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Sample records for arbuscular mycorrhizal ecology

  1. [Research progress on ecological function of arbuscular mycorrhizal network].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Liang; Jin, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one of the most important soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems. Through hyphal fusion, the mycelium of AM fungi could form arbuscular mycorrhizal network (AMN) widely in the underground habitats. It has been demonstrated that AMN plays important roles in ecosystems. AMN could change the soil physical and chemical properties directly and change the micro-environment for soil microorganisms. Thus, AMN could influence the soil microbial community structure. AM fungi also could absorb nutrients through the external hyphae from soil. Then the nutrition could transport to different host plants through the mycelium with AMN, which could affect the dynamics of plant community structure. In order to discover the role of AMN in ecosystem, we reviewed the function of AMN in ecosystem, including: 1) the formation strategy of AMN through the external hyphae of AM fungi fusion in the soil; 2) the regulation of AMN on soil microorganism community structure and ecological function; 3) the mechanism of AMN to adjust the soil resources distribution, and their influence on intra- and inter-specific plant competition, as well as the host plant species diversity and abundance in ecosystem; 4) the relationship between AMN and global changes in the atmospheric nitrogen deposition, atmospheric CO2 and temperature, and the role of AMN in the stability of ecosystem. The future development directions and application prospects were also discussed. PMID:26710650

  2. Differential effects of ephemeral colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Cuscuta species with different ecology.

    PubMed

    Behdarvandi, Behrang; Guinel, Frédérique C; Costea, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    Seedlings of parasitic Cuscuta species are autotrophic but can survive only a short period of time, during which they must locate and attach to a suitable host. They have an ephemeral root-like organ considered not a "true" root by most studies. In the present study, two species with contrasting ecology were examined: Cuscuta gronovii, a North American riparian species, and Cuscuta campestris, an invasive dodder that thrives in disturbed habitats. The morphology, structure, and absorptive capability of their root-like organ were compared, their potential for colonization by two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed, and the effect of the AMF on seedling growth and survival was determined. The root of both species absorbed water and interacted with AMF, but the two species exhibited dissimilar growth and survival patterns depending on the colonization level of their seedlings. The extensively colonized seedlings of C. gronovii grew more and survived longer than non-colonized seedlings. In contrast, the scarce colonization of C. campestris seedlings did not increase their growth or longevity. The differential growth responses of the AMF-colonized and non-colonized Cuscuta species suggest a mycorrhizal relationship and reflect their ecology. While C. gronovii roots have retained a higher ability to interact with AMF and are likely to take advantage of fungal communities in riparian habitats, the invasive C. campestris has largely lost this ability possibly as an adaptation to disturbed ecosystems. These results indicate that dodders have a true root, even if much reduced and ephemeral, that can interact with AMF. PMID:25720736

  3. Navigating the labyrinth: a guide to sequence-based, community ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hart, Miranda M; Aleklett, Kristin; Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Egan, Cameron; Ghignone, Stefano; Helgason, Thorunn; Lekberg, Ylva; Öpik, Maarja; Pickles, Brian J; Waller, Lauren

    2015-07-01

    Data generated from next generation sequencing (NGS) will soon comprise the majority of information about arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. Although these approaches give deeper insight, analysing NGS data involves decisions that can significantly affect results and conclusions. This is particularly true for AMF community studies, because much remains to be known about their basic biology and genetics. During a workshop in 2013, representatives from seven research groups using NGS for AMF community ecology gathered to discuss common challenges and directions for future research. Our goal was to improve the quality and accessibility of NGS data for the AMF research community. Discussions spanned sampling design, sample preservation, sequencing, bioinformatics and data archiving. With concrete examples we demonstrated how different approaches can significantly alter analysis outcomes. Failure to consider the consequences of these decisions may compound bias introduced at each step along the workflow. The products of these discussions have been summarized in this paper in order to serve as a guide for any researcher undertaking NGS sequencing of AMF communities. PMID:25737096

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Lycopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jennifer L; Friedman, William E

    2008-01-01

    This study characterizes the molecular and phylogenetic identity of fungi involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations in extant Huperzia and Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae). Huperzia and Lycopodium are characterized by a life cycle with long-lived autotrophic sporophytes and long-lived mycoheterotrophic (obtain all organic carbon from fungal symbionts) gametophytes. 18S ribosomal DNA was isolated and sequenced from Glomus symbionts in autotrophic sporophytes of seven species of Huperzia and Lycopodium and mycoheterotrophic Huperzia gametophytes collected from the Páramos of Ecuador. Phylogenetic analyses recovered four Glomus A phylotypes in a single clade (MH3) that form AM associations with Huperzia and Lycopodium. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of Glomus symbionts from other nonphotosynthetic plants demonstrate that most AM fungi that form mycoheterotrophic associations belong to at least four specific clades of Glomus A. These results suggest that most mycoheterotrophic plants that form AM associations do so with restricted clades of Glomus A. Moreover, the correspondence of identity of AM symbionts in Huperzia sporophytes and gametophytes raises the possibility that photosynthetic sporophytes are a source of carbon to conspecific mycoheterotrophic gametophytes via shared fungal networks. PMID:17971070

  5. Glomus perpusillum, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Kovács, Gábor M; Balázs, Tímea

    2009-01-01

    A new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species of genus Glomus, G. perpusillum (Glomeromycota), forming small, hyaline spores is described and illustrated. Spores of G. perpusillum were formed in hypogeous aggregates and occasionally inside roots. They are globose to subglobose, (10-)24(-30) microm diam, rarely egg-shaped, oblong to irregular, 18-25 x 25-63 microm. The single spore wall of G. perpusillum consists of two permanent layers: a finely laminate, semiflexible to rigid outer layer and a flexible to semiflexible inner layer. The inner layer becomes plastic and frequently contracts in spores crushed in PVLG-based mountants and stains reddish white to grayish red in Melzer's reagent. Glomus perpusillum was associated with roots of Ammophila arenaria colonizing sand dunes of the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Calambrone, Italy, and this is the only site of its occurrence known to date. In single-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as host plant, G. perpusillum formed vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. Phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU sequences of nrDNA placed the species in Glomus group A with no affinity to its subgroups. The sequences of G. perpusillum unambiguously separated from the sequences of described Glomus species and formed a distinct clade together with in planta arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal sequences found in alpine plants. PMID:19397199

  6. Recent developments in arbuscular mycorrhizal signaling.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Plants can establish root endosymbioses with both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria to improve their nutrition. Our understanding of the molecular events underlying the establishment of these symbioses has significantly advanced in the last few years. Here I highlight major recent findings in the field of endosymbiosis signaling. Despite the identification of new signaling components and the definition, or in some cases better re-definition of the molecular functions of previously known players, major questions still remain that need to be addressed. Most notably the mechanisms defining signaling specificities within either symbiosis remain unclear. PMID:26043435

  7. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in sub-Saharan savannas of Benin, West Africa, as affected by agricultural land use intensity and ecological zone.

    PubMed

    Tchabi, Atti; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

    2008-04-01

    The rapid decline of soil fertility of cultivated lands in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa is considered to be the main cause of the increasingly severe constraints of food production. The soils in this tropical area are highly fragile, and crop yields are limited by characteristically low levels of available phosphorus. Under such preconditions, the multiple benefits of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis are likely to play a pivotal role for maintaining natural soil fertility by enhancing plant nutrient use efficiency, plant health, and stabilization of a favorable soil structure. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of the commonly applied farming practices on the native AM fungal community. In the present study, we determined the AM fungal species composition in three ecological zones differing by an increasingly prolonged dry season from South to North, from the Southern Guinea Savanna (SG), to the Northern Guinea Savanna (NG), to the Sudan Savanna (SU). In each zone, four "natural" and four "cultivated" sites were selected. "Natural" sites were three natural forest savannas (at least 25-30 years old) and a long-term fallow (6-7 years old). "Cultivated" sites comprised a field with yam (Dioscorea spp.) established during the first year after forest clearance, a field under mixed cropping with maize (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a field under peanut, and a field under cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was the most intensively managed crop. Soil samples were collected towards the end of the wet season in each zone. AM fungal spores were extracted and morphologically identified. Soil subsamples were used to inoculate AM fungal trap cultures using Stylosanthes guianensis and Brachiaria humidicola as host plants to monitor AM root colonization and spore formation over 10 and 24 months, respectively. A total of 60 AM fungal species were detected, with only seven species sporulating in the trap cultures. Spore density and species

  9. Can Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce the Growth of Agricultural Weeds?

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Rita S. L.; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their beneficial effects on plants. However, there is increasing evidence that some ruderal plants, including several agricultural weeds, respond negatively to AMF colonization. Here, we investigated the effect of AMF on the growth of individual weed species and on weed-crop interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings First, under controlled glasshouse conditions, we screened growth responses of nine weed species and three crops to a widespread AMF, Glomus intraradices. None of the weeds screened showed a significant positive mycorrhizal growth response and four weed species were significantly reduced by the AMF (growth responses between −22 and −35%). In a subsequent experiment, we selected three of the negatively responding weed species – Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum – and analyzed their responses to a combination of three AMF (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus claroideum). Finally, we tested whether the presence of a crop (maize) enhanced the suppressive effect of AMF on weeds. We found that the growth of the three selected weed species was also reduced by a combination of AMF and that the presence of maize amplified the negative effect of AMF on the growth of E. crus-galli. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that AMF can negatively influence the growth of some weed species indicating that AMF have the potential to act as determinants of weed community structure. Furthermore, mycorrhizal weed growth reductions can be amplified in the presence of a crop. Previous studies have shown that AMF provide a number of beneficial ecosystem services. Taken together with our current results, the maintenance and promotion of AMF activity may thereby contribute to sustainable management of agroecosystems. However, in order to further the practical and ecological relevance of our findings, additional experiments should be performed under field conditions. PMID

  10. Innoculation of Almond Rootstock with Symbiotic Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil borne arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus forms a symbiotic (mutualistic) relationship with most plants. The fungus colonizes the root and grows out into the soil. Hyphae net work, the part of the fungus that's in the soil acts as an extension of the root system. The scope of the research is to ...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  12. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in terms of symbiosis-parasitism continuum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Gaşpar, S; Camen, D; Ciobanu, I; Sumălan, R

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are forming the most wide-spread mycorrhizal relationships on Earth. Mycorrhiza contributes to phosphorous acquisition, water absorption and resistance to diseases. The fungus promotes the absorption of nutrients and water from soil, meanwhile the host plant offers photosynthetic assimilates in exchange, like carbohydrates, as energy source. The plant benefits from the contribution of symbiotic partner only when nutrients are in low concentrations in soil and the root system would not be able to absorb sufficiently the minerals. When the help of mycorrhizal fungi is not necessarily needed, the host plant is making an economy of energy, suppressing the development of fungi in the internal radicular space. In this moment, the nature of relationship turns from symbiotic to parasitic, triggering a series of defensive reactions from the plant. Also, there were several cases reported when the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi negatively influenced the host plant. For example, in adverse environmental conditions, like very high temperatures, instead of determining a higher plant biomass and flowering, the mycorrhiza reduces the growth of the host plant. We conducted a pot experiment with hydroponic culture to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on development of French marigold as a host plant. As experimental variants, the phosphorous content in nutrient medium and temperature varied. Plants were artificially infected with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using a commercial inoculum containing three fungal species, as following: Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus claroideum. Colonization intensity and arbuscular richness were checked using root staining with aniline blue and estimation with the Trouvelot method. To observe the differences between plants from the experimental variants, we examined the number of side shoots, flower buds and fully developed flowers, fresh biomass and total leaf area. Results show that

  14. Soil characteristics driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in semiarid soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, Emma; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torres, Pilar; Díaz, Gisela; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Montesinos, Alicia; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important soil microbial group that affects multiple ecosystems functions and processes, including nutrient cycling, plant productivity and competition, and plant diversity. We carried out a study to investigate AMF communities in the roots and the rhizosphere of Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) Beauv., a common plant species of great ecological importance that grows in different type of soils in semiarid Mediterranean areas with similar climatic conditions. We hypothesized that if both factors, host plant species and climatic conditions, cannot influence the differences in AMF communities in the roots and in the rhizosphere of Brachypodium retusum, variances in AMF richness and diversity could be due to soil characteristics. Hence we study the relationships between physical, chemical and biological soil characteristics and AMF community composition found in the roots and in the rhizospheres. We recorded sixty-seven AMF operational taxonomical units (OTUs). Each soil type presented a different AMF community composition and thus, can be characterized by its own AMF communities. A combination among some of the soil parameters could define the AMF species present in the roots and the rhizosphere of B. retusum. It was the case for calcium, urease, protease and ß-glucosidase which explained the variation in the AMF communities. In conclusion, soil charactristics can be decisive in the assembling of the AMF communities, managing the diversity and composition of these communities.

  15. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2006-07-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13) M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on plant terpenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Welling, M T; Liu, L; Rose, T J; Waters, D L E; Benkendorff, K

    2016-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a diverse group of soil-dwelling fungi that form symbiotic associations with land plants. AMF-plant associations promote the accumulation of plant terpenoids beneficial to human health, although how AMF mediate terpenoid accumulation is not fully understood. A critical assessment and discussion of the literature relating to mechanisms by which AMF influence plant terpenoid accumulation, and whether this symbiosis can be harnessed in horticultural ecosystems was performed. Modification of plant morphology, phosphorus availability and gene transcription involved with terpenoid biosynthetic pathways were identified as key mechanisms associated with terpenoid accumulation in AMF-colonised plants. In order to exploit AMF-plant symbioses in horticultural ecosystems it is important to consider the specificity of the AMF-plant association, the predominant factor affecting terpenoid accumulation, as well as the end use application of the harvested plant material. Future research should focus on resolving the relationship between ecologically matched AMF genotypes and terpenoid accumulation in plants to establish if these associations are effective in promoting mechanisms favourable for plant terpenoid accumulation. PMID:26499392

  17. Order of arrival structures arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of plants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-03-01

    Priority effects - the impact of a species' arrival on subsequent community development - have been shown to influence species composition in many organisms. Whether priority effects among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structure fungal root communities is not well understood. Here, we investigated whether priority effects influence the success of two closely related AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus aggregatum), hypothesizing that a resident AMF suppresses invader success, this effect is time-dependent and a resident will experience reduced growth when invaded. We performed two glasshouse experiments using modified pots, which permitted direct inoculation of resident and invading AMF on the roots. We quantified intraradical AMF abundances using quantitative PCR and visual colonization percentages. We found that both fungi suppressed the invading species and that this effect was strongly dependent on the time lag between inoculations. In contrast to our expectations, neither resident AMF was negatively affected by invasion. We show that order of arrival can influence the abundance of AMF species colonizing a host. These priority effects can have important implications for AMF ecology and the use of fungal inocula in sustainable agriculture. PMID:25298030

  18. SOIL STOCKS OF GLOMALIN PRODUCED BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ACROSS A TROPICAL RAINFOREST LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced only by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi utilize photosynthetically derived carbon for growth, and could account for a significant portion of belowground primary production. They also may be responsible for a significant fr...

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal responses to abiotic stresses: A review.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Ingrid; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    The majority of plants live in close collaboration with a diversity of soil organisms among which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role. Mycorrhizal symbioses contribute to plant growth and plant protection against various environmental stresses. Whereas the resistance mechanisms induced in mycorrhizal plants after exposure to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and pollution, are well documented, the knowledge about the stress tolerance mechanisms implemented by the AMF themselves is limited. This review provides an overview of the impacts of various abiotic stresses (pollution, salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, CO2, calcareous, acidity) on biodiversity, abundance and development of AMF and examines the morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms implemented by AMF to survive in the presence of these stresses. PMID:26803396

  20. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza

  1. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza

  2. Studying Genome Heterogeneity within the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Halary, Sébastien; Bapteste, Eric; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Although heterokaryons have been reported in nature, multicellular organisms are generally assumed genetically homogeneous. Here, we investigate the case of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that form symbiosis with plant roots. The growth advantages they confer to their hosts are of great potential benefit to sustainable agricultural practices. However, measuring genetic diversity for these coenocytes is a major challenge: Within the same cytoplasm, AMF contain thousands of nuclei and show extremely high levels of genetic variation for some loci. The extent and physical location of polymorphism within and between AMF genomes is unclear. We used two complementary strategies to estimate genetic diversity in AMF, investigating polymorphism both on a genome scale and in putative single copy loci. First, we used data from whole-genome pyrosequencing of four AMF isolates to describe genetic diversity, based on a conservative network-based clustering approach. AMF isolates showed marked differences in genome-wide diversity patterns in comparison to a panel of control fungal genomes. This clustering approach further allowed us to provide conservative estimates of Rhizophagus spp. genomes sizes. Second, we designed new putative single copy genomic markers, which we investigated by massive parallel amplicon sequencing for two Rhizophagus irregularis and one Rhizophagus sp. isolates. Most loci showed high polymorphism, with up to 103 alleles per marker. This polymorphism could be distributed within or between nuclei. However, we argue that the Rhizophagus isolates under study might be heterokaryotic, at least for the putative single copy markers we studied. Considering that genetic information is the main resource for identification of AMF, we suggest that special attention is warranted for the study of these ecologically important organisms. PMID:25573960

  3. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network. PMID:24279273

  4. Effects of organic farming on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2008-03-01

    Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) roots and soils representing different agricultural management practices such as conventional (CON), no-chemical (NOC), and organic farming systems (ORG) were collected from 32 farm field sites in Kyunggi, Korea to investigate the effects of these agricultural practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. ORG inoculum significantly increased plant growth compared to inoculum from CON and NOC. A community analysis of AM fungi (AMF) using morphological features of spores revealed that AMF spore abundance and species diversity were significantly higher in ORG than in CON. Additionally, a community analysis of AMF colonizing roots using a molecular technique revealed higher AMF diversity in ORG than in CON. These results suggest that agricultural practices significantly influence AM fungal community structure and mycorrhizal inoculum potential. PMID:23997602

  5. NADPH oxidases in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Belmondo, Simone; Calcagno, Cristina; Genre, Andrea; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays key roles as both signal and stressor in several plant processes, including defense responses against pathogens. ROS accumulation in root cells during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development has raised the interest in understanding how ROS-mediated defense programs are modulated during the establishment of this mutualistic interaction. We have recently analyzed the expression pattern of 5 NADPH oxidase (also called RBOH) encoding genes in Medicago truncatula, showing that only one of them (MtRbohE) is specifically upregulated in arbuscule-containing cells. In line with this result, RNAi silencing of MtRbohE generated a strong alteration in root colonization, with a significant reduction in the number of arbusculated cells. On this basis, we propose that MtRBOHE-mediated ROS production plays a crucial role in the intracellular accommodation of arbuscules. PMID:27018627

  6. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:24297892

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation protects Miscanthus × giganteus against trace element toxicity in a highly metal-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Firmin, Stéphane; Labidi, Sonia; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Nsanganwimana, Florian; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dalpé, Yolande; Grandmougin, Anne; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Verdin, Anthony; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2015-09-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-assisted phytoremediation could constitute an ecological and economic method in polluted soil rehabilitation programs. The aim of this work was to characterize the trace element (TE) phytoremediation potential of mycorrhizal Miscanthus × giganteus. To understand the mechanisms involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis tolerance to TE toxicity, the fatty acid compositions and several stress oxidative biomarkers were compared in the roots and leaves of Miscanthus × giganteus cultivated under field conditions in either TE-contaminated or control soils. TEs were accumulated in greater amounts in roots, but the leaves were the organ most affected by TE contamination and were characterized by a strong decrease in fatty acid contents. TE-induced oxidative stress in leaves was confirmed by an increase in the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). TE contamination decreased the GSSG/GSH ratio in the leaves of exposed plants, while peroxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in leaves and in whole plants, respectively. AMF inoculation also increased root colonization in the presence of TE contamination. The mycorrhizal colonization determined a decrease in SOD activity in the whole plant and PO activities in leaves and induced a significant increase in the fatty acid content in leaves and a decrease in MDA formation in whole plants. These results suggested that mycorrhization is able to confer protection against oxidative stress induced by soil pollution. Our findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation could be used as a bioaugmentation technique, facilitating Miscanthus cultivation on highly TE-contaminated soil. PMID:25958358

  8. Increasing diveristy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems using specific cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-planted cover crops provide a plant host for obligate symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) during otherwise fallow periods and thus may increase AMF numbers in agroecosystems. Increased AMF numbers should increase mycorrhizal colonization of the subsequent cash crops, which has been li...

  9. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta N; Bartoloni, Norberto J

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from the Yungas forests of Argentina were studied. The AMF species present in the rhizosphere of some dominant native plants (one tree: Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous species: Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub: Sambucus peruviana) from two sites (Quebrada del Portugués and Narváez Range) of the Yungas forests were isolated, identified and quantified during the four seasons of the year. Twenty-two AMF morphotaxa were found. Spore density of some AMF species at each site varied among seasons. The genera that most contributed to the biodiversity index were Acaulospora for Quebrada del Portugués and Glomus for Narváez Range. High diversity values were observed in the Yungas forests, particularly in the spring (rainy season). We concluded AMF differed in species composition and seasonal sporulation dynamics in the Yungas forests. PMID:21415289

  10. Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Göhre, Vera; Paszkowski, Uta

    2006-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in the soil have detrimental effects on ecosystems and are a risk to human health as they can enter the food chain via agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. Phytoremediation, a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants, is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. However, as phytoremediation is a slow process, improvement of efficiency and thus increased stabilization or removal of HMs from soils is an important goal. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide an attractive system to advance plant-based environmental clean-up. During symbiotic interaction the hyphal network functionally extends the root system of their hosts. Thus, plants in symbiosis with AM fungi have the potential to take up HM from an enlarged soil volume. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the contribution of the AM symbiosis to phytoremediation of heavy metals. PMID:16555102

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make a complex contribution to soil aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Peter; Daynes, Cathal; Damien, Field

    2013-04-01

    Soil aggregates contain solid and fluid components. Aggregates develop as a consequence of the organic materials, plants and hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi acting on the solid phase. Various correlative studies indicate hyphae of AM fungi enmesh soil particles, but their impact on the pore space is poorly understood. Hyphae may penetrate between particles, remove water from interstitial spaces, and otherwise re-arrange the solid phase. Thus we might predict that AM fungi also change the pore architecture of aggregates. Direct observations of pore architecture of soil, such as by computer-aided tomography (CT), is difficult. The refractive natures of solid and biological material are similar. The plant-available water in various treatments allows us to infer changes in pore architecture. Our experimental studies indicate AM fungi have a complex role in the formation and development of aggregates. Soils formed from compost and coarse subsoil materials were planted with mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal seedlings and the resultant soils compared after 6 or 14 months in separate experiments. As well as enmeshing particles, AM fungi were associated with the development of a complex pore space and greater pore volume. Even though AM fungi add organic matter to soil, the modification of pore space is not correlated with organic carbon. In a separate study, we visualised hyphae of AM fungi in a coarse material using CT. In this study, hyphae appeared to grow close to the surfaces of particles with limited ramification across the pore spaces. Hyphae of AM fungi appear to utilise soil moisture for their growth and development of mycelium. The strong correlation between moisture and hyphae has profound implications for soil aggregation, plant utilisation of soil water, and the distribution of water as water availability declines.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ameliorate temperature stress in thermophilic plants.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Rebecca; Lekberg, Ylva; Zabinski, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biotic interactions can affect the distribution of species across environmental gradients, and as air and soil temperatures increase, plant community response may depend on interactions with symbionts. We measured the effect of elevated soil temperatures on mycorrhizal function and on the response of both plant and fungal symbionts, using fungal inoculum isolated from either high-temperature thermal or nonthermal grassland soils. Our source for thermal soils was Yellowstone National Park, USA, where plants experience rooting zone temperatures of 45 degrees C or more. In the greenhouse, we grew three plant species (Dichanthelium lanuginosum, Agrostis scabra, and Mimulus guttatus) with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) treatments (no AMF, nonthermal AMF, thermal AMF) and two soil temperatures (ambient, elevated). Biomass of the facultative thermal plants Agrostis scabra and Mimulus guttatus decreased by 50% in elevated-temperature soils, and AMF had no effect on measured plant traits. In contrast, the biomass and total root length of the obligate thermal plant Dichanthelium lanuginosum were greater at elevated soil temperatures, but only when mycorrhizal. Both mycorrhizal colonization levels and length of extraradical hyphae (ERH) increased with soil temperature across all host species. The source of the AMF inoculum, on the other hand, did not affect colonization level, ERH length, host plant biomass, or flowering for all host species in either temperature treatment, suggesting that AMF from thermal soils are not specifically adapted to higher temperatures. In the field we collected soil cores to measure in situ depth distributions of D. lanuginosum roots and ERH, and to determine which AMF species were active in plants growing in thermal soils. Roots were limited to soils with an average temperature < or =30 degrees C, while ERH existed in the hottest soils we sampled, averaging 35 degrees C. Molecular analyses of roots indicated that thermal AMF

  13. DNA-Based Characterization and Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Species.

    PubMed

    Senés-Guerrero, Carolina; Schüßler, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts of most land plants. They have great ecological and economic importance as they can improve plant nutrition, plant water supply, soil structure, and plant resistance to pathogens. We describe two approaches for the DNA-based characterization and identification of AMF, which both can be used for single fungal spores, soil, or roots samples and resolve closely related AMF species: (a) Sanger sequencing of a 1.5 kb extended rDNA-barcode from clone libraries, e.g., to characterize AMF isolates, and (b) high throughput 454 GS-FLX+ pyrosequencing of a 0.8 kb rDNA fragment, e.g., for in-field monitoring. PMID:26791499

  14. Genes conserved for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis identified through phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Armando; York, Thomas; Pumplin, Nathan; Mueller, Lukas A; Harrison, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS), a widespread mutualistic association of land plants and fungi(1), is predicted to have arisen once, early in the evolution of land plants(2-4). Consistent with this notion, several genes required for AMS have been conserved throughout evolution(5) and their symbiotic functions preserved, at least between monocot and dicot plants(6,7). Despite its significance, knowledge of the plants' genetic programme for AMS is limited. To date, most genes required for AMS have been found through commonalities with the evolutionarily younger nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium legume symbiosis (RLS)(8) or by reverse genetic analyses of differentially expressed candidate genes(9). Large sequence-indexed insertion mutant collections and recent genome editing technologies have vastly increased the power of reverse genetics but selection of candidate genes, from the thousands of genes that change expression during AMS, remains an arbitrary process. Here, we describe a phylogenomics approach to identify genes whose evolutionary history predicts conservation for AMS and we demonstrate the accuracy of the predictions through reverse genetics analysis. Phylogenomics analysis of 50 plant genomes resulted in 138 genes from Medicago truncatula predicted to function in AMS. This includes 15 genes with known roles in AMS. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutants in six previously uncharacterized AMS-conserved genes are all impaired in AMS. Our results demonstrate that phylogenomics is an effective strategy to identify a set of evolutionarily conserved genes required for AMS. PMID:27249190

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  16. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on uranium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    de Boulois, H Dupré; Joner, E J; Leyval, C; Jakobsen, I; Chen, B D; Roos, P; Thiry, Y; Rufyikiri, G; Delvaux, B; Declerck, S

    2008-05-01

    Contamination by uranium (U) occurs principally at U mining and processing sites. Uranium can have tremendous environmental consequences, as it is highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can be dispersed in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Remediation strategies of U-contaminated soils have included physical and chemical procedures, which may be beneficial, but are costly and can lead to further environmental damage. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a promising alternative, which relies on the capacity of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or extract contaminants from soils. In this paper, we review the role of a group of plant symbiotic fungi, i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which constitute an essential link between the soil and the roots. These fungi participate in U immobilization in soils and within plant roots and they can reduce root-to-shoot translocation of U. However, there is a need to evaluate these observations in terms of their importance for phytostabilization strategies. PMID:18069098

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Associations in Biofuel Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K.

    2012-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play an important role in delivering nutrients to plant roots via mutualistic symbiotic relationships. AMF root colonization was compared between four different biofuel cropping systems in an effort to learn more about the factors that control colonization. The four biofuel systems sampled were corn, switchgrass, prairie, and fertilized prairie. We hypothesized that prairie systems would have the highest levels of AMF colonization and that fertilization would result in lower AMF colonization rates. Roots were sampled from each system in early June and mid-July. Soil P and pH were also measured. In contrast to our hypothesis, corn systems had 70-80% colonization and the unfertilized prairie system had ~35% (P=0.001) in June. In July, all systems saw an increase in colonization rate, but corn roots still had significantly more AMF colonization than unfertilized prairie (P=0.001). AMF colonization in the unfertilized prairie system increased ~55% from June to July. In contrast to previous work, AMF colonization rates were highest in systems with the greatest availability on P and N (corn systems). These results indicate that seasonal differences in root growth were more influential to AMF root colonization than soil nutrient availability.

  19. Symbiont dynamics during ecosystem succession: co-occurring plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    PubMed

    García de León, David; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Neuenkamp, Lena; Gerz, Maret; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Bueno, C Guillermo; Davison, John; Zobel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Although mycorrhizas are expected to play a key role in community assembly during ecological succession, little is known about the dynamics of the symbiotic partners in natural systems. For instance, it is unclear how efficiently plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi disperse into early successional ecosystems, and which, if either, symbiotic partner drives successional dynamics. This study describes the dynamics of plant and AM fungal communities, assesses correlation in the composition of plant and AM fungal communities and compares dispersal limitation of plants and AM fungi during succession. We studied gravel pits 20 and 50 years post abandonment and undisturbed grasslands in Western Estonia. The composition of plant and AM fungal communities was strongly correlated, and the strength of the correlation remained unchanged as succession progressed, indicating a stable dependence among mycorrhizal plants and AM fungi. A relatively high proportion of the AM fungal taxon pool was present in early successional sites, in comparison with the respective fraction of plants. These results suggest that AM fungi arrived faster than plants and may thus drive vegetation dynamics along secondary vegetation succession. PMID:27162183

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    PubMed

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  1. Diversity Effects on Productivity Are Stronger within than between Trophic Groups in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Alexander M.; Antunes, Pedro M.; Klironomos, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The diversity of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been experimentally shown to alter plant and AMF productivity. However, little is known about how plant and AMF diversity interact to shape their respective productivity. Methodology/Principal Findings We co-manipulated the diversity of both AMF and plant communities in two greenhouse studies to determine whether the productivity of each trophic group is mainly influenced by plant or AMF diversity, respectively, and whether there is any interaction between plant and fungal diversity. In both experiments we compared the productivity of three different plant species monocultures, or their respective 3-species mixtures. Similarly, in both studies these plant treatments were crossed with an AMF diversity gradient that ranged from zero (non-mycorrhizal controls) to a maximum of three and five taxonomically distinct AMF taxa, respectively. We found that within both trophic groups productivity was significantly influenced by taxon identity, and increased with taxon richness. These main effects of AMF and plant diversity on their respective productivities did not depend on each other, even though we detected significant individual taxon effects across trophic groups. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that similar ecological processes regulate diversity-productivity relationships within trophic groups. However, productivity-diversity relationships are not necessarily correlated across interacting trophic levels, leading to asymmetries and possible biotic feedbacks. Thus, biotic interactions within and across trophic groups should be considered in predictive models of community assembly. PMID:22629347

  2. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Laurie; Loveral, Milagros; Arrindell, Pauline; Aguilar, Victor Hugo; Hasmy, Zamira; Cuenca, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry forest destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela). Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m) (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2'), and two were left untreated (R1 and R1'), and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community). Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment). Soil of the NRI treatment (with a higher herbaceous component) showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Rhizophagus intraradices were found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurca and Funnefformis geosporum were only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites) were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role. PMID:26666138

  3. Casuarina in Africa: distribution, role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal fungi and Frankia on plant development.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Nathalie; Diouf, Diegane; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Kane, Aboubacry; Noba, Kandioura; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Duponnois, Robin

    2013-10-15

    Exotic trees were introduced in Africa to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems. Introduced species included several Australian species belonging to the Casuarinaceae family. Casuarinas trees grow very fast and are resistant to drought and high salinity. They are particularly well adapted to poor and disturbed soils thanks to their capacity to establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi -both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal- and with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Frankia. These trees are now widely distributed in more than 20 African countries. Casuarina are mainly used in forestation programs to rehabilitate degraded or polluted sites, to stabilise sand dunes and to provide fuelwood and charcoal and thus contribute considerably to improving livelihoods and local economies. In this paper, we describe the geographical distribution of Casuarina in Africa, their economic and ecological value and the role of the symbiotic interactions between Casuarina, mycorrhizal fungi and Frankia. PMID:23747371

  4. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  5. Cover crop mixtures for promoting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associate with an estimated 80-90 percent of flowering plants and virtually every crop species that supplies food to the world. AMF play a vital role in nutrient uptake and are particularly adept at increasing phosphorus availability to plants. With the growing e...

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase organic carbon decomposition under elevated carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major goal of climate change research is to understand whether and how terrestrial ecosystems can sequester more carbon to mitigate rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. The stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by elevated atmospheric CO2 has been assumed to be a major mecha...

  7. Increased abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil coincides with the reproductive stages of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are recognized for their positive effects on plant growth, playing an important role in plant P nutrition. We used C16:1cis11 and C18:1cis11 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers to monitor the dynamics of AM fungi during the reproductive stages of maize (Zea ma...

  8. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  9. Exploring the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in carbon sequestration in agricultural soil, Part III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestering carbon in agricultural soils can help mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2. Work at Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial indicates significant potential for carbon sequestration in organically farmed soils. A potential mechanism for this is C storage in the arbuscular mycorrhizal...

  10. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize physiology and biochemical response under variable nitrogen levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known for colonizing plant roots, transporting water and nutrients from the soil to the plant. Therefore, environmental conditions set mainly by soil water and nutrient levels are important determinants of AM function and host plant response. Mechanisms of nitro...

  11. ELEVATED CO2 AND PLANT PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS IMPACT ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL SPORE COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We enumerated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities for three years as part of a long-term Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment (BioCON) at Cedar Creek, Minnesota, USA. Complete factorial combinations of two levels of CO2 and N, and sixteen perennial plant species grown in monoculture and si...

  12. Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bücking, Heike; Mensah, Jerry A; Fellbaum, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic interactions with the majority of land plants, including some of the most important crop species. The fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, and transfers these nutrients to the mycorrhizal interface in the root, where these nutrients are exchanged against carbon from the host. AM fungi form extensive hyphal networks in the soil and connect with their network multiple host plants. These common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) play a critical role in the long-distance transport of nutrients through soil ecosystems and allow the exchange of signals between the interconnected plants. CMNs affect the survival, fitness, and competitiveness of the fungal and plant species that interact via these networks, but how the resource transport within these CMNs is controlled is largely unknown. We discuss the significance of CMNs for plant communities and for the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the AM symbiosis. PMID:27066184

  13. Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bücking, Heike; Mensah, Jerry A.; Fellbaum, Carl R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic interactions with the majority of land plants, including some of the most important crop species. The fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, and transfers these nutrients to the mycorrhizal interface in the root, where these nutrients are exchanged against carbon from the host. AM fungi form extensive hyphal networks in the soil and connect with their network multiple host plants. These common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) play a critical role in the long-distance transport of nutrients through soil ecosystems and allow the exchange of signals between the interconnected plants. CMNs affect the survival, fitness, and competitiveness of the fungal and plant species that interact via these networks, but how the resource transport within these CMNs is controlled is largely unknown. We discuss the significance of CMNs for plant communities and for the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the AM symbiosis. PMID:27066184

  14. Relatedness among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi drives plant growth and intraspecific fungal coexistence.

    PubMed

    Roger, Aurélien; Colard, Alexandre; Angelard, Caroline; Sanders, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with most plant species. They are ecologically important determinants of plant growth and diversity. Considerable genetic variation occurs in AMF populations. Thus, plants are exposed to AMF of varying relatedness to each other. Very little is known about either the effects of coexisting AMF on plant growth or which factors influence intraspecific AMF coexistence within roots. No studies have addressed whether the genetics of coexisting AMF, and more specifically their relatedness, influences plant growth and AMF coexistence. Relatedness is expected to influence coexistence between individuals, and it has been suggested that decreasing ability of symbionts to coexist can have negative effects on the growth of the host. We tested the effect of a gradient of AMF genetic relatedness on the growth of two plant species. Increasing relatedness between AMFs lead to markedly greater plant growth (27% biomass increase with closely related compared to distantly related AMF). In one plant species, closely related AMF coexisted in fairly equal proportions but decreasing relatedness lead to a very strong disequilibrium between AMF in roots, indicating much stronger competition. Given the strength of the effects with such a shallow relatedness gradient and the fact that in the field plants are exposed to a steeper gradient, we consider that AMF relatedness can have a strong role in plant growth and the ability of AMF to coexist. We conclude that AMF relatedness is a driver of plant growth and that relatedness is also a strong driver of intraspecific coexistence of these ecologically important symbionts. PMID:23823490

  15. Quantification of the proliferation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Lilje, Osu; McGee, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Good soil structure is important for sustaining agricultural production and preserving functions of the soil ecosystem. Soil aggregation is a critically important component of soil structure. Stable aggregates enable water infiltration, gas exchange for biological activities of plant roots and microorganisms, living space and surfaces for soil microbes, and contribute to stabilization of organic matter and storage of organic carbon (OC) in soil. Soil aggregation involves fine roots, organic matter and hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Hyphal proliferation is essential for soil aggregation and sequestration of OC in soil. We do not yet have a mechanism to directly quantify the density of hyphae in soil. Organic materials and available phosphorus are two of the major factors that influence fungi in soil. Organic materials are a source of energy for saprotrophic microbes. Fungal hyphae increase in the presence of organic matter. Phosphorus is an important element usually found in ecosystems. The low availability of phosphorus limits the biological activity of microbes. AM fungi benefit plants by delivering phosphorus to the root system. However, the density and the length of hyphae of AM fungi do not appear to be influenced by available phosphorus. A number of indirect methods have been used to visualize distribution of fungi in soil. Reliable analyses of soil are limited because of soil characteristics. Soils are fragile, and fragility limits opportunity for non-destructive analysis. The soil ecosystem is complex. Soil particles are dense and the density obscures the visualization of fungal hyphae. Fungal hyphae are relatively fine and information at the small scale (<250µm) is key to understanding how fungi respond to environmental stimuli. This experiment tested whether organic carbon (starch), phosphorus (K2HPO4) and their mixture influences proliferation of hyphae of AM fungi. Hyphae were quantified in an artificial soil matrix using micro

  16. Determinants of arbuscular mycorrhizal communities - soil properties or land use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansa, J.; Erb, A.; Oberholzer, H.-R.; Šmilauer, P.; Egli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi accompanied terrestrial plants since some 500 million years of their evolution and are now widespread in all continents and virtually all soils of the world. They establish symbiotic interactions with a majority of extant higher plant species including most economically important plants. They are heavily implicated in plant nutrition, plant-soil carbon cycling, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Under field conditions, AM fungi usually form multispecies communities both in the soils and in plant roots, and it is becoming well established that various human interventions like cropping, crop rotation, tillage, and fertilization may all drive changes in the community composition of these fungi and, consequently, in the symbiotic benefits to the plants. Most of current evidence is stemming from individual short and long-term field trials, and the different studies usually employed diverse approaches, limiting the comparability of results across sites. Large scale sampling designs using unified research methods across different soil types and land use systems have hardly been employed so far. However, this would be imperative to allow direct comparisons of the effects of various environmental conditions (soil type, climate) and human land use practices on the indigenous soil-borne symbiotic microbes in general and the AM fungi in particular. To contribute to filling this gap, we conducted molecular profiling of AM communities in more than 150 Swiss agricultural soils, developed on a range of parent materials, covering a wide range of soil properties such as pH value, texture, carbon content and altitude, and including highly productive fields through alpine pastures. This study indicated strong correlations between AM fungal community patterns and features like soil pH and texture, as well as some consistent shifts in fungal communities due to specific aspects of land use like tillage or fertilization. These results thus appear to

  17. Activation of Symbiosis Signaling by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Legumes and Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jongho; Miller, J. Benjamin; Granqvist, Emma; Wiley-Kalil, Audrey; Gobbato, Enrico; Maillet, Fabienne; Cottaz, Sylvain; Samain, Eric; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Fort, Sébastien; Morris, Richard J.; Ané, Jean-Michel; Dénarié, Jean; Oldroyd, Giles E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions involves plant recognition of diffusible signals from the fungus, including lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and chitooligosaccharides (COs). Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that associate with leguminous plants also signal to their hosts via LCOs, the so-called Nod factors. Here, we have assessed the induction of symbiotic signaling by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (Myc) fungal-produced LCOs and COs in legumes and rice (Oryza sativa). We show that Myc-LCOs and tetra-acetyl chitotetraose (CO4) activate the common symbiosis signaling pathway, with resultant calcium oscillations in root epidermal cells of Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. The nature of the calcium oscillations is similar for LCOs produced by rhizobial bacteria and by mycorrhizal fungi; however, Myc-LCOs activate distinct gene expression. Calcium oscillations were activated in rice atrichoblasts by CO4, but not the Myc-LCOs, whereas a mix of CO4 and Myc-LCOs activated calcium oscillations in rice trichoblasts. In contrast, stimulation of lateral root emergence occurred following treatment with Myc-LCOs, but not CO4, in M. truncatula, whereas both Myc-LCOs and CO4 were active in rice. Our work indicates that legumes and non-legumes differ in their perception of Myc-LCO and CO signals, suggesting that different plant species respond to different components in the mix of signals produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:25724637

  18. NITROGEN CAPTURE BY GRAPEVINE ROOTS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI FROM LEGUME COVER CROP RESIDUES UNDER LOW RATES OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of minimal fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated 15N capture from a legume crop (Medicago polymorpha) was examined in Vitis vinifera. We hypothesized that, because the mycorrhizal host was grown in nutrient-limiting soil, minimal fertilization would increase both...

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-promoted accumulation of two new triterpenoids in cucumber roots.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots were analyzed by HPLC and TLC for their levels of secondary metabolites upon inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus caledonium. Three compounds in EtOAc extracts from the mycorrhizal roots showed significant increases six weeks after inoculation. These compounds were isolated by column chromatography and determined to be two novel triterpenes, 2beta-hydroxybryonolic acid (2beta,3beta-dihydroxy-D:C-friedoolean-8-en-29-oic acid) and 3beta-bryoferulic acid [3beta-O-trans-ferulyl-D:C-friedooleana-7,9(11)-diene-29-oic acid], and the known triterpene, bryonolic acid, by spectroscopic methods. Time-course experiments showed that the levels of the three terpenoids in cucumber roots were significantly increased by the application of a 53-microm sieving from a soil inoculum of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus containing soil microbes but no mycorrhizal fungi, and that mycorrhizal colonization further promoted the terpenoid accumulation. Inoculation with Glomus mosseae also enhanced the accumulation of the triterpenes, whereas no accumulation was observed by inoculating with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. 2Beta-hydroxybryonolic acid was also isolated from the roots of melon and watermelon. PMID:12036048

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. Carbon cycling by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil-plant systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.-G.; Miller, R. M.; Environmental Research; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2003-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in regulating carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. A recent study showed that live hyphae can turn over rapidly, in five to six days on average, suggesting that carbon flow to AMF hyphae might be respired back to the atmosphere quickly. However, that study gives a limited view of the residence time of AMF hyphae in soils. AMF hyphae can also contribute to soil carbon storage through other mechanisms.

  2. Use of Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture To Identify Active Bacteria Associated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Artursson, Veronica; Jansson, Janet K.

    2003-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are beneficial for crops grown under low-till management systems. Increasingly, it is becoming apparent that bacteria associated with mycorrhizae can enhance the beneficial relationship between mycorrhizae and plants. However, it has been difficult to study these relationships by conventional techniques. In this study actively growing bacteria were identified in soil from an undisturbed fallow field known to contain arbuscular mycorrhizae by using molecular tools to eliminate the need for cultivation. A thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), was added to the soil and incubated for 2 days. DNA was extracted, and the newly synthesized DNA was isolated by immunocapture of the BrdU-containing DNA. The active bacteria in the community were identified by 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence information, a selective medium was chosen to isolate the corresponding active bacteria. Bacillus cereus strain VA1, one of the bacteria identified by the BrdU method, was isolated from the soil and tagged with green fluorescent protein. By using confocal microscopy, this bacterium was shown to clearly attach to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. This study was the first to use this combination of molecular and traditional approaches to isolate, identify, and visualize a specific bacterium that is active in fallow soil and associates with arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. PMID:14532082

  3. Linking root traits to nutrient foraging in arbuscular mycorrhizal trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Eissenstat, David M; Kucharski, Joshua M; Zadworny, Marcin; Adams, Thomas S; Koide, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    The identification of plant functional traits that can be linked to ecosystem processes is of wide interest, especially for predicting vegetational responses to climate change. Root diameter of the finest absorptive roots may be one plant trait that has wide significance. Do species with relatively thick absorptive roots forage in nutrient-rich patches differently from species with relatively fine absorptive roots? We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology and architecture, root proliferation, and mycorrhizal colonization) across six coexisting arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) temperate tree species with and without nutrient addition. Root traits such as root diameter and specific root length were highly correlated with root branching intensity, with thin-root species having higher branching intensity than thick-root species. In both fertilized and unfertilized soil, species with thin absorptive roots and high branching intensity showed much greater root length and mass proliferation but lower mycorrhizal colonization than species with thick absorptive roots. Across all species, fertilization led to increased root proliferation and reduced mycorrhizal colonization. These results suggest that thin-root species forage more by root proliferation, whereas thick-root species forage more by mycorrhizal fungi. In mineral nutrient-rich patches, AM trees seem to forage more by proliferating roots than by mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:25970701

  4. Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of lead- contaminated soil by vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Bahraminia, Mahboobeh; Zarei, Mehdi; Ronaghi, Abdolmajid; Ghasemi-Fasaei, Reza

    2016-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in phytoremediation of lead (Pb)-contaminated soil by vetiver grass. Experiment was a factorial arranged in a completely randomized design. Factors included four Pb levels (50, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1)) as Pb (NO3)2, AM fungi at three levels (non mycorrhizal (NM) control, Rhizophagus intraradices, Glomus versiforme). Shoot and root dry weights (SDW and RDW) decreased as Pb levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased SDW and RDW compared to NM control. With mycorrhizal inoculation and increasing Pb levels, Pb uptake of shoot and root increased compared to those of NM control. Root colonization increased with mycorrhizal inoculation but decreased as Pb levels increased. Phosphorus concentration and uptake in shoot of plants inoculated with AM fungi was significantly higher than NM control at 200 and 800 mg Pb kg(-1). The Fe concentration, Fe and Mn uptake of shoot in plants inoculated with Rhizophagus intraradices in all levels of Pb were significantly higher than NM control. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased Pb extraction, uptake and translocation efficiencies. Lead translocation factor decreased as Pb levels increased; however inoculation with AM fungi increased Pb translocation. PMID:26709443

  5. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species.

    PubMed

    Caglar, S; Akgun, A

    2006-07-01

    The experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species used as rootstocks. The stratified Pistacia seeds were inoculated with VAM fungi. The highest rate of inoculated roots was 96.7% in P. khinjuck seedlings with G. clarum and G. etunicatum, 83.3% in P. vera seedlings with G. caledonium and 73.3% in P. terebinthus seedlings with G. caledonium. Mycorrhizal inoculations improved seedling height only in P. terebinthus. Certain mycorrhizal inoculations increased the leaf N, but not P and K contents. Seedlings inoculated with G. caledonium had higher reducing sugar contents. It was concluded that pre-inoculated Pistacia seedlings could have a better growth in the harsh field conditions. PMID:17402238

  6. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising roots and root nodules of New Zealand kauri Agathis australis.

    PubMed

    Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Johansen, Renee B; Stuckey, S Alexander; Williams, Stephen E; Hooker, John E; Burns, Bruce R; Bellgard, Stanley E

    2016-05-01

    As the only endemic member in New Zealand of the ancient conifer family, Araucariaceae, Agathis australis is an ideal species to study putatively long-evolved mycorrhizal symbioses. However, little is known about A. australis root and nodular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and how mycorrhizal colonisation occurs. We used light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy to characterise colonisation, and 454-sequencing to identify the AMF associated with A. australis roots and nodules. We interpreted the results in terms of the edaphic characteristics of the A. australis-influenced ecosystem. Representatives of five families of Glomeromycota were identified via high-throughput pyrosequencing. Imaging studies showed that there is abundant, but not ubiquitous, colonisation of nodules, which suggests that nodules are mostly colonised by horizontal transmission. Roots were also found to harbour AMF. This study is the first to demonstrate the multiple Glomeromycota lineages associated with A. australis including some that may not have been previously detected. PMID:27109376

  7. Chromium immobilization by extra- and intraradical fungal structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songlin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yuqing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Li, Tao; Hu, Yajun; Lv, Jitao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhensong; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhen, Xiangjun; Chen, Baodong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance plant Cr tolerance through immobilizing Cr in mycorrhizal roots. However, the detailed processes and mechanisms are unclear. The present study focused on cellular distribution and speciation of Cr in both extraradical mycelium (ERM) and mycorrhizal roots exposed to Cr(VI) by using field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM-EDS), scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. We found that amounts of particles (possibly extracellular polymeric substances, EPS) were produced on the AM fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress, which contributed greatly to Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. With EDS of the surface of AM fungi exposed to various Cr(VI) levels, a positive correlation between Cr and P was revealed, suggesting that phosphate groups might act as counter ions of Cr(III), which was also confirmed by the XAFS analysis. Besides, STXM and XAFS analyses showed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in AM fungal structures (arbuscules, intraradical mycelium, etc.) and cell walls in mycorrhizal roots, and complexed possibly with carboxyl groups or histidine analogues. The present work provided evidence of Cr immobilization on fungal surface and in fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots at a cellular level, and thus unraveled the underlying mechanisms by which AM symbiosis immobilize Cr. PMID:27209517

  8. Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva; da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; de Melo, Natoniel Franklin; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Régis; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus etunicatum or Acaulospora longula and 55 days later with 4,000 eggs of M. enterolobii. The interactions between the AMF and M. enterolobii were assessed by measuring leaf number, aerial dry biomass, CO2 evolution and arbuscular and total mycorrhizal colonization. In general, plant growth was improved by the treatments with A. longula or with G. albida. The presence of the nematode decreased arbuscular colonization and increased general enzymatic activity. Higher dehydrogenase activity occurred with the A. longula treatment and CO2 evolution was higher in the control with the nematode. More spores and higher production of glomalin-related soil proteins were observed in the treatment with G. albida. The numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs were reduced in the presence of A. longula. Inoculation with this fungus benefitted plant growth and decreased nematode reproduction. PMID:25288951

  9. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gattai, Graziella S; Pereira, Sônia V; Costa, Cynthia M C; Lima, Cláudia E P; Maia, Leonor C

    2011-07-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg(-1)) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil(-1)) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  10. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  11. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896

  12. Molecular biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trace metal-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad El Din; Boon, Eva; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community structure from the roots and associated soil of Plantago major (plantain) plants growing on sites polluted with trace metals (TM) and on unpolluted sites. Uncontaminated and TM-contaminated sites containing As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were selected based on a survey of the TM concentration in soils of community gardens in the City of Montréal. Total genomic DNA was extracted directly from these samples. PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), augmented by cloning and sequencing, as well as direct sequencing techniques, was all used to investigate AMF community structure. We found a decreased diversity of native AMF (assessed by the number of AMF ribotypes) in soils and plant roots harvested from TM-polluted soils compared with unpolluted soils. We also found that community structure was modified by TM contamination. Various species of Glomus, Scutellospora aurigloba and S. calospora were the most abundant ribotypes detected in unpolluted soil; ribotypes of G. etunicatum, G. irregulare/G. intraradices and G. viscosum were found in both polluted and unpolluted soils, while ribotypes of G. mosseae and Glomus spp. (B9 and B13) were dominant in TM-polluted soils. The predominance of G. mosseae in metal-polluted sites suggests the tolerance of this species to TM stress, as well as its potential use for phytoremediation. These data are relevant for our understanding of how AMF microbial communities respond to natural environments that contain a broad variety of toxic inorganic compounds and will substantially expand our knowledge of AMF ecology and biodiversity. PMID:21668808

  13. Belowground interactions with aboveground consequences: Invasive earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shishir; Longcore, Travis; MacDonald, Beau; McCormick, Melissa K; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wilson, Gail W T; Loss, Scot R

    2016-03-01

    A mounting body of research suggests that invasive nonnative earthworms substantially alter microbial communities, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These changes to AMF can cascade to affect plant communities and vertebrate populations. Despite these research advances, relatively little is known about (1) the mechanisms behind earthworms' effects on AMF and (2) the factors that determine the outcomes of earthworm-AMF interactions (i.e., whether AMF abundance is increased or decreased and subsequent effects on plants). We predict that AMF-mediated effects of nonnative earthworms on ecosystems are nearly universal because (1) AMF are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems, (2) nonnative earthworms have become established in nearly every type of terrestrial ecosystem, and (3) nonnative earthworms, due to their burrowing and feeding behavior, greatly affect AMF with potentially profound concomitant effects on plant communities. We highlight the multiple direct and indirect effects of nonnative earthworms on plants and review what is currently known about the interaction between earthworms and AMF. We also illustrate how the effects of nonnative earthworms on plant-AMF mutualisms can alter the structure and stability of aboveground plant communities, as well as the vertebrate communities relying on these habitats. Integrative studies that assess the interactive effects of earthworms and AMF can provide new insights into the role that belowground ecosystem engineers play in altering aboveground ecological processes. Understanding these processes may improve our ability to predict the structure of plant and animal communities in earthworm-invaded regions and to develop management strategies that limit the numerous undesired impacts of earthworms. PMID:27197388

  14. Does Wheat Genetically Modified for Disease Resistance Affect Root-Colonizing Pseudomonads and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi?

    PubMed Central

    Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology. PMID:23372672

  15. Changes in communities of Fusarium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as related to different asparagus cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a high-value perennial vegetable crop that has shown a marked decline in productivity after many years of continuous harvesting. This decline is caused by an increase in both abiotic (autotoxicity, harvesting pressure) and biotic stresses [fungal infections, mainly Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR)]. To gain insight into disease development and possible mitigation strategies, we studied the effects of harvesting, time in the growing season, and field age on FCRR development, Fusarium species composition, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in both a controlled field experiment and an ecological survey of commercial fields. In one experiment, a 3-year-old asparagus field was subdivided into plots that were harvested or not and sampled throughout the growing season to assess short-term dominant Fusarium species shifts. In addition, diseased and healthy asparagus plants sampled from six commercial fields in the same geographical region were used to assess Fusarium and AMF communities in relation to different parameters. Fusarium and AMF communities were described by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach, and results were analyzed by mainly correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that dominant Fusarium taxa assemblages changed throughout the growing season. Harvested plots had significantly more FCRR symptomatic plants at the end of the growing season, but this effect was not related with any trend in Fusarium community structure. Sampling site and plant age significantly influenced AMF community structure, whereas only sampling site consistently influenced the Fusarium community. Diseased and healthy plants harbored similar Fusarium and AMF communities. Shifts in Fusarium community might not be responsible for different disease incidence because they are ubiquitous regardless of plant health status or harvesting regime

  16. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. PMID:26555273

  17. First report of the inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of Pisum sativum by specific and irreversible inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis or by gibberellic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    El Ghachtouli, N; Martin-Tanguy, J; Paynot, M; Gianinazzi, S

    1996-05-01

    DFMO (alpha-DL-difluoromethylornithine), a specific irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a polyamine biosynthetic pathway enzyme, strongly inhibits root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of Pisum sativum (P56 myc+, isogenic mutant of cv. Frisson). This inhibition is reversed when exogenous polyamine (putrescine) is included in the DFMO treatment, showing that the effect of DFMO on arbuscular mycorrhizal infection is indeed due to putrescine limitation and suggesting that ODC may have a role in root growth and mycorrhizal infection. However, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) which increased root titers of polyamines strongly inhibited arbuscular mycorrhizal development. The possible role of polyamines in the regulation of the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal infection is discussed. PMID:8647248

  18. Multiple control levels of root system remodeling in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Paszkowski, Uta

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the root systems of most plants develop intimate symbioses with glomeromycotan fungi that assist in the acquisition of mineral nutrients and water through uptake from the soil and direct delivery into the root cortex. Root systems are endowed with a strong, environment-responsive architectural plasticity that also manifests itself during the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses, predominantly in lateral root proliferation. In this review, we collect evidence for the idea that AM-induced root system remodeling is regulated at several levels: by AM fungal signaling molecules and by changes in plant nutrient status and distribution within the root system. PMID:23785383

  19. Rice perception of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi requires the karrikin receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Gobbato, Enrico; Choi, Jeongmin; Riemann, Michael; Johnston, Matthew G; Summers, William; Carbonnel, Samy; Mansfield, Catherine; Yang, Shu-Yi; Nadal, Marina; Acosta, Ivan; Takano, Makoto; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Kelly, Krystyna A; Paszkowski, Uta

    2015-12-18

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plants take up phosphate predominantly via association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We identified loss of responsiveness to AMF in the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant hebiba, reflected by the absence of physical contact and of characteristic transcriptional responses to fungal signals. Among the 26 genes deleted in hebiba, DWARF 14 LIKE is, the one responsible for loss of symbiosis . It encodes an alpha/beta-fold hydrolase, that is a component of an intracellular receptor complex involved in the detection of the smoke compound karrikin. Our finding reveals an unexpected plant recognition strategy for AMF and a previously unknown signaling link between symbiosis and plant development. PMID:26680197

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae contribute to the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Cheng, Zhaoxia; Ling, Wanting; Huang, Jing

    2010-09-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae-mediated uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the roots of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was investigated using three-compartment systems. Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were chosen, and fluorene and phenanthrene were used as representative PAHs. When roots were grown in un-spiked soils, AM hyphae extended into PAH-spiked soil and clearly absorbed and transported PAHs to roots, resulting in high concentrations of fluorene and phenanthrene in roots. This was further confirmed by the batch equilibration experiment, which revealed that the partition coefficients (K(d)) of tested PAHs by mycorrhizal hyphae were 270-356% greater than those by roots, suggesting the great potential of hyphae to absorb PAHs. Because of fluorene's lower molecular weight and higher water solubility, its translocation by hyphae was greater than that of phenanthrene. These results provide new perspectives on the AM hyphae-mediated uptake by plants of organic contaminants from soil. PMID:20403686

  1. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Ericsson, T; Rosén, K

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of (137)Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with (137)Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a "reference" plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on (137)Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and (137)Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total (137)Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of (137)Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. PMID:22939950

  2. Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

  3. Lyso-phosphatidylcholine is a signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Drissner, David; Kunze, Gernot; Callewaert, Nico; Gehrig, Peter; Tamasloukht, M'barek; Boller, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Bucher, Marcel

    2007-10-12

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis represents the most widely distributed mutualistic root symbiosis. We report that root extracts of mycorrhizal plants contain a lipophilic signal capable of inducing the phosphate transporter genes StPT3 and StPT4 of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), genes that are specifically induced in roots colonized by AM fungi. The same signal caused rapid extracellular alkalinization in suspension-cultured tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cells and induction of the mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporter gene LePT4 in these cells. The active principle was characterized as the lysolipid lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) via a combination of gene expression studies, alkalinization assays in cell cultures, and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. Our results highlight the importance of lysophospholipids as signals in plants and in particular in the AM symbiosis. PMID:17932296

  4. The importance of integration and scale in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Kling, M.; Environmental Research; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences

    2000-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus contributes to system processes and functions at various hierarchical organizational levels, through their establishment of linkages and feedbacks between whole-plants and nutrient cycles. Even though these fungal mediated feedbacks and linkages involve lower-organizational level processes (e.g. photo-assimilate partitioning, interfacial assimilate uptake and transport mechanisms, intraradical versus extraradical fungal growth), they influence higher-organizational scales that affect community and ecosystem behavior (e.g. whole-plant photosynthesis, biodiversity, nutrient and carbon cycling, soil structure). Hence, incorporating AM fungi into research directed at understanding many of the diverse environmental issues confronting society will require knowledge of how these fungi respond to or initiate changes in vegetation dynamics, soil fertility or both. Within the last few years, the rapid advancement in the development of analytical tools has increased the resolution by which we are able to quantify the mycorrhizal symbiosis. It is important that these tools are applied within a conceptual framework that is temporally and spatially relevant to fungus and host. Unfortunately, many of the studies being conducted on the mycorrhizal symbiosis at lower organizational scales are concerned with questions directed solely at understanding fungus or host without awareness of what the plant physiologist or ecologist needs for integrating the mycorrhizal association into larger organizational scales or process levels. We show by using the flow of C from plant-to-fungus-to-soil, that through thoughtful integration, we have the ability to bridge different organizational scales. Thus, an essential need of mycorrhizal research is not only to better integrate the various disciplines of mycorrhizal research, but also to identify those relevant links and scales needing further investigation for understanding the larger-organizational level

  5. [Change of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community in response to elevational gradients on the Tibetan Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-bu; Peng, Yue-lin

    2015-09-01

    The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and mycorrhizal infection in the main herbaceous plants were studied along the elevational gradients on the Tibetan Plateau, and AMF community was characterized based on spore morphology. Community of AMF at lower elevations (2200-3400 m) in southeast Tibetan Plateau included 11 genera, covering 31 species, whereas AMF at intermediate elevations (3400-3900 m) in central Tibet included 11 genera, covering 20 species, and that at higher elevations (4300-5300 m) in northern Tibet included 6 genera, covering 14 species. With the increase of elevation, both spore density (r = 0.978, P <0.01) and species abundance (r = 0.462, P > 0.05) tended to increase. The proportion of dominant species and endemic species increased substantially, while the Shannon index (r = -0.945, P < 0.01) decreased significantly. There was no significant difference in Sorensen index (0.526-0.592) among different altitudes. Mycorrhizal infection at intermediate elevations was significantly higher than that at lower elevations or higher elevations, while the latter two did not differ significantly. Within an altitude range, elevation had significant influence on AMF community and mycorrhizal infection, and the effect differed among the three elevational sites. The results demonstrated that AMF community on the Tibetan Plateau tends to be habitat specific. The water and thermal environment as well as soil environment are the driving forces for shaping AMF community assemblages. PMID:26785564

  6. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in bromeliad species from the tropical Atlantic forest biome in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grippa, Carlos Roberto; Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz

    2007-05-01

    The mycorrhizal status of epiphytic, rupicolous, and terrestrial bromeliad species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest has been examined. Roots of 13 species of bromeliads were analyzed for the presence of mycorrhizal structures such as arbuscules, hyphae, and vesicles as well as other fungal structures. Rhizosphere soil was sampled to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species associated only with terrestrial bromeliad species. Most specimens collected were epiphytic bromeliads in the genera Aechmea, Bilbergia, Nidularium, Tillandsia, and Vriesea. Differentiating structures of AMF were found in only three species of bromeliads. The pattern of mycorrhizal colonization was mainly internal, and external mycelium and arbuscules were observed only in the terrestrial Nidularium procerum. Root endophytes with dark brown septate mycelium, thin external hyphae, and Rhizoctonia-like sclerotia were also detected in some root segments. A total of ten spore morphotypes were recovered from the rhizosphere of N. procerum, with Acaulospora mellea, A. foveata, and Glomus sp. being the most common species recovered. Our study demonstrated that most of the epiphytic species are not associated with AMF. We attribute this mainly to the exposed bare root conditions found in epiphytic bromeliads. PMID:17151876

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on young vines in copper-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Vítor Gabriel; Voges, Joana Gerent; Canton, Ludiana; Couto, Rafael da Rosa; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Comin, Jucinei José; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Brunetto, Gustavo; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2015-01-01

    High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels. PMID:26691462

  8. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on young vines in copper-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Vítor Gabriel; Voges, Joana Gerent; Canton, Ludiana; Couto, Rafael da Rosa; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Comin, Jucinei José; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Brunetto, Gustavo; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels. PMID:26691462

  9. Soil moisture--a regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly and symbiotic phosphorus uptake.

    PubMed

    Deepika, Sharma; Kothamasi, David

    2015-01-01

    Multiple species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can colonize roots of an individual plant species but factors which determine the selection of a particular AMF species in a plant root are largely unknown. The present work analysed the effects of drought, flooding and optimal soil moisture (15-20 %) on AMF community composition and structure in Sorghum vulgare roots, using PCR-RFLP. Rhizophagus irregularis (isolate BEG 21), and rhizosphere soil (mixed inoculum) of Heteropogon contortus, a perennial C4 grass, collected from the semi-arid Delhi ridge, were used as AMF inocula. Soil moisture functioned as an abiotic filter and affected AMF community assembly inside plant roots by regulating AMF colonization and phylotype diversity. Roots of plants in flooded soils had lowest AMF diversity whilst root AMF diversity was highest under the soil moisture regime of 15-20 %. Although plant biomass was not affected, root P uptake was significantly influenced by soil moisture. Plants colonized with R. irregularis or mixed AMF inoculum showed higher root P uptake than non-mycorrhizal plants in drought and control treatments. No differences in root P levels were found in the flooded treatment between plants colonized with R. irregularis and non-mycorrhizal plants, whilst under the same treatment, root P uptake was lower in plants colonized with mixed AMF inoculum than in non-mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25085217

  10. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions. PMID:24553847

  11. Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Glomus Species on Drought Tolerance: Physiological and Nutritional Plant Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lozano, J. M.; Azcon, R.; Gomez, M.

    1995-01-01

    The tolerance of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) to drought stress differed with the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal isolate with which the plants were associated. Seven fungal species belonging to the genus Glomus were studied for their ability to enhance the drought tolerance of lettuce plants. These fungi had different traits that affected the drought resistance of host plants. The ranking of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal effects on drought tolerance, based on the relative decreases in shoot dry weight, was as follows: Glomus deserticola > Glomus fasciculatum > Glomus mosseae > Glomus etunicatum > Glomus intraradices > Glomus caledonium > Glomus occultum. In this comparative study specific mycorrhizal fungi had consistent effects on plant growth, mineral uptake, the CO(inf2) exchange rate, water use efficiency, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, and proline accumulation under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. The ability of the isolates to maintain plant growth effectively under water stress conditions was related to higher transpiration rates, levels of leaf conductance, and proline, N, and P contents. Differences in proline accumulation in leaves among the fungal symbioses suggested that the fungi were able to induce different degrees of osmotic adjustment. The detrimental effects of drought were not related to decreases in photosynthesis or water use efficiency. Neither of these parameters was related to P nutrition. The differences in P and K acquisition, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were related to the mycorrhizal efficiencies of the different fungi. Our observations revealed the propensities of different Glomus species to assert their protective effects during plant water stress. The greater effectiveness of G. deserticola in improving water deficit tolerance was associated with the lowest level of growth reduction (9%) under stress conditions. The growth of plants

  12. Chemotactic response of plant-growth-promoting bacteria towards roots of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta Sood, Sushma

    2003-08-01

    The chemotactic responses of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to roots of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus fasciculatum) tomato plants were determined. A significantly (P=0.05) greater number of bacterial cells of wild strains were attracted towards vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots compared to non-vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots. Substances exuded by roots served as chemoattractants for these bacteria. P. fluorescens was strongly attracted towards citric and malic acids, which were predominant constituents in root exudates of tomato plants. A. chroococcum showed a stronger response towards sugars than amino acids, but the response was weakest towards organic acids. The effects of temperature, pH, and soil water matric potential on bacterial chemotaxis towards roots were also investigated. In general, significantly (P=0.05) greater chemotactic responses of bacteria were observed at higher water matric potentials (0, -1, and -5 kPa), slightly acidic to neutral pH (6, 6.5 and 7), and at 20-30 degrees C (depending on the bacterium) than in other environmental conditions. It is suggested that chemotaxis of P. fluorescens and A. chroococcum towards roots and their exudates is one of the several steps in the interaction process between bacteria and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal roots. PMID:19719591

  13. Deficit Irrigation Promotes Arbuscular Colonization of Fine Roots by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in an Arid Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common practice applied in irrigated vineyards to control canopy growth and improve fruit quality, but little is known of how imposed water deficits may alter root growth and colonization by beneficial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, root growth and...

  14. Intraradical colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi triggers induction of a lipochitooligosaccharide receptor.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, S R; Füchtbauer, W; Novero, M; Volpe, V; Malkov, N; Genre, A; Bonfante, P; Stougaard, J; Radutoiu, S

    2016-01-01

    Functional divergence of paralogs following gene duplication is one of the mechanisms leading to evolution of novel pathways and traits. Here we show that divergence of Lys11 and Nfr5 LysM receptor kinase paralogs of Lotus japonicus has affected their specificity for lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) decorations, while the innate capacity to recognize and induce a downstream signalling after perception of rhizobial LCOs (Nod factors) was maintained. Regardless of this conserved ability, Lys11 was found neither expressed, nor essential during nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, providing an explanation for the determinant role of Nfr5 gene during Lotus-rhizobia interaction. Lys11 was expressed in root cortex cells associated with intraradical colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Detailed analyses of lys11 single and nfr1nfr5lys11 triple mutants revealed a functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, indicating that Lys11 alone, or its possible shared function with the Nod factor receptors is not essential for the presymbiotic phases of AM symbiosis. Hence, both subfunctionalization and specialization appear to have shaped the function of these paralogs where Lys11 acts as an AM-inducible gene, possibly to fine-tune later stages of this interaction. PMID:27435342

  15. Interaction of Rhizosphere Bacteria, Fertilizer, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Sea Oats †

    PubMed Central

    Will, M. E.; Sylvia, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N2 fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO4) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study. PMID:16348236

  16. Intraradical colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi triggers induction of a lipochitooligosaccharide receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Füchtbauer, W.; Novero, M.; Volpe, V.; Malkov, N.; Genre, A.; Bonfante, P.; Stougaard, J.; Radutoiu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Functional divergence of paralogs following gene duplication is one of the mechanisms leading to evolution of novel pathways and traits. Here we show that divergence of Lys11 and Nfr5 LysM receptor kinase paralogs of Lotus japonicus has affected their specificity for lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) decorations, while the innate capacity to recognize and induce a downstream signalling after perception of rhizobial LCOs (Nod factors) was maintained. Regardless of this conserved ability, Lys11 was found neither expressed, nor essential during nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, providing an explanation for the determinant role of Nfr5 gene during Lotus-rhizobia interaction. Lys11 was expressed in root cortex cells associated with intraradical colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Detailed analyses of lys11 single and nfr1nfr5lys11 triple mutants revealed a functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, indicating that Lys11 alone, or its possible shared function with the Nod factor receptors is not essential for the presymbiotic phases of AM symbiosis. Hence, both subfunctionalization and specialization appear to have shaped the function of these paralogs where Lys11 acts as an AM-inducible gene, possibly to fine-tune later stages of this interaction. PMID:27435342

  17. Intraradical colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi triggers induction of a lipochitooligosaccharide receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Füchtbauer, W.; Novero, M.; Volpe, V.; Malkov, N.; Genre, A.; Bonfante, P.; Stougaard, J.; Radutoiu, S.

    2016-07-01

    Functional divergence of paralogs following gene duplication is one of the mechanisms leading to evolution of novel pathways and traits. Here we show that divergence of Lys11 and Nfr5 LysM receptor kinase paralogs of Lotus japonicus has affected their specificity for lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) decorations, while the innate capacity to recognize and induce a downstream signalling after perception of rhizobial LCOs (Nod factors) was maintained. Regardless of this conserved ability, Lys11 was found neither expressed, nor essential during nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, providing an explanation for the determinant role of Nfr5 gene during Lotus-rhizobia interaction. Lys11 was expressed in root cortex cells associated with intraradical colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Detailed analyses of lys11 single and nfr1nfr5lys11 triple mutants revealed a functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, indicating that Lys11 alone, or its possible shared function with the Nod factor receptors is not essential for the presymbiotic phases of AM symbiosis. Hence, both subfunctionalization and specialization appear to have shaped the function of these paralogs where Lys11 acts as an AM-inducible gene, possibly to fine-tune later stages of this interaction.

  18. Prospects for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to assist in phytoremediation of soil hydrocarbon contaminants.

    PubMed

    Rajtor, Monika; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualistic associations with the roots of 80-90% of vascular plant species and may constitute up to 50% of the total soil microbial biomass. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants. The paper presents and evaluates the role and significance of AMF in phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We focused on (1) an impact of hydrocarbons on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, (2) a potential of AMF to enhance phytoremediation, (3) determinants that influence effectiveness of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated soils. This knowledge may be useful for selection of proper plant and fungal symbionts and crucial to optimize environmental conditions for effective AMF-mediated phytoremediation. It has been concluded that three-component phytoremediation systems based on synergistic interactions between plant roots, AMF and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms demonstrated high effectiveness in dissipation of organic pollutants in soil. PMID:27487095

  19. Auxin Perception Is Required for Arbuscule Development in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mohammad; Gutjahr, Caroline; Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zouine, Mohamed; Lauressergues, Dominique; Timmers, Antonius; Audran, Corinne; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bécard, Guillaume; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Most land plant species live in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi differentiate essential functional structures called arbuscules in root cortical cells from which mineral nutrients are released to the plant. We investigated the role of microRNA393 (miR393), an miRNA that targets several auxin receptors, in arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization. Expression of the precursors of the miR393 was down-regulated during mycorrhization in three different plant species: Solanum lycopersicum, Medicago truncatula, and Oryza sativa. Treatment of S. lycopersicum, M. truncatula, and O. sativa roots with concentrations of synthetic auxin analogs that did not affect root development stimulated mycorrhization, particularly arbuscule formation. DR5-GUS, a reporter for auxin response, was preferentially expressed in root cells containing arbuscules. Finally, overexpression of miR393 in root tissues resulted in down-regulation of auxin receptor genes (transport inhibitor response1 and auxin-related F box) and underdeveloped arbuscules in all three plant species. These results support the conclusion that miR393 is a negative regulator of arbuscule formation by hampering auxin perception in arbuscule-containing cells. PMID:25096975

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association enhances drought tolerance potential of promising bioenergy grass (Saccharum arundinaceum retz.).

    PubMed

    Mirshad, P P; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-07-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus spp.) on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of bioenergy grass Saccharum arundinaceum subjected to drought stress was studied. The symbiotic association of Glomus spp. was established with S. arundinaceum, a potential bioenergy grass as evident from the increase in percentage of root infection and distribution frequency of vesicles when compared with non-arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. AMF-treated plants exhibited an enhanced accumulation of osmolytes such as sugars and proline and also increased protein content under drought. AMF association significantly increased the accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants like phenols, ascorbate and glutathione as well as enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD (superoxide dismutase), APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation in S. arundinaceum. AMF symbiosis also ameliorated the drought-induced reduction of total chlorophyll content and activities of photosystem I and II. The maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (F v/F m) and potential photochemical efficiency (F v/F o) were higher in AMF plants as compared to non-AMF plants under drought stress. These results indicate that AMF association alleviate drought stress in S. arundinaceum by the accumulation of osmolytes and non-enzymatic antioxidants and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and hence, the photosynthetic efficiency is improved resulting in increased biomass production. AMF association with energy grasses also improves the acclimatization of S. arundinaceum for growing in marginal lands of drought-affected soils. PMID:27329476

  1. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal and bacterial inocula on nitrate concentration in mesocosms simulating a wastewater treatment system relying on phytodepuration.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Guido; Copetta, Andrea; Musso, Davide; Aimo, Stefania; Ranzenigo, Angelo; Buico, Alessandra; Gianotti, Valentina; Osella, Domenico; Berta, Graziella

    2015-12-01

    High nitrogen concentration in wastewaters requires treatments to prevent the risks of eutrophication in rivers, lakes and coastal waters. The use of constructed wetlands is one of the possible approaches to lower nitrate concentration in wastewaters. Beyond supporting the growth of the bacteria operating denitrification, plants can directly take up nitrogen. Since plant roots interact with a number of soil microorganisms, in the present work we report the monitoring of nitrate concentration in macrocosms with four different levels of added nitrate (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg l(-1)), using Phragmites australis, inoculated with bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, to assess whether the use of such inocula could improve wastewater denitrification. Higher potassium nitrate concentration increased plant growth and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or bacteria resulted in larger plants with more developed root systems. In the case of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a faster decrease of nitrate concentration was observed, while the N%/C% ratio of the plants of the different treatments remained similar. At 90 mg l(-1) of added nitrate, only mycorrhizal plants were able to decrease nitrate concentration to the limits prescribed by the Italian law. These data suggest that mycorrhizal and microbial inoculation can be an additional tool to improve the efficiency of denitrification in the treatment of wastewaters via constructed wetlands. PMID:26423290

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter above- and below-ground chemical defense expression differentially among Asclepias species

    PubMed Central

    Vannette, Rachel L.; Hunter, Mark D.; Rasmann, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Below-ground (BG) symbionts of plants can have substantial influence on plant growth and nutrition. Recent work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungi can affect plant resistance to herbivory and the performance of above- (AG) and BG herbivores. Although these examples emerge from diverse systems, it is unclear if plant species that express similar defensive traits respond similarly to fungal colonization, but comparative work may inform this question. To examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the expression of chemical resistance, we inoculated 8 species of Asclepias (milkweed)—which all produce toxic cardenolides—with a community of AMF. We quantified plant biomass, foliar and root cardenolide concentration and composition, and assessed evidence for a growth-defense tradeoff in the presence and absence of AMF. As expected, total foliar and root cardenolide concentration varied among milkweed species. Importantly, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on total foliar cardenolide concentration also varied among milkweed species, with foliar cardenolides increasing or decreasing, depending on the plant species. We detected a phylogenetic signal to this variation; AMF fungi reduced foliar cardenolide concentrations to a greater extent in the clade including A. curassavica than in the clade including A. syriaca. Moreover, AMF inoculation shifted the composition of cardenolides in AG and BG plant tissues in a species-specific fashion. Mycorrhizal inoculation changed the relative distribution of cardenolides between root and shoot tissue in a species-specific fashion, but did not affect cardenolide diversity or polarity. Finally, a tradeoff between plant growth and defense in non-mycorrhizal plants was mitigated completely by AMF inoculation. Overall, we conclude that the effects of AMF inoculation on the expression of chemical resistance can vary among congeneric plant species, and ameliorate tradeoffs between growth and defense. PMID:24065971

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter above- and below-ground chemical defense expression differentially among Asclepias species.

    PubMed

    Vannette, Rachel L; Hunter, Mark D; Rasmann, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Below-ground (BG) symbionts of plants can have substantial influence on plant growth and nutrition. Recent work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungi can affect plant resistance to herbivory and the performance of above- (AG) and BG herbivores. Although these examples emerge from diverse systems, it is unclear if plant species that express similar defensive traits respond similarly to fungal colonization, but comparative work may inform this question. To examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the expression of chemical resistance, we inoculated 8 species of Asclepias (milkweed)-which all produce toxic cardenolides-with a community of AMF. We quantified plant biomass, foliar and root cardenolide concentration and composition, and assessed evidence for a growth-defense tradeoff in the presence and absence of AMF. As expected, total foliar and root cardenolide concentration varied among milkweed species. Importantly, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on total foliar cardenolide concentration also varied among milkweed species, with foliar cardenolides increasing or decreasing, depending on the plant species. We detected a phylogenetic signal to this variation; AMF fungi reduced foliar cardenolide concentrations to a greater extent in the clade including A. curassavica than in the clade including A. syriaca. Moreover, AMF inoculation shifted the composition of cardenolides in AG and BG plant tissues in a species-specific fashion. Mycorrhizal inoculation changed the relative distribution of cardenolides between root and shoot tissue in a species-specific fashion, but did not affect cardenolide diversity or polarity. Finally, a tradeoff between plant growth and defense in non-mycorrhizal plants was mitigated completely by AMF inoculation. Overall, we conclude that the effects of AMF inoculation on the expression of chemical resistance can vary among congeneric plant species, and ameliorate tradeoffs between growth and defense. PMID:24065971

  4. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks–previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect–probably help to maintain the rain forest–savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  5. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Janos, David P; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promote the Growth of Ceratocarpus arenarius (Chenopodiaceae) with No Enhancement of Phosphorus Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dengsha; Chen, Yinglong; Feng, Gu

    2012-01-01

    The mycorrhizal status of plants in the Chenopodiaceae is not well studied with a few controversial reports. This study examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and growth response of Ceratocarpus arenarius in the field and a greenhouse inoculation trial. The colonization rate of AM fungi in C. arenarius in in-growth field cores was low (around 15%). Vesicles and intraradical hyphae were present during all growth stages, but no arbuscules were observed. Sequencing analysis of the large ribosomal rDNA subunit detected four culturable Glomus species, G. intraradices, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum and G. microaggregatum together with eight unculturable species belong to the Glomeromycota in the root system of C. arenarius collected from the field. These results establish the mycotrophic status of C. arenarius. Both in the field and in the greenhouse inoculation trial, the growth of C. arenarius was stimulated by the indigenous AM fungal community and the inoculated AM fungal isolates, respectively, but the P uptake and concentration of the mycorrhizal plants did not increase significantly over the controls in both experiments. Furthermore, the AM fungi significantly increased seed production. Our results suggest that an alternative reciprocal benefit to carbon-phosphorus trade-off between AM fungi and the chenopod plant might exist in the extremely arid environment. PMID:22957011

  7. Carbon availability triggers fungal nitrogen uptake and transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Fellbaum, Carl R; Gachomo, Emma W; Beesetty, Yugandhar; Choudhari, Sulbha; Strahan, Gary D; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2012-02-14

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, formed between the majority of land plants and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, is responsible for massive nutrient transfer and global carbon sequestration. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them against photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) from the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that reciprocal reward strategies by plant and fungal partners guarantee a "fair trade" of phosphorus against C between partners [Kiers ET, et al. (2011) Science 333:880-882], but whether a similar reward mechanism also controls nitrogen (N) flux in the AM symbiosis is not known. Using mycorrhizal root organ cultures, we manipulated the C supply to the host and fungus and followed the uptake and transport of N sources in the AM symbiosis, the enzymatic activities of arginase and urease, and fungal gene expression in the extraradical and intraradical mycelium. We found that the C supply of the host plant triggers the uptake and transport of N in the symbiosis, and that the increase in N transport is orchestrated by changes in fungal gene expression. N transport in the symbiosis is stimulated only when the C is delivered by the host across the mycorrhizal interface, not when C is supplied directly to the fungal extraradical mycelium in the form of acetate. These findings support the importance of C flux from the root to the fungus as a key trigger for N uptake and transport and provide insight into the N transport regulation in the AM symbiosis. PMID:22308426

  8. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    PubMed

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  9. Suppression of allene oxide synthase 3 in potato increases degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Rafael Jorge León; Navarrete, María Isabel Tamayo; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Monguio, Salomé Prat; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2016-01-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) is a mutually beneficial interaction among higher plants and soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. Numerous studies have pointed that jasmonic acid plays an important role in the development of the intraradical fungus. This compound belongs to a group of biologically active compounds known as oxylipins which are derived from the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies of the regulatory role played by oxylipins in AM colonization have generally focused on jasmonates, while few studies exist on the 9-LOX pathway of oxylipins during AM formation. Here, the cDNA of Allene oxide synthase 3 (AOS3), a key enzyme in the 9-LOX pathway, was used in the RNA interference (RNAi) system to transform potato plants in order to suppress its expression. Results show increases in AOS3 gene expression and 9-LOX products in roots of wild type potato mycorrhizal plants. The suppression of AOS3 gene expression increases the percentage of root with mycorrhizal colonization at early stages of AM formation. AOS3 RNA interference lead to an induction of LOXA and 13-LOX genes, a reduction in AOS3 derived 9-LOX oxylipin compounds and an increase in jasmonic acid content, suggesting compensation between 9 and 13-LOX pathways. The results in a whole support the hypothesis of a regulatory role for the 9-LOX oxylipin pathway during mycorrhization. PMID:26629611

  10. Influence of cadmium stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative damage and affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation process of legumes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The present study was conducted to assess role of AM in alleviating negative effects of Cd on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan genotypes differing in their metal tolerance. Fifteen day-old plants were subjected to Cd treatments--25 mg and 50 mg Cd per kg dry soil and were grown with and without Glomus mosseae. Cd treatments led to a decline in mycorrhizal infection (MI), nodule number and dry weights which was accompanied by reductions in leghemoglobin content, nitrogenase activity, organic acid contents. Cd supply caused a marked decrease in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) contents. Conversely, Cd increased membrane permeability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Cd contents in nodules. AM inoculations were beneficial in reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of Cd and significantly improved nodule functioning. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) increased markedly in nodules of mycorrhizal-stressed plants. The negative effects of Cd were genotype and concentration dependent. PMID:22567695

  11. Carbon availability triggers fungal nitrogen uptake and transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Fellbaum, Carl R.; Gachomo, Emma W.; Beesetty, Yugandhar; Choudhari, Sulbha; Strahan, Gary D.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Kiers, E. Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, formed between the majority of land plants and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, is responsible for massive nutrient transfer and global carbon sequestration. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them against photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) from the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that reciprocal reward strategies by plant and fungal partners guarantee a “fair trade” of phosphorus against C between partners [Kiers ET, et al. (2011) Science 333:880–882], but whether a similar reward mechanism also controls nitrogen (N) flux in the AM symbiosis is not known. Using mycorrhizal root organ cultures, we manipulated the C supply to the host and fungus and followed the uptake and transport of N sources in the AM symbiosis, the enzymatic activities of arginase and urease, and fungal gene expression in the extraradical and intraradical mycelium. We found that the C supply of the host plant triggers the uptake and transport of N in the symbiosis, and that the increase in N transport is orchestrated by changes in fungal gene expression. N transport in the symbiosis is stimulated only when the C is delivered by the host across the mycorrhizal interface, not when C is supplied directly to the fungal extraradical mycelium in the form of acetate. These findings support the importance of C flux from the root to the fungus as a key trigger for N uptake and transport and provide insight into the N transport regulation in the AM symbiosis. PMID:22308426

  12. Radioactivity and the environment: technical approaches to understand the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in radionuclide bioaccumulation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Helena S.; Cox, Filipa; Robinson, Clare H.; Pittman, Jon K.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoaccumulation of radionuclides is of significant interest with regards to monitoring radionuclide build-up in food chains, developing methods for environmental bioremediation and for ecological management. There are many gaps in our understanding of the characteristics and mechanisms of plant radionuclide accumulation, including the importance of symbiotically-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We first briefly review the evidence that demonstrates the ability of AM fungi to enhance the translocation of 238U into plant root tissues, and how fungal association may prevent further mobilization into shoot tissues. We then focus on approaches that should further advance our knowledge of AM fungi–plant radionuclide accumulation. Current research has mostly used artificial cultivation methods and we consider how more ecologically-relevant analysis might be performed. The use of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and absorption spectroscopy techniques to understand the mechanisms of radionuclide transfer from soil to plant via AM fungi is evaluated. Without such further knowledge, the behavior and mobilization of radionuclides cannot be accurately modeled and the potential risks cannot be accurately predicted. PMID:26284096

  13. Modularity Reveals the Tendency of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi To Interact Differently with Generalist and Specialist Plant Species in Gypsum Soils

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Emma; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Roldán, Antonio; Díaz, Gisela; Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Patterns in plant–soil biota interactions could be influenced by the spatial distribution of species due to soil conditions or by the functional traits of species. Gypsum environments usually constitute a mosaic of heterogeneous soils where gypsum and nongypsum soils are imbricated at a local scale. A case study of the interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in gypsum environments can be illustrative of patterns in biotic interactions. We hypothesized that (i) soil characteristics might affect the AMF community and (ii) there are differences between the AMF communities (modules) associated with plants exclusive to gypsum soils (gypsophytes) and those associated with plants that show facultative behavior on gypsum and/or marly-limestone soils (gypsovags). We used indicator species and network analyses to test for differences between the AMF communities harbored in gypsophyte and gypsovag plants. We recorded 46 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to nine genera of Glomeromycota. The indicator species analysis showed two OTUs preferentially associating with gypsum soils and three OTUs preferentially associating with marly-limestone soils. Modularity analysis revealed that soil type can be a major factor shaping AMF communities, and some AMF groups showed a tendency to interact differently with plants that had distinct ecological strategies (gypsophytes and gypsovags). Characterization of ecological networks can be a valuable tool for ascertaining the potential influence of above- and below-ground biotic interactions (plant-AMF) on plant community composition. PMID:24973074

  14. Radioactivity and the environment: technical approaches to understand the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in radionuclide bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Davies, Helena S; Cox, Filipa; Robinson, Clare H; Pittman, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    Phytoaccumulation of radionuclides is of significant interest with regards to monitoring radionuclide build-up in food chains, developing methods for environmental bioremediation and for ecological management. There are many gaps in our understanding of the characteristics and mechanisms of plant radionuclide accumulation, including the importance of symbiotically-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We first briefly review the evidence that demonstrates the ability of AM fungi to enhance the translocation of (238)U into plant root tissues, and how fungal association may prevent further mobilization into shoot tissues. We then focus on approaches that should further advance our knowledge of AM fungi-plant radionuclide accumulation. Current research has mostly used artificial cultivation methods and we consider how more ecologically-relevant analysis might be performed. The use of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and absorption spectroscopy techniques to understand the mechanisms of radionuclide transfer from soil to plant via AM fungi is evaluated. Without such further knowledge, the behavior and mobilization of radionuclides cannot be accurately modeled and the potential risks cannot be accurately predicted. PMID:26284096

  15. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis. PMID:23046713

  16. Enhanced production of steviol glycosides in mycorrhizal plants: a concerted effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on transcription of biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Singh, Ved Pal; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-04-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) produces steviol glycosides (SGs)--stevioside (stev) and rebaudioside-A (reb-A) that are valued as low calorie sweeteners. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) augments SGs production, though the effect of this interaction on SGs biosynthesis has not been studied at molecular level. In this study transcription profiles of eleven key genes grouped under three stages of the SGs biosynthesis pathway were compared. The transcript analysis showed upregulation of genes encoding 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes viz.,1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 2-C-methyl-D-erytrithol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) in mycorrhizal (M) plants. Zn and Mn are imperative for the expression of MDS and their enhanced uptake in M plants could be responsible for the increased transcription of MDS. Furthermore, in the second stage of SGs biosynthesis pathway, mycorrhization enhanced the transcription of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH). Their expression is decisive for SGs biosynthesis as CPPS regulates flow of metabolites towards synthesis of kaurenoid precursors and KAH directs these towards steviol synthesis instead of gibberellins. In the third stage glucosylation of steviol to reb-A by four specific uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) occurs. While higher transcription of all the three characterized UGTs in M plants explains augmented production of SGs; higher transcript levels of UGT76G1, specifically improved reb-A to stev ratio implying increased sweetness. The work signifies that AM symbiosis upregulates the transcription of all eleven SGs biosynthesis genes as a result of improved nutrition and enhanced sugar concentration due to increased photosynthesis in M plants. PMID:25734328

  17. The Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Amplified from Grapevine Roots (Vitis vinifera L.) in Oregon Vineyards is Seasonally Stable and Influenced by Soil and Vine Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of grapevines in 10 commercial Oregon vineyards was assessed by examining spores in soil and by amplifying mycorrhizal DNA from ‘Pinot noir’ root extracts. Seventeen spore morphotypes were found in the soil beneath the vin...

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase organic carbon decomposition under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L; Tu, Cong; Burkey, Kent O; Zhou, Lishi; Shew, H David; Rufty, Thomas W; Hu, Shuijin

    2012-08-31

    The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems can sequester carbon to mitigate climate change is a matter of debate. The stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been assumed to be a major mechanism facilitating soil carbon sequestration by increasing carbon inputs to soil and by protecting organic carbon from decomposition via aggregation. We present evidence from four independent microcosm and field experiments demonstrating that CO(2) enhancement of AMF results in considerable soil carbon losses. Our findings challenge the assumption that AMF protect against degradation of organic carbon in soil and raise questions about the current prediction of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance under future climate-change scenarios. PMID:22936776

  19. FUNGAL SYMBIONTS. Global assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus diversity reveals very low endemism.

    PubMed

    Davison, J; Moora, M; Öpik, M; Adholeya, A; Ainsaar, L; Bâ, A; Burla, S; Diedhiou, A G; Hiiesalu, I; Jairus, T; Johnson, N C; Kane, A; Koorem, K; Kochar, M; Ndiaye, C; Pärtel, M; Reier, Ü; Saks, Ü; Singh, R; Vasar, M; Zobel, M

    2015-08-28

    The global biogeography of microorganisms remains largely unknown, in contrast to the well-studied diversity patterns of macroorganisms. We used arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus DNA from 1014 plant-root samples collected worldwide to determine the global distribution of these plant symbionts. We found that AM fungal communities reflected local environmental conditions and the spatial distance between sites. However, despite AM fungi apparently possessing limited dispersal ability, we found 93% of taxa on multiple continents and 34% on all six continents surveyed. This contrasts with the high spatial turnover of other fungal taxa and with the endemism displayed by plants at the global scale. We suggest that the biogeography of AM fungi is driven by unexpectedly efficient dispersal, probably via both abiotic and biotic vectors, including humans. PMID:26315436

  20. [Systematic classification and community research techniques of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Feng, Hu-Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important component of natural ecosystem, being able to form symbiont with plant roots. The traditional AMF classification is mainly based on the morphological identification of soil asexual spores, which has some limitations in the taxonomy of AMF. Advanced molecular techniques make the classification of AMF more accurate and scientific, and can improve the taxonomy of AMF established on the basis of morphological identification. The community research of AMF is mainly based on species classification, and has two kinds of investigation methods, i. e., spores morphological identification and molecular analysis. This paper reviewed the research progress in the systematic classification and community research techniques of AMF, with the focus on the molecular techniques in community analysis of AMF. It was considered that using morphological and molecular methods together would redound to the accurate investigation of AMF community, and also, facilitate the improvement of AMF taxonomy. PMID:20873637

  1. Airstream Fractionation of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Concentration and Enumeration of Propagules

    PubMed Central

    Tommerup, Inez C.

    1982-01-01

    Spores and fragments of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in dry soils were concentrated up to 100-fold when the soils were partitioned by fluidization and elutriation with a series of upward airstreams at progressively increasing velocities. The propagules were transported with the finer soil particles according to their equivalent spherical diameters. The system was used to predict the transport of propagules by wind. Concentrated propagules were rapidly separated from the soil particles in each soil fraction by an aqueous flotation method. The technique is proposed as a quantitative method for estimating the numbers of spores and fragments of mycorrhizae. The scheme includes a viability test that was used to differentiate between potentially infective propagules and those that were either dormant or incapable of regrowth. PMID:16346086

  2. Options of partners improve carbon for phosphorus trade in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Alicia; O'Brien, Michael J; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Wiemken, Andres; Schmid, Bernhard; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-06-01

    The mutualism between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is widespread and has persisted for over 400 million years. Although this mutualism depends on fair resource exchange between plants and fungi, inequality exists among partners despite mechanisms that regulate trade. Here, we use (33) P and (14) C isotopes and a split-root system to test for preferential allocation and reciprocal rewards in the plant-AMF symbiosis by presenting a plant with two AMF that differ in cooperativeness. We found that plants received more (33) P from less cooperative AMF in the presence of another AMF species. This increase in (33) P resulted in a reduced (14) C cost per unit of (33) P from less cooperative AMF when alternative options were available. Our results indicate that AMF diversity promotes cooperation between plants and AMF, which may be an important mechanism maintaining the evolutionary persistence of and diversity within the plant-AMF mutualism. PMID:27074533

  3. Detection and characterization of mycoviruses in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by deep-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Ikeda, Yoji; Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) often have a significant impact not only on phenotypic expression of the host fungus but also on higher order biological interactions, e.g., conferring plant stress tolerance via an endophytic host fungus. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota associate with most land plants and supply mineral nutrients to the host plants. So far, little information about mycoviruses has been obtained in the fungi due to their obligate biotrophic nature. Here we provide a technical breakthrough, "two-step strategy" in combination with deep-sequencing, for virological study in AM fungi; dsRNA is first extracted and sequenced using material obtained from highly productive open pot culture, and then the presence of viruses is verified using pure material produced in the in vitro monoxenic culture. This approach enabled us to demonstrate the presence of several viruses for the first time from a glomeromycotan fungus. PMID:25287503

  4. Organic nitrogen uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Matthew D.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of organic nitrogen in soil is a potential rate-limiting step in nitrogen cycling. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that might improve the ability of plants to compete for organic nitrogen products against other decomposer microbes. However, AM uptake of organic nitrogen, especially in natural systems, has traditionally been difficult to test. We developed a novel quantitative nanotechnological technique to determine in situ that organic nitrogen uptake by AM fungi can occur to a greater extent than has previously been assumed. Specifically, we found that AM fungi acquired recalcitrant and labile forms of organic nitrogen. Moreover, N enrichment of soil reduced plot-scale uptake of these compounds. Since most plants host AM fungi, AM use of organic nitrogen could widely influence plant productivity, especially where N availability is relatively low. PMID:24371363

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal wheat inoculation promotes alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation: Microcosm experiment on aged-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ingrid, Lenoir; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Frédéric, Laruelle; Yolande, Dalpé; Joël, Fontaine

    2016-06-01

    Very few studies reported the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to dissipate hydrocarbons in aged polluted soils. The present work aims to study the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonized wheat plants in the dissipation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our results demonstrated that the inoculation of wheat with Rhizophagus irregularis allowed a better dissipation of PAHs and alkanes after 16 weeks of culture by comparison to non-inoculated condition. These dissipations observed in the inoculated soil resulted from several processes: (i) a light adsorption on roots (0.5% for PAHs), (ii) a bioaccumulation in roots (5.7% for PAHs and 6.6% for alkanes), (iii) a transfer in shoots (0.4 for PAHs and 0.5% for alkanes) and mainly a biodegradation. Whereas PAHs and alkanes degradation rates were respectively estimated to 12 and 47% with non-inoculated wheat, their degradation rates reached 18 and 48% with inoculated wheat. The mycorrhizal inoculation induced an increase of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by 56 and 37% compared to the non-inoculated wheat. Moreover, an increase of peroxidase activity was assessed in mycorrhizal roots. Taken together, our findings suggested that mycorrhization led to a better hydrocarbon biodegradation in the aged-contaminated soil thanks to a stimulation of telluric bacteria and hydrocarbon metabolization in mycorrhizal roots. PMID:26995451

  6. Complementarity in nutrient foraging strategies of absorptive fine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across 14 coexisting subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Biao; Koide, Roger T; Eissenstat, David M; Guo, Dali

    2015-10-01

    In most cases, both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are needed for plant nutrient foraging. Frequently, the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi seems to be greater in species with thick and sparsely branched roots than in species with thin and densely branched roots. Yet, whether a complementarity exists between roots and mycorrhizal fungi across these two types of root system remains unclear. We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology, architecture and proliferation, AM colonization and extramatrical hyphal length) across 14 coexisting AM subtropical tree species following root pruning and nutrient addition treatments. After root pruning, species with thinner roots showed more root growth, but lower mycorrhizal colonization, than species with thicker roots. Under multi-nutrient (NPK) addition, root growth increased, but mycorrhizal colonization decreased significantly, whereas no significant changes were found under nitrogen or phosphate additions. Moreover, root length proliferation was mainly achieved by altering root architecture, but not root morphology. Thin-root species seem to forage nutrients mainly via roots, whereas thick-root species rely more on mycorrhizal fungi. In addition, the reliance on mycorrhizal fungi was reduced by nutrient additions across all species. These findings highlight complementary strategies for nutrient foraging across coexisting species with contrasting root traits. PMID:25925733

  7. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71. PMID:21887636

  8. Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    PubMed

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François

    2006-05-01

    Two new ectocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri (Glomeromycota), found in maritime sand dunes of northern Poland and those adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea are described and illustrated. Mature spores of G. drummondii are pastel yellow to maize yellow, globose to subglobose, (58-)71(-85) micromdiam, or ovoid, 50-80x63-98 microm. Their wall consists of three layers: an evanescent, hyaline, short-lived outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, pastel yellow to maize yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. Spores of G. walkeri are white to pale yellow, globose to subglobose, (55-)81(-95) micromdiam, or ovoid, 60-90x75-115 microm, and have a spore wall composed of three layers: a semi-permanent, hyaline outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, white to pale yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. In Melzer's reagent, only the inner- and outermost layers stain reddish white to greyish rose in G. drummondii and G. walkeri, respectively. Both species form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and parts of the LSU of the nrDNA of spores placed both species in Glomus Group B sensu Schüssler et al. [Schüssler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C, 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycolological Research 105: 1413-1421.]. PMID:16769509

  9. Insights on the Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Tomato Tolerance to Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Chitarra, Walter; Pagliarani, Chiara; Maserti, Biancaelena; Lumini, Erica; Siciliano, Ilenia; Cascone, Pasquale; Schubert, Andrea; Gambino, Giorgio; Balestrini, Raffaella; Guerrieri, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which form symbioses with the roots of the most important crop species, are usually considered biofertilizers, whose exploitation could represent a promising avenue for the development in the future of a more sustainable next-generation agriculture. The best understood function in symbiosis is an improvement in plant mineral nutrient acquisition, as exchange for carbon compounds derived from the photosynthetic process: this can enhance host growth and tolerance to environmental stresses, such as water stress (WS). However, physiological and molecular mechanisms occurring in arbuscular mycorrhiza-colonized plants and directly involved in the mitigation of WS effects need to be further investigated. The main goal of this work is to verify the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the plant response to WS To this aim, the effect of two AM fungi (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under the WS condition was studied. A combined approach, involving ecophysiological, morphometric, biochemical, and molecular analyses, has been used to highlight the mechanisms involved in plant response to WS during AM symbiosis. Gene expression analyses focused on a set of target genes putatively involved in the plant response to drought, and in parallel, we considered the expression changes induced by the imposed stress on a group of fungal genes playing a key role in the water-transport process. Taken together, the results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to WS in tomato, with a different plant response depending on the AM fungi species involved. PMID:27208301

  10. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    PubMed Central

    León-Martínez, Dionicia Gloria; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Olalde-Portugal, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction. PMID:24031884

  11. Insights on the Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Tomato Tolerance to Water Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which form symbioses with the roots of the most important crop species, are usually considered biofertilizers, whose exploitation could represent a promising avenue for the development in the future of a more sustainable next-generation agriculture. The best understood function in symbiosis is an improvement in plant mineral nutrient acquisition, as exchange for carbon compounds derived from the photosynthetic process: this can enhance host growth and tolerance to environmental stresses, such as water stress (WS). However, physiological and molecular mechanisms occurring in arbuscular mycorrhiza-colonized plants and directly involved in the mitigation of WS effects need to be further investigated. The main goal of this work is to verify the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the plant response to WS. To this aim, the effect of two AM fungi (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under the WS condition was studied. A combined approach, involving ecophysiological, morphometric, biochemical, and molecular analyses, has been used to highlight the mechanisms involved in plant response to WS during AM symbiosis. Gene expression analyses focused on a set of target genes putatively involved in the plant response to drought, and in parallel, we considered the expression changes induced by the imposed stress on a group of fungal genes playing a key role in the water-transport process. Taken together, the results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to WS in tomato, with a different plant response depending on the AM fungi species involved. PMID:27208301

  12. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem. PMID:27305777

  13. Lipid droplets of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi emerge in concert with arbuscule collapse.

    PubMed

    Kobae, Yoshihiro; Gutjahr, Caroline; Paszkowski, Uta; Kojima, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Toru; Hata, Shingo

    2014-11-01

    Plants share photosynthetically fixed carbon with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to maintain their growth and nutrition. AM fungi are oleogenic fungi that contain numerous lipid droplets in their syncytial mycelia during most of their life cycle. These lipid droplets are probably used for supporting growth of extraradical mycelia and propagation; however, when and where the lipid droplets are produced remains unclear. To address these issues, we investigated the correlation between intracellular colonization stages and the appearance of fungal lipid droplets in roots by a combination of vital staining of fungal structures, selective staining of lipids and live imaging. We discovered that a surge of lipid droplets coincided with the collapse of arbuscular branches, indicating that arbuscule collapse and the emergence of lipid droplets may be associated processes. This phenomenon was observed in the model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and the ancestral member of AM fungi Paraglomus occultum. Because the collapsing arbuscules were metabolically inactive, the emerged lipid droplets are probably derived from preformed lipids but not de novo synthesized. Our observations highlight a novel mode of lipid release by AM fungi. PMID:25231957

  14. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    León-Martínez, Dionicia Gloria; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Olalde-Portugal, Víctor

    2012-04-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction. PMID:24031884

  15. Cooperation through Competition—Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the “cooperation” between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time. PMID:27446142

  16. Cooperation through Competition-Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the "cooperation" between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time. PMID:27446142

  17. Molecular evolution patterns reveal life history features of mycoplasma-related endobacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Toomer, Kevin H; Chen, Xiuhua; Naito, Mizue; Mondo, Stephen J; den Bakker, Henk C; VanKuren, Nicholas W; Lekberg, Ylva; Morton, Joseph B; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2015-07-01

    The mycoplasma-related endobacteria (MRE), representing a recently discovered lineage of Mollicutes, are widely distributed across arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota). AMF colonize roots of most terrestrial plants and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake in return for plant-assimilated carbon. The role of MRE in the biology of their fungal hosts is unknown. To start characterizing this association, we assessed partitioning of MRE genetic diversity within AMF individuals and across the AMF phylogeographic range. We further used molecular evolution patterns to make inferences about MRE codivergence with AMF, their lifestyle and antiquity of the Glomeromycota-MRE association. While we did not detect differentiation between MRE derived from different continents, high levels of diversity were apparent in MRE populations within AMF host individuals. MRE exhibited significant codiversification with AMF over ecological time and the absence of codivergence over evolutionary time. Moreover, genetic recombination was evident in MRE. These patterns indicate that, while MRE transmission is predominantly vertical, their complex intrahost populations are likely generated by horizontal transmission and recombination. Based on predictions of evolutionary theory, we interpreted these observations as a suggestion that MRE may be antagonists of AMF. Finally, we detected a marginally significant signature of codivergence of MRE with Glomeromycota and the Endogone lineage of Mucoromycotina, implying that the symbiosis between MRE and fungi may predate the divergence between these two groups of fungi. PMID:26011293

  18. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice with different radial oxygen loss?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Man, Y B; Ye, Z H; Wu, C; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-11-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the temporal variation of arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in two paddy rice cultivars (TD 71 and Xiushui 11) with different degrees of radial oxygen loss (ROL) at three growth periods (day 7, day 35, day 63 after flooding the soil) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 30 mg As kg(-1). The results showed that TD 71 with high ROL colonized by Glomus intraradices led to higher root colonization rates than Xiushui 11 at three growth periods, both in soil with or without 30 mg As kg(-1) (p<0.05). Mycorrhizal inoculation led to elevated (p<0.05) root ratios of arsenite (As(III)) conc./arsenate (As(V)) conc. (concentration) in TD 71 with high ROL at three growth periods in As contaminated flooding soils. Furthermore, the ratios of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in roots of TD71 were significantly more than Xiushui 11 when colonized by AMF at three growth periods in 30 mg As kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). Therefore, rice with high ROL can favor AM fungal infection and enhance root ratio of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in the presence of AMF. PMID:22673057

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa. PMID:24706008

  20. Phosphorus cycling in deciduous forest soil differs between stands dominated by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal trees.

    PubMed

    Rosling, Anna; Midgley, Meghan G; Cheeke, Tanya; Urbina, Hector; Fransson, Petra; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Although much is known about how trees and their associated microbes influence nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils, less is known about biotic controls over phosphorus (P) cycling. Given that mycorrhizal fungi are instrumental for P acquisition and that the two dominant associations - arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi - possess different strategies for acquiring P, we hypothesized that P cycling would differ in stands dominated by trees associated with AM vs ECM fungi. We quantified soil solution P, microbial biomass P, and sequentially extracted inorganic and organic P pools from May to November in plots dominated by trees forming either AM or ECM associations in south-central Indiana, USA. Overall, fungal communities in AM and ECM plots were functionally different and soils exhibited fundamental differences in P cycling. Organic forms of P were more available in ECM plots than in AM plots. Yet inorganic P decreased and organic P accumulated over the growing season in both ECM and AM plots, resulting in increasingly P-limited microbial biomass. Collectively, our results suggest that P cycling in hardwood forests is strongly influenced by biotic processes in soil and that these are driven by plant-associated fungal communities. PMID:26510093

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: Vertical distribution at different soil depth

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Alejandra; Bartoloni, Norberto; Cofré, Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Cabello, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata) at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0–50%). Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0–10 cm) and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina), others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica). Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina. PMID:25242945

  2. Dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion and soil as influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Shi, Zhao Yong; Tong, Rui Jian; Xu, Xiao Feng

    2011-01-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides in crops and soil pose a serious threat to public health and environment. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may make a contribution to organophosphate degradation in soil and consequently decrease chemical residues in crops. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of Glomus caledonium 90036 and Acaulospora mellea ZZ on the dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) and soil at different harvest dates after phoxim application. Results show that mycorrhizal colonization rates of inoculated plants were higher than 70%. Shoot and root fresh weights did not vary with harvest dates but increased significantly in AM treatments. Phoxim residues in plants and soil decreased gradually with harvest dates, and markedly reduced in AM treatments. Kinetic analysis indicated that phoxim degradation in soil followed a first-order kinetic model. AM inoculation accelerated the degradation process and reduced the half-life. G. caledonium 90036 generally produced more pronounced effects than A. mellea ZZ on both the plant growth and phoxim residues in plants and soil. Our results indicate a promising potential of AM fungi for the control of organophosphate residues in vegetables, as well as for the phytoremediation of organophosphorus pesticide-contaminated soil. PMID:20870354

  3. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and their potential for stimulating plant growth.

    PubMed

    Artursson, Veronica; Finlay, Roger D; Jansson, Janet K

    2006-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and bacteria can interact synergistically to stimulate plant growth through a range of mechanisms that include improved nutrient acquisition and inhibition of fungal plant pathogens. These interactions may be of crucial importance within sustainable, low-input agricultural cropping systems that rely on biological processes rather than agrochemicals to maintain soil fertility and plant health. Although there are many studies concerning interactions between AM fungi and bacteria, the underlying mechanisms behind these associations are in general not very well understood, and their functional properties still require further experimental confirmation. Future mycorrhizal research should therefore strive towards an improved understanding of the functional mechanisms behind such microbial interactions, so that optimized combinations of microorganisms can be applied as effective inoculants within sustainable crop production systems. In this context, the present article seeks to review and discuss the current knowledge concerning interactions between AM fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, the physical interactions between AM fungi and bacteria, enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen bioavailability through such interactions, and finally the associations between AM fungi and their bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, this review summarizes what is known to date within the present field, and attempts to identify promising lines of future research. PMID:16343316

  4. Seasonal Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Roots in a Seminatural Grassland▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Santos-González, Juan C.; Finlay, Roger D.; Tehler, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence both the diversity and productivity of grassland plant communities. These effects have been postulated to depend on the differential effects of individual mycorrhizal taxa on different plant species; however, so far there are few detailed studies of the dynamics of AMF colonization of different plant species. In this study, we characterized the communities of AMF colonizing the roots of two plant species, Prunella vulgaris and Antennaria dioica, in a Swedish seminatural grassland at different times of the year. The AMF small subunit rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Nineteen discrete sequence types belonging to Glomus groups A and B and to the genus Acaulospora were distinguished. No significant seasonal changes in the species compositions of the AMF communities as a whole were observed. However, the two plant species hosted significantly different AMF communities. P. vulgaris hosted a rich AMF community throughout the entire growing season. The presence of AMF in A. dioica decreased dramatically in autumn, while an increased presence of Ascomycetes species was detected. PMID:17630308

  5. The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by phosphate in pea involves early and systemic signalling events

    PubMed Central

    Balzergue, Coline; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic F.

    2011-01-01

    Most plants form root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which provide them with phosphate and other nutrients. High soil phosphate levels are known to affect AM symbiosis negatively, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. This report describes experimental conditions which triggered a novel mycorrhizal phenotype under high phosphate supply: the interaction between pea and two different AM fungi was almost completely abolished at a very early stage, prior to the formation of hyphopodia. As demonstrated by split-root experiments, down-regulation of AM symbiosis occurred at least partly in response to plant-derived signals. Early signalling events were examined with a focus on strigolactones, compounds which stimulate pre-symbiotic fungal growth and metabolism. Strigolactones were also recently identified as novel plant hormones contributing to the control of shoot branching. Root exudates of plants grown under high phosphate lost their ability to stimulate AM fungi and lacked strigolactones. In addition, a systemic down-regulation of strigolactone release by high phosphate supply was demonstrated using split-root systems. Nevertheless, supplementation with exogenous strigolactones failed to restore root colonization under high phosphate. This observation does not exclude a contribution of strigolactones to the regulation of AM symbiosis by phosphate, but indicates that they are not the only factor involved. Together, the results suggest the existence of additional early signals that may control the differentiation of hyphopodia. PMID:21045005

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal distribution in relation to microsites on recent volcanic substrates of Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Titus, Jonathan H; Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    2002-12-01

    Mycorrhizae occur in most terrestrial ecosystems and are crucial to understanding community structure and function. However, their role in primary succession is poorly understood. This study examined the mycorrhizal colonization of six plant species in relation to microsite types on recent volcanic substrates on the summit of Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. The six microsites were flat, rill, near rock, Carextussock, Polygonum patch and Salix patch. Carex oxyandra was nonmycorrhizal and Agrostis scabra and Campanula lasiocarpa were arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) at all microsites examined. Agrostis AM colonization levels did not differ across microsites. Near rock Campanula roots contained significantly more hyphae than at flat and Polygonum patch microsites, and rill and Carex tussock Campanula more arbuscules than at Polygonum patches. Penstemon frutescens was found to be facultatively mycotrophic with AM colonization occurring in roots of Penstemon growing in Carex tussocks, Polygonum patches and near rocks. Polygonum weyrichii was found to be ectomycorrhizal. Polygonum located in rills and in Polygonum and Salix patches were more colonized than Polygonum in Carex patches. Salix reinii was heavily ectomycorrhizal. PMID:12466913

  7. [Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa-Yuan; Chen, Xin; Sun, Xian-Ming; Shi, Zhao-Yong

    2010-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L). Four levels of phoxim (0, 200, 400, 800 mg x L(-1)) and two AM fungal inocula, Glomus intraradices BEG 141(141), Glomus mosseae BEG 167 (167),and one nonmycorrhizal inoculum (CK), were applied to the sterilized soil. The plants were harvested after 5 months of growth and phoxim was irrigated into the root zone 14 d before plant harvest. Although decreasing with the increase of phoxim dosage, root infection rates of all the mycorrhizal plants were higher than 70%. Phoxim showed no significant dose effect on shoot wet weights and root yields, which were all increased by AM inoculation at four phoxim dosages. Phoxim residues in shoots and roots increased with the increase of phoxim dosage, but decreased by AM inoculation. In general, Glomus intraradices BEG 141 showed more pronounced effects on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot than Glomus mosseae BEG 167 did. Our results show a promising potential of AM fungi in carrot production and controlling pesticide residues. PMID:21360902

  8. Different farming and water regimes in Italian rice fields affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil communities.

    PubMed

    Lumini, Erica; Vallino, Marta; Alguacil, Maria M; Romani, Marco; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) comprise one of the main components of soil microbiota in most agroecosystems. These obligate mutualistic symbionts colonize the roots of most plants, including crop plants. Many papers have indicated that different crop management practices could affect AMF communities and their root colonization. However, there is little knowledge available on the influence of conventional and low-input agriculture on root colonization and AMF molecular diversity in rice fields. Two different agroecosystems (continuous conventional high-input rice monocropping and organic farming with a five-year crop rotation) and two different water management regimes have been considered in this study. Both morphological and molecular analyses were performed. The soil mycorrhizal potential, estimated using clover trap cultures, was high and similar in the two agroecosystems. The diversity of the AMF community in the soil, calculated by means of PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 18S rDNA sequencing on clover trap cultures roots, was higher for the organic cultivation. The rice roots cultivated in the conventional agrosystem or under permanent flooding showed no AMF colonization, while the rice plants grown under the organic agriculture system showed typical mycorrhization patterns. Considered together, our data suggest that a high-input cropping system and conventional flooding depress AMF colonization in rice roots and that organic managements could help maintain a higher diversity of AMF communities in soil. PMID:21830711

  9. Caesium inhibits the colonization of Medicago truncatula by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Wiesel, Lea; Dubchak, Sergiy; Turnau, Katarzyna; Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Contamination of soils with radioisotopes of caesium (Cs) is of concern because of their emissions of harmful β and γ radiation. Radiocaesium enters the food chain through vegetation and the intake of Cs can affect the health of organisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic symbioses with plants through colonization of the roots and previous studies on the influence of AM on Cs concentrations in plants have given inconsistent results. These studies did not investigate the influence of Cs on AM fungi and it is therefore not known if Cs has a direct effect on AM colonization. Here, we investigated whether Cs influences AM colonization and if this effect impacts on the influence of Rhizophagus intraradices on Cs accumulation by Medicago truncatula. M. truncatula was grown with or without R. intraradices in pots containing different concentrations of Cs. Here, we present the first evidence that colonization of plants by AM fungi can be negatively affected by increasing Cs concentrations in the soil. Mycorrhizal colonization had little effect on root or shoot Cs concentrations. In conclusion, the colonization by AM fungi is impaired by high Cs concentrations and this direct effect of soil Cs on AM colonization might explain the inconsistent results reported in literature that have shown increased, decreased or unaffected Cs concentrations in AM plants. PMID:25540940

  10. Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve the drought tolerance of Cupressus atlantica G.

    PubMed

    Zarik, Lamia; Meddich, Abdelilah; Hijri, Mohamed; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Ouahmane, Lahcen; Duponnois, Robin; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could improve the tolerance of Cupressus atlantica against water deficit. We tested a gradient of watering regime spanning from 90% to 25% of soil retention capacity of water on mycorhized and non-mycorhized seedlings in pot cultures with sterilized and non-sterilized soils. Our result showed a positive impact of AM fungi on shoot height, stem diameter and biomass as well as on the growth rate. We also observed that inoculation with AM fungi significantly improved uptake of minerals by C. atlantica in both sterilized and non-sterilized soils independently of water regimes. We found that mycorhized plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC) and water potential compared with non-mycorhized plants that were subjected to drought-stress regimes (50% and 25% of soil retention capacity). The contents of proline and of soluble sugars showed that their concentrations decreased in non-mycorhized plants subjected to DS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities also decreased in non-mycorhized plants submitted to DS compared to mycorhized plants. The same pattern was observed by measuring peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity. The results demonstrated that AM fungal inoculation promoted the growth and tolerance of C. atlantica against DS in pot cultures. Therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation could be a potential solution for the conservation and reestablishment of C. atlantica in its natural ecosystem. PMID:27180108

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale. PMID:24287607

  12. Impact of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the development of native species

    PubMed Central

    Guisande-Collazo, Alejandra; González, Luís; Souza-Alonso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate soil biotrophs that establish intimate relationships with 80 % of terrestrial plant families. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi obtain carbon from host plants and contribute to the acquisition of mineral nutrients, mainly phosphorus. The presence of invasive plants has been identified as a soil disturbance factor, often conditioning the structure and function of soil microorganisms. Despite the investigation of many aspects related to the invasion of Acacia dealbata, the effect produced on the structure of AMF communities has never been assessed. We hypothesize that A. dealbata modifies the structure of AMF community, influencing the establishment and growth of plants that are dependent on these mutualisms. To validate our hypothesis, we carried out denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and also grew plants of Plantago lanceolata in pots using roots of native shrublands or from A. dealbata, as inoculum of AMF. Cluster analyses from DGGE indicated an alteration in the structure of AMF communities in invaded soils. After 15 weeks, we found that plants grown in pots containing native roots presented higher stem and root growth and also produced higher biomass in comparison with plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum. Furthermore, plants that presented the highest biomass and growth exhibited the maximum mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus content. Moreover, fluorescence measurements indicated that plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum even presented higher photosynthetic damage. Our results indicate that the presence of the invader A. dealbata modify the composition of the arbuscular fungal community, conditioning the establishment of native plants. PMID:26984185

  13. Impact of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the development of native species.

    PubMed

    Guisande-Collazo, Alejandra; González, Luís; Souza-Alonso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate soil biotrophs that establish intimate relationships with 80 % of terrestrial plant families. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi obtain carbon from host plants and contribute to the acquisition of mineral nutrients, mainly phosphorus. The presence of invasive plants has been identified as a soil disturbance factor, often conditioning the structure and function of soil microorganisms. Despite the investigation of many aspects related to the invasion ofAcacia dealbata, the effect produced on the structure of AMF communities has never been assessed. We hypothesize thatA. dealbatamodifies the structure of AMF community, influencing the establishment and growth of plants that are dependent on these mutualisms. To validate our hypothesis, we carried out denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and also grew plants ofPlantago lanceolatain pots using roots of native shrublands or fromA. dealbata, as inoculum of AMF. Cluster analyses from DGGE indicated an alteration in the structure of AMF communities in invaded soils. After 15 weeks, we found that plants grown in pots containing native roots presented higher stem and root growth and also produced higher biomass in comparison with plants grown withA. dealbatainoculum. Furthermore, plants that presented the highest biomass and growth exhibited the maximum mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus content. Moreover, fluorescence measurements indicated that plants grown withA. dealbatainoculum even presented higher photosynthetic damage. Our results indicate that the presence of the invaderA. dealbatamodify the composition of the arbuscular fungal community, conditioning the establishment of native plants. PMID:26984185

  14. [Effect of Ryegrass and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on Cd Absorption by Varieties of Tomatoes and Cadmium Forms in Soil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-qin; Jiang, Ling; Xu, Wei-hong; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu-gen; Xie, Wen-wen; Xiong, Shi- juan; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2015-12-01

    Field trial was carried out to investigate the effects of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal single or compound treatment to two varieties of tomato ("Defu mm-8" and "Luobeiqi") on the plant growth, concentrations and accumulations of Cd as well as the impact on microorganisms, enzyme activities, pH and Cd forms in soil when exposed to Cd (5.943 mg · kg⁻¹). The results showed that dry weights of fruit, root, stem, leaf and plant significantly increased by single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal by 14.1%-38.4% and 4.2%-18.3%, 20.9%-31.5% and 8.4%-10.3%, 13.0%-16.8% and 3.0%-9.5%, 10.7%- 16.8% and 2.7%-7.6%, 14.3%-36.6% and 4.5%-16.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes of soil and the activities of urease, invertase, acid phosphatase, catalase in soil were increased by single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal, and the soil microorganism amounts and enzyme activities significantly differed between the two varieties of tomato and treatments (P < 0.05). Soil pH was increased by single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal, while the concentrations of EXC-Cd, CAB-Cd, Fe-Mn-Cd and total Cd in soil were decreased, and the total Cd content was decreased by 16.9%-27.8%. Cadmium concentrations in fruit, leaf, stem and root of both varieties were significantly decreased by 6.9%-40.9%, 5.7%-40.1%, 4.6%-34.7% and 9.8%-42.4%, respectively. Cadmium accumulations in tomato were in order of leaf > stem > root > fruit. Comparing the two tomato varieties, Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in fruit and plant were in order of "Luobeiqi" < "Defu mm-8" in the presence or absence of single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal. PMID:27012004

  15. Different levels of hyphal self-incompatibility modulate interconnectedness of mycorrhizal networks in three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the Glomeraceae.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana

    2016-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most plant species and produce underground extraradical hyphal networks functional in the uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients from the soil to host plants. This work investigated whether fungal genotype can affect patterns of interconnections and structural traits of extraradical mycelium (ERM), by comparing three Glomeraceae species growing in symbiosis with five plant hosts. An isolate of Funneliformis coronatus consistently showed low ability to form interconnected ERM and self-incompatibility that represented up to 21 % of hyphal contacts. The frequency of post-fusion self-incompatible interactions, never detected before in AMF extraradical networks, was 8.9 %. In F. coronatus ERM, the percentage of hyphal contacts leading to perfect hyphal fusions was 1.2-7.7, while it ranged from 25.8-48 to 35.6-53.6 in Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, respectively. Low interconnectedness of F. coronatus ERM resulted also from a very high number of non-interacting contacts (83.2 %). Such findings show that AMF genotypes in Glomeraceae can differ significantly in anastomosis behaviour and that ERM interconnectedness is modulated by the fungal symbiont, as F. coronatus consistently formed poorly interconnected networks when growing in symbiosis with five different host plants and in the asymbiotic stage. Structural traits, such as extent, density and hyphal self-compatibility/incompatibility, may represent key factors for the differential performance of AMF, by affecting fungal absorbing surface and foraging ability and thus nutrient flow from soil to host roots. PMID:26630971

  16. Revealing Natural Relationships among Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Culture Line BEG47 Represents Diversispora epigaea, Not Glomus versiforme

    PubMed Central

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Manuela; Walker, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms underlying biological phenomena, such as evolutionarily conservative trait inheritance, is predicated on knowledge of the natural relationships among organisms. However, despite their enormous ecological significance, many of the ubiquitous soil inhabiting and plant symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, phylum Glomeromycota) are incorrectly classified. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we focused on a frequently used model AMF registered as culture BEG47. This fungus is a descendent of the ex-type culture-lineage of Glomus epigaeum, which in 1983 was synonymised with Glomus versiforme. It has since then been used as ‘G. versiforme BEG47’. We show by morphological comparisons, based on type material, collected 1860–61, of G. versiforme and on type material and living ex-type cultures of G. epigaeum, that these two AMF species cannot be conspecific, and by molecular phylogenetics that BEG47 is a member of the genus Diversispora. Conclusions This study highlights that experimental works published during the last >25 years on an AMF named ‘G. versiforme’ or ‘BEG47’ refer to D. epigaea, a species that is actually evolutionarily separated by hundreds of millions of years from all members of the genera in the Glomerales and thus from most other commonly used AMF ‘laboratory strains’. Detailed redescriptions substantiate the renaming of G. epigaeum (BEG47) as D. epigaea, positioning it systematically in the order Diversisporales, thus enabling an evolutionary understanding of genetical, physiological, and ecological traits, relative to those of other AMF. Diversispora epigaea is widely cultured as a laboratory strain of AMF, whereas G. versiforme appears not to have been cultured nor found in the field since its original description. PMID:21853113

  17. Glomus africanum and G. iranicum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    PubMed

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Kovács, Gábor M; Balázs, Tímea K; Orlowska, Elzbieta; Sadravi, Mehdi; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François

    2010-01-01

    Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomeromycota) of genus Glomus, G. africanum and G. iranicum, are described and illustrated. Both species formed spores in loose clusters and singly in soil and G. iranicum sometimes inside roots. G. africanum spores are pale yellow to brownish yellow, globose to subglobose, (60-)87(-125) μm diam, sometimes ovoid to irregular, 80-110 x 90-140 μm. The spore wall consists of a semipermanent, hyaline, outer layer and a laminate, smooth, pale yellow to brownish yellow, inner layer, which always is markedly thinner than the outer layer. G. iranicum spores are hyaline to pastel yellow, globose to subglobose, (13-)40(-56) μm diam, rarely egg-shaped, prolate to irregular, 39-54 x 48-65 μm. The spore wall consists of three smooth layers: one mucilaginous, short-lived, hyaline, outermost; one permanent, semirigid, hyaline, middle; and one laminate, hyaline to pastel yellow, innermost. Only the outermost spore wall layer of G. iranicum stains red in Melzer's reagent. In the field G. africanum was associated with roots of five plant species and an unrecognized shrub colonizing maritime sand dunes of two countries in Europe and two in Africa, and G. iranicum was associated with Triticum aestivum cultivated in southwestern Iran. In one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant G. africanum and G. iranicum formed arbuscular mycorrhizae. Phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU sequences of nrDNA placed the two new species in Glomus group A. Both species were distinctly separated from sequences of described Glomus species. PMID:20943558

  18. Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    PubMed

    Blaszkowski, Janusz; Chwat, Gerard; Kovács, Gábor M; Gáspár, Bence K; Ryszka, Przemyslaw; Orlowska, Elzbieta; Pagano, Marcela C; Araújo, Francisca S; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François

    2013-01-01

    Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, (Glomeromycota) Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, are described and illustrated. Spores of S. fuscum usually occur in loose hypogeous clusters, rarely singly in soil or inside roots, and S. furcatum forms only single spores in soil. Spores of S. fuscum are brownish orange to dark brown, globose to subglobose, (20-)47(-90) μm diam, rarely ovoid, 21-50 × 23-60 μm. Their spore wall consists of a semi-persistent, semi-flexible, orange white to golden yellow, rarely hyaline, outer layer, easily separating from a laminate, smooth, brownish orange to dark brown inner layer. Spores of S. furcatum are reddish brown to dark brown, globose to subglobose, (106-) 138(-167) μm diam, rarely ovoid, 108-127 × 135-160 μm, usually with one subtending hypha that is frequently branched below the spore base, or occasionally with two subtending hyphae located close together. Spore walls consists of a semipermanent, hyaline to light orange outermost layer, a semipermanent, hyaline to golden yellow middle layer, and a laminate, smooth, reddish brown to dark brown innermost layer. None of the spore-wall layers of S. fuscum and S. furcatum stain in Melzer's reagent. In the field, S. fuscum was associated with roots of Arctotheca populifolia colonizing maritime dunes located near Strand in South Africa and S. furcatum was associated with Cordia oncocalyx growing in a dry forest in the Ceará State, Brazil. In single-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as host plant, S. fuscum and S. furcatum formed arbuscular mycorrhizae. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU, ITS and LSU nrDNA sequences placed the two new species in genus Septoglomus and both new taxa were separated from described Septoglomus species. PMID:23233507

  19. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  20. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  1. Transcriptome diversity among rice root types during asymbiosis and interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.; Marti, Guillaume; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Yang, Shu-Yi; Casieri, Leonardo; Angliker, Herbert; Oakeley, Edward J.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Paszkowski, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Root systems consist of different root types (RTs) with distinct developmental and functional characteristics. RTs may be individually reprogrammed in response to their microenvironment to maximize adaptive plasticity. Molecular understanding of such specific remodeling—although crucial for crop improvement—is limited. Here, RT-specific transcriptomes of adult rice crown, large and fine lateral roots were assessed, revealing molecular evidence for functional diversity among individual RTs. Of the three rice RTs, crown roots displayed a significant enrichment of transcripts associated with phytohormones and secondary cell wall (SCW) metabolism, whereas lateral RTs showed a greater accumulation of transcripts related to mineral transport. In nature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis represents the default state of most root systems and is known to modify root system architecture. Rice RTs become heterogeneously colonized by AM fungi, with large laterals preferentially entering into the association. However, RT-specific transcriptional responses to AM symbiosis were quantitatively most pronounced for crown roots despite their modest physical engagement in the interaction. Furthermore, colonized crown roots adopted an expression profile more related to mycorrhizal large lateral than to noncolonized crown roots, suggesting a fundamental reprogramming of crown root character. Among these changes, a significant reduction in SCW transcripts was observed that was correlated with an alteration of SCW composition as determined by mass spectrometry. The combined change in SCW, hormone- and transport-related transcript profiles across the RTs indicates a previously overlooked switch of functional relationships among RTs during AM symbiosis, with a potential impact on root system architecture and functioning. PMID:25947154

  2. Red list plants: colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, B; Haselwandter, K

    2004-08-01

    Since information concerning the mycorrhization of endangered plants is of major importance for their potential re-establishment, we determined the mycorrhizal status of Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae), Betonica officinalis (Lamiaceae), Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae) and Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae), occurring at one of two wetland sites (fen meadow and peat bog), which differed in soil pH and available P levels. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was quantified. Colonization by AMF appeared to be more frequent in the fen meadow than in the peat bog, and depended on the host plant. Roots of S. tinctoria and B. officinalis were well colonized by AMF in the fen meadow (35-55% root length) and both arbuscules and vesicles were observed to occur in spring as well as in autumn. In the peat bog, L. inundata showed a low level of root colonization in spring, when vesicles were found frequently but no arbuscules. In roots of D. intermedia from the peat bog, arbuscules and vesicles were observed, but AMF colonization was lower than in L. inundata. In contrast, the amount of AMF spores extracted from soil at the peat bog site was higher than from the fen meadow soil. Spore numbers did not differ between spring and autumn in the fen meadow, but they were higher in spring than in autumn in the peat bog. Acaulospora laevis or A. colossica and Glomus etunicatum were identified amongst the AMF spores extracted from soil at the two sites. S. tinctoria and B. officinalis roots were also regularly colonized by DSE (18-40% root length), while L. inundata was only rarely colonized and D. intermedia did not seem to be colonized by DSE at all. PMID:15221579

  3. Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Turnau, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-02-01

    Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature. PMID:19011910

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  5. Transcriptome diversity among rice root types during asymbiosis and interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Marti, Guillaume; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Yang, Shu-Yi; Casieri, Leonardo; Angliker, Herbert; Oakeley, Edward J; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Paszkowski, Uta

    2015-05-26

    Root systems consist of different root types (RTs) with distinct developmental and functional characteristics. RTs may be individually reprogrammed in response to their microenvironment to maximize adaptive plasticity. Molecular understanding of such specific remodeling--although crucial for crop improvement--is limited. Here, RT-specific transcriptomes of adult rice crown, large and fine lateral roots were assessed, revealing molecular evidence for functional diversity among individual RTs. Of the three rice RTs, crown roots displayed a significant enrichment of transcripts associated with phytohormones and secondary cell wall (SCW) metabolism, whereas lateral RTs showed a greater accumulation of transcripts related to mineral transport. In nature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis represents the default state of most root systems and is known to modify root system architecture. Rice RTs become heterogeneously colonized by AM fungi, with large laterals preferentially entering into the association. However, RT-specific transcriptional responses to AM symbiosis were quantitatively most pronounced for crown roots despite their modest physical engagement in the interaction. Furthermore, colonized crown roots adopted an expression profile more related to mycorrhizal large lateral than to noncolonized crown roots, suggesting a fundamental reprogramming of crown root character. Among these changes, a significant reduction in SCW transcripts was observed that was correlated with an alteration of SCW composition as determined by mass spectrometry. The combined change in SCW, hormone- and transport-related transcript profiles across the RTs indicates a previously overlooked switch of functional relationships among RTs during AM symbiosis, with a potential impact on root system architecture and functioning. PMID:25947154

  6. Context-dependency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant-insect interactions in an agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Nicholas A.; Kiers, E. Toby; Hazzard, Ruth V.; Adler, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants interact with a variety of other community members that have the potential to indirectly influence each other through a shared host plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are generally considered plant mutualists because of their generally positive effects on plant nutrient status and growth. AMF may also have important indirect effects on plants by altering interactions with other community members. By influencing plant traits, AMF can modify aboveground interactions with both mutualists, such as pollinators, and antagonists, such as herbivores. Because herbivory and pollination can dramatically influence plant fitness, comprehensive assessment of plant–AMF interactions should include these indirect effects. To determine how AMF affect plant–insect interactions, we grew Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) under five AMF inoculum treatments and control. We measured plant growth, floral production, flower size, and foliar nutrient content of half the plants, and transferred the other half to a field setting to measure pollinator and herbivore preference of wild insects. Mycorrhizal treatment had no effect on plant biomass or floral traits but significantly affected leaf nutrients, pollinator behavior, and herbivore attack. Although total pollinator visitation did not vary with AMF treatment, pollinators exhibited taxon-specific responses, with honey bees, bumble bees, and Lepidoptera all responding differently to AMF treatments. Flower number and size were unaffected by treatments, suggesting that differences in pollinator preference were driven by other floral traits. Mycorrhizae influenced leaf K and Na, but these differences in leaf nutrients did not correspond to variation in herbivore attack. Overall, we found that AMF indirectly influence both antagonistic and mutualistic insects, but impacts depend on the identity of both the fungal partner and the interacting insect, underscoring the context-dependency of plant–AMF interactions. PMID:24046771

  7. Community Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in High-Input and Intensively Irrigated Rice Cultivation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yutao; Li, Ting; Li, Yingwei; Björn, Lars Olof; Rosendahl, Søren; Olsson, Pål Axel; Fu, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Application of a mycorrhizal inoculum could be one way to increase the yield of rice plants and reduce the application of fertilizer. We therefore studied arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) collected at the seedling, tillering, heading, and ripening stages in four paddy wetlands that had been under a high-input and intensively irrigated rice cultivation system for more than 20 years. It was found that AMF colonization was mainly established in the heading and ripening stages. The AMF community structure was characterized in rhizosphere soils and roots from two of the studied paddy wetlands. A fragment covering the partial small subunit (SSU), the whole internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the partial large subunit (LSU) rRNA operon regions of AMF was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from roots and soils. A total of 639 AMF sequences were obtained, and these were finally assigned to 16 phylotypes based on a phylogenetic analysis, including 12 phylotypes from Glomeraceae, one phylotype from Claroideoglomeraceae, two phylotypes from Paraglomeraceae, and one unidentified phylotype. The AMF phylotype compositions in the soils were similar between the two surveyed sites, but there was a clear discrepancy between the communities obtained from root and soil. The relatively high number of AMF phylotypes at the surveyed sites suggests that the conditions are suitable for some species of AMF and that they may have an important function in conventional rice cultivation systems. The species richness of root-colonizing AMF increased with the growth of rice, and future studies should consider the developmental stages of this crop in the exploration of AMF function in paddy wetlands. PMID:25681190

  8. Context-dependency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant-insect interactions in an agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-01-01

    Plants interact with a variety of other community members that have the potential to indirectly influence each other through a shared host plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are generally considered plant mutualists because of their generally positive effects on plant nutrient status and growth. AMF may also have important indirect effects on plants by altering interactions with other community members. By influencing plant traits, AMF can modify aboveground interactions with both mutualists, such as pollinators, and antagonists, such as herbivores. Because herbivory and pollination can dramatically influence plant fitness, comprehensive assessment of plant-AMF interactions should include these indirect effects. To determine how AMF affect plant-insect interactions, we grew Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) under five AMF inoculum treatments and control. We measured plant growth, floral production, flower size, and foliar nutrient content of half the plants, and transferred the other half to a field setting to measure pollinator and herbivore preference of wild insects. Mycorrhizal treatment had no effect on plant biomass or floral traits but significantly affected leaf nutrients, pollinator behavior, and herbivore attack. Although total pollinator visitation did not vary with AMF treatment, pollinators exhibited taxon-specific responses, with honey bees, bumble bees, and Lepidoptera all responding differently to AMF treatments. Flower number and size were unaffected by treatments, suggesting that differences in pollinator preference were driven by other floral traits. Mycorrhizae influenced leaf K and Na, but these differences in leaf nutrients did not correspond to variation in herbivore attack. Overall, we found that AMF indirectly influence both antagonistic and mutualistic insects, but impacts depend on the identity of both the fungal partner and the interacting insect, underscoring the context-dependency of plant-AMF interactions. PMID:24046771

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences arsenic accumulation and speciation in Medicago truncatula L. in arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ren, Bai-Hui; Wu, Song-Lin; Sun, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ge; Chen, Bao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In two pot experiments, wild type and a non-mycorrhizal mutant (TR25:3-1) of Medicago truncatula were grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil to investigate the influences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As accumulation and speciation in host plants. The results indicated that the plant biomass of M. truncatula was dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased phosphorus concentrations and decreased As concentrations in plants. Moreover, mycorrhizal colonization generally increased the percentage of arsenite in total As both in shoots and roots, while dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was only detected in shoots of mycorrhizal plants. The results suggested that AMF are most likely to get involved in the methylating of inorganic As into less toxic organic DMA and also in the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. The study allowed a deeper insight into the As detoxification mechanisms in AM associations. By using the mutant M. truncatula, we demonstrated the importance of AMF in plant As tolerance under natural conditions. PMID:25016555

  10. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation and tree-herb interactions in Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Han, Xiaozhen; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant interaction is essential for optimizing plant distribution to restore degraded ecosystems. This study investigated the effects of AMF and the presence of legume or grass herbs on phytoremediation with a legume tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, in Pb polluted soil. In monoculture, mycorrhizal dependency of legumes was higher than that of grass, and AMF benefited the plant biomass of legumes but had no effect on grass. Mycorrhizal colonization of plant was enhanced by legume neighbors but inhibited by grass neighbor in co-culture system. N, P, S and Mg concentrations of mycorrhizal legumes were larger than these of non-mycorrhizal legumes. Legume herbs decreased soil pH and thereby increased the Pb concentrations of plants. The neighbor effects of legumes shifted from negative to positive with increasing Pb stress levels, whereas grass provided a negative effect on the growth of legume tree. AMF enhanced the competition but equalized growth of legume-legume under unpolluted and Pb stress conditions, respectively. In conclusion, (1) AMF mediate plant interaction through directly influencing plant biomass, and/or indirectly influencing plant photosynthesis, macronutrient acquisition, (2) legume tree inoculated with AMF and co-planted with legume herbs provides an effective way for Pb phytoremediation. PMID:26842958

  11. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation and tree-herb interactions in Pb contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Han, Xiaozhen; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant interaction is essential for optimizing plant distribution to restore degraded ecosystems. This study investigated the effects of AMF and the presence of legume or grass herbs on phytoremediation with a legume tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, in Pb polluted soil. In monoculture, mycorrhizal dependency of legumes was higher than that of grass, and AMF benefited the plant biomass of legumes but had no effect on grass. Mycorrhizal colonization of plant was enhanced by legume neighbors but inhibited by grass neighbor in co-culture system. N, P, S and Mg concentrations of mycorrhizal legumes were larger than these of non-mycorrhizal legumes. Legume herbs decreased soil pH and thereby increased the Pb concentrations of plants. The neighbor effects of legumes shifted from negative to positive with increasing Pb stress levels, whereas grass provided a negative effect on the growth of legume tree. AMF enhanced the competition but equalized growth of legume-legume under unpolluted and Pb stress conditions, respectively. In conclusion, (1) AMF mediate plant interaction through directly influencing plant biomass, and/or indirectly influencing plant photosynthesis, macronutrient acquisition, (2) legume tree inoculated with AMF and co-planted with legume herbs provides an effective way for Pb phytoremediation. PMID:26842958

  12. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  13. Transcriptomes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Litchi Host Interaction after Tree Girdling

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bo; Li, Weicai; Liu, Liqin; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol, and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes) and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes) were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

  14. Transcriptomes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Litchi Host Interaction after Tree Girdling.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Li, Weicai; Liu, Liqin; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol, and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes) and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes) were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

  15. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants. PMID:25495930

  16. The impact of tillage practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in subtropical crops.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, M M; Lumini, E; Roldán, A; Salinas-García, J R; Bonfante, P; Bianciotto, V

    2008-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a main component of soil microbiota in most agrosystems. As obligately mutualistic symbionts, they colonize the roots of the majority of plants, including crop plants. We used molecular techniques to investigate how different tillage systems (moldboard, shred-bedding, subsoil-bedding, and no tillage) can influence the AM fungal community colonizing maize, bean, and sorghum roots in an experimental site located in northern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Roots from 36 plants were analyzed using AM fungal-specific primers to partially amplify the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal DNA genes. More than 880 clones were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) variation, and 173 of these were sequenced. Ten AM fungal types were identified and clustered into three AM fungal families: Gigasporaceae, Glomaceae, and Paraglomaceae. Glomus was the dominating taxon in all the samples. Four of the 10 identified types were distinct from any previously published sequences and could correspond to either known unsequenced species or unknown species. The fungal diversity was low in the four agriculture management systems, but the multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and log-linear-saturated model indicated that the composition of the AMF community was significantly affected by the tillage system. In conclusion, since some fungal types were treatment specific, agricultural practices could directly or indirectly influence AM biodiversity. PMID:18488613

  17. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with erosion in an oxisol.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Fox, R L; Aziz, T; El-Swaify, S A

    1988-04-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution. PMID:16347615

  18. Interaction of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Erosion in an Oxisol †

    PubMed Central

    Habte, M.; Fox, R. L.; Aziz, T.; El-Swaify, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution. PMID:16347615

  19. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in irrigated and non-irrigated fields of southern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C P Sunil; Garampalli, Rajkumar H

    2013-03-01

    The two different agro-ecosystems were selected to study the spore density, species abundance, and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in irrigated (Mandya district) and non-irrigated (Hassan district) agricultural fields in southern Karnataka region, India. A total of 22 AMF species were recorded during the study. Out of which 13 sp. were of Glomus, 4 sp. of Acaulospora, 1 sp. of Cetraspora, 1 sp. of Dentiscutata and 3 sp. of Gigaspora. The difference in species richness of AMF species in irrigated fields ranged from 5-12 sp. as compared to non-irrigated fields (5-11 sp.) and the difference may be attributed to the nutritional status of the soil. We also assumed that lower AMF colonization and abundance would be affected by water stress. Highest spore number and percent colonization of AM fungi were recorded in irrigated sites, showing 356-748 spore density and 70-92% colonization. Whereas, in non-irrigated sites, 174-341 spore density and 40-72% colonization was recorded. Different agro-climatic conditions like irrigation, soil pH, soil organic carbon, phosphorous correlated with the abundance and colonization of AM fungi. PMID:24620573

  20. Phytoprotective effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species against arsenic toxicity in tropical leguminous species.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Rangel Wesley; Schneider, Jerusa; de Souza, Costa Enio Tarso; Sousa, Soares Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca; Guimarães, Guilherme Luiz Roberto; de Souza, Moreira Fatima Maria

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improve the tolerance of hosting plants to arsenic (As) in contaminated soils. This work assessed the phytoprotective effect of Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora morrowiae, Gigaspora gigantea, and Acaulospora sp. on four leguminous species (Acacia mangium, Crotalaria juncea, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Stizolobium aterrimum) in an As-contaminated soil from a gold mining area. AMF root colonization, biomass production, As and P accumulation, as well as arsenic translocation index (TI) from roots to shoots were measured. The AMF phytoprotective effect was assessed by the P/As ratio and the activity of plant antioxidant enzymes. The AMF colonization ranged from 24 to 28%. In general, all leguminous species had low As TI when inoculated with AMF species. Inoculation of C. juncea with Acaulospora sp. improved significantly As accumulation in roots, and decreased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), highlighting its phytoprotective effect and the potential use of this symbiosis for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. However, S. aterrimum has also shown a potential for phytoremediation irrespectively of AMF inoculation. APX was a good indicator of the phytoprotective effect against As contamination in C. juncea and A. mangium. In general P/As ratio in shoots was the best indicator of the phytoprotective effect of all AMF species in all plant species. PMID:24933888

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites. PMID:26991277

  2. Diurnal patterns of productivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi revealed with the Soil Ecosystem Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Allen, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are the most abundant plant symbiont and a major pathway of carbon sequestration in soils. However, their basic biology, including their activity throughout a 24-h day : night cycle, remains unknown. We employed the in situ Soil Ecosystem Observatory to quantify the rates of diurnal growth, dieback and net productivity of extra-radical AM fungi. AM fungal hyphae showed significantly different rates of growth and dieback over a period of 24 h and paralleled the circadian-driven photosynthetic oscillations observed in plants. The greatest rates (and incidences) of growth and dieback occurred between noon and 18:00 h. Growth and dieback events often occurred simultaneously and were tightly coupled with soil temperature and moisture, suggesting a rapid acclimation of the external phase of AM fungi to the immediate environment. Changes in the environmental conditions and variability of the mycorrhizosphere may alter the diurnal patterns of productivity of AM fungi, thereby modifying soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and host plant success. PMID:23844990

  3. Fungi in the future: interannual variation and effects of atmospheric change on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Cotton, T E Anne; Fitter, Alastair H; Miller, R Michael; Dumbrell, Alex J; Helgason, Thorunn

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the natural dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their response to global environmental change is essential for the prediction of future plant growth and ecosystem functions. We investigated the long-term temporal dynamics and effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and ozone (O3 ) concentrations on AM fungal communities. Molecular methods were used to characterize the AM fungal communities of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated and ambient atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and O3 within a free air concentration enrichment experiment in three growing seasons over 5 yr. Elevated CO2 altered the community composition of AM fungi, increasing the ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. By contrast, no effect of elevated O3 on AM fungal communities was detected. However, the greatest compositional differences detected were between years, suggesting that, at least in the short term, large-scale interannual temporal dynamics are stronger mediators than atmospheric CO2 concentrations of AM fungal communities. We conclude that, although atmospheric change may significantly alter AM fungal communities, this effect may be masked by the influences of natural changes and successional patterns through time. We suggest that changes in carbon availability are important determinants of the community dynamics of AM fungi. PMID:25560980

  4. Improved PCR primers for the detection and identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaikoo; Lee, Sangsun; Young, J Peter W

    2008-08-01

    A set of PCR primers that should amplify all subgroups of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota), but exclude sequences from other organisms, was designed to facilitate rapid detection and identification directly from field-grown plant roots. The small subunit rRNA gene was targeted for the new primers (AML1 and AML2) because phylogenetic relationships among the Glomeromycota are well understood for this gene. Sequence comparisons indicate that the new primers should amplify all published AMF sequences except those from Archaeospora trappei. The specificity of the new primers was tested using 23 different AMF spore morphotypes from trap cultures and Miscanthus sinensis, Glycine max and Panax ginseng roots sampled from the field. Non-AMF DNA of 14 plants, 14 Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota was also tested as negative controls. Sequences amplified from roots using the new primers were compared with those obtained using the established NS31 and AM1 primer combination. The new primers have much better specificity and coverage of all known AMF groups. PMID:18631176

  5. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  6. Transition Metal Transport in Plants and Associated Endosymbionts: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobia.

    PubMed

    González-Guerrero, Manuel; Escudero, Viviana; Saéz, Ángela; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as iron, copper, zinc, or molybdenum are essential nutrients for plants. These elements are involved in almost every biological process, including photosynthesis, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, or symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, plants often grow in soils with limiting metallic oligonutrient bioavailability. Consequently, to ensure the proper metal levels, plants have developed a complex metal uptake and distribution system, that not only involves the plant itself, but also its associated microorganisms. These microorganisms can simply increase metal solubility in soils and making them more accessible to the host plant, as well as induce the plant metal deficiency response, or directly deliver transition elements to cortical cells. Other, instead of providing metals, can act as metal sinks, such as endosymbiotic rhizobia in legume nodules that requires relatively large amounts to carry out nitrogen fixation. In this review, we propose to do an overview of metal transport mechanisms in the plant-microbe system, emphasizing the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endosymbiotic rhizobia. PMID:27524990

  7. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest Toposequence.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Gumiere, Thiago; de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Denise; Oehl, Fritz; Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was studied in the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Mar Park (SE Brazil), based on seven host plants in relationship to their soil environment, altitude and seasonality. The studied plots along an elevation gradient are located at 80, 600, and 1,000 m. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in four seasons from SE Brazilian winter 2012 to autumn 2013. AMF spores in rhizosperic soils were morphologically classified and chemical, physical and microbiological soil caracteristics were determined. AMF diversity in roots was evaluated using the NS31/AM1 primer pair, with subsequent cloning and sequencing. In the rhizosphere, 58 AMF species were identified. The genera Acaulospora and Glomus were predominant. However, in the roots, only 14 AMF sequencing groups were found and all had high similarity to Glomeraceae. AMF species identities varied between altitudes and seasons. There were species that contributed the most to this variation. Some soil characteristics (pH, organic matter, microbial activity and microbial biomass carbon) showed a strong relationship with the occurrence of certain species. The highest AMF species diversity, based on Shannon's diversity index, was found for the highest altitude. Seasonality did not affect the diversity. Our results show a high AMF diversity, higher than commonly found in the Atlantic Forest. The AMF detected in roots were not identical to those detected in rhizosperic soil and differences in AMF communities were found in different altitudes even in geographically close-lying sites. PMID:26304552

  8. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  9. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  10. Mycoparasitism of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a pathway for the entry of saprotrophic fungi into roots.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Nathalie; Declerck, Stéphane; de la Providencia, Ivan E

    2010-08-01

    Within the rhizosphere, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi interact with a cohort of microorganisms, among which is the biological control agent, Trichoderma spp. This fungus parasitizes a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, a phenomenon also reported in the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of AM fungi. Here, we question whether the mycoparasitism of the ERM could be extended to the intraradical mycelium (IRM), thus representing a pathway for the entry of Trichoderma harzianum within the root. Microcosm experiments allowing interactions between Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 placed in a clade that contains the recently described species Glomus irregulare and T. harzianum were set up under in vitro autotrophic culture conditions using potato as a host. A microscope camera-imaging system, coupled with succinate dehydrogenase staining, was used to assess the mycoparasitism in the ERM and IRM. Trichoderma harzianum colonized the ERM of the AM fungus and spread into the IRM, before exiting into the root cells. Intrahyphal growth of T. harzianum caused protoplasm degradation, decreasing the ERM and IRM viability. ERM of the AM fungus represented a pathway for the entry of T. harzianum into the roots of potato. It further sets off the debate on the susceptibility of the AM fungi of being infected by microorganisms from the rhizosphere. PMID:20533946

  11. A history of the taxonomy and systematics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Sidney Luiz

    2012-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are grouped in a monophyletic group, the phylum Glomeromycota. In this review, the history and complexity of the taxonomy and systematics of these obligate biotrophs is addressed by recognizing four periods. The initial discovery period (1845-1974) is characterized by description mainly of sporocarp-forming species and the proposal of a classification for these fungi. The following alpha taxonomy period (1975-1989) established a solid morphological basis for species identification and classification, resulting in a profuse description of new species and a need to standardize the nomenclature of spore subcellular structures. The cladistics period from 1990 to 2000 saw the first cladistic classification of AMF based on phenotypic characters only. At the end of this period, genetic characters played a role in defining taxa and elucidating evolutionary relationships within the group. The most recent phylogenetic synthesis period (2001 to present) started with the proposal of a new classification based on genetic characters using sequences of the multicopy rRNA genes. PMID:22391803

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant–soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010–2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m−2 across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons. PMID:26818214

  13. Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alison E.; Macrae, Anna M.; Moore, Ben D.; Caul, Sandra; Johnson, Scott N.

    2013-01-01

    Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant. PMID:23840398

  14. Genetic Diversity and Association Characters of Bacteria Isolated from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Walls

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Gopal; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Sa, Tong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and bacteria has long been studied. However, the factors influencing their association in the natural environment is still unknown. This study aimed to isolate bacteria associated with spore walls of AMF and identify their potential characters for association. Spores collected from coastal reclamation land were differentiated based on their morphology and identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Funneliformis caledonium, Racocetra alborosea and Funneliformis mosseae. Bacteria associated with AMF spore walls were isolated after treating them with disinfection solution at different time intervals. After 0, 10 and 20 min of spore disinfection, 86, 24 and 10 spore associated bacteria (SAB) were isolated, respectively. BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis showed that diverse bacterial communities were associated to AMF spores. Bacteria belonging to the same genera could associate with different AMF spores. Gram positive bacteria were more closely associated with AMF spores. Isolated SAB were characterized and tested for spore association characters such as chitinase, protease, cellulase enzymes and exopolysaccharide production (EPS). Among the 120 SAB, 113 SAB were able to show one or more characters for association and seven SAB did not show any association characters. The 16S rDNA sequence of SAB revealed that bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bactereiodes were associated with AMF spore walls. PMID:27479250

  15. Contrasting preferences of arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate fungi colonizing boreal and subarctic Avenella flexuosa.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, M; Raveala, K; Wäli, P R; Ruotsalainen, A L

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi are ubiquitous in grass roots, but their colonizations may vary according to latitudinal gradient and site conditions. We investigated how vegetation zone (boreal vs. subarctic), humus thickness, and site openness affect root fungal colonizations of the grass Avenella flexuosa. More precisely, we hypothesized that AM and DSE fungal colonizations would have different responses to environmental conditions such that AM fungi could be more common in boreal zone, whereas we expected DSE fungi to be more affected by the amount of humus. We found site openness to affect AM and DSE fungi in a contrasting manner, in interaction with the vegetation zone. AM colonization was high at open coastal dunes, whereas DSE fungi were more common at forested sites, in the boreal zone. Humus thickness affected AM fungi negatively and DSE fungi positively. To conclude, the observed AM and DSE fungal colonization patterns were largely contrasting. AM fungi were favored in seashore conditions characterized by thin humus layer, whereas DSE fungi were favored in conditions of higher humus availability. PMID:24061928

  16. Effect of Rice Cultivation Systems on Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H′) of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots. PMID:23719585

  17. Effect of rice cultivation systems on indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community structure.

    PubMed

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J Peter W; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H') of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots. PMID:23719585

  18. Reducing nitrogen runoff from paddy fields with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under different fertilizer regimes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Xue; Fu, Dafang

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) runoff from paddy fields serves as one of the main sources of water pollution. Our aim was to reduce N runoff from paddy fields by fertilizer management and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In northeast China, Shuangcheng city in Heilongjiang province, a field experiment was conducted, using rice provided with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the local norm of fertilization (including N, phosphorus and potassium), with or without inoculation with Glomus mosseae. The volume, concentrations of total N (TN), dissolved N (DN) and particulate N (PN) of runoff water were measured. We found that the local norm of fertilization led to 18.9kg/ha of N runoff during rice growing season, with DN accounting for 60%-70%. We also found that reduction in fertilization by 20% cut down TN runoff by 8.2% while AMF inoculation decreased N runoff at each fertilizer level and this effect was inhibited by high fertilization. The combination of inoculation with AMF and 80% of the local norm of fertilization was observed to reduce N runoff by 27.2%. Conclusively, we suggested that the contribution of AMF inoculation combined with decreasing fertilization should get more attention to slow down water eutrophication by reducing N runoff from paddy fields. PMID:27521940

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduced the ratios of inorganic/organic arsenic in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Chen, X W; Wong, M H

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices was inoculated to rice to investigate its effects on arsenic (As) uptake, grain As speciation, and rhizospheric As concentration of six rice cultivars grown in As-amended soil (60 mg As kg(-1) soil). The AMF inoculation induced either positive, neutral or negative responses in rice grown in As contaminated soil, suggesting that functional diversity may exist in AMF symbiosis when As is taken up and transferred. The ratios of inorganic/organic As concentrations in rice grains of all cultivars were significantly reduced by AMF, that involved the transformation of inorganic As into less toxic organic form dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in rice. AMF decreased significantly total As and inorganic As concentrations in rice grains of Handao 3. Positive correlations (R(2) = 0.30-0.56, P < 0.05) between As in the rhizospheric soil solution and As in rice grain at different periods were observed. This inferred that the As survey of soil solution can be an effective measure for evaluating As in grains. PMID:26688259

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m-2 across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  1. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass.

    PubMed

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, Meelis; Davison, John; Gerhold, Pille; Metsis, Madis; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Wilson, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Although experiments show a positive association between vascular plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species richness, evidence from natural ecosystems is scarce. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about how AMF richness varies with belowground plant richness and biomass. We examined relationships among AMF richness, above- and belowground plant richness, and plant root and shoot biomass in a native North American grassland. Root-colonizing AMF richness and belowground plant richness were detected from the same bulk root samples by 454-sequencing of the AMF SSU rRNA and plant trnL genes. In total we detected 63 AMF taxa. Plant richness was 1.5 times greater belowground than aboveground. AMF richness was significantly positively correlated with plant species richness, and more strongly with below- than aboveground plant richness. Belowground plant richness was positively correlated with belowground plant biomass and total plant biomass, whereas aboveground plant richness was positively correlated only with belowground plant biomass. By contrast, AMF richness was negatively correlated with belowground and total plant biomass. Our results indicate that AMF richness and plant belowground richness are more strongly related with each other and with plant community biomass than with the plant aboveground richness measures that have been almost exclusively considered to date. PMID:24641509

  2. Relative Importance of Individual Climatic Drivers Shaping Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dan; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Baodong

    2016-08-01

    The physiological tolerance hypothesis (PTH) postulates that it is the tolerance of species to climatic factors that determines overall community richness. Here, we tested whether a group of mutualistic microbes, Glomeromycota, is distributed in semi-arid environments in ways congruent with the PTH. For this purpose, we modeled with climatic predictors the niche of each of the four orders of Glomeromycota and identified predictors of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. Our dataset consisted of 50 paired grassland and farmland sites in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. We observed shifts in the relative abundance of AM fungal orders in response to climatic variables but also declines in OTU richness in grassland sites that had experienced high precipitation during the preceding year which was incongruous with the PTH. We found pronounced differences across groups of Glomeromycotan fungi in their responses to climatic variables and identified strong dependencies of AM fungal communities on precipitation. Given that precipitation is expected to further decline in the farming-pastoral ecotone over the coming years and that mycorrhiza represents an integral constituent of ecosystem functioning, it is likely that the ecosystem services in the region will change accordingly. PMID:27117797

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m(-2) across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons. PMID:26818214

  4. Evidence for the sexual origin of heterokaryosis in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Toro, Kinga Sędzielewska; Noel, Jessica; Pelin, Adrian; Charron, Philippe; Farinelli, Laurent; Marton, Timea; Krüger, Manuela; Fuchs, Jörg; Brachmann, Andreas; Corradi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, and fully asexual lineages are extremely rare. Prominent among ancient asexual lineages are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a group of plant symbionts with a multinucleate cytoplasm. Genomic divergence among co-existing nuclei was proposed to drive the evolutionary success of AMF in the absence of sex(1), but this hypothesis has been contradicted by recent genome analyses that failed to find significant genetic diversity within an AMF isolate(2,3). Here, we set out to resolve issues surrounding the genome organization and sexual potential of AMF by exploring the genomes of five isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis, a model AMF. We find that genetic diversity in this species varies among isolates and is structured in a homo-dikaryon-like manner usually linked with the existence of a sexual life cycle. We also identify a putative AMF mating-type locus, containing two genes with structural and evolutionary similarities with the mating-type locus of some Dikarya. Our analyses suggest that this locus may be multi-allelic and that AMF could be heterothallic and bipolar. These findings reconcile opposing views on the genome organization of these ubiquitous plant symbionts and open avenues for strain improvement and environmental application of these organisms. PMID:27572831

  5. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  6. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus populations in heavy-metal-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Del Val, C.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon-Aguilar, C.

    1999-02-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals have been shown to adversely affect the size, diversity, and activity of microbial populations in soil. The aim of this work was to determine how the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is affected by the addition of sewage-amended sludge containing heavy metals in a long-term experiment. Due to the reduced number of indigenous AM fungal (AMF) propagules in the experimental soils, several host plants with different life cycles were used to multiply indigenous fungi. Six AMF ecotypes were found in the experimental soils, showing consistent differences with regard to their tolerance to the presence of heavy metals. AMF ecotypes ranged from very sensitive to the presence of metals to relatively tolerant to high rates of heavy metals in soil. Total AMF spore numbers decreased with increasing amounts of heavy metals in the soil. However, species richness and diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index increased in soils receiving intermediate rates of sludge contamination but decreased in soils receiving the highest rate of heavy-metal-contaminated sludge. Relative densities of most AMF species were also significantly influenced by soil treatments. Host plant species exerted a selective influence on AMF population size and diversity. The authors conclude based on the results of this study that size and diversity of AMF populations were modified in metal-polluted soils, even in those with metal concentrations that were below the upper limits accepted by the European Union for agricultural soils.

  7. Fungi in the future: Interannual variation and effects of atmospheric change on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cotton, T. E. Anne; Fitter, Alastair H.; Miller, R. Michael; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Helgason, Thorunn

    2015-01-05

    Understanding the natural dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their response to global environmental change is essential for the prediction of future plant growth and ecosystem functions. We investigated the long-term temporal dynamics and effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations on AM fungal communities. Molecular methods were used to characterize the AM fungal communities of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated and ambient atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and O3 within a free air concentration enrichment experiment in three growing seasons over 5 yr. Elevated CO2 altered the community composition of AM fungi, increasingmore » the ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. By contrast, no effect of elevated O3 on AM fungal communities was detected. However, the greatest compositional differences detected were between years, suggesting that, at least in the short term, large-scale interannual temporal dynamics are stronger mediators than atmospheric CO2 concentrations of AM fungal communities. We conclude that, although atmospheric change may significantly alter AM fungal communities, this effect may be masked by the influences of natural changes and successional patterns through time. We suggest that changes in carbon availability are important determinants of the community dynamics of AM fungi.« less

  8. Fungi in the future: Interannual variation and effects of atmospheric change on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, T. E. Anne; Fitter, Alastair H.; Miller, R. Michael; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Helgason, Thorunn

    2015-01-05

    Understanding the natural dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their response to global environmental change is essential for the prediction of future plant growth and ecosystem functions. We investigated the long-term temporal dynamics and effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations on AM fungal communities. Molecular methods were used to characterize the AM fungal communities of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated and ambient atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and O3 within a free air concentration enrichment experiment in three growing seasons over 5 yr. Elevated CO2 altered the community composition of AM fungi, increasing the ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. By contrast, no effect of elevated O3 on AM fungal communities was detected. However, the greatest compositional differences detected were between years, suggesting that, at least in the short term, large-scale interannual temporal dynamics are stronger mediators than atmospheric CO2 concentrations of AM fungal communities. We conclude that, although atmospheric change may significantly alter AM fungal communities, this effect may be masked by the influences of natural changes and successional patterns through time. We suggest that changes in carbon availability are important determinants of the community dynamics of AM fungi.

  9. The Scion/Rootstock Genotypes and Habitats Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner—the scion—of the grafted citrus tree. PMID:26648932

  10. Fungi in the future: interannual variation and effects of atmospheric change on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, T E Anne; Fitter, Alastair H; Miller, R Michael; Dumbrell, Alex J; Helgason, Thorunn

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the natural dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their response to global environmental change is essential for the prediction of future plant growth and ecosystem functions. We investigated the long-term temporal dynamics and effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations on AM fungal communities. Molecular methods were used to characterize the AM fungal communities of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated and ambient atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and O3 within a free air concentration enrichment experiment in three growing seasons over 5 yr. Elevated CO2 altered the community composition of AM fungi, increasing the ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. By contrast, no effect of elevated O3 on AM fungal communities was detected. However, the greatest compositional differences detected were between years, suggesting that, at least in the short term, large-scale interannual temporal dynamics are stronger mediators than atmospheric CO2 concentrations of AM fungal communities. We conclude that, although atmospheric change may significantly alter AM fungal communities, this effect may be masked by the influences of natural changes and successional patterns through time. We suggest that changes in carbon availability are important determinants of the community dynamics of AM fungi. PMID:25560980

  11. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system. PMID:27072359

  12. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Burns, Caitlin A.; van der Gast, Christopher J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Bending, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  13. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis induces strigolactone biosynthesis under drought and improves drought tolerance in lettuce and tomato.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo; Zamarreño, Ángel María; Molina, Sonia; Andreo-Jiménez, Beatriz; Porcel, Rosa; García-Mina, José María; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates drought stress in plants. However, the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as its effect on the production of signalling molecules associated with the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, the effects of drought on lettuce and tomato plant performance and hormone levels were investigated in non-AM and AM plants. Three different water regimes were applied, and their effects were analysed over time. AM plants showed an improved growth rate and efficiency of photosystem II than non-AM plants under drought from very early stages of plant colonization. The levels of the phytohormone abscisic acid, as well as the expression of the corresponding marker genes, were influenced by drought stress in non-AM and AM plants. The levels of strigolactones and the expression of corresponding marker genes were affected by both AM symbiosis and drought. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates drought stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. In addition, a correlation between AM root colonization, strigolactone levels and drought severity is shown, suggesting that under these unfavourable conditions, plants might increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with the stress. PMID:26305264

  15. [Characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and functions in saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shao-xia; Liu, Run-jin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, widely distributing in various terrestrial ecosys- tems, are one of the important functional biotic components in soil habitats and play a vital role in improving soil evolution, maintaining soil health and sustainable productivity. Saline-alkali soil is a special habitat affecting plant growth and grain yield. Under the influence of a series of factors, such as human activities on the nature, S and N deposition, ozone, greenhouse effect, climate anomalies, and alien species invasions etc., soil salinization, biodiversity and functions of saline farmlands may be greatly affected, which could consequently influence agricultural production and the sustainable development of ecosystems. Followed by an introduction of the changing characteristics of saline soil area and the secondary salinization under the background of global changes, the present review mainly discussed the changing features of diversity and functions of AM fungi in saline habitats, summarized the factors influencing AM fungal diversity and functions, and the factors' changing characters under the global changes, in order to provide new ideas and ways in further elucidating the position, role and function of AM fungi in saline soil, and in strengthening saline farmland remediation in response to global changes. PMID:25985684

  16. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    PubMed

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770

  18. A plausible mechanism of biosorption in dual symbioses by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal in plants.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Hamid, Neelofer

    2015-03-01

    Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants. A decreased in protein, and amino acid contents and increased proline and protease activity in VAM plants suggested that these contents were the main bio-indicators of the plants under biotic stress. The decline in protein may be due to the degradation of these contents, which later on converted into dextrose where it can easily be absorbed by for the period of symbioses. A mechanism of C chemisorption in relation with physiology and morphology of plant was discussed. PMID:25730809

  19. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  20. Phylogenetically structured traits in root systems influence arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in woody angiosperms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J.; Horning, Amber L.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-10

    In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. We expected that ancestral species with thick roots will maximize AMF habitat by maintaining similar root traits across root orders (i.e., high root trait integration), whereas more derived species are expected to display a sharp transition from acquisition to structural roots. Moreover, we hypothesized that interspecific morphological differences rather than soil conditions will be the main driver of AMF colonization We analyzed 14 root morphological and chemical traits and AMF colonization rates for the first three rootmore » orders of 34 temperate tree species grown in two common gardens. We also collected associated soil to measure the effect of soil conditions on AMF colonization Results Thick-root magnoliids showed less variation in root traits along root orders than more-derived angiosperm groups. Variation in stele:root diameter ratio was the best indicator of AMF colonization within and across root orders. Root functional traits rather than soil conditions largely explained the variation in AMF colonization among species. In conclusion, not only the traits of first order but the entire structuring of the root system varied among plant lineages, suggesting alternative evolutionary strategies of resource acquisition. Understanding evolutionary pathways in below ground organs could open new avenues to understand tree species influence on soil carbon and nutrient cycling.« less

  1. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate.

    PubMed

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir. PMID:27594859

  2. Evidence for functional redundancy in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and implications for agroecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Paul; Jones, Julie; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide benefits to host plants and show functional diversity, with evidence of functional trait conservation at the family level. Diverse communities of AM fungi ought therefore to provide increased benefits to the host, with implications for the management of sustainable agroecosystems. However, this is often not evident in the literature, with diversity saturation at low species number. Growth and nutrient uptake were measured in onions in the glasshouse on AM-free phosphorus (P)-poor soil, inoculated with between one and seven species of AM fungi in all possible combinations. Inoculation with AM fungi increased shoot dry weight as well as P and copper concentrations in shoots but reduced the concentration of potassium and sulphur. There was little evidence of increased benefit from high AM fungal diversity, and increasing diversity beyond three species did not result in significantly higher shoot weight or P or Cu concentrations. Species of Glomeraceae had the greatest impact on growth and nutrient uptake, while species of Acaulospora and Racocetra did not have a significant impact. Failure to show a benefit from high AM fungal diversity in this and other studies may be the result of experimental conditions, with the benefits of AM fungal diversity only becoming apparent when the host plant is faced with multiple stress factors. Replicating the complex interactions between AM fungi, the host plant and their environment in the laboratory in order to fully understand these interactions is a major challenge to AM research. PMID:26100128

  3. Genetic variation in the response of the weed Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José Alberto; Campos-Navarrete, María José; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to test for plant genetic variation in the phenotypic plasticity response of the weed Ruellia nudiflora to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation. We collected plants in the field, kept them under homogeneous conditions inside a nursery, and then collected seeds from these parent plants to generate five inbred lines (i.e., genetic families). Half of the plants of each inbred line were inoculated with AM fungi while the other half were not (controls); a fully crossed experimental design was then used to test for the effects of treatment (with or without AM fungi inoculation) and inbred line (genetic family). For each plant, we recorded the number of leaves produced and the number of days it survived during a 2-month period. Results showed a strong positive treatment effect (plastic response to AM fungi inoculation) for leaf production and survival. Moreover, in terms of survival, the treatment effect differed between genetic families (significant genetic family by treatment interaction). These findings indicate that the positive effect of AM fungi on plant survival (and potentially also growth) differs across plant genotypes and that such condition may contribute to R. nudiflora's capacity to colonize new environments. PMID:19862559

  4. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J.; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir. PMID:27594859

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher J; Burns, Caitlin A; van der Gast, Christopher J; McNamara, Niall P; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  6. Development of Soils and Communities of Plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on West Virginia Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Michael A.; Cumming, Jonathan R.

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining followed by reclamation to pasture is a major driver of land use and cover change in Appalachia. Prior research suggests that many aspects of ecosystem recovery are either slow or incomplete. We examined ecosystem structure—including soil physical and chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) infectivity and community composition, and plant diversity and community composition—on a chronosequence of pasture-reclaimed surface mines and a non-mined pasture in northern West Virginia. Surface mining and reclamation dramatically altered ecosystem structure. Some aspects of ecosystem structure, including many measures of soil chemistry and infectivity of AMF, returned rapidly to levels found on the non-mined reference site. Other aspects of ecosystem structure, notably soil physical properties and AMF and plant communities, showed incomplete or no recovery over the short-to-medium term. In addition, invasive plants were prevalent on reclaimed mine sites. The results point to the need for investigation on how reclamation practices could minimize establishment of exotic invasive plant species and reduce the long-term impacts of mining on ecosystem structure and function.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Populus-Salix stands in a semiarid riparian ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Stutz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    ??? This study examined the activity, species richness, and species composition of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community of Populus-Salix stands on the Verde River (Arizona, USA), quantified patterns of AMF richness and colonization along complex floodplain gradients, and identified environmental variables responsible for structuring the AMF community. ??? Samples from 61 Populus-Salix stands were analyzed for AMF and herbaceous composition, AMF colonization, gravimetric soil moisture, soil texture, per cent organic matter, pH, and concentrations of nitrate, bicarbonate phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. ??? AMF species richness declined with stand age and distance from and elevation above the channel and was positively related to perennial species cover and richness and gravimetric soil moisture. Distance from and elevation above the active channel, forest age, annual species cover, perennial species richness, and exchangeable potassium concentration all played a role in structuring the AMF community in this riparian area. ??? Most AMF species were found across a wide range of soil conditions, but a subset of species tended to occur more often in hydric areas. This group of riparian affiliate AMF species includes several not previously encountered in the surrounding Sonoran desert. ?? New Phytologist (2006).

  8. Precipitation shapes communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Tibetan alpine steppe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fang; Che, Rongxiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hanke; Ji, Baoming; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan Plateau is one of the largest and most unique habitats for organisms including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, it remains unclear how AMF communities respond to key environmental changes in this harsh environment. To test if precipitation could be a driving force in shaping AMF community structures at regional scale, we examined AMF communities associated with dominant plant species along a precipitation gradient in Tibetan alpine steppe. Rhizosphere soils were collected from five sites with annual precipitation decreasing from 400 to 50 mm. A total of 31 AMF operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. AMF community composition varied significantly among sites, whereas AMF community composition did not vary among plant species. Path analysis revealed that precipitation directly affected AMF hyphal length density, and indirectly influenced AMF species richness likely through the mediation of plant coverage. Our results suggested that water availability could drive the changes of AMF communities at regional scale. Given the important roles AMF could play in the dynamics of plant communities, exploring the changes of AMF communities along key environmental gradients would help us better predict the ecosystem level responses of the Tibetan vegetation to future climate change. PMID:27002188

  9. The Glyoxylate Cycle in an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus. Carbon Flux and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Peter J.; Jun, Jeongwon; Abubaker, Jehad; Arreola, Raul; Gopalan, Anjali; Bago, Berta; Hernandez-Sebastia, Cinta; Allen, James W.; Douds, David D.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2001-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is responsible for huge fluxes of photosynthetically fixed carbon from plants to the soil. Lipid, which is the dominant form of stored carbon in the fungal partner and which fuels spore germination, is made by the fungus within the root and is exported to the extraradical mycelium. We tested the hypothesis that the glyoxylate cycle is central to the flow of carbon in the AM symbiosis. The results of 13C labeling of germinating spores and extraradical mycelium with 13C2-acetate and 13C2-glycerol and analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that there are very substantial fluxes through the glyoxylate cycle in the fungal partner. Full-length sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction from a cDNA library from germinating spores of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices showed strong homology to gene sequences for isocitrate lyase and malate synthase from plants and other fungal species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction measurements show that these genes are expressed at significant levels during the symbiosis. Glyoxysome-like bodies were observed by electron microscopy in fungal structures where the glyoxylate cycle is expected to be active, which is consistent with the presence in both enzyme sequences of motifs associated with glyoxysomal targeting. We also identified among several hundred expressed sequence tags several enzymes of primary metabolism whose expression during spore germination is consistent with previous labeling studies and with fluxes into and out of the glyoxylate cycle. PMID:11706207

  10. Meta-Analysis of Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Biotic Stressors of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yajun; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Liqun; Bian, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Naturally, simultaneous interactions occurred among plants, herbivores, and soil biota, that is, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), nematodes, and fungal pathogens. These multiple interactions play fundamental roles in driving process, structure, and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis with 144 papers to investigate the interactions between AMF and plant biotic stressors and their effects on plant growth performance. We found that AMF enhanced plant tolerance to herbivores, nematodes, and fungal pathogens. We also found reciprocal inhibition between AMF and nematodes as well as fungal pathogens, but unidirectional inhibition for AMF on herbivores. Negative effects of AMF on biotic stressors of plants depended on herbivore feeding sites and actioning modes of fungal pathogens. More performance was reduced in root-feeding than in shoot-feeding herbivores and in rotting- than in wilt-fungal pathogens. However, no difference was found for AMF negative effects between migratory and sedentary nematodes. In return, nematodes and fungal pathogens generated more reduction of root colonization in Non-Glomeraceae than in Glomeraceae. Our results suggested that AMF positive effects on plants might be indirectly mediated by competitive inhibition with biotic stressors of plants. These positive and negative interactions make potential contributions to maintaining ecosystem stability and functioning. PMID:24558327

  11. Transition Metal Transport in Plants and Associated Endosymbionts: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    González-Guerrero, Manuel; Escudero, Viviana; Saéz, Ángela; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as iron, copper, zinc, or molybdenum are essential nutrients for plants. These elements are involved in almost every biological process, including photosynthesis, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, or symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, plants often grow in soils with limiting metallic oligonutrient bioavailability. Consequently, to ensure the proper metal levels, plants have developed a complex metal uptake and distribution system, that not only involves the plant itself, but also its associated microorganisms. These microorganisms can simply increase metal solubility in soils and making them more accessible to the host plant, as well as induce the plant metal deficiency response, or directly deliver transition elements to cortical cells. Other, instead of providing metals, can act as metal sinks, such as endosymbiotic rhizobia in legume nodules that requires relatively large amounts to carry out nitrogen fixation. In this review, we propose to do an overview of metal transport mechanisms in the plant–microbe system, emphasizing the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endosymbiotic rhizobia. PMID:27524990

  12. Host diversity affects the abundance of the extraradical arbuscular mycorrhizal network.

    PubMed

    Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can form complex networks in the soil that connect different host plants. Previous studies have focused on the effects of these networks on individual hosts and host communities. However, very little is known about how different host species affect the success of the fungal network itself. Given the potentially strong selection pressure against hosts that invest in a fungal network which benefits their competitors, we predict that the presence of multiple host species negatively affects the growth of the extraradical network. We designed an experiment using an in vitro culture approach to investigate the effect of different hosts (carrot, chichory and medicago) on the formation of a common mycelial network. In vitro root cultures, each inoculated with their own fungal network, were grown in a double split plate design with two host compartments and a common central compartment where fungal networks could form. We found that the size of fungal networks differs depending on the social environment of the host. When host species were propagated in a mixed species environment, the fungal abundance was significantly reduced compared to monoculture predictions. Our work demonstrates how host-to-host conflict can influence the abundance of the fungal partner. PMID:25297948

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in the Tuber melanosporum brûlé.

    PubMed

    Mello, Antonietta; Lumini, Erica; Napoli, Chiara; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The development of the fruiting body (truffle) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum is associated with the production of an area (commonly referred to with the French word brûlé) around its symbiotic plant that has scanty vegetation. As truffles produce metabolites that can mediate fungal-plant interactions, the authors wondered whether the brûlé could affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that colonize the patchy herbaceous plants inside the brûlé. A morphological evaluation of the roots of plants collected in 2009 from a T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens brûlé in France has shown that the herbaceous plants are colonized by AMF to a great extent. An analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences obtained from roots and soil inside the brûlé has shown that the AMF community structure seemed to be affected in the soil inside the brûlé, where less richness was observed compared to outside the brûlé. PMID:25986549

  14. Host Preferences of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Annual Herbaceous Plant Species in Semiarid Mediterranean Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed and compared the diversities of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of five annual herbaceous species (Hieracium vulgare, Stipa capensis, Anagallis arvensis, Carduus tenuiflorus, and Avena barbata) and a perennial herbaceous species (Brachypodium retusum). Our goal was to determine the differences in the communities of the AMF among these six plant species belonging to different families, using B. retusum as a reference. The AMF small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU) were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six AMF phylotypes, belonging to Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversispora, Paraglomus, and Ambispora, were identified. Five sequence groups identified in this study clustered to known glomalean species or isolates: group Glomus G27 to Glomus intraradices, group Glomus G19 to Glomus iranicum, group Glomus G10 to Glomus mosseae, group Glomus G1 to Glomus lamellosum/etunicatum/luteum, and group Ambispora 1 to Ambispora fennica. The six plant species studied hosted different AMF communities. A certain trend of AMF specificity was observed when grouping plant species by taxonomic families, highlighting the importance of protecting and even promoting the native annual vegetation in order to maintain the biodiversity and productivity of these extreme ecosystems. PMID:22752164

  15. Detection of a novel intracellular microbiome hosted in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Desirò, Alessandro; Salvioli, Alessandra; Ngonkeu, Eddy L; Mondo, Stephen J; Epis, Sara; Faccio, Antonella; Kaech, Andres; Pawlowska, Teresa E; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important members of the plant microbiome. They are obligate biotrophs that colonize the roots of most land plants and enhance host nutrient acquisition. Many AMF themselves harbor endobacteria in their hyphae and spores. Two types of endobacteria are known in Glomeromycota: rod-shaped Gram-negative Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, CaGg, limited in distribution to members of the Gigasporaceae family, and coccoid Mollicutes-related endobacteria, Mre, widely distributed across different lineages of AMF. The goal of the present study is to investigate the patterns of distribution and coexistence of the two endosymbionts, CaGg and Mre, in spore samples of several strains of Gigaspora margarita. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that some AMF could host populations of both endobacteria. To test this hypothesis, we performed an extensive investigation of both endosymbionts in G. margarita spores sampled from Cameroonian soils as well as in the Japanese G. margarita MAFF520054 isolate using different approaches (molecular phylotyping, electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR). We found that a single AMF host can harbour both types of endobacteria, with Mre population being more abundant, variable and prone to recombination than the CaGg one. Both endosymbionts seem to retain their genetic and lifestyle peculiarities regardless of whether they colonize the host alone or together. These findings show for the first time that fungi support an intracellular bacterial microbiome, in which distinct types of endobacteria coexist in a single cell. PMID:24008325

  16. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bart R.; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization. PMID:27280074

  17. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  18. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence. PMID:24246754

  19. Nested multiplex PCR--a feasible technique to study partial community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field-growing plant root.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuli; Zhao, Bin

    2006-08-01

    Plant can be infected by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but little is known about the interaction between them within root tissues mainly because different species cannot be distinguished on the basis of fungal structure. Accurate species identification of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonized in plant roots is the cornerstone of mycorrhizal study, yet this fundamental step is impossible through its morphological character alone. For accurate, rapid and inexpensive detection of partial mycorrhizal fungal community in plant roots, a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed in this study. Five discriminating primers designed based on the variable region of the 5' end of the large ribosomal subunit were used in the experiment for testing their specificity and the sensitivity in nested PCR by using spores from Glomus mosseae (BEG12), Glomus intraradices (BEG141), Scutellospora castaneae (BEG1) and two unidentified Glomus sp. HAUO3 and HAUO4. The feasibility assay of nested multiplex PCR was conducted by use of spore mixture, Astragalus sinicum roots co-inoculated with 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from pot cultures and 15 different field-growing plant roots respectively after analyses of the compatibility of primers. The result indicated that the sensitivity was in the same range as that of the corresponding single PCR reaction. Overall accuracy was 95%. The efficiency and sensitivity of this multiplex PCR procedure provided a rapid and easy way to simultaneously detect several of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal species in a same plant root system. PMID:16989281

  20. Carlactone-type strigolactones and their synthetic analogues as inducers of hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Mori, Narumi; Nishiuma, Kenta; Sugiyama, Takuya; Hayashi, Hideo; Akiyama, Kohki

    2016-10-01

    Hyphal branching in the vicinity of host roots is a host recognition response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This morphological event is elicited by strigolactones. Strigolactones are carotenoid-derived terpenoids that are synthesized from carlactone and its oxidized derivatives. To test the possibility that carlactone and its oxidized derivatives might act as host-derived precolonization signals in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, carlactone, carlactonoic acid, and methyl carlactonoate as well as monohydroxycarlactones, 4-, 18-, and 19-hydroxycarlactones, were synthesized chemically and evaluated for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. Hyphal branching activity was found to correlate with the degree of oxidation at C-19 methyl. Carlactone was only weakly active (100 ng/disc), whereas carlactonoic acid showed comparable activity to the natural canonical strigolactones such as strigol and sorgomol (100 pg/disc). Hydroxylation at either C-4 or C-18 did not significantly affect the activity. A series of carlactone analogues, named AD ester and AA'D diester, was synthesized by reacting formyl Meldrum's acid with benzyl, cyclohexylmethyl, and cyclogeranyl alcohols (the A-ring part), followed by coupling of the potassium enolates of the resulting formylacetic esters with the D-ring butenolide. AD ester analogues exhibited moderate activity (1 ng-100 pg/disc), while AA'D diester analogues having cyclohexylmethyl and cyclogeranyl groups were highly active on the AM fungus (10 pg/disc). These results indicate that the oxidation of methyl to carboxyl at C-19 in carlactone is a prerequisite but BC-ring formation is not essential to show hyphal branching activity comparable to that of canonical strigolactones. PMID:27264641

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita reveals two unsuspected trans-splicing events of group I introns.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Adrian; Pombert, Jean-François; Salvioli, Alessandra; Bonen, Linda; Bonfante, Paola; Corradi, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous organisms that benefit ecosystems through the establishment of an association with the roots of most plants: the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Despite their ecological importance, however, these fungi have been poorly studied at the genome level. • In this study, total DNA from the AMF Gigaspora margarita was subjected to a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, and the resulting reads were used to assemble its mitochondrial genome de novo. This genome was annotated and compared with those of other relatives to better comprehend the evolution of the AMF lineage. • The mitochondrial genome of G. margarita is unique in many ways, exhibiting a large size (97 kbp) and elevated GC content (45%). This genome also harbors molecular events that were previously unknown to occur in fungal mitochondrial genomes, including trans-splicing of group I introns from two different genes coding for the first subunit of the cytochrome oxidase and for the small subunit of the rRNA. • This study reports the second published genome from an AMF organelle, resulting in relevant DNA sequence information from this poorly studied fungal group, and providing new insights into the frequency, origin and evolution of trans-spliced group I introns found across the mitochondrial genomes of distantly related organisms. PMID:22320438

  2. Effect of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on electrolyte leakage in Phaseolus vulgaris roots overexpressing RbohB.

    PubMed

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Nava, Noreide; Quinto, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory oxidative burst homolog (RBOH)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a wide range of biological functions in plants. They play a critical role in the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. For instance, overexpression of PvRbohB enhances nodule numbers, but reduces mycorrhizal colonization in Phaseolus vulgaris hairy roots and downregulation has the opposite effect. In the present study, we assessed the effect of both rhizobia and AM fungi on electrolyte leakage in transgenic P. vulgaris roots overexpressing (OE) PvRbohB. We demonstrate that elevated levels of electrolyte leakage in uninoculated PvRbohB-OE transgenic roots were alleviated by either Rhizobium or AM fungi symbiosis, with the latter interaction having the greater effect. These results suggest that symbiont colonization reduces ROS elevated electrolyte leakage in P. vulgaris root cells. PMID:25946118

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases host plant acceptance and population growth rates of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Daniela; Vierheilig, Horst; Riegler, Petra; Schausberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Most terrestrial plants live in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Studies on the direct interaction between plants and mycorrhizal fungi are numerous whereas studies on the indirect interaction between such fungi and herbivores feeding on aboveground plant parts are scarce. We studied the impact of AM symbiosis on host plant choice and life history of an acarine surface piercing-sucking herbivore, the polyphagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Experiments were performed on detached leaflets taken from common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) colonized or not colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. T. urticae females were subjected to choice tests between leaves from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Juvenile survival and development, adult female survival, oviposition rate and offspring sex ratio were measured in order to estimate the population growth parameters of T. urticae on either substrate. Moreover, we analyzed the macro- and micronutrient concentration of the aboveground plant parts. Adult T. urticae females preferentially resided and oviposited on mycorrhizal versus non-mycorrhizal leaflets. AM symbiosis significantly decreased embryonic development time and increased the overall oviposition rate as well as the proportion of female offspring produced during peak oviposition. Altogether, the improved life history parameters resulted in significant changes in net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, doubling time and finite rate of increase. Aboveground parts of colonized plants showed higher concentrations of P and K whereas Mn and Zn were both found at lower levels. This is the first study documenting the effect of AM symbiosis on the population growth rates of a herbivore, tracking the changes in life history characteristics throughout the life cycle. We discuss the AM-plant-herbivore interaction in relation to plant quality, herbivore feeding type and site and the evolutionary implications in a multi

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in field-collected terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns (Osmundaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Plagiogyriaceae, Cyatheaceae).

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Hirayama, Yumiko; Sakoda, Aki; Suzuki, Ayako; Ebihara, Atsushi; Morita, Nana; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status of pteridophyte gametophytes in diverse taxa, the mycorrhizal colonization of wild gametophytes was investigated in terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns, i.e., one species of Osmundaceae (Osmunda banksiifolia), two species of Gleicheniaceae (Diplopterygium glaucum, Dicranopteris linearis), and four species of Cyatheales including tree ferns (Plagiogyriaceae: Plagiogyria japonica, Plagiogyria euphlebia; Cyatheaceae: Cyathea podophylla, Cyathea lepifera). Microscopic observations revealed that 58 to 97% of gametophytes in all species were colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Fungal colonization was limited to the multilayered midrib (cushion) tissue in all gametophytes examined. Molecular identification using fungal SSU rDNA sequences indicated that the AM fungi in gametophytes primarily belonged to the Glomeraceae, but also included the Claroideoglomeraceae, Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Archaeosporales. This study provides the first evidence for AM fungal colonization of wild gametophytes in the Plagiogyriaceae and Cyatheaceae. Taxonomically divergent photosynthetic gametophytes are similarly colonized by AM fungi, suggesting that mycorrhizal associations with AM fungi could widely occur in terrestrial pteridophyte gametophytes. PMID:26047572

  5. Grain yield and arsenic uptake of upland rice inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in As-spiked soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi species, including Glomus geosporum BGC HUN02C, G. versiforme BGC GD01B, and G. mosseae BGC GD01A, on grain yield and arsenic (As) uptake of upland rice (Zhonghan 221) in As-spiked soils. Moderate levels of AM colonization (24.1-63.1 %) were recorded in the roots of upland rice, and up to 70 mg kg(-1) As in soils did not seem to inhibit mycorrhizal colonization. Positive mycorrhizal growth effects in grain, husk, straw, and root of the upland rice, especially under high level (70 mg kg(-1)) of As in soils, were apparent. Although the effects varied among species of AM fungi, inoculation of AM fungi apparently enhanced grain yield of upland rice without increasing grain As concentrations in As-spiked soils, indicating that AM fungi could alleviate adverse effects on the upland rice caused by As in soils. The present results also show that mycorrhizal inoculation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased As concentrations in husk, straw, and root in soils added with 70 mg kg(-1) As. The present results suggest that AM fungi are able to mitigate the adverse effects with enhancing rice production when growing in As-contaminated soils. PMID:23292227

  6. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation and tree-herb interactions in Pb contaminated soil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Han, Xiaozhen; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-02-04

    Understanding the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant interaction is essential for optimizing plant distribution to restore degraded ecosystems. Here, our study investigated the effects of AMF and the presence of legume or grass herbs on phytoremediation with a legume tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, in Pb polluted soil. In monoculture, mycorrhizal dependency of legumes was higher than that of grass, and AMF benefited the plant biomass of legumes but had no effect on grass. Mycorrhizal colonization of plant was enhanced by legume neighbors but inhibited by grass neighbor in co-culture system. N, P, S and Mg concentrations of mycorrhizalmore » legumes were larger than these of non-mycorrhizal legumes. Legume herbs decreased soil pH and thereby increased the Pb concentrations of plants. The neighbor effects of legumes shifted from negative to positive with increasing Pb stress levels, whereas grass provided a negative effect on the growth of legume tree. AMF enhanced the competition but equalized growth of legume-legume under unpolluted and Pb stress conditions, respectively. In conclusion, (1) AMF mediate plant interaction through directly influencing plant biomass, and/or indirectly influencing plant photosynthesis, macronutrient acquisition, (2) legume tree inoculated with AMF and co-planted with legume herbs provides an effective way for Pb phytoremediation.« less

  7. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum) associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment) were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N)-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass), while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer) and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples. Further

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium facilitate nitrogen uptake and transfer in soybean/maize intercropping system

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbo; Zhang, Aiyuan; Wang, Fei; Han, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dejiang; Li, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite symbiosis between legumes, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi are generally considered to be beneficial for the nitrogen (N) uptake of legumes, but the facilitation of symbiosis in legume/non-legume intercropping systems is not clear. Therefore, the aims of the research are as follows: (1) to verify if the dual inoculation can facilitate the N uptake and N transfer in maize/soybean intercropping systems and (2) to calculate how much N will be transferred from soybean to maize. A pot experiment with different root separations [solid barrier, mesh (30 μm) barrier and no barrier] was conducted, and the 15N isotopic tracing method was used to calculate how much N transferred from soybean to maize inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobium in a soybean (Glycine max L.cv. Dongnong No. 42)/maize (Zea mays L.cv. Dongnong No. 48) intercropping system. Compared with the Glomus mosseae inoculation (G.m.), Rhizobium SH212 inoculation (SH212), no inoculation (NI), the dual inoculation (SH212+G.m.) increased the N uptake of soybean by 28.69, 39.58, and 93.07% in a solid barrier system. N uptake of maize inoculated with both G. mosseae and rhizobium was 1.20, 1.28, and 1.68 times more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI, respectively, in solid barrier treatments. In addition, the amount of N transferred from soybean to maize in a dual inoculation system with a mesh barrier was 7.25, 7.01, and 11.45 mg more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI and similarly, 6.40, 7.58, and 12.46 mg increased in no barrier treatments. Inoculating with both AMF and rhizobium in the soybean/maize intercropping system improved the N fixation efficiency of soybean and promoted N transfer from soybean to maize, resulting in the improvement of yield advantages of legume/non-legume intercropping. PMID:26029236

  9. Promiscuous arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of yam (Dioscorea spp.), a key staple crop in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tchabi, Atti; Burger, Stefanie; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

    2009-08-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a tuberous staple food crop of major importance in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa. Optimal yields commonly are obtained only in the first year following slash-and-burn in the shifting cultivation systems. It appears that the yield decline in subsequent years is not merely caused by soil nutrient depletion but might be due to a loss of the beneficial soil microflora, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), associated with tropical "tree-aspect" savannas and dry forests that are the natural habitats of the wild relatives of yam. Our objective was to study the AMF communities of natural savannas and adjacent yam fields in the Southern Guinea savanna of Benin. AMF were identified by morphotyping spores in the soil from the field sites and in AMF trap cultures with Sorghum bicolor and yam (Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea cayenensis) as bait plants. AMF species richness was higher in the savanna than in the yam-field soils (18-25 vs. 11-16 spp.), but similar for both ecosystems (29-36 spp.) according to the observations in trap cultures. Inoculation of trap cultures with soil sampled during the dry season led to high AMF root colonization, spore production, and species richness (overall 45 spp.) whereas inoculation with wet-season soil was inefficient (two spp. only). The use of D. cayenensis and D. rotundata as baits yielded 28 and 29 AMF species, respectively, and S. bicolor 37 species. AMF root colonization, however, was higher in yam than in sorghum (70-95 vs. 11-20%). After 8 months of trap culturing, the mycorrhizal yam had a higher tuber biomass than the nonmycorrhizal controls. The AMF actually colonizing D. rotundata roots in the field were also studied using a novel field sampling procedure for molecular analyses. Multiple phylotaxa were detected that corresponded with the spore morphotypes observed. It is, therefore, likely that the legacy of indigenous AMF from the natural savanna plays a crucial role for yam

  10. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers

    PubMed Central

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum) associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment) were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N)-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass), while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer) and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples. Further