use a semiclassical ray algorithm to calculate the signal that would be received at a transceiver port resulting from the injection of a short pulse at the desired target location. The time-reversed version of this signal is then injected into the transceiver port, and an approximate reconstruction of the short pulse is created at the target. The quality of the pulse reconstruction is quantified in three different ways, and the values of these metrics are shown to be predicted by the statistics of the scattering parameter | S21|2 between the transceiver and target points in the enclosure over the bandwidth of the pulse. We demonstrate the method experimentally using a flat microwave billiard, and we quantify the reconstruction quality as a function of enclosure loss, port coupling, and other considerations.

  10. String pair production in a time-dependent gravitational field

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Wesley, Daniel H.

    2005-12-15

    We study the pair creation of point particles and strings in a time-dependent, weak gravitational field. We find that, for massive string states, there are surprising and significant differences between the string and point-particle results. Central to our approach is the fact that a weakly curved spacetime can be represented by a coherent state of gravitons, and therefore we employ standard techniques in string perturbation theory. String and point-particle pairs are created through tree-level interactions between the background gravitons. In particular, we focus on the production of excited string states and perform explicit calculations of the production of a set of string states of arbitrary excitation level. The differences between the string and point-particle results may contain important lessons for the pair production of strings in the strong gravitational fields of interest in cosmology and black hole physics.

  11. Quick Time-dependent Ionization Calculations Depending on MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2014-06-01

    Time-dependent ionization is important in astrophysical environments where the thermodynamic time scale is shorter than ionization time scale. In this work, we report a FORTRAN program that performs fast non-equilibrium ionization calculations based on parallel computing. Using MHD simulation results, we trace the movements of plasma in a Lagrangian framework, and obtain evolutionary history of temperature and electron density. Then the time-dependent ionization equations are solved using the eigenvalue method. For any complex temperature and density histories, we introduce a advanced time-step strategy to improve the computational efficiency. Our tests show that this program has advantages of high numerical stability and high accuracy. In addition, it is also easy to integrate this solver with the other MHD routines.

  12. Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki

    1991-12-31

    This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section.

  13. Cumulative beam breakup in linear accelerators with time-dependent parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen

    2004-10-01

    A formalism presented in a previous paper for the analysis of cumulative beam breakup (BBU) with arbitrary time dependence of the beam current and with misalignment of the cavities and focusing elements [J. R. Delayen, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 084402 (2003)] is extended to include time dependence of the focusing and coupling between the beam and the dipole modes. Such time dependence, which could result from an energy chirp imposed on the beam or from rf focusing, is known to be effective in reducing BBU-induced instabilities and emittance growth. The analytical results are presented and applied to practical accelerator configurations and compared to numerical simulations.

  14. Time dependent breakdown in silicon dioxide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, C.; Shumka, A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted regarding the possible existence of a time-dependent breakdown mechanism in thermal oxides of the type used as gate oxide in MOS circuits. Questions of device fabrication are discussed along with details concerning breakdown measurements and the determination of C-V characteristics. A relatively large prebreakdown current observed in one of the cases is related to the time-dependent breakdown.

  15. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284

  16. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  17. Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.

  18. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  19. Time-Dependent Molecular Reaction Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Oehrn, Yngve

    2007-11-29

    This paper is a brief review of a time-dependent, direct, nonadiabatic theory of molecular processes called Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END). This approach to the study of molecular reaction dynamics is a hierarchical theory that can be applied at various levels of approximation. The simplest level of END uses classical nuclei and represents all electrons by a single, complex, determinantal wave function. The wave function parameters such as average nuclear positions and momenta, and molecular orbital coefcients carry the time dependence and serve as dynamical variables. Examples of application are given of the simplest level of END to ion-atom and ion-molecule reactions.

  20. Time Circular Birefringence in Time-Dependent Magnetoelectric Media

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Zhai, Yan-Wang; Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhao, Qing; Wen, Weijia; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light traveling in time-dependent media has many extraordinary properties which can be utilized to convert frequency, achieve temporal cloaking, and simulate cosmological phenomena. In this paper, we focus on time-dependent axion-type magnetoelectric (ME) media, and prove that light in these media always has two degenerate modes with opposite circular polarizations corresponding to one wave vector , and name this effect “time circular birefringence” (TCB). By interchanging the status of space and time, the pair of TCB modes can appear simultaneously via “time refraction” and “time reflection” of a linear polarized incident wave at a time interface of ME media. The superposition of the two TCB modes causes the “time Faraday effect”, namely the globally unified polarization axes rotate with time. A circularly polarized Gaussian pulse traversing a time interface is also studied. If the wave-vector spectrum of a pulse mainly concentrates in the non-traveling-wave band, the pulse will be trapped with nearly fixed center while its intensity will grow rapidly. In addition, we propose an experimental scheme of using molecular fluid with external time-varying electric and magnetic fields both parallel to the direction of light to realize these phenomena in practice. PMID:26329928

  1. Time Circular Birefringence in Time-Dependent Magnetoelectric Media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Zhai, Yan-Wang; Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhao, Qing; Wen, Weijia; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light traveling in time-dependent media has many extraordinary properties which can be utilized to convert frequency, achieve temporal cloaking, and simulate cosmological phenomena. In this paper, we focus on time-dependent axion-type magnetoelectric (ME) media, and prove that light in these media always has two degenerate modes with opposite circular polarizations corresponding to one wave vector , and name this effect "time circular birefringence" (TCB). By interchanging the status of space and time, the pair of TCB modes can appear simultaneously via "time refraction" and "time reflection" of a linear polarized incident wave at a time interface of ME media. The superposition of the two TCB modes causes the "time Faraday effect", namely the globally unified polarization axes rotate with time. A circularly polarized Gaussian pulse traversing a time interface is also studied. If the wave-vector spectrum of a pulse mainly concentrates in the non-traveling-wave band, the pulse will be trapped with nearly fixed center while its intensity will grow rapidly. In addition, we propose an experimental scheme of using molecular fluid with external time-varying electric and magnetic fields both parallel to the direction of light to realize these phenomena in practice. PMID:26329928

  2. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations.

    PubMed

    Bendib-Kalache, K; Bendib, A; El Hadj, K Mohammed

    2010-11-01

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space (ω,k), where ω and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter ω/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc²/T , where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units. PMID:21230596

  3. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed

    2010-11-15

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  4. Time-Dependent Erosion of Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E.; Anderson, John R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate prediction of thruster life requires time-dependent erosion estimates for the ion optics assembly. Such information is critical to end-of-life mechanisms such as electron backstreaming. CEX2D was recently modified to handle time-dependent erosion, double ions, and multiple throttle conditions in a single run. The modified code is called "CEX2D-t". Comparisons of CEX2D-t results with LDT and ELT post-tests results show good agreement for both screen and accel grid erosion including important erosion features such as chamfering of the downstream end of the accel grid and reduced rate of accel grid aperture enlargement with time.

  5. Time-dependent nanomechanics of cartilage.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Frank, Eliot H; Greene, Jacqueline J; Lee, Hsu-Yi; Hung, Han-Hwa K; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Ortiz, Christine

    2011-04-01

    In this study, atomic force microscopy-based dynamic oscillatory and force-relaxation indentation was employed to quantify the time-dependent nanomechanics of native (untreated) and proteoglycan (PG)-depleted cartilage disks, including indentation modulus E(ind), force-relaxation time constant τ, magnitude of dynamic complex modulus |E(∗)|, phase angle δ between force and indentation depth, storage modulus E', and loss modulus E″. At ∼2 nm dynamic deformation amplitude, |E(∗)| increased significantly with frequency from 0.22 ± 0.02 MPa (1 Hz) to 0.77 ± 0.10 MPa (316 Hz), accompanied by an increase in δ (energy dissipation). At this length scale, the energy dissipation mechanisms were deconvoluted: the dynamic frequency dependence was primarily governed by the fluid-flow-induced poroelasticity, whereas the long-time force relaxation reflected flow-independent viscoelasticity. After PG depletion, the change in the frequency response of |E(∗)| and δ was consistent with an increase in cartilage local hydraulic permeability. Although untreated disks showed only slight dynamic amplitude-dependent behavior, PG-depleted disks showed great amplitude-enhanced energy dissipation, possibly due to additional viscoelastic mechanisms. Hence, in addition to functioning as a primary determinant of cartilage compressive stiffness and hydraulic permeability, the presence of aggrecan minimized the amplitude dependence of |E(∗)| at nanometer-scale deformation. PMID:21463599

  6. Time-Dependent Nanomechanics of Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin; Frank, Eliot H.; Greene, Jacqueline J.; Lee, Hsu-Yi; Hung, Han-Hwa K.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, atomic force microscopy-based dynamic oscillatory and force-relaxation indentation was employed to quantify the time-dependent nanomechanics of native (untreated) and proteoglycan (PG)-depleted cartilage disks, including indentation modulus Eind, force-relaxation time constant τ, magnitude of dynamic complex modulus |E∗|, phase angle δ between force and indentation depth, storage modulus E′, and loss modulus E″. At ∼2 nm dynamic deformation amplitude, |E∗| increased significantly with frequency from 0.22 ± 0.02 MPa (1 Hz) to 0.77 ± 0.10 MPa (316 Hz), accompanied by an increase in δ (energy dissipation). At this length scale, the energy dissipation mechanisms were deconvoluted: the dynamic frequency dependence was primarily governed by the fluid-flow-induced poroelasticity, whereas the long-time force relaxation reflected flow-independent viscoelasticity. After PG depletion, the change in the frequency response of |E∗| and δ was consistent with an increase in cartilage local hydraulic permeability. Although untreated disks showed only slight dynamic amplitude-dependent behavior, PG-depleted disks showed great amplitude-enhanced energy dissipation, possibly due to additional viscoelastic mechanisms. Hence, in addition to functioning as a primary determinant of cartilage compressive stiffness and hydraulic permeability, the presence of aggrecan minimized the amplitude dependence of |E∗| at nanometer-scale deformation. PMID:21463599

  7. Time Dependent Behavior in the Weissenberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Michael M.; Andereck, C. David

    1997-03-01

    The Weissenberg effect is the climb of a non-Newtonian fluid up a rotating rod. We have found novel transitional effects in the behavior of a particular climbing fluid, STP(STP Oil Treatment distributed by First Brands Corporation.). The first state is a time-independent axisymmetric concave climb. As the rotation rate of the rod is increased, the first transition is to an axisymmetric climb with an ``onion dome'' shape. At higher rotation rates, the flow undergoes a symmetry breaking bifurcation to a time-dependent state. This time-dependent state exhibits an oscillation with a single frequency. Upon further increase of the rod rotation rate, the oscillation becomes modulated by a second frequency. The nature of each transition will be characterized, including the measurement of oscillation amplitudes and the frequency (or frequencies) of the time dependent states. These results will be compared with previous work.(G.S. Beavers, D.D. Joseph, J. Fluid Mech. 69), 475 (1975).(D.D. Joseph, R.L. Fosdick, Arch. Rational Mech. 49), 321 (1973).

  8. Solution of a time-dependent equation of transfer by the F(n)-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanjai, S.; Biswas, G.

    1986-10-01

    A solution of the time-dependent transfer equation for a finite, plane-parallel, nonradiating, and isotropically-scattering atmosphere of arbitrary stratification is presented. The method uses the orthogonality properties of the eigenfunctions introduced by Case (1960), Bowden (1963), and Bowden and Williams (1964) in solving the neutron transport problem to convert the Laplace-transformed time-dependent equation of transfer to singular integral equations. Then, the F(n)-method of Siewert and Benoist (1979) is used to solve these singular integral equations.

  9. Time-dependent diffusion in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, G.; Stift, M. J.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical peculiarities of Ap stars are due to abundance stratifications produced by atomic diffusion in their outer layers. Theoretical models can predict such stratifications, but so far only provide equilibrium solutions which correspond to the maximum depth-dependent abundances for each element that can be supported by the radiation field. However, these stratifications are actually built up through a non-linear, time-dependent process which has never been modelled for realistic stellar atmospheres. Here, we present the first numerical simulations of time-dependent diffusion. We solve the continuity equation after having computed, as accurately as possible, atomic diffusion velocities (with and without a magnetic field) for a simplified fictitious - but still realistic - chemical element: cloudium. The direct comparison with existing observations is not the immediate aim of this work but rather a general understanding of how the stratification build-up proceeds in time and space. Our results raise serious questions as to the relevance of equilibrium solutions and reinforce the suspicion that certain accumulations of chemical elements might prove unstable.

  10. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-28

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H{sub 2}, F{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  11. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-01

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H2, F2 and O3 at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  12. Shear-rate-dependent viscosities of nematic and disc-like particles perfectly aligned in arbitrary relative directions to the shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyearn-Maw

    2016-07-01

    The shear-rate-dependent viscosity coefficients of hard ellipsoids are derived for arbitrary relative orientations to the shear flow geometry. Each of the nine components of the coefficients scaled by the Newtonian shear viscosity agrees with the previous result for the viscosity in the zero-shear-rate limit. Among the components, the shear viscosity is graphically displayed for nematic ellipsoids with an axis ratio greater than 1 and for disc-like ellipsoids with an axis ratio less than 1 over the whole range of relative orientations of the axis of ellipsoid to the plane shear layer. As the primary axis of the ellipsoid rotates from the x-axis to the y-axis in the x-y plane, the shear viscosity increases or decreases for nematic or disc-like ellipsolids, respectively.

  13. Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2016-08-21

    Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρ(N)(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT virtually unavoidable, adiabatic approximation, the second problem is the reliable evaluation of the probabilities P(n)(t) of multiple photoinduced ionization, while the third problem (which TDDFT shares with other approaches) is the reliable description of continuum states of the electrons ejected in the process of ionization. In this paper time-dependent Dyson orbital theory (TDDOT) is proposed. Exact TDDOT equations of motion (EOMs) for time-dependent Dyson orbitals are derived, which are linear differential equations with just static, feasible potentials of the electron-electron interaction. No adiabatic approximation is used, which formally resolves the first TDDFT problem. TDDOT offers formally exact expressions for the complete evolution in time of the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. This leads to the correlated probability of single ionization P(1)(t) as well as the probabilities of no ionization (P(0)(t)) and multiple ionization of n electrons, P(n)(t), which formally solves the second problem of TDDFT. For two-electron systems a proper description of the required continuum states appears to be rather straightforward, and both P(1)(t) and P(2)(t) can be calculated. Because of the exact formulation, TDDOT is expected to reproduce a notorious memory effect, the "knee structure" of the non-sequential double ionization of the He atom. PMID:26987972

  14. Heating liquid dielectrics by time dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalife, A.; Pathak, U.; Richert, R.

    2011-10-01

    Steady state and time-resolved dielectric relaxation experiments are performed at high fields on viscous glycerol and the effects of energy absorption from the electric field are studied. Time resolution is obtained by a sinusoidal field whose amplitude is switched from a low to a high level and by recording voltage and current traces with an oscilloscope during this transition. Based on their distinct time and frequency dependences, three sources of modifying the dynamics and dielectric loss via an increase in the effective temperature can be distinguished: electrode temperature, real sample temperature, and configurational temperatures of the modes that absorbed the energy. Isothermal conditions that are desired for focusing on the configurational temperature changes (as in dielectric hole burning and related techniques) are maintained only for very thin samples and for moderate power levels. For high frequencies, say ν > 1 MHz, changes of the real temperature will exceed the effects of configurational temperatures in the case of macroscopic samples. Regarding microwave chemistry, heating via cell phone use, and related situations in which materials are subject to fields involving frequencies beyond the MHz regime, we conclude that changes in the configurational (or fictive) temperatures remain negligible compared with the increase of the real temperature. This simplifies the assessment of how time dependent electric fields modify the properties of materials.

  15. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.

  16. Stochastic analysis of immiscible displacement of the fluids with arbitrary viscosities and its dependence on support scale of hydrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Huang, Hai

    2004-12-01

    Stochastic analysis is commonly used to address uncertainty in the modeling of flow and transport in porous media. In the stochastic approach, the properties of porous media are treated as random functions with statistics obtained from field measurements. Several studies indicate that hydrological properties depend on the scale of measurements or support scales, but most stochastic analysis does not address the effects of support scale on stochastic predictions of subsurface processes. In this work we propose a new approach to study the scale dependence of stochastic predictions. We present a stochastic analysis of immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in randomly heterogeneous porous media. While existing solutions are applicable only to systems in which the viscosity of one phase is negligible compare with the viscosity of the other (water-air systems for example), our solutions can be applied to the immiscible displacement of fluids having arbitrarily viscosities such as NAPL-water and water-oil. Treating intrinsic permeability as a random field with statistics dependant on the permeability support scale (scale of measurements) we obtained, for one-dimensional systems, analytical solutions for the first moments characterizing unbiased predictions (estimates) of system variables, such as the pressure and fluid-fluid interface position, and we also obtained second moments, which characterize the uncertainties associated with such predictions. Next we obtained empirically scale dependent exponential correlation function of the intrinsic permeability that allowed us to study solutions of stochastic equations as a function of the support scale. We found that the first and second moments converge to asymptotic values as the support scale decreases. In our examples, the statistical moments reached asymptotic values for support scale that were approximately 1/10000 of the flow domain size. We show that analytical moment solutions compare well with the results of Monte

  17. Pulsar Electrodynamics: a Time-dependent View

    SciTech Connect

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    Pulsar spindown forms a reliable yet enigmatic prototype for the energy loss processes in many astrophysical objects including accretion disks and back holes. In this paper we review the physics of pulsar magnetospheres, concentrating on recent developments in force-free modeling of the magnetospheric structure. In particular, we discuss a new method for solving the equations of time-dependent force-free relativistic MHD in application to pulsars. This method allows to dynamically study the formation of the magnetosphere and its response to perturbations, opening a qualitatively new window on pulsar phenomena. Applications of the method to other magnetized rotators, such as magnetars and accretion disks, are also discussed.

  18. Topologically nontrivial time-dependent chiral condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.

    1996-11-01

    Topologically nontrivial time-dependent solutions of the classical nonlinear {sigma} model are studied as candidates of the disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) in 3+1 dimensions. Unlike the analytic solutions so far discussed, these solutions cannot be transformed into isospin-uniform ones by chiral rotations. If they are produced as DCC{close_quote}s, they can be detected by a distinct pattern in the angle-rapidity distribution of the neutral-to-charged pion ratio. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Time-dependent treatment of scattering - Integral equation approaches using the time-dependent amplitude density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David K.; Sharafeddin, Omar; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent form of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuratiaon space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.

  20. Pseudospectral time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chaehyuk; Malick, David K.; Braden, Dale A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2008-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is implemented within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) using a pseudospectral approach to evaluate two-electron repulsion integrals. The pseudospectral approximation uses a split representation with both spectral basis functions and a physical space grid to achieve a reduction in the scaling behavior of electronic structure methods. We demonstrate here that exceptionally sparse grids may be used in the excitation energy calculation, following earlier work employing the pseudospectral approximation for determining correlation energies in wavefunction-based methods with similar conclusions. The pseudospectral TDA-TDDFT method is shown to be up to ten times faster than a conventional algorithm for hybrid functionals without sacrificing chemical accuracy.

  1. The time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, Michele

    2015-03-01

    The time-dependent Gutzwiller Approximation (t-GA) is shown to be capable of tracking the off-equilibrium evolution both of coherent quasiparticles and of incoherent Hubbard bands. The method is used to demonstrate that the sharp dynamical crossover observed by time-dependent DMFT in the quench-dynamics of a half-filled Hubbard model can be identified within the t-GA as a genuine dynamical transition separating two distinct physical phases. This result, strictly variational for lattices of infinite coordination number, is intriguing as it actually questions the occurrence of thermalization. Next, we shall present how t-GA works in a multi-band model for V2O3 that displays a first-order Mott transition. We shall show that a physically accessible excitation pathway is able to collapse the Mott gap down and drive off-equilibrium the insulator into a metastable metal phase. Work supported by the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme, under the project GO FAST, Grant Agreement No. 280555.

  2. Dosing time-dependent actions of psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the dosing time-dependent (DTD) actions of drugs has been used to describe the effects of diurnal rhythms on pharmacological responsiveness. Notwithstanding the importance of diurnal variability in drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, it appears that in the central nervous system (CNS), the DTD actions of psychotropic drugs involve diurnal changes in the CNS-specific expression of genes encoding for psychotropic drug targets and transcription factors known as clock genes. In this review, we focused our discussion on the DTD effects of the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamines. Both cocaine and amphetamines produce differential lasting behavioral alterations, that is, locomotor sensitization, depending on the time of the day they are administered. This exemplifies a DTD action of these drugs. The DTD effects of these psychostimulants correlate with diurnal changes in the system of transcription factors termed clock genes, for example, Period 1, and with changes in the availability of certain subtypes of dopamine receptors, for example, D2 and D3. Diurnal synthesis and release of the pineal hormone melatonin influence the DTD behavioral actions of cocaine and amphetamines. The molecular mechanism of melatonin's effects on the responsiveness of CNS to psychostimulants appears to involve melatonin receptors and clock genes. It is proposed that the DTD characteristics of psychostimulant action and the contributions of the melatonergic system may have clinical implications that include treatments for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and possibly neurotoxicity/neuroprotection. PMID:19897073

  3. General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state is applied to time-dependent Kantowski-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a ``gamma-law'' equation of state is explicitly obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line element, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a ``partner metric'' (both originated from the same generatrix function); in this case every generatrix function uniquely determines one metric.

  4. General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto

    1988-06-01

    A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state, is applied to time dependent Kantowsky-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a gamma-law equation of state is explicity obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line elements, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a partner-metric (both originated from the same generatrix function), in this case every generatrix function univocally determines one metric.

  5. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  6. Use and Abuse of a Fractional Fokker-Planck Dynamics for Time-Dependent Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinsalu, E.; Patriarca, M.; Goychuk, I.; Hänggi, P.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate a subdiffusive, fractional Fokker-Planck dynamics occurring in time-varying potential landscapes and thereby disclose the failure of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) in its commonly used form when generalized in an ad hoc manner to time-dependent forces. A modified FFPE (MFFPE) is rigorously derived, being valid for a family of dichotomously alternating force fields. This MFFPE is numerically validated for a rectangular time-dependent force with zero average bias. For this case, subdiffusion is shown to become enhanced as compared to the force free case. We question, however, the existence of any physically valid FFPE for arbitrary varying time-dependent fields that differ from this dichotomous varying family.

  7. Stable recovery of the time-dependent source term from one measurement for the wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashedi, Kamal; Sini, Mourad

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we discuss the inverse problem which consists of the determination of an unknown time-dependent force function from one time-dependent measurement collected in any space point for the one-dimensional wave equation. This problem is motivated by the question of estimating the time-dependent body force which needs to be exerted on a given string to reach a desired shape at the final time. We prove its unique solvability using as data a linear combination of displacement and flux measured at one arbitrary fixed point of the string. We also derive a conditional Hölder stability estimate of this inverse problem. The numerical solution of the problem is investigated by means of the Ritz--Galerkin technique along with the application of the satisfier function to obtain cost-effective and stable results. Some numerical examples are provided to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

  8. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-21

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated. PMID:25903875

  9. Infrared Blobs : Time-dependent Flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P. R.; Mack, J.; Dulude, M.; Hilbert, B.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the creation of time-dependent flags for pixels associated with "blobs" on the WFC3 IR detector. We detect the blobs on flat fields obtained by repeated observations of the night side of the Earth. We provide the most complete census of IR blobs' positions, radii, and times of first appearance. In aggregate, a set of 46 blobs, 27 "strong" and 19 "medium" in their effective scattering cross section, affect slightly less than 1% of the pixels of the detector. A second set of 81 "weak" (and typically smaller) blobs affect another 1% of the pixels. In the past, the "blob" flag, bit 9 (i.e. value = 512) in the data quality (DQ) array described in Table 2.5 of the WFC3 Data Handbook (Rajan et al. 2010) has been a static 2-D array; henceforth a set of such arrays, each associated with a "use after" date corresponding to the appearance of one or more new blobs, can be used. We prepared such DQ arrays using the 46 "strong" and "medium" blobs and discuss why we did not include the fainter blobs therein. As an added data product, we create and test a blob flat field that corrects the effects of blobs on extended emission; however, it should not be applied if stellar photometry is the goal.

  10. Tunable Time-Dependent Colloidal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Andrew M.; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Self-assembly of colloidal particles can be driven by changes in temperature, density, or the concentration of solutes, and it is even possible to program the thermal response and equilibrium phase transitions of such systems. It is still difficult, however, to tune how the self-assembly process varies in time. We demonstrate control over the time-dependence of colloidal interactions, using DNA-functionalized colloidal particles with binding energies that are set by the concentration of a free linker strand in solution. We control the rate at which this free strand is consumed using a catalytic DNA reaction, whose rate is governed by the concentration of a catalyst strand. Varying the concentration of the linker, its competitor, and the catalyst at a fixed temperature, we can tune the rate and degree of the formation of colloidal aggregates and their following disassembly. Close to the colloidal melting point, the timescales of these out-of-equilibrium assembly and disassembly processes are determined by the rate of the catalytic reaction. Far below the colloidal melting point, however, the effects from varying our linker and competitor concentrations dominate.

  11. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM02, or about 7.509M02 ≈ 6.268 × 1076(M0/Msolar)2, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M02 ≈ 1.254 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2, and then decreases back down to 4πM02 = 1.049 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2.

  12. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2}, or about 7.509M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 6.268 × 10{sup 76}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 1.254 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, and then decreases back down to 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2} = 1.049 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}.

  13. Time-Dependent Rate Phenomenon in Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Aiewsakun, Pakorn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among the most fundamental questions in viral evolutionary biology are how fast viruses evolve and how evolutionary rates differ among viruses and fluctuate through time. Traditionally, viruses are loosely classed into two groups: slow-evolving DNA viruses and fast-evolving RNA viruses. As viral evolutionary rate estimates become more available, it appears that the rates are negatively correlated with the measurement timescales and that the boundary between the rates of DNA and RNA viruses might not be as clear as previously thought. In this study, we collected 396 viral evolutionary rate estimates across almost all viral genome types and replication strategies, and we examined their rate dynamics. We showed that the time-dependent rate phenomenon exists across multiple levels of viral taxonomy, from the Baltimore classification viral groups to genera. We also showed that, by taking the rate decay dynamics into account, a clear division between the rates of DNA and RNA viruses as well as reverse-transcribing viruses could be recovered. Surprisingly, despite large differences in their biology, our analyses suggested that the rate decay speed is independent of viral types and thus might be useful for better estimation of the evolutionary time scale of any virus. To illustrate this, we used our model to reestimate the evolutionary timescales of extant lentiviruses, which were previously suggested to be very young by standard phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses suggested that these viruses are millions of years old, in agreement with paleovirological evidence, and therefore, for the first time, reconciled molecular analyses of ancient and extant viruses. IMPORTANCE This work provides direct evidence that viral evolutionary rate estimates decay with their measurement timescales and that the rate decay speeds do not differ significantly among viruses despite the vast differences in their molecular features. After adjustment for the rate decay dynamics, the

  14. What makes polymer crystallization depend on time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccarolo, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Here we report a series of objections to the mechanism of polymer crystallization by secondary nucleation plausible for very mild cooling conditions, i.e. when solidification time is long enough or when the molecular weight, M, is not too large, conditions not preventing segregation at the growth front to take place. With a manichean approach, if otherwise time is controlling, e.g. in polymer processing, or M is large, segregation is precluded and accumulation of topological defects takes place in the amorphous phase preventing sequential growth of crystalline domains. A non crystalline phase forms very much departed from equilibrium, constrained by the crystalline domains and frozen to an extent dependent on the morphology developed. Consequences are discussed, themselves a proof that segregation simplifies topology when crystallization conditions are mild. A situation responsible for the often reported memory effects as well as for mechanical and rheological properties. Results collected from our own experimental evidence by the originally developed Continuous Cooling Transformation are discussed within this framework and related to the broad, albeit often overlooked, literature on subjects intimately connected to crystallization and therefore spanning different fields of polymer science. We focus our attention on two recent results opening the way to this new perspective on polymer crystallization: the onset of the nodular morphology in iPP also in the presence of the stable a-monoclinic phase and the extended crystallization behaviour of polyester blends once local mobility is enhanced. Observing that demixing at the growth front controls crystallization under processing conditions we speculate that the high cooling rate solidification experiment is but a peculiar transient rheological measurement. Implications of this view are far reaching as the crucial role of the melt before solidification is evident.

  15. Alternative time-dependent optimized effective potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The OEP is known as a single-particle potential minimizing the expectation value of a many-body Hamiltonian on the set of eigen-functions of a single-particle Hamiltonian. The time-dependent (TD) OEP can be constructed with the TD quantum stationary-action principle. Very useful conceptually in DFT and TDDFT, both OEPs are not practicable due to the complexity of their implementations. Here we report a TDOEP by minimizing the difference of LHS and RHS of the TD Schrödinger equation. If the orbitals are varied, then the TD Hartree-Fock equations are reproduced. Similarly, we now find the OEP. New OMP does not involve the inversion of the density-response function χs, which greatly facilitates implementations. Accordingly, the exchange-correlation kernel fxc involves of χs- 1 only, not its quadratic counterpart. To show the power of this method, we work out the fxch (q , ω) of the homogeneous electron gas to be used with the nearly-free electrons theory, where fxch is the main input. Partial support from National Science Council, Taiwan, Grant No. 100-2112-M-001-025-MY3 is acknowledged.

  16. Time-dependence in mixture toxicity prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Douglas A.; Allen, Erin M.G.; Allen, Joshua L.; Baumann, Hannah J.; Bensinger, Heather M.; Genco, Nicole; Guinn, Daphne; Hull, Michael W.; Il'Giovine, Zachary J.; Kaminski, Chelsea M.; Peyton, Jennifer R.; Schultz, T. Wayne; Pöch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The value of time-dependent toxicity (TDT) data in predicting mixture toxicity was examined. Single chemical (A and B) and mixture (A + B) toxicity tests using Microtox® were conducted with inhibition of bioluminescence (Vibrio fischeri) being quantified after 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure. Single chemical and mixture tests for 25 sham (A1:A2) and 125 true (A:B) combinations had a minimum of seven duplicated concentrations with a duplicated control treatment for each test. Concentration/response (x/y) data were fitted to sigmoid curves using the five-parameter logistic minus one parameter (5PL-1P) function, from which slope, EC25, EC50, EC75, asymmetry, maximum effect, and r2 values were obtained for each chemical and mixture at each exposure duration. Toxicity data were used to calculate percentage-based TDT values for each individual chemical and mixture of each combination. Predicted TDT values for each mixture were calculated by averaging the TDT values of the individual components and regressed against the observed TDT values obtained in testing, resulting in strong correlations for both sham (r2 = 0.989, n = 25) and true mixtures (r2 = 0.944, n = 125). Additionally, regression analyses confirmed that observed mixture TDT values calculated for the 50% effect level were somewhat better correlated with predicted mixture TDT values than at the 25 and 75% effect levels. Single chemical and mixture TDT values were classified into five levels in order to discern trends. The results suggested that the ability to predict mixture TDT by averaging the TDT of the single agents was modestly reduced when one agent of the combination had a positive TDT value and the other had a minimal or negative TDT value. PMID:25446331

  17. Time-Dependent Electronic Populations in Fragment-Based Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Martín A; Wasserman, Adam

    2015-08-11

    Conceiving a molecule as being composed of smaller molecular fragments, or subunits, is one of the pillars of the chemical and physical sciences and leads to productive methods in quantum chemistry. Using a fragmentation scheme, efficient algorithms can be proposed to address problems in the description of chemical bond formation and breaking. We present a formally exact time-dependent density functional theory for the electronic dynamics of molecular fragments with a variable number of electrons. This new formalism is an extension of previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023001 (2013)]. We also introduce a stable density-inversion method that is applicable to time-dependent and ground-state density functional theories and their extensions, including those discussed in this work. PMID:26574438

  18. An analytical solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential for arbitrary angular momentum l states

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P. Rajesh; Wong, B. R.

    2015-04-24

    The Woods-Saxon potential is probably the most studied and widely used short range potential in all of nuclear physics. For the angular momentum l= 0 case, Flügge had devised a method to obtain an analytical expression for the bound state energies of the radial time-independent Schrödinger equation for a neutron confined in a Woods-Saxon potential well. In this study, we extend Flügge's method to solve the radial Schrödinger equation for a neutron within the Woods-Saxon potential and the centrifugal potential for arbitrary values of l. Here, the Pekeris method is used to deal with the centrifugal term. We obtain an analytical expression for the bound states, valid for arbitrary angular momentum, and show that our expression reduces to that of Flügge, which applies to the l= 0 case. The numerical computations performed also show very good agreement with our analytical expression.

  19. An analytical approximation for the orientation-dependent excluded volume of tangent hard sphere chains of arbitrary chain length and flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Gross, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    Onsager-like theories are commonly used to describe the phase behavior of nematic (only orientationally ordered) liquid crystals. A key ingredient in such theories is the orientation-dependent excluded volume of two molecules. Although for hard convex molecular models this is generally known in analytical form, for more realistic molecular models that incorporate intramolecular flexibility, one has to rely on approximations or on computationally expensive Monte Carlo techniques. In this work, we provide a general correlation for the excluded volume of tangent hard-sphere chains of arbitrary chain length and flexibility. The flexibility is introduced by means of the rod-coil model. The resulting correlation is of simple analytical form and accurately covers a wide range of pure component excluded volume data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two-chain molecules. The extension to mixtures follows naturally by applying simple combining rules for the parameters involved. The results for mixtures are also in good agreement with data from Monte Carlo simulations. We have expressed the excluded volume as a second order power series in sin (γ), where γ is the angle between the molecular axes. Such a representation is appealing since the solution of the Onsager Helmholtz energy functional usually involves an expansion of the excluded volume in Legendre coefficients. Both for pure components and mixtures, the correlation reduces to an exact expression in the limit of completely linear chains. The expression for mixtures, as derived in this work, is thereby an exact extension of the pure component result of Williamson and Jackson [Mol. Phys. 86, 819-836 (1995)], 10.1080/00268979500102391.

  20. Arbitrary shaped, liquid filled reverberators with non-resonant transducers for broadband focusing of ultrasound using Time Reversed Acoustics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, A; Fillinger, L

    2009-03-01

    The ability to generate short focused ultrasonic pulses with duration on the order of one period of carrier frequency depends on the bandwidth of the transmitter as the pulse duration is inversely proportional to the bandwidth. Conventional focusing arrays used for focusing ultrasound have limited bandwidth due to the resonant nature of the piezoelements generating ultrasound. Theoretically it is possible to build a broadband phased array composed of "non-resonant" elements: wedge-shaped or flat-concave piezotransducers, though there are numerous technical difficulties in designing arrays with hundreds of elements of complex shape. This task is much easier to realize in an alternative technique of ultrasound focusing based on the principles of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) because in TRA systems, effective focusing can be achieved with just a few, or even one, transducers. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of broadband focusing of ultrasonic waves using a TRA system with non-resonant transducers and to explore the factors affecting the performance of such a system. A new type of TRA reverberators, such as water-filled thin-wall plastic vessels, which can be used with the submersible piezotransducers fixed internally in the reverberator, are proposed and tested. The experiments are conducted in a water tank with the walls and bottom covered by a sound absorbing lining. A needle hydrophone mounted on a 3D positioning system is used as a beacon for the TRA focusing and then for measuring the spatial distribution of the focused ultrasound field. The bandwidth and spatial distribution of the signal focused by the TRA system using a single channel with the resonant versus non-resonant transducers have been analyzed. Two types of non-resonant transducers were tested: a flat-concave transducer with a diameter of 30 mm, and a thickness varying from 2 mm in the center to 11 mm at the edge, and a specially designed submersible transducer having an

  1. Generalization of the time-dependent numerical renormalization group method to finite temperatures and general pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, H. T. M.; Costi, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    The time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TDNRG) method [Anders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 196801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801] offers the prospect of investigating in a nonperturbative manner the time dependence of local observables of interacting quantum impurity models at all time scales following a quantum quench. Here, we present a generalization of this method to arbitrary finite temperature by making use of the full density matrix approach [Weichselbaum et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076402 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.076402]. We show that all terms in the projected full density matrix ρi →f=ρ+++ρ--+ρ+-+ρ-+ appearing in the time evolution of a local observable may be evaluated in closed form at finite temperature, with ρ+-=ρ-+=0. The expression for ρ-- is shown to be finite at finite temperature, becoming negligible only in the limit of vanishing temperatures. We prove that this approach recovers the short-time limit for the expectation value of a local observable exactly at arbitrary temperatures. In contrast, the corresponding long-time limit is recovered exactly only for a continuous bath, i.e., when the logarithmic discretization parameter Λ →1+. Since the numerical renormalization group approach breaks down in this limit, and calculations have to be carried out at Λ >1, the long-time behavior following an arbitrary quantum quench has a finite error, which poses an obstacle for the method, e.g., in its application to the scattering-states numerical renormalization group method for describing steady-state nonequilibrium transport through correlated impurities [Anders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 066804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.066804]. We suggest a way to overcome this problem by noting that the time dependence, in general, and the long-time limit, in particular, become increasingly more accurate on reducing the size of the quantum quench. This suggests an improved generalized TDNRG approach in which the system is time

  2. Logistic equation of arbitrary order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Franciszek

    2010-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the new logistic equation of arbitrary order which describes the performance of complex executive systems X vs. number of tasks N, operating at limited resources K, at non-extensive, heterogeneous self-organization processes characterized by parameter f. In contrast to the classical logistic equation which exclusively relates to the special case of sub-extensive homogeneous self-organization processes at f=1, the proposed model concerns both homogeneous and heterogeneous processes in sub-extensive and super-extensive areas. The parameter of arbitrary order f, where -∞depends on both the coefficient of external resource utilization u=N/K, where 0time of serving the task by the ith component, and Z is the think time of a given process. In the general case of complex system, parameters Vi, Si, i and Z can have values in the range from 0 to +∞. In this way the new equation includes all possible cases of a complex executive system’s operation. Furthermore, it allows us to define the optimal matching point between X and N with f as the parameter. It also helps to balance the load in complex systems and to equip artificial systems with self-optimization mechanisms similar to those observed in natural systems.

  3. Time dependency of strainrange partitioning life relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, S.; Manson, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of exposure time (or creep rate) on the CP life relationship is established by conducting isothermal CP tests at varying exposure times on 316 Ss at 1300 and 1500 F. A reduction in the CP cycle life is observed with an increase in the exposure time of the CP test at a given inelastic strain-range. This phenomenon is characterized by modifying the Manson-Coffin type of CP relationship. Two new life relationships: (1) the Steady State Creep Rate (SSRC) Modified CP life relationship, and (2) the Failure Time (FT) Modified CP life relationship, are developed in this report. They account for the effect of creep rate and exposure time within the CP type of waveform. The reduction in CP cyclic life in the long exposure time tests is attributed to oxidation and the precipitation of carbides along the grain boundaries.

  4. Exact Solutions to Time-dependent Mdps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyan, Justin A.; Littman, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe an extension of the Markov decision process model in which a continuous time dimension is included in the state space. This allows for the representation and exact solution of a wide range of problems in which transitions or rewards vary over time. We examine problems based on route planning with public transportation and telescope observation scheduling.

  5. Studies of spuriously shifting resonances in time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Fuks, Johanna I; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-07-28

    Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is explained in Fuks et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition in the absence of time-dependent external fields and ionic motion is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationary Kohn-Sham reference state. We then present several case studies, including one that utilizes the adiabatically exact approximation, that illustrate the conditions and the impact of their violation on the accuracy of the ensuing dynamics. In particular, charge-transfer across a long-range molecule is hampered, and we show how adjusting the frequency of a driving field to match the time-dependent shift in the charge-transfer resonance frequency results in a larger charge transfer over time. PMID:27475342

  6. Studies of spuriously shifting resonances in time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai; Fuks, Johanna I.; Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is explained in Fuks et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition in the absence of time-dependent external fields and ionic motion is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationary Kohn-Sham reference state. We then present several case studies, including one that utilizes the adiabatically exact approximation, that illustrate the conditions and the impact of their violation on the accuracy of the ensuing dynamics. In particular, charge-transfer across a long-range molecule is hampered, and we show how adjusting the frequency of a driving field to match the time-dependent shift in the charge-transfer resonance frequency results in a larger charge transfer over time.

  7. Diffusion under time-dependent resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Arnab; Kundu, Anupam; Evans, Martin R.

    2016-06-01

    We study a Brownian particle diffusing under a time-modulated stochastic resetting mechanism to a fixed position. The rate of resetting r(t) is a function of the time t since the last reset event. We derive a sufficient condition on r(t) for a steady-state probability distribution of the position of the particle to exist. We derive the form of the steady-state distributions under some particular choices of r(t) and also consider the late time relaxation behavior of the probability distribution. We consider first passage time properties for the Brownian particle to reach the origin and derive a formula for the mean first passage time (MFPT). Finally, we study optimal properties of the MFPT and show that a threshold function is at least locally optimal for the problem of minimizing the MFPT.

  8. Time-dependent generalized polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsma, Marc; Steen, Jan-Bart van der; Vos, Peter; Karniadakis, George

    2010-11-01

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) has non-uniform convergence and tends to break down for long-time integration. The reason is that the probability density distribution (PDF) of the solution evolves as a function of time. The set of orthogonal polynomials associated with the initial distribution will therefore not be optimal at later times, thus causing the reduced efficiency of the method for long-time integration. Adaptation of the set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to the changing PDF removes the error with respect to long-time integration. In this method new stochastic variables and orthogonal polynomials are constructed as time progresses. In the new stochastic variable the solution can be represented exactly by linear functions. This allows the method to use only low order polynomial approximations with high accuracy. The method is illustrated with a simple decay model for which an analytic solution is available and subsequently applied to the three mode Kraichnan-Orszag problem with favorable results.

  9. Time scale separation leads to position-dependent diffusion along a slow coordinate

    PubMed Central

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Szabo, Attila

    2011-01-01

    When there is a separation of time scales, an effective description of the dynamics of the slow variables can be obtained by adiabatic elimination of fast ones. For example, for anisotropic Langevin dynamics in two dimensions, the conventional procedure leads to a Langevin equation for the slow coordinate that involves the potential of the mean force. The friction constant along this coordinate remains unchanged. Here, we show that a more accurate, but still Markovian, description of the slow dynamics can be obtained by using position-dependent friction that is related to the time integral of the autocorrelation function of the difference between the actual force and the mean force by a Kirkwood-like formula. The result is generalized to many dimensions, where the slow or reaction coordinate is an arbitrary function of the Cartesian coordinates. When the fast variables are effectively one-dimensional, the additional friction along the slow coordinate can be expressed in closed form for an arbitrary potential. For a cylindrically symmetric channel of varying cross section with winding centerline, our analytical expression immediately yields the multidimensional version of the Zwanzig-Bradley formula for the position-dependent diffusion coefficient. PMID:21861557

  10. Characterization of the startup transient electrokinetic flow in rectangular channels of arbitrary dimensions, zeta potential distribution, and time-varying pressure gradient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier

    2015-03-01

    The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. PMID:25502599

  11. Time-dependent study of bit reset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiú, D.

    2015-02-01

    In its most conservative formulation, the Landauer principle states that at least k_BT\\ln2 of heat must be produced to reset one bit. Theoretical derivations of this result for practical systems require complex mathematical tools; additionally, real experiments are sophisticated and sensitive. In the literature, it's then common practice to look for a global heat production of k_BT\\ln2 without further concern for heat exchanges at intermediate times. In this paper we want to recover such kind of description: we take a Brownian particle that moves in a bistable potential as bit. We then consider a reset protocol with a net heat production of k_BT\\ln{2} and study the time evolution of internal energy, work and heat. In particular, we show that these quantities are fully characterized by the changes that the protocol induces over the wells of the bistable potential.

  12. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-11-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological-temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network.

  13. Time-dependent accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    One problem of the current event tree methodology is that the transitions between accident sequences are not modeled. The causes of transitions are mostly due to operator actions during an accident. A model for such transitions is presented. A generalized algorithm is used for quantification. In the more realistic accident analysis, the progression of the physical processes, which determines the time available for proper operators response, is modeled. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the physical modeling is considered. As an example, the approach is applied to analyze TMI-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open pressure operated relief valve at B and W plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident. A thermal code (CUT) is developed to determine the time at which the core uncovery occurs. A response surface is used to propagate the uncertainty associated with the thermal code.

  14. An inverse problem for a wave equation with arbitrary initial values and a finite time of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolatti, Rolci; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    We consider a solution u(p, g, a, b) to an initial value-boundary value problem for a wave equation: \\fl \\partial _t^2 u(x,t) = \\Delta u(x,t) + p(x)u(x,t), \\qquad x \\in \\Omega,\\qquad \\thinspace 0 < t < T\\\\ \\fl u(x,0) = a(x), \\qquad \\partial _tu(x,0) = b(x), \\qquad x \\in \\Omega,\\\\ \\fl u(x,t) = g(x,t), \\qquad x \\in \\partial \\Omega,\\qquad 0 < t < T, and we discuss an inverse problem of determining a coefficient p(x) and a, b by observations of u(p, g, a, b)(x, t) in a neighbourhood ω of ∂Ω over a time interval (0, T) and ∂itu(p, g, a, b)(x, T0), x in Ω, i = 0, 1, with T0 < T. We prove that if T - T0 and T0 are larger than the diameter of Ω, then we can choose a finite number of Dirichlet boundary inputs g1, ..., gN, so that the mapping \\fl \\lbrace u(p,g_j,a_j,b_j)\\vert _{\\omega \\times (0,T)}, \\partial _t^iu(p,g_j,a_j,b_j)(\\cdot,T_0)\\rbrace _{i=0,1, 1\\le j\\le N}\

  15. Time-dependent semiclassics for ultracold bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Lena; Strunz, Walter T.

    2014-05-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons in a double- and triple-well potential within the Bose-Hubbard model by means of the semiclassical Herman-Kluk propagator and compare the results to the frequently applied "classical dynamics" calculation in terms of the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA). For the double-well system we find the semiclassical results in excellent agreement with the numerically exact ones, while the TWA is not able to reproduce any revivals of the wave function. The triple-well system turns out to be more difficult to handle due to the irregularity of the corresponding classical phase space. Here, deviations of the TWA from the exact dynamics appear even for short times, while better agreement is obtained using the semiclassical approach presented in this article.

  16. Time-dependent onshore tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, Alex; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    While bulk measures of the onshore impact of a tsunami, including the maximum run-up elevation and inundation distance, are important for hazard planning, the temporal evolution of the onshore flow dynamics likely controls the extent of the onshore destruction and the erosion and deposition of sediment that occurs. However, the time-varying dynamics of actual tsunamis are even more difficult to measure in situ than the bulk parameters. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is used to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slope, and bottom roughness have on the temporal evolution of the onshore flow. Model results indicate that the onshore flow dynamics vary significantly over the parameter space examined. For example, the flow dynamics over steep, smooth morphologies tend to be temporally symmetric, with similar magnitude velocities generated during the run-up and run-down phases of inundation. Conversely, on shallow, rough onshore topographies the flow dynamics tend to be temporally skewed toward the run-down phase of inundation, with the magnitude of the flow velocities during run-up and run-down being significantly different. Furthermore, for near-breaking tsunami waves inundating over steep topography, the flow velocity tends to accelerate almost instantaneously to a maximum and then decrease monotonically. Conversely, when very long waves inundate over shallow topography, the flow accelerates more slowly and can remain steady for a period of time before beginning to decelerate. These results indicate that a single set of assumptions concerning the onshore flow dynamics cannot be applied to all tsunamis, and site specific analyses may be required.

  17. Global paths of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation connecting arbitrary traveling waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-12-11

    We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.

  18. A Deterministic-Monte Carlo Hybrid Method for Time-Dependent Neutron Transport Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Pounders; Farzad Rahnema

    2001-10-01

    A new deterministic-Monte Carlo hybrid solution technique is derived for the time-dependent transport equation. This new approach is based on dividing the time domain into a number of coarse intervals and expanding the transport solution in a series of polynomials within each interval. The solutions within each interval can be represented in terms of arbitrary source terms by using precomputed response functions. In the current work, the time-dependent response function computations are performed using the Monte Carlo method, while the global time-step march is performed deterministically. This work extends previous work by coupling the time-dependent expansions to space- and angle-dependent expansions to fully characterize the 1D transport response/solution. More generally, this approach represents and incremental extension of the steady-state coarse-mesh transport method that is based on global-local decompositions of large neutron transport problems. An example of a homogeneous slab is discussed as an example of the new developments.

  19. Modeling choice and reaction time during arbitrary visuomotor learning through the coordination of adaptive working memory and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Viejo, Guillaume; Khamassi, Mehdi; Brovelli, Andrea; Girard, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Current learning theory provides a comprehensive description of how humans and other animals learn, and places behavioral flexibility and automaticity at heart of adaptive behaviors. However, the computations supporting the interactions between goal-directed and habitual decision-making systems are still poorly understood. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results suggest that the brain hosts complementary computations that may differentially support goal-directed and habitual processes in the form of a dynamical interplay rather than a serial recruitment of strategies. To better elucidate the computations underlying flexible behavior, we develop a dual-system computational model that can predict both performance (i.e., participants' choices) and modulations in reaction times during learning of a stimulus-response association task. The habitual system is modeled with a simple Q-Learning algorithm (QL). For the goal-directed system, we propose a new Bayesian Working Memory (BWM) model that searches for information in the history of previous trials in order to minimize Shannon entropy. We propose a model for QL and BWM coordination such that the expensive memory manipulation is under control of, among others, the level of convergence of the habitual learning. We test the ability of QL or BWM alone to explain human behavior, and compare them with the performance of model combinations, to highlight the need for such combinations to explain behavior. Two of the tested combination models are derived from the literature, and the latter being our new proposal. In conclusion, all subjects were better explained by model combinations, and the majority of them are explained by our new coordination proposal. PMID:26379518

  20. Modeling choice and reaction time during arbitrary visuomotor learning through the coordination of adaptive working memory and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Viejo, Guillaume; Khamassi, Mehdi; Brovelli, Andrea; Girard, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Current learning theory provides a comprehensive description of how humans and other animals learn, and places behavioral flexibility and automaticity at heart of adaptive behaviors. However, the computations supporting the interactions between goal-directed and habitual decision-making systems are still poorly understood. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results suggest that the brain hosts complementary computations that may differentially support goal-directed and habitual processes in the form of a dynamical interplay rather than a serial recruitment of strategies. To better elucidate the computations underlying flexible behavior, we develop a dual-system computational model that can predict both performance (i.e., participants' choices) and modulations in reaction times during learning of a stimulus–response association task. The habitual system is modeled with a simple Q-Learning algorithm (QL). For the goal-directed system, we propose a new Bayesian Working Memory (BWM) model that searches for information in the history of previous trials in order to minimize Shannon entropy. We propose a model for QL and BWM coordination such that the expensive memory manipulation is under control of, among others, the level of convergence of the habitual learning. We test the ability of QL or BWM alone to explain human behavior, and compare them with the performance of model combinations, to highlight the need for such combinations to explain behavior. Two of the tested combination models are derived from the literature, and the latter being our new proposal. In conclusion, all subjects were better explained by model combinations, and the majority of them are explained by our new coordination proposal. PMID:26379518

  1. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  2. Time-dependence of the holographic spectral function: diverse routes to thermalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Ishii, Takaaki; Joshi, Lata Kh; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Ramadevi, P.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a new method for computing the holographic retarded propagator in generic (non-)equilibrium states using the state/geometry map. We check that our method reproduces the thermal spectral function given by the Son-Starinets prescription. The time-dependence of the spectral function of a relevant scalar operator is studied in a class of non-equilibrium states. The latter are represented by AdS-Vaidya geometries with an arbitrary parameter characterising the timescale for the dual state to transit from an initial thermal equilibrium to another due to a homogeneous quench. For long quench duration, the spectral function indeed follows the thermal form at the instantaneous effective temperature adiabatically, although with a slight initial time delay and a bit premature thermalisation. At shorter quench durations, several new non-adiabatic features appear: (i) time-dependence of the spectral function is seen much before than that in the effective temperature (advanced time-dependence), (ii) a big transfer of spectral weight to frequencies greater than the initial temperature occurs at an intermediate time (kink formation) and (iii) new peaks with decreasing amplitudes but in greater numbers appear even after the effective temperature has stabilised (persistent oscillations). We find four broad routes to thermalisation for lower values of spatial momenta. At higher values of spatial momenta, kink formations and persistent oscillations are suppressed, and thermalisation time decreases. The general thermalisation pattern is globally top-down, but a closer look reveals complexities.

  3. Lagrangian and Eulerian analysis of transport and mixing in the three dimensional, time dependent Hill's spherical vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlhany, Kevin L.; Guth, Stephen; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we extend the notion of Eulerian indicators (EIs), previously developed for two dimensional time dependent flows, to three dimensional time dependent flows, where the time dependence can be arbitrary. These are applied to a study of transport and mixing in the Hill's spherical vortex subject to a linear strain rate field. We consider the axisymmetric case and the fully three dimensional case with different types of time dependence. We develop a Lagrangian characterization of transport and mixing appropriate for open three dimensional flows and we show that the EIs provide a detailed description of the flow structure that can be correlated with the Lagrangian transport and mixing results. The EIs yield results consistent with the dynamics of the Hill's vortex flow characteristics, correlation with transverse shear, and anti-correlation with transversality.

  4. Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using time-dependent basis functions.

    PubMed

    Varga, Kálmán

    2012-01-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved by using an explicitly time-dependent basis. This approach allows efficient reflection-free time propagation of the wave function. The applicability of the method is illustrated by solving various time-dependent problems including the calculation of the above threshold ionization of a model atom and the optical absorption spectrum of a sodium dimer. PMID:22400699

  5. Symmetry-, time-, and temperature-dependent strength of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrica, Traian; Hua, Ming; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2006-01-01

    Although the strength of carbon nanotubes has been of great interest, their ideal value has remained elusive both experimentally and theoretically. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of underlying atomic mechanisms and evaluate the yield strain for arbitrary nanotubes at realistic conditions. For this purpose, we combine detailed quantum mechanical computations of failure nucleation and transition-state barriers with the probabilistic approach of the rate theory. The numerical results are then summarized in a concise set of equations for the breaking strain. We reveal a competition between two alternative routes of brittle bond breaking and plastic relaxation, determine the domains of their dominance, and map the nanotube strength as a function of chiral symmetry, tensile test time, and temperature. PMID:16581906

  6. Fresnel integrals and irreversible energy transfer in an oscillatory system with time-dependent parameters.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I; Kosevich, Yuriy A

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that in significant limiting cases the problem of irreversible energy transfer in an oscillatory system with time-dependent parameters can be efficiently solved in terms of the Fresnel integrals. For definiteness, we consider a system of two weakly coupled linear oscillators in which the first oscillator with constant parameters is excited by an initial impulse, whereas the coupled oscillator with a slowly varying frequency is initially at rest but then acts as an energy trap. We show that the evolution equations of the slow passage through resonance are identical to the equations of the Landau-Zener tunneling problem, and therefore, the suggested asymptotic solution of the classical problem provides a simple analytic description of the quantum Landau-Zener tunneling with arbitrary initial conditions over a finite time interval. A correctness of approximations is confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:21405919

  7. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  8. Development of a time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on a fractional-step method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Moshe

    1990-01-01

    The development, validation and application of a fractional step solution method of the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems are discussed. A solution method that combines a finite-volume discretization with a novel choice of the dependent variables and a fractional step splitting to obtain accurate solutions in arbitrary geometries was previously developed for fixed-grids. In the present research effort, this solution method is extended to include more general situations, including cases with moving grids. The numerical techniques are enhanced to gain efficiency and generality.

  9. Synchronization of rigid microrotors by time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions.

    PubMed

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. The three-dimensional fluid is described by the linearized, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations instead of the usually adopted Stokes equations. We demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. The time dependence of the phase difference between the rotors is determined and synchronization times are extracted for various external torques and rotor separations by solving the underlaying integrodifferential equations numerically. In addition, an analytical expression is provided for the synchronization time. PMID:24032929

  10. Cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2005-08-15

    We discuss the cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension. We show that, in the case that the tension changes as a power of time, the cosmic string network obeys the scaling solution: the characteristic scale of the string network grows with the time. But due to the time dependence of the tension, the ratio of the energy density of infinite strings to that of the background universe is not necessarily constant.

  11. Sandia's Arbitrary Waveform MEMO Actuator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-08-07

    SAMA is a multichannel, arbitrary waveform generator program for driving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). It allows the user to piece together twelve available wave parts, thereby permitting the user to create practically any waveform, or upload a previously constructed signal. The waveforms (bundled together as a signal) may simultaneously be output through four different channels to actuate MEMS devices, and the number of output channels may be increased depending on the DAQ card or instrument utilized.more » Additionally, real-time changes may be made to the frequency and amplitude. The signal may be paused temporarily. The waveform may be saved to file for future uploading. Recent work for this version has focused on modifications that will allow loading previously generated arbitrary waveforms, independent channel waveform amplification, adding a pause function, separating the "modify waveform: and "end program" functions, and simplifying the user interface by adding test blocks with statements to help the user program and output the desired signals. The program was developed in an effort to alleviate some of the limitations of Micro Driver. For example, Micro Driver will not allow the user to select a segment of a sine wave, but rather the user is limited to choosing either a whole or half sine wave pattern. It therefore becomes quite difficult ot construct partial sine wave patterns out of a "ramp" waveparts for several reasons. First, one must determine on paper how many data points each ramp will cover, and what the slopes of these ramps will be. Second, from what was observed, Micro Driver has difficulty processing more than six distinct waveparts during sequencing. The program will allow the user to input the various waves into the desired sequence; however, it will not allow the user to compile them (by clicking "ok" and returning to the main screen). Third, should the user decide that they want to increase the amplitute of the output signal

  12. Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wadehra, J.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Drallos, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z{sub eff}) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Dirac equation with some time-dependent electromagnetic terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi, K.; Zarrinkamar, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-07-01

    We study the motion of relativistic fermions in a time-dependent electromagnetic field within the framework of Dirac equation. We consider the time-dependent scalar potential of the exponential form and the vector potential of linear form. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.

  14. Invariant exchange perturbation theory for multicenter systems: Time-dependent perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Orlenko, E. V. Evstafev, A. V.; Orlenko, F. E.

    2015-02-15

    A formalism of exchange perturbation theory (EPT) is developed for the case of interactions that explicitly depend on time. Corrections to the wave function obtained in any order of perturbation theory and represented in an invariant form include exchange contributions due to intercenter electron permutations in complex multicenter systems. For collisions of atomic systems with an arbitrary type of interaction, general expressions are obtained for the transfer (T) and scattering (S) matrices in which intercenter electron permutations between overlapping nonorthogonal states belonging to different centers (atoms) are consistently taken into account. The problem of collision of alpha particles with lithium atoms accompanied by the redistribution of electrons between centers is considered. The differential and total charge-exchange cross sections of lithium are calculated.

  15. Asymptotic derivation and numerical investigation of time-dependent simplified PN equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbrant, E.; Larsen, E. W.; Frank, M.; Seibold, B.

    2013-04-01

    The steady-state simplified PN (SPN) approximations to the linear Boltzmann equation have been proven to be asymptotically higher-order corrections to the diffusion equation in certain physical systems. In this paper, we present an asymptotic analysis for the time-dependent simplified PN equations up to N=3. Additionally, SPN equations of arbitrary order are derived in an ad hoc way. The resulting SPN equations are hyperbolic and differ from those investigated in a previous work by some of the authors. In two space dimensions, numerical calculations for the PN and SPN equations are performed. We simulate neutron distributions of a moving rod and present results for a benchmark problem, known as the checkerboard problem. The SPN equations are demonstrated to yield significantly more accurate results than diffusion approximations. In addition, for sufficiently low values of N, they are shown to be more efficient than PN models of comparable cost.

  16. Lifshitz black holes with a time-dependent scalar field in a Horndeski theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2014-05-01

    In arbitrary dimensions, we consider a particular Horndeski action given by the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian with a cosmological constant term, while the source part is described by a real scalar field with its usual kinetic term together with a nonminimal kinetic coupling. In order to evade the no-hair theorem, we look for solutions where the radial component of the conserved current vanishes identically. Under this hypothesis, we prove that this model cannot accommodate Lifshitz solutions with a radial scalar field. This problem is finally circumvented by turning on the time dependence of the scalar field, and we obtain a Lifshitz black hole solution with a fixed value of the dynamical exponent z=1/3. The same metric is also shown to satisfy the field equations arising only from the variation of the matter source.

  17. Information theories for time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Daeyeoul; Maamache, Mustapha; Menouar, Salah; Nahm, In Hyun

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Information theories for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator based on invariant operator method. > Time dependence of entropies and entropic uncertainty relation. > Characteristics of Shannon information and Fisher information. > Application of information theories to particular systems that have time-dependent behavior. - Abstract: Information theories for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator are described on the basis of invariant operator method. We obtained entropic uncertainty relation of the system and discussed whether it is always larger than or equal to the physically allowed minimum value. Shannon information and Fisher information are derived by means of density operator that satisfies Liouville-von Neumann equation and their characteristics are investigated. Shannon information is independent of time, but Fisher information is explicitly dependent on time as the time functions of the Hamiltonian vary. We can regard that the Fisher information is a local measure since its time behavior is largely affected by local arrangements of the density, whilst the Shannon information plays the role of a global measure of the spreading of density. To promote the understanding, our theory is applied to special systems, the so-called quantum oscillator with time-dependent frequency and strongly pulsating mass system.

  18. Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-03-28

    We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na{sub 4} cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na{sub 4} cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods.

  19. Time Dependence of Joint Entropy of Oscillating Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Özgür; Aktürk, Ethem; Sever, Ramazan

    2008-12-01

    The time dependent entropy (or Leipnik’s entropy) of harmonic and damped harmonic oscillator systems is studied by using time dependent wave function obtained by the Feynman path integral method. The Leipnik entropy and its envelope change as a function of time, angular frequency and damping factor. Our results for simple harmonic oscillator are in agreement with the literature. However, the joint entropy of damped harmonic oscillator shows remarkable discontinuity with time for certain values of damping factor. The envelope of the joint entropy curve increases with time monotonically. These results show the general properties of the envelope of the joint entropy curve for quantum systems.

  20. Time-dependent manipulation of ultracold ion bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijnders, M. P.; Debernardi, N.; van der Geer, S. B.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

    2011-02-01

    The combination of an ultracold ion source based on photoionization of a laser-cooled gas and time-dependent acceleration fields enables precise manipulation of ion beams. We demonstrate reduction in the longitudinal energy spread and transverse (de)focusing of the beam by applying time-dependent acceleration voltages. In addition, we show how time-dependent acceleration fields can be used to control both the sign and strength of the spherical aberrations. The experimental results are in close agreement with detailed charged particle tracking simulations and can be explained in terms of a simple analytical model.

  1. Relativistic calculations of angle-dependent photoemission time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheifets, Anatoli; Mandal, Ankur; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Dolmatov, Valeriy K.; Keating, David A.; Manson, Steven T.

    2016-07-01

    Angular dependence of photoemission time delay for the valence n p3 /2 and n p1 /2 subshells of Ar, Kr, and Xe is studied in the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. Strong angular anisotropy of the time delay is reproduced near respective Cooper minima while the spin-orbit splitting affects the time delay near threshold.

  2. Time-Dependent Earthquake Forecasts on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Graves, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    We develop and implement a new type of global earthquake forecast. Our forecast is a perturbation on a smoothed seismicity (Relative Intensity) spatial forecast combined with a temporal time-averaged ("Poisson") forecast. A variety of statistical and fault-system models have been discussed for use in computing forecast probabilities. An example is the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, which has been using fault-based models to compute conditional probabilities in California since 1988. An example of a forecast is the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS), which is based on the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) magnitude-frequency law, the Omori aftershock law, and Poisson statistics. The method discussed in this talk is based on the observation that GR statistics characterize seismicity for all space and time. Small magnitude event counts (quake counts) are used as "markers" for the approach of large events. More specifically, if the GR b-value = 1, then for every 1000 M>3 earthquakes, one expects 1 M>6 earthquake. So if ~1000 M>3 events have occurred in a spatial region since the last M>6 earthquake, another M>6 earthquake should be expected soon. In physics, event count models have been called natural time models, since counts of small events represent a physical or natural time scale characterizing the system dynamics. In a previous research, we used conditional Weibull statistics to convert event counts into a temporal probability for a given fixed region. In the present paper, we move belyond a fixed region, and develop a method to compute these Natural Time Weibull (NTW) forecasts on a global scale, using an internally consistent method, in regions of arbitrary shape and size. We develop and implement these methods on a modern web-service computing platform, which can be found at www.openhazards.com and www.quakesim.org. We also discuss constraints on the User Interface (UI) that follow from practical considerations of site usability.

  3. Angular dependence of Wigner time delay: Relativistic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kkeifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Laser assisted photoionization time delay mainly consists of two parts: Wigner time delay, and time delay in continuum-continuum transition. Wigner time delay results from the energy derivative of the phase of the photoionization amplitude (matrix element). In general, the photoionization time delay is not the same in all directions relative to the incident photon polarization, although when a single transition dominates the amplitude, the resultant time delay is essentially isotropic. The relativistic-random-phase approximation is employed to determine the Wigner time delay in photoionization from the outer np subshells of the noble gas atoms, Ne through Xe. The time delay is found to significantly depend on angle, as well as energy. The angular dependence of the time delay is found to be quite sensitive to atomic dynamics and relativistic effects, and exhibit strong energy and angular variation in the neighborhood of Cooper minima. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  4. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles.

    PubMed

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Hingant, Erwan; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent

    2016-01-21

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory. PMID:26801019

  5. Time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai

    2013-12-01

    The parity-time-reversal ( {P} {T})-symmetric quantum mechanics (QM) (PTQM) has developed into a noteworthy area of research. However, to date, most known studies of PTQM focused on the spectral properties of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian operators. In this work, we propose an axiom in PTQM in order to study general time-dependent problems in PTQM, e.g., those with a time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric Hamiltonian and with a time-dependent metric. We illuminate our proposal by examining a proper mapping from a time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation of motion for PTQM to the familiar time-dependent Schrödinger equation in conventional QM. The rich structure of the proper mapping hints that time-dependent PTQM can be a fruitful extension of conventional QM. Under our proposed framework, we further study in detail the Berry-phase generation in a class of {P} {T}-symmetric two-level systems. It is found that a closed path in the parameter space of PTQM is often associated with an open path in a properly mapped problem in conventional QM. In one interesting case, we further interpret the Berry phase as the flux of a continuously tunable fictitious magnetic monopole, thus highlighting the difference between PTQM and conventional QM despite the existence of a proper mapping between them.

  6. VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF TIME-DEPENDENT FLOW FOR VISCOSITY THAT DEPENDS ON BOTH DEPTH AND TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previously developed eigenfunction expansion, that describes horizontal current as a function of depth and time, is extended to include any eddy viscosity given as a product of a function of depth and a function of time. (Copyright (c) 1982 American Meteorological Society.)

  7. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  8. Time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Kuśmierczyk, Piotr; Liu, Changqing; Yang, Guang; Sevostianov, Igor; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel. Due to its ideal biocompatibility, BC hydrogel could be employed in biomedical applications. Considering the complexity of loading conditions in human body environment, time-dependent behaviour under relevant conditions should be understood. BC specimens are produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 at static-culture conditions. Time-dependent behaviour of specimens at several stress levels is experimentally determined by uniaxial tensile creep tests. We use fraction-exponential operators to model the rheological behaviour. Such a representation allows combination of good accuracy in analytical description of viscoelastic behaviour of real materials and simplicity in solving boundary value problems. The obtained material parameters allow us to identify time-dependent behaviour of BC hydrogel at high stress level with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26478298

  9. Functional differentiability in time-dependent quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Penz, Markus Ruggenthaler, Michael

    2015-03-28

    In this work, we investigate the functional differentiability of the time-dependent many-body wave function and of derived quantities with respect to time-dependent potentials. For properly chosen Banach spaces of potentials and wave functions, Fréchet differentiability is proven. From this follows an estimate for the difference of two solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that evolve under the influence of different potentials. Such results can be applied directly to the one-particle density and to bounded operators, and present a rigorous formulation of non-equilibrium linear-response theory where the usual Lehmann representation of the linear-response kernel is not valid. Further, the Fréchet differentiability of the wave function provides a new route towards proving basic properties of time-dependent density-functional theory.

  10. Shape evolution and collective dynamics of quasifission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.

    2015-08-01

    Background: At energies near the Coulomb barrier, capture reactions in heavy-ion collisions result either in fusion or in quasifission. The former produces a compound nucleus in statistical equilibrium, while the second leads to a reseparation of the fragments after partial mass equilibration without formation of a compound nucleus. Extracting the compound nucleus formation probability is crucial to predict superheavy-element formation cross sections. It requires a good knowledge of the fragment angular distribution which itself depends on quantities such as moments of inertia and excitation energies which have so far been somewhat arbitrary for the quasifission contribution. Purpose: Our main goal is to utilize the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach to extract ingredients of the formula used in the analysis of experimental angular distributions. These include the moment-of-inertia and temperature. Methods: We investigate the evolution of the nuclear density in TDHF calculations leading to quasifission. We study the dependence of the relevant quantities on various initial conditions of the reaction process. Results: The evolution of the moment of inertia is clearly nontrivial and depends strongly on the characteristics of the collision. The temperature rises quickly when the kinetic energy is transformed into internal excitation. Then, it rises slowly during mass transfer. Conclusions: Fully microscopic theories are useful to predict the complex evolution of quantities required in macroscopic models of quasifission.

  11. Choice of Variables and Preconditioning for Time Dependent Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli; Vatsa, Verr N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the use of low speed preconditioning for time dependent problems. These are solved using a dual time step approach. We consider the effect of this dual time step on the parameter of the low speed preconditioning. In addition, we compare the use of two sets of variables, conservation and primitive variables, to solve the system. We show the effect of these choices on both the convergence to a steady state and the accuracy of the numerical solutions for low Mach number steady state and time dependent flows.

  12. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures from Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    Daren R. Norman; James L. Jones; Brandon W. Blackburn; Kevin J. Haskell; James T. Johnson; Scott M. Watson; Alan W. Hunt; Randy Spaulding; Frank Harmon

    2007-08-01

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8–24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods.

  13. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures from Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    Daren R. Norman; James L. Jones; Brandon W. Blackburn; Kevin J. Haskell; James T. Johnson; Scott M. Watson; Alan W. Hunt; Randy Spaulding; Frank Harmon

    2007-08-01

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8–24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in the pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon- inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods.

  14. Measuring Waves and Erosion in Underwater Oil Blobs and Monitoring Other Arbitrary Surfaces with a Kinect v2 Time-of-Flight Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, T.

    2014-12-01

    We developed free software that enables researchers to utilize Microsoft's new Kinect for Windows v2 sensor for a range of coastal and ocean mapping applications, as well as monitoring and measuring experimental scenes. While the original Kinect device used structured light and had very poor resolution, many geophysical researchers found uses for it in their experiments. The new next generation of this sensor uses time-of-flight technology, and can produce higher resolution depth measurements with an order of magnitude more accuracy. It also is capable of measurement through and under water. An analysis tool in our application lets users quickly select any arbitrary surface in the sensor's view. The tools automatically scans the surface, then calibrates and aligns a measurement volume to it. Depth readings from the sensor are converted into 3D point clouds, and points falling within this volume are projected into surface coordinates. Raster images can be output which consist of height fields aligned to the surface, generated from these projected measurements and interpolations between them. Images have a simple 1 pixel = 1 mm resolution and intensity values representing mm in height from the base-plane, which enables easy measurement and calculations to be conducted on the images in other analysis packages. Single snapshots can be taken manually on demand, or the software can monitor the surface automatically, capturing frames at preset intervals. This produces time lapse animations of dynamically changing surfaces. We apply this analysis tool to an experiment studying the behavior of underwater oil in response to flowing water of different speeds and temperatures. Blobs of viscous oils are placed in a flume apparatus, which circulates water past them. Over the course of a couple hours, the oil blobs spread out, waves slowly ripple across their surfaces, and erosions occur as smaller blobs break off from the main blob. All of this can be captured in 3D, with mm

  15. Fermion Mass Renormalization Using Time-dependent Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutnink, Timothy; Santrach, Amelia; Hocket, Sarah; Barcus, Scott; Petridis, Athanasios

    2015-10-01

    The time-dependent electromagnetically self-coupled Dirac equation is solved numerically by means of the staggered-leap-frog algorithm with refcecting boundary conditions. The stability region of the method versus the interaction strength and the spatial-grid size over time-step ratio is established. The expectation values of several dynamic operators are then evaluated as functions of time. These include the fermion and electromagnetic energies and the fermion dynamic mass, as the self-interacting spinors are no longer mass-eigenfunctions. There is a characteristic, non-exponential, oscillatory dependence leading to asymptotic constants of these expectation values. In the case of the fermion mass this amounts to renormalization. The dependence of the expectation values on the spatial-grid size is evaluated in detail. Statistical regularization is proposed to remove the grid-size dependence.

  16. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  17. Handling Time-dependent Variables: Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Frencken, Jos F; Tarima, Sergey; Bonten, Marc

    2016-06-15

    Elucidating quantitative associations between antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance development is important. In the absence of randomized trials, observational studies are the next best alternative to derive such estimates. Yet, as antibiotics are prescribed for varying time periods, antibiotics constitute time-dependent exposures. Cox regression models are suited for determining such associations. After explaining the concepts of hazard, hazard ratio, and proportional hazards, the effects of treating antibiotic exposure as fixed or time-dependent variables are illustrated and discussed. Wider acceptance of these techniques will improve quantification of the effects of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance development and provide better evidence for guideline recommendations. PMID:27025824

  18. Memory Retention and Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Guy; van Rossum, Mark C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Memory systems should be plastic to allow for learning; however, they should also retain earlier memories. Here we explore how synaptic weights and memories are retained in models of single neurons and networks equipped with spike-timing-dependent plasticity. We show that for single neuron models, the precise learning rule has a strong effect on the memory retention time. In particular, a soft-bound, weight-dependent learning rule has a very short retention time as compared with a learning rule that is independent of the synaptic weights. Next, we explore how the retention time is reflected in receptive field stability in networks. As in the single neuron case, the weight-dependent learning rule yields less stable receptive fields than a weight-independent rule. However, receptive fields stabilize in the presence of sufficient lateral inhibition, demonstrating that plasticity in networks can be regulated by inhibition and suggesting a novel role for inhibition in neural circuits. PMID:19297513

  19. The computational foundations of time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James

    2014-03-01

    The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. Since a quantum computer can efficiently produce such time-dependent densities, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds. Further, we find that systems do not immediately become non-representable but rather become ill-representable as one approaches this boundary. A representability parameter is defined in our work which quantifies the distance to the boundary of representability and the computational difficulty of finding the Kohn-Sham system.

  20. Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, J. D.; Yung, M.-H.; Tempel, D. G.; Boixo, S.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds.

  1. Spectral method for efficient computation of time-dependent phenomena in complex lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, O.; Makris, K. G.; Türeci, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Studying time-dependent behavior in lasers is analytically difficult due to the saturating nonlinearity inherent in the Maxwell-Bloch equations and numerically demanding because of the computational resources needed to discretize both time and space in conventional finite-difference time-domain approaches. We describe here an efficient spectral method to overcome these shortcomings in complex lasers of arbitrary shape, gain medium distribution, and pumping profile. We apply this approach to a quasidegenerate two-mode laser in different dynamical regimes and compare the results in the long-time limit to the steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT), which is also built on a spectral method but makes a more specific ansatz about the long-time dynamical evolution of the semiclassical laser equations. Analyzing a parameter regime outside the known domain of validity of the stationary inversion approximation, we find that for only a narrow regime of pump powers the inversion is not stationary, and that this, as pump power is further increased, triggers a synchronization transition upon which the inversion becomes stationary again. We provide a detailed analysis of mode synchronization (also known as cooperative frequency locking), revealing interesting dynamical features of such a laser system in the vicinity of the synchronization threshold.

  2. Time-dependent induced potentials in convoy electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, G. P.; Miraglia, J. E.

    2006-11-01

    We study the time-dependent induced potentials at the convoy electron position due to the self-interaction with a metal surface and to the shock wave created by the positive hole (vacancy) left. The time evolution of these potentials are calculated using the linear response theory. Results obtained are fitted with simple functions. We find that those two potentials nearly cancel each other in the first ten atomic units of time.

  3. Time-dependent MOS breakdown. [of Na contaminated capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. P.; Bates, E. T.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    A general model for time-dependent breakdown in metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) structures is developed and related to experimental measurements on samples deliberately contaminated with Na. A statistical method is used for measuring the breakdown probability as a function of log time and applied field. It is shown that three time regions of breakdown can be explained respectively in terms of silicon surface defects, ion emission from the metal interface, and lateral ion diffusion at the silicon interface.

  4. Time dependent turbulence modeling and analytical theories of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1993-01-01

    By simplifying the direct interaction approximation (DIA) for turbulent shear flow, time dependent formulas are derived for the Reynolds stresses which can be included in two equation models. The Green's function is treated phenomenologically, however, following Smith and Yakhot, we insist on the short and long time limits required by DIA. For small strain rates, perturbative evaluation of the correlation function yields a time dependent theory which includes normal stress effects in simple shear flows. From this standpoint, the phenomenological Launder-Reece-Rodi model is obtained by replacing the Green's function by its long time limit. Eddy damping corrections to short time behavior initiate too quickly in this model; in contrast, the present theory exhibits strong suppression of eddy damping at short times. A time dependent theory for large strain rates is proposed in which large scales are governed by rapid distortion theory while small scales are governed by Kolmogorov inertial range dynamics. At short times and large strain rates, the theory closely matches rapid distortion theory, but at long times it relaxes to an eddy damping model.

  5. Efficient photoheating algorithms in time-dependent photoionization simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Mellema, Garrelt; Lundqvist, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We present an extension to the time-dependent photoionization code C2-RAY to calculate photoheating in an efficient and accurate way. In C2-RAY, the thermal calculation demands relatively small time-steps for accurate results. We describe two novel methods to reduce the computational cost associated with small time-steps, namely, an adaptive time-step algorithm and an asynchronous evolution approach. The adaptive time-step algorithm determines an optimal time-step for the next computational step. It uses a fast ray-tracing scheme to quickly locate the relevant cells for this determination and only use these cells for the calculation of the time-step. Asynchronous evolution allows different cells to evolve with different time-steps. The asynchronized clocks of the cells are synchronized at the times where outputs are produced. By only evolving cells which may require short time-steps with these short time-steps instead of imposing them to the whole grid, the computational cost of the calculation can be substantially reduced. We show that our methods work well for several cosmologically relevant test problems and validate our results by comparing to the results of another time-dependent photoionization code.

  6. Spike-timing-dependent BDNF secretion and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Park, Hyungju; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In acute hippocampal slices, we found that the presence of extracellular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the induction of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP). To determine whether BDNF could be secreted from postsynaptic dendrites in a spike-timing-dependent manner, we used a reduced system of dissociated hippocampal neurons in culture. Repetitive pairing of iontophoretically applied glutamate pulses at the dendrite with neuronal spikes could induce persistent alterations of glutamate-induced responses at the same dendritic site in a manner that mimics spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP)-the glutamate-induced responses were potentiated and depressed when the glutamate pulses were applied 20 ms before and after neuronal spiking, respectively. By monitoring changes in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence at the dendrite of hippocampal neurons expressing GFP-tagged BDNF, we found that pairing of iontophoretic glutamate pulses with neuronal spiking resulted in BDNF secretion from the dendrite at the iontophoretic site only when the glutamate pulses were applied within a time window of approximately 40 ms prior to neuronal spiking, consistent with the timing requirement of synaptic potentiation via STDP. Thus, BDNF is required for tLTP and BDNF secretion could be triggered in a spike-timing-dependent manner from the postsynaptic dendrite. PMID:24298135

  7. Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.

  8. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  9. Progress in the Simulation of Steady and Time-Dependent Flows with 3D Parallel Unstructured Cartesian Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Murman, S. M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper will present recent extensions in the development of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively-refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries. The paper will focus on extensions of the basic method to include solution adaptation, time-dependent flow simulation, and arbitrary rigid domain motion. The parallel multilevel method makes use of on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition to achieve extremely good scalability on large numbers of processors, and is coupled with an automatic coarse mesh generation algorithm for efficient processing by a multigrid smoother. Numerical results are presented demonstrating parallel speed-ups of up to 435 on 512 processors. Solution-based adaptation may be keyed off truncation error estimates using tau-extrapolation or a variety of feature detection based refinement parameters. The multigrid method is extended to for time-dependent flows through the use of a dual-time approach. The extension to rigid domain motion uses an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerlarian (ALE) formulation, and results will be presented for a variety of two- and three-dimensional example problems with both simple and complex geometry.

  10. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-15

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. Stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  11. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  12. Time-dependent gravitating solitons in five-dimensional warped space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-12-15

    Time-dependent soliton solutions are explicitly derived in a five-dimensional theory endowed with one (warped) extra dimension. Some of the obtained geometries, everywhere well defined and technically regular, smoothly interpolate between two five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-times for a fixed value of the conformal time coordinate. Time-dependent solutions containing both topological and nontopological sectors are also obtained. Supplementary degrees of freedom can be also included and, in this case, the resulting multisoliton solutions may describe time-dependent kink-antikink system000.

  13. Temperature Dependence of Radiative and Nonradiative Rates from Time-Dependent Correlation Function Methods.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants in radiative and nonradiative decays from excited electronic states has been studied using a time-dependent correlation function approach in the framework of the adiabatic representation and the harmonic oscillator approximation. The present work analyzes the vibrational aspect of the processes, which gives rise to the temperature dependence, with the inclusion of mode-mixing, as well as of frequency change effects. The temperature dependence of the rate constants shows a contrasting nature, depending on whether the process has been addressed within the Franck-Condon approximation or beyond it. The calculation of the Duschinsky matrix and the shift vector between the normal modes of the two states can be done in Cartesian and/or internal coordinates, depending on the flexibility of the investigated molecule. A new computational code has been developed to calculate the rates of intersystem crossing, internal conversion, and fluorescence for selected molecules as functions of temperature. PMID:26683207

  14. Particle creation in a time-dependent electric field revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Gaurang

    2009-02-15

    We adopt the general formalism for analyzing evolution of gaussian states of quantized fields in time-dependent backgrounds in the Schrodinger picture (presented in detail in Mahajan and Padmanabhan [G. Mahajan, T. Padmanabhan, Gen. Rel. Grav. 40 (2008) 661]) to study the example of a spatially uniform electric field background (in a time-dependent gauge) which is kept turned on for a finite duration of time. In particular, we study the time-dependent particle content, defined in terms of the concept of instantaneous eigenstates, and describe how it captures the time evolution of the quantized field modes. The actual particle creation process occurs over a relatively short interval in time, and the particle content saturates rather quickly. We also compare the power spectrum of the field modes, computed in the asymptotic limit, with the corresponding situation in a cosmological de Sitter background. Particle creation under the influence of a spiked electric field localized in time, as a particular limiting case of the above general model, is also considered.

  15. Particle creation in a time-dependent electric field revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Gaurang

    2009-02-01

    We adopt the general formalism for analyzing evolution of gaussian states of quantized fields in time-dependent backgrounds in the Schrodinger picture (presented in detail in Mahajan and Padmanabhan [G. Mahajan, T. Padmanabhan, Gen. Rel. Grav. 40 (2008) 661]) to study the example of a spatially uniform electric field background (in a time-dependent gauge) which is kept turned on for a finite duration of time. In particular, we study the time-dependent particle content, defined in terms of the concept of instantaneous eigenstates, and describe how it captures the time evolution of the quantized field modes. The actual particle creation process occurs over a relatively short interval in time, and the particle content saturates rather quickly. We also compare the power spectrum of the field modes, computed in the asymptotic limit, with the corresponding situation in a cosmological de Sitter background. Particle creation under the influence of a spiked electric field localized in time, as a particular limiting case of the above general model, is also considered.

  16. Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve.

  17. Time-dependent nonlinear cosmic ray shocks confirming abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfi, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical studies of time dependent cosmic ray shock structures in planar geometry are interesting because analytical time-independent solutions are available which include the non-linear reactions on the plasma flow. A feature of these time asymptotic solutions is that for higher Mach numbers (M approximately 5) and for a low cosmic ray upstream pressure the solution is not uniquely determined by the usual conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. These numerical solutions clearly indicate that much work needs to be done before we understand shock acceleration as a time dependent process. The slowness of the process is possibly due to the fact that there is a diffusive flux into the downstream region in addition to the usual advective losses. Analytic investigations of thie phenomenon are required.

  18. Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M. Heidelberg Universitaet )

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights. 74 refs.

  19. Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.

  20. Statistical time-dependent model for the interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerola, H.; Kafatos, M.; Mccray, R.

    1974-01-01

    We present models for temperature and ionization structure of low, uniform-density (approximately 0.3 per cu cm) interstellar gas in a galactic disk which is exposed to soft X rays from supernova outbursts occurring randomly in space and time. The structure was calculated by computing the time record of temperature and ionization at a given point by Monte Carlo simulation. The calculation yields probability distribution functions for ionized fraction, temperature, and their various observable moments. These time-dependent models predict a bimodal temperature distribution of the gas that agrees with various observations. Cold regions in the low-density gas may have the appearance of clouds in 21-cm absorption. The time-dependent model, in contrast to the steady-state model, predicts large fluctuations in ionization rate and the existence of cold (approximately 30 K), ionized (ionized fraction equal to about 0.1) regions.

  1. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  2. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  3. Analytic controllability of time-dependent quantum control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chunhua; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Chi, Quo-Shin; Clark, John W.

    2005-05-01

    The question of controllability is investigated for a quantum control system in which the Hamiltonian operator components carry explicit time dependence which is not under the control of an external agent. We consider the general situation in which the state moves in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, a drift term is present, and the operators driving the state evolution may be unbounded. However, considerations are restricted by the assumption that there exists an analytic domain, dense in the state space, on which solutions of the controlled Schrödinger equation may be expressed globally in exponential form. The issue of controllability then naturally focuses on the ability to steer the quantum state on a finite-dimensional submanifold of the unit sphere in Hilbert space—and thus on analytic controllability. A relatively straightforward strategy allows the extension of Lie-algebraic conditions for strong analytic controllability derived earlier for the simpler, time-independent system in which the drift Hamiltonian and the interaction Hamiltonian have no intrinsic time dependence. Enlarging the state space by one dimension corresponding to the time variable, we construct an augmented control system that can be treated as time independent. Methods developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the one-dimension-reduced system defined by the original time-dependent Schrödinger control problem. The applicability of the resulting theorem is illustrated with selected examples.

  4. Polymer dynamics in time-dependent periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauttonen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha; Pulkkinen, Otto

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of a discrete polymer in time-dependent external potentials is studied with the master equation approach. We consider both stochastic and deterministic switching mechanisms for the potential states and give the essential equations for computing the stationary-state properties of molecules with internal structure in time-dependent periodic potentials on a lattice. As an example, we consider standard and modified Rubinstein-Duke polymers and calculate their mean drift and effective diffusion coefficient in the two-state nonsymmetric flashing potential and symmetric traveling potential. Rich nonlinear behavior of these observables is found. By varying the polymer length, we find current inversions caused by the rebound effect that is only present for molecules with internal structure. These results depend strongly on the polymer type. We also notice increased transport coherence for longer polymers.

  5. Time-dependent buoyant puff model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Several models exist to predict the time dependent behavior of bouyant puffs that result from explosions. This paper presents a new model that is derived from the strong conservative form of the conservation partial differential equations that are integrated over space to yield a coupled system of time dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations. This model permits the cloud to evolve from an intial spherical shape not an ellipsoidal shape. It ignores the Boussinesq approximation, and treats the turbulence that is generated by the puff itself and the ambient atmospheric tubulence as separate mechanisms in determining the puff history. The puff cloud rise history was found to depend no only on the mass and initial temperature of the explosion, but also upon the stability conditions of the ambient atmosphere. This model was calibrated by comparison with the Roller Coaster experiments.

  6. Simulating transient dynamics of the time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yan-Mei

    2016-09-01

    For a physically realistic type of time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, derived as the continuous limit of the continuous time random walk with time-modulated Boltzmann jumping weight, a semi-analytic iteration scheme based on the truncated (generalized) Fourier series is presented to simulate the resultant transient dynamics when the external time modulation is a piece-wise constant signal. At first, the iteration scheme is demonstrated with a simple time-dependent time fractional FP equation on finite interval with two absorbing boundaries, and then it is generalized to the more general time-dependent Smoluchowski-type time fractional Fokker-Planck equation. The numerical examples verify the efficiency and accuracy of the iteration method, and some novel dynamical phenomena including polarized motion orientations and periodic response death are discussed.

  7. Time-dependent radiation dose simulations during interplanetary space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Li, Ju

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation is one of the main concerns in planning long-term interplanetary human space missions. There are two main types of hazardous radiation - Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Their intensities and evolution depend on the solar activity. GCR activity is most enhanced during solar minimum, while the most intense SEPs usually occur during the solar maximum. SEPs are better shielded with thick shields, while GCR dose is less behind think shields. Time and thickness dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when radiation intensity and dose of SEP and GCR would be minimized. In this study we combine state-of-the-art space environment models with GEANT4 simulations to determine the optimal shielding, geometry of the spacecraft, and launch time with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. The radiation environment was described by the time-dependent GCR model, and the SEP spectra that were measured during the period from 1990 to 2010. We included gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and 27 fully ionized elements from hydrogen to nickel. We calculated the astronaut's radiation doses during interplanetary flights using the Monte-Carlo code that accounts for the primary and the secondary radiation. We also performed sensitivity simulations for the assumed spacecraft size and thickness to find an optimal shielding. In conclusion, we present the dependences of the radiation dose as a function of launch date from 1990 to 2010, for flight durations of up to 3 years.

  8. Time-Dependent Interfacial Properties and DNAPL Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-03-10

    Interfacial properties play a major role in governing where and how dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) move in the subsurface. Interfacial tension and contact angle measurements were obtained for a simple, single component DNAPL (tetrachloroethene, PCE), complex laboratory DNAPLs (PCE plus Sudan IV dye), and a field DNAPL from the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area DNAPL (PCE, trichloroethene [TCE], and maching oils). Interfacial properties for complex DNAPLs were time-dependent, a phenomenon not observed for PCE alone. Drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves are strongly influenced by interfacial properties. Therefore time-dependence will alter the nature of DNAPL migration and penetration. Results indicate that the time-dependence of PCE with relatively high Sudan IV dye concentrations is comparable to that of the field DNAPL. Previous DNAPL mobility experiments in which the DNAPL was dyed should be reviewed to determine whether time-dependent properties influenced the resutls. Dyes appear to make DNAPL more complex, and therefore a more realistic analog for field DNAPLs than single component DNAPLs.

  9. Pedagogical Aspects of Time-Dependent Rotation Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the reformulation of a classical magnetic moment interacting with various magnetic field configurations in terms of coordinate-free, time-dependent rotation operators. This approach provides useful exercises for the manipulation of three-dimensional rotation operators and provides examples for a number of quantum-mechanics related…

  10. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W.

    1997-07-01

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  11. Acceleration in a nonplanar time-dependent billiard.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sedighe; Eslami, Parvin

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamical properties of a particle in a nonplanar square billiard. The plane of the billiard has a sinusoidal shape. We consider both the static and time-dependent plane. We study the affect of different parameters that control the geometry of the billiard in this model. We consider variations of different parameters of the model and describe how the particle trajectory is affected by these parameters. We also investigate the dynamical behavior of the system in the static condition using its reduced phase plot and show that the dynamics of the particle inside the billiard may be regular, mixed, or chaotic. Finally, the problem of the particle energy growth is studied in the billiard with the time-dependent plane. We show that when in the static case, the billiard is chaotic, then the particle energy in the time-dependent billiard grows for a small number of collisions, and then it starts to saturate. But when the dynamics of the static case is regular, then the particle average energy in the time-dependent situation stays constant. PMID:27627308

  12. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  13. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Nasir Shashiashvili, Malkhaz

    2009-06-15

    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods.

  14. Adaptive and phase selective spike timing dependent plasticity in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  15. Adaptive and Phase Selective Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity in Synaptically Coupled Neuronal Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  16. Time-dependent Brittle Deformation in Darley Dale Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baud, P.; Heap, M. J.; Meredith, P. G.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of time-dependent brittle rock deformation is fundamental to understanding the long- term evolution and dynamics of the Earth's upper crust. The chemical influence of water promotes time- dependent deformation through stress corrosion cracking that allows rocks to deform at stresses far below their short-term failure strength. Here we report results from a study of time-dependent brittle creep in water- saturated samples of Darley Dale sandstone (initial porosity of 13%). Conventional creep experiments (or 'static fatigue' tests) show that time to failure decreases dramatically with the imposed deviatoric stress. They also suggest the existence of a critical level of damage beyond which localized failure develops. Sample variability results however in significant scattering in the experimental data and numerous tests are needed to clearly define a relation between the strain rate and the applied stress. We show here that stress-stepping experiments provide a means to overcome this problem and that it is possible this way to obtain the strain rate dependence on applied stress with a single test. This allows to study in details the impact of various thermodynamical conditions on brittle creep. The influence of effective stress was investigated in stress-stepping experiments with effective confining pressures of 10, 30 and 50 MPa (whilst maintaining a constant pore fluid pressure of 20 MPa). In addition to the expected purely mechanical influence of an elevated effective stress our results also demonstrate that stress corrosion appears to be inhibited at higher effective stresses. The influence of doubling the pore fluid pressure however, whilst maintaining a constant effective stress, is shown to have no effect on the rate of stress corrosion. We then discuss the results in light of acoustic emission hypocentre location data and optical microscope analysis and use our experimental data to validate proposed macroscopic creep laws. Finally, using

  17. Exact time-dependent solutions for the thin accretion disc equation: boundary conditions at finite radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu

    2011-01-01

    We discuss Green's function solutions of the equation for a geometrically thin, axisymmetric Keplerian accretion disc with a viscosity prescription ν∝Rn. The mathematical problem was solved by Lynden-Bell & Pringle for the special cases with boundary conditions of zero-viscous torque and zero mass flow at the disc centre. While it has been widely established that the observational appearance of astrophysical discs depends on the physical size of the central object(s), exact time-dependent solutions with boundary conditions imposed at finite radius have not been published for a general value of the power-law index n. We derive exact Green's function solutions that satisfy either a zero-torque or a zero-flux condition at a non-zero inner boundary Rin > 0, for an arbitrary initial surface density profile. Whereas the viscously dissipated power diverges at the disc centre for the previously known solutions with Rin= 0, the new solutions with Rin > 0 have finite expressions for the disc luminosity that agree, in the limit t→∞, with standard expressions for steady-state disc luminosities. The new solutions are applicable to the evolution of the innermost regions of thin accretion discs.

  18. Arbitrary p-form Galileons

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Deser, S.; Esposito-Farese, G.

    2010-09-15

    We show that scalar, 0-form, Galileon actions--models whose field equations contain only second derivatives--can be generalized to arbitrary even p-forms. More generally, they need not even depend on a single form, but may involve mixed p combinations, including equal p multiplets, where odd p fields are also permitted: We construct, for given dimension D, general actions depending on scalars, vectors, and higher p-form field strengths, whose field equations are of exactly second derivative order. We also discuss and illustrate their curved-space generalizations, especially the delicate nonminimal couplings required to maintain this order. Concrete examples of pure and mixed actions, field equations, and their curved-space extensions are presented.

  19. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Norman; J. L. Jones; B. W. Blackburn; S. M. Watson; K. J. Haskell

    2006-08-01

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors.

  20. Time-dependent dynamic behavior of light diffraction in ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Min-Feng; Chou, S. E.; Fu, Chao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The time-dependent dynamic behavior of diffraction patterns induced by external magnetic field in a suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles (Fe3O4) in a water-based magnetic fluid was investigated. It was observed that the diffraction pattern changed with time as the magnetic field was applied. In the absence of applied magnetic field, there was no diffraction pattern in the screen. When the magnetic field was applied, the transmitted light was perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the diffraction pattern was unstable. There were many small lines and points moving with time. After one minute, the diffraction pattern turned stable, and the small lines became longer. This time-dependent behavior helps us to understand the evolution of the forming chains of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, we have measured the other diffraction pattern, the transmitted light propagating parallel to the applied field. These time-dependent diffraction patterns give a new point to understand the dynamic three-dimensional structure of magnetic fluid under a dc magnetic field.

  1. Time-dependent coupled-cluster method for atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, David A; Hagen, Gaute; Nam, Hai Ah; Papenbrock, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    We study time-dependent coupled-cluster theory in the framework of nuclear physics. Based on Kvaal's bi-variational formulation of this method [S. Kvaal, arXiv:1201.5548], we explicitly demonstrate that observables that commute with the Hamiltonian are conserved under time evolution. We explore the role of the energy and of the similarity-transformed Hamiltonian under real and imaginary time evolution and relate the latter to similarity renormalization group transformations. Proof-of-principle computations of He-4 and O-16 in small model spaces, and computations of the Lipkin model illustrate the capabilities of the method

  2. Time-dependent resonant scattering: an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J M; Kirrander, Adam; Jungen, Ch

    2013-10-28

    A time-dependent description is given of a scattering process involving a single resonance embedded in a set of flat continua. An analytical approach is presented which starts from an incident free particle wave packet and yields the Breit-Wigner cross-section formula at infinite times. We show that at intermediate times the so-called Wigner-Weisskopf approximation is equivalent to a scattering process involving a contact potential. Applications in cold-atom scattering and resonance enhanced desorption of molecules are discussed. PMID:24182008

  3. Time-dependent resonant scattering: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, J. M.; Kirrander, Adam; Jungen, Ch.

    2013-10-01

    A time-dependent description is given of a scattering process involving a single resonance embedded in a set of flat continua. An analytical approach is presented which starts from an incident free particle wave packet and yields the Breit-Wigner cross-section formula at infinite times. We show that at intermediate times the so-called Wigner-Weisskopf approximation is equivalent to a scattering process involving a contact potential. Applications in cold-atom scattering and resonance enhanced desorption of molecules are discussed.

  4. A time dependent theory of crazing behavior in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, S. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of crazing is not only a function of stress, but also a function of time. Under a simple state of tension, a craze opening displacement is closely associated with the viscoelastic behavior of the original bulk polymer medium in which individual crazes initiate and develop. Within each craze region, molecular orientation takes place when conditions permit, and a new phase of rearranged molecules governs its local behavior. Based upon a time-dependent viscoelastic two-dimensional model, using a computer program the craze opening displacement field has been calculated, time-dependent craze length was also computed by taking into consideration the molecular orientation mechanism and large deformations in the craze region. Examples are given for simple viscoelastic media with simplified stress distributions. It is interesting to find out that the occurrence of crazing may be interpreted in terms of the stability or instability of the constitutive behavior of the bulk polymer.

  5. Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.

  6. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  7. Time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, T.; Rubin, M. B.; Trimmer, B. A.; Dorfmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    An isotropic three-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle. The development of the model is stimulated by experimental data that characterize the response during simple uniaxial stress cyclic loading and unloading. Of particular interest is the rate-dependent response, the recovery of muscle properties from the preconditioned to the unconditioned state and stress relaxation at constant stretch during loading and unloading. The model considers the material to be a composite of a nonlinear hyperelastic component in parallel with a nonlinear dissipative component. The strain energy and the corresponding stress measures are separated additively into hyperelastic and dissipative parts. In contrast to standard nonlinear inelastic models, here the dissipative component is modeled using an evolution equation that combines rate-independent and rate-dependent responses smoothly with no finite elastic range. Large deformation evolution equations for the distortional deformations in the elastic and in the dissipative component are presented. A robust, strongly objective numerical integration algorithm is used to model rate-dependent and rate-independent inelastic responses. The constitutive formulation is specialized to simulate the experimental data. The nonlinear viscoelastic model accurately represents the time-dependent passive response of skeletal muscle.

  8. Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-07-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;p<0.05), (2) individuals with shoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;p<0.05); and (3) SampEn of contact angle correlated significantly with self-reported shoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;p<0.05). It was concluded that the time-dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion may provide novel information for tracking and monitoring shoulder pain. PMID:27134151

  9. Time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J. G.; Lario, D.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results from a simulation study exploring heliospheric consequences of time-dependent changes at the Sun. We selected a 2 month period in the beginning of year 2008 that was characterized by very low solar activity. The heliosphere in the equatorial region was dominated by two coronal holes whose changing structure created temporal variations distorting the classical steady state picture of the heliosphere. We used the Air Force Data Assimilate Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model to obtain daily updated photospheric magnetograms and drive the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model of the corona. This leads to a formulation of a time-dependent boundary condition for our three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, LFM-helio, which is the heliospheric adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD simulation code. The time-dependent coronal conditions were propagated throughout the inner heliosphere, and the simulation results were compared with the spacecraft located near 1 astronomical unit (AU) heliocentric distance: Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A and STEREO-B), and the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft that was in cruise phase measuring the heliospheric magnetic field between 0.35 and 0.6 AU. In addition, during the selected interval MESSENGER and ACE aligned radially allowing minimization of the effects of temporal variation at the Sun versus radial evolution of structures. Our simulations show that time-dependent simulationsreproduce the gross-scale structure of the heliosphere with higher fidelity, while on smaller spatial and faster time scales (e.g., 1 day) they provide important insights for interpretation of the data. The simulations suggest that moving boundaries of slow-fast wind transitions at 0.1 AU may result in the formation of inverted magnetic fields near pseudostreamers which is an intrinsically time-dependent process

  10. Brownian motion of electrons in time-dependent magnetic fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, G. J.; Williams, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of a weakly ionized plasma in slowly varying time-dependent magnetic fields is studied through an extension of Williamson's stochastic theory. In particular, attention is focused on the properties of electron diffusion in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, when the field strength is large. It is shown that, in the strong field limit, the classical 1/B-squared dependence of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is obtained for two models in which the field B(t) is monotonic in t and for two models in which B(t) possesses at least one turning point.

  11. A variational formulation for time-dependent climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    A variational principle for time dependent diffusion problems is presented and is demonstrated by applying it to simple seasonal climate models. Two cases are treated. The first, a North-Coakley-type model with constant properties, is used as a tutorial example for the application of the technique. For the second case, heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to be latitude dependent in order to treat the effects of land/ocean distribution on the seasonal temperature distribution over the earth. The variational equations are derived and approximate analytical solutions are developed which delineate the influences of the physical asymmetries of the hemispheres in producing an asymmetric annual cycle.

  12. Advances in time-dependent current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Arjan

    In this work we solve the problem of the gauge dependence of molecular magnetic properties (magnetizabilities, circular dichroism) using time-dependent current-density functional theory [1]. We also present a new functional that accurately describes the optical absorption spectra of insulators, semiconductors and metals [2] N. Raimbault, P.L. de Boeij, P. Romaniello, and J.A. Berger Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 066404 (2015) J.A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 137402 (2015) This study has been partially supported through the Grant NEXT No. ANR-10-LABX-0037 in the framework of the Programme des Investissements d'Avenir.

  13. XDAMP. Experimental Time-Dependent Data Analysis, Manipulation, Visualization GUI

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, W.P.

    1995-04-01

    XDAMP is a graphical user interface (GUI) designed to allow the user to manipulate two-dimensional waveforms (data vs. time) that typically are generated during transient response experiments. A typical single data set from these facilities may generate more than 100 time-dependent waveforms. XDAMP can manipulate waveforms both in time and in amplitude. Typical operations are: time shifting, truncating before or after a specific time, adding, multiplying, integrating, and averaging. The software automatically maintains an audit trail for operations performed on each waveform. Annotation can be added to the overall file so that the data set contains full documentation. PostScript printing graphics and annotation is supported. Data are saved using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  14. Designing for time-dependent material response in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Oleksuk, Lynda L. S.; Bowles, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    To study the influence on overall deformations of the time-dependent constitutive properties of fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix composite materials being considered for use in orbiting precision segmented reflectors, simple sandwich beam models are developed. The beam models include layers representing the face sheets, the core, and the adhesive bonding of the face sheets to the core. A three-layer model lumps the adhesive layers with the face sheets or core, while a five-layer model considers the adhesive layers explicitly. The deformation response of the three-layer and five-layer sandwich beam models to a midspan point load is studied. This elementary loading leads to a simple analysis, and it is easy to create this loading in the laboratory. Using the correspondence principle of viscoelasticity, the models representing the elastic behavior of the two beams are transformed into time-dependent models. Representative cases of time-dependent material behavior for the facesheet material, the core material, and the adhesive are used to evaluate the influence of these constituents being time-dependent on the deformations of the beam. As an example of the results presented, if it assumed that, as a worst case, the polymer-dominated shear properties of the core behave as a Maxwell fluid such that under constant shear stress the shear strain increases by a factor of 10 in 20 years, then it is shown that the beam deflection increases by a factor of 1.4 during that time. In addition to quantitative conclusions, several assumptions are discussed which simplify the analyses for use with more complicated material models. Finally, it is shown that the simpler three-layer model suffices in many situations.

  15. Maintaining tetrahedral mesh quality in response to time-dependent topological and geometrical deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprat, A.; George, D.

    1998-12-01

    When modeling deformation of geometrically complex regions, unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility necessary to track interfaces as they change geometrically and topologically. In the class of time-dependent simulations considered in this paper, multimaterial interfaces are represented by sets of triangular facets, and motion of the interfaces is controlled by physical considerations. The motion of interior points in the conforming tetrahedral mesh (i.e., points not on interfaces) is arbitrary and may be chosen to produce good element shapes. In the context of specified boundary motion driven by physical considerations, they have found that a rather large glossary of mesh changes is required to allow the simulation to survive all the transitions of interface geometry and topology that occur during time evolution. This paper will describe mesh changes required to maintain good element quality as the geometry evolves, as well as mesh changes required to capture changes i n topology that occur when material regions collapse or pinch off. This paper will present a detailed description of mesh changes necessary for capturing the aforementioned geometrical and topological changes, as implemented in the code GRAIN3D, and will provide examples from a metallic grain growth simulation in which the normal velocity of the grain boundary is proportional to mean curvature.

  16. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  17. Hot Jupiter breezes: time-dependent outflows from extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time-scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inwards from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time-scale of the flow variability. This work finds the relationship between the outer boundary scale and the time-scale of flow variations. In practice, the location of the outer boundary is set by the extent of the sphere of influence of the planet. The measured time variability can be used, in principle, to constrain the parameters of the system (e.g. the strengths of the surface magnetic fields).

  18. Frequency-dependent Dispersion Measures and Implications for Pulsar Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.; Shannon, R. M.; Stinebring, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency2). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ˜ 4 × 10-5 pc cm-3 for pulsars at ˜1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm-3 but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  19. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  20. The Time-Dependent Structure of the Electron Reconnection Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Collisionless magnetic reconnection is often associated with time-dependent behavior. Specifically, current layers in the diffusion region can become unstable to tearing-type instabilities on one hand, or to instabilities with current-aligned wave vectors on the other. In the former case, the growth of tearing instabilities typically leads to the production of magnetic islands, which potentially provide feedback on the reconnection process itself, as well as on the rate of reconnection. The second class of instabilities tend to modulate the current layer along the direction of the current flow, for instance generating kink-type perturbations, or smaller-scale turbulence with the potential to broaden the current layer. All of these processes contribute to rendering magnetic reconnection time-dependent. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of these effects, and a discussion of how much they contribute to the overall magnetic reconnection rate.

  1. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  2. A semianalytical satellite theory for weak time-dependent perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cefola, P.; Mcclain, W.; Early, L.; Green, A.

    1980-01-01

    The modifications of the semianalytical satellite theory required to include these 'weak' time dependent perturbations are described. The new formulation results in additional terms in the short periodic variations but does not change the averaged equations of motion. Thus the m monthly terms are still included in the averaged equations of motion. This contrasts with the usual approach for the strongly time dependent perturbations in which the m monthly (or m daily, if tesseral harmonics are being considered) terms would be eliminated from the averaged equations of motion and included in the short periodics computation. Numerical test results for the GPS case obtained with a numerical averaging implementation of the new theory demonstrate the accuracy improvement.

  3. Time and 'angular' dependent backgrounds from stationary axisymmetric solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.

    2004-09-15

    Backgrounds depending on time and on angular variable, namely, polarized and unpolarized S{sup 1}xS{sup 2} Gowdy models, are generated as the sector inside the horizons of the manifold corresponding to axisymmetric solutions. As is known, an analytical continuation of ordinary D-branes, iD-branes allow one to find S-brane solutions. Simple models have been constructed by means of analytic continuation of the Schwarzschild and the Kerr metrics. The possibility of studying the i-Gowdy models obtained here is outlined with an eye toward seeing if they could represent some kind of generalized S-branes depending not only on time but also on an angular variable.

  4. Endocannabinoids mediate bidirectional striatal spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yihui; Paillé, Vincent; Xu, Hao; Genet, Stéphane; Delord, Bruno; Fino, Elodie; Berry, Hugues; Venance, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Key points Although learning can arise from few or even a single trial, synaptic plasticity is commonly assessed under prolonged activation. Here, we explored the existence of rapid responsiveness of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses in a major synaptic learning rule, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). We found that spike-timing-dependent depression (tLTD) progressively disappears when the number of paired stimulations (below 50 pairings) is decreased whereas spike-timing-dependent potentiation (tLTP) displays a biphasic profile: tLTP is observed for 75–100 pairings, is absent for 25–50 pairings and re-emerges for 5–10 pairings. This tLTP induced by low numbers of pairings (5–10) depends on activation of the endocannabinoid system, type-1 cannabinoid receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1. Endocannabinoid-tLTP may represent a physiological mechanism operating during the rapid learning of new associative memories and behavioural rules characterizing the flexible behaviour of mammals or during the initial stages of habit learning. Abstract Synaptic plasticity, a main substrate for learning and memory, is commonly assessed with prolonged stimulations. Since learning can arise from few or even a single trial, synaptic strength is expected to adapt rapidly. However, whether synaptic plasticity occurs in response to limited event occurrences remains elusive. To answer this question, we investigated whether a low number of paired stimulations can induce plasticity in a major synaptic learning rule, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is known that 100 pairings induce bidirectional STDP, i.e. spike-timing-dependent potentiation (tLTP) and depression (tLTD) at most central synapses. In rodent striatum, we found that tLTD progressively disappears when the number of paired stimulations is decreased (below 50 pairings) whereas tLTP displays a biphasic profile: tLTP is observed for 75–100 pairings, absent for 25

  5. Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-10

    Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.

  6. Time-dependent global modeling of the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Arge, C. N.; Lario, D.; Linker, J.; Lionello, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of time-dependent modeling of the inner heliosphere using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). Two types of simulations are performed: one concentrates on the background solar wind specification, while the other deals with the propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). For simulations of the first type we coupled the LFM-helio code with the ADAPT-driven WSA model. We present some details of the coupling machinery and then simulate selected periods characterized by very low solar activity with no significant energetic particle events or CMEs. The results of the model are compared with MESSENGER, ACE, STEREO A and B spacecraft to probe both radial and temporal evolution of solar wind structure. The results indicate, in particular, the importance of time-dependent modeling for more accurate prediction of high-speed streams and heliospheric current sheet structure when the spacecraft skim its surface. We will comment on the formation of magnetic field reversals in pseudostreamer regions, which is an intrinsically time-dependent phenomenon, and on the current sheet corrugation caused by solar wind momentum shears. For the second type of time-dependent inner heliosphere simulations we have coupled LFM-helio with the MAS MHD model of the corona. We first present results of idealized coupled MAS/LFM-helio simulations with symmetric solar wind background and no rotation intended to test the interface for seamless propagation of transients from the corona into the inner heliosphere domain. We then simulate an event with a CME propagating through a realistic heliosphere background including corotating interaction regions. We show details of propagation of flux-rope CMEs through the boundary between MAS and LFM-helio and compare the results between the two codes in the heliospheric domain. The results indicate that the coupling works well, although some differences in the solutions are observed probably due to differences in numerical

  7. Gamma time-dependency in Blaxter's compartmental model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matis, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A new two-compartment model for the passage of particles through the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants is proposed. In this model, a gamma distribution of lifetimes is introduced in the first compartment; thereby, passage from that compartment becomes time-dependent. This modification is strongly suggested by the physical alteration which certain substances, e.g. hay particles, undergo in the digestive process. The proposed model is applied to experimental data.

  8. Stochastic protein production and time-dependent current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Translation is the cellular process in which ribosomes make proteins from information encoded on messenger RNA. We model this process using driven lattice gases and take into account the finite lifetime of mRNA. The stochastic properties of the translation process can then be determined from the time-dependent current fluctuations of the lattice gas model. We illustrate our ideas with a totally asymmetric exclusion process with extended objects.

  9. Autoionization in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, V.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the exact exchange-correlation potential of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for the correlated process of autoionization. The potential develops barriers which regulate the autoionization rate. TDDFT employing known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture any autoionization dynamics. Approximate exchange-correlation potentials capturing such dynamics would necessarily require memory effects and are unlikely to be developed, as will be illustrated.

  10. Time Dependent Models of Grain Formation Around Carbon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, M. P.; Shipman, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are sites of dust formation and undergo mass loss at rates ranging from 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr. The state-of-the-art in modeling these processes is time-dependent models which simultaneously solve the grain formation and gas dynamics problem. We present results from such a model, which also includes an exact solution of the radiative transfer within the system.