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Sample records for arc energy limiting

  1. Investigation on the Arc Ignition Characteristics and Energy Absorption of Liquid Metal Current Limiter Based on Self-Pinch Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xingbao; Sun, Haishun; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-05-01

    The GaInSn liquid metal current limiter based on the fluid pinch effect has broad application prospects due to its particular properties. However, the limited rated current and ability of power dissipation are the critical problems for its wide application. Firstly, the temperature distribution of the liquid metal current limiter (LMCL) was obtained by experiments with a rated current of 1 kA and the arc ignition phenomenon was observed with 1.5 kA, which indicates that the rated current is mainly limited by the arc rather than the high temperature compared to the traditional switchgears. Furthermore, an improved method is proposed by adding the paralleled pure resistance, impedance or another LMCL element to protect the setup from the fault energy concentration in the setup. The problem of a slower arc voltage increasing rate can be solved by adding a paralleled impedance with suitable parameters. Finally, the current limiting properties based on the improved method were investigated and the alternating oscillating current was found between two paralleled LMCL elements owing to their deviation of arc ignition in reality. supported by the Technology Project of State Grid (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251005)

  2. Magnetically operated limit switch has improved reliability, minimizes arcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, R.

    1966-01-01

    Limit switch for reliable, low-travel, snap action with negligible arcing uses an electrically nonconductive permanent magnet consisting of a ferrimagnetic ceramic and ferromagnetic pole shoes which form a magnetic and electrically conductive circuit with a ferrous-metal armature.

  3. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  4. Thermoacoustic energy effects in electrical arcs.

    PubMed

    Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M; Miller, G H; Humilier, M

    1999-10-30

    Electrical arcs commonly occur in electrical injury incidents. Historically, safe work distances from an energized surface along with personal barrier protection have been employee safety strategies used to minimize electrical arc hazard exposures. Here, the two-dimensional computational simulation of an electrical arc explosion is reported using color graphics to depict the temperature and acoustic force propagation across the geometry of a hypothetical workroom during a time from 0 to 50 ms after the arc initiation. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental findings of staged tests involving a mannequin worker monitored for electrical current flow, temperature, and pressure, and reported data regarding neurologic injury thresholds. This report demonstrates a credible link between electrical explosions and the risk for pressure (acoustic) wave trauma. Our ultimate goal is to protect workers through the design and implementation of preventive strategies that properly account for all electrical arc-induced hazards, including electrical, thermal, and acoustic effects. PMID:10842616

  5. Arc Energy Estimations: Applications in Lightning-Induced Concrete Spall

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Ong, M M

    2008-06-03

    After lightning contacts a building, the possibility of a physical break in its conductive path to ground may exist. Given such a break, an electric field may develop across the gap until it exceeds the breakdown strength of the non-conducting, or dielectric, material. Breakdown subsequently occurs and energy is dissipated during the development of an arc channel. If the dielectric is concrete, a concern exists that the energy available for arc formation may be capable of launching pieces of spall into sensitive equipment. This paper discusses the mechanisms of energy dissipation in arc formation and quantifies the energy available for concrete spall.

  6. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  7. Possibility of liberating solar energy via water arc explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, G.; Graneau, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports progress in an experimental investigation, started in the Hathaway laboratory in 1994, which deals with the liberation of intermolecular bonding energy from ordinary water by means of an arc discharge. A new fog accelerator is described and a table of results of the kinetic energies of fog jets is included. The energy of liquid cohesion is stored in water during condensation when the vapor molecules transform their kinetic energy to potential energy. Since the kinetic energy of the vapor was acquired by solar heating of the atmosphere, it is solar energy in concentrated form that is being liberated by water arc explosions. To utilize the internal water energy for electricity generation, large reductions in circuit loss and barrel losses have to be achieved. The objective has been to prove the liberation of internal water energy. The authors have made no effort to optimize the process.

  8. Current interruption limit and resistance of the self-similar electric arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Thomas; Seeger, Martin

    2005-05-01

    A model for the axially blown cylindrical arc is derived. In contrast to earlier theories, the model is gauge invariant with respect to energy, which is crucial for investigating current interruption. We determine from our model the dependence of the maximum interruptible current rate, (dI/dt)L, on the pressure, on the parallel capacitance, and on the line impedance for an SF6 arc. (dI/dt)L scales, approximately independent of the gas type, with the square root of the pressure. The arc resistance, at current zero with current rate equal to (dI/dt)L, is pressure independent. As a consequence, the arc resistance at current zero can serve as a figure of merit for the interruption performance of gas circuit breakers.

  9. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schein, Jochen (Inventor); Gerhan, Andrew N. (Inventor); Woo, Robyn L. (Inventor); Au, Michael Y. (Inventor); Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a vacuum arc plasma source device using a low mass, compact inductive energy storage circuit powered by a low voltage DC supply acts as a vacuum arc plasma thruster. An inductor is charged through a switch, subsequently the switch is opened and a voltage spike of Ldi/dt is produced initiating plasma across a resistive path separating anode and cathode. The plasma is subsequently maintained by energy stored in the inductor. Plasma is produced from cathode material, which allows for any electrically conductive material to be used. A planar structure, a tubular structure, and a coaxial structure allow for consumption of cathode material feed and thereby long lifetime of the thruster for long durations of time.

  10. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick ()similarreverse arrowto)1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target ()similarreverse arrowto)1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Optimization of Stability Constrained Geometrically Nonlinear Shallow Trusses Using an Arc Length Sparse Method with a Strain Energy Density Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2008-01-01

    A technique for the optimization of stability constrained geometrically nonlinear shallow trusses with snap through behavior is demonstrated using the arc length method and a strain energy density approach within a discrete finite element formulation. The optimization method uses an iterative scheme that evaluates the design variables' performance and then updates them according to a recursive formula controlled by the arc length method. A minimum weight design is achieved when a uniform nonlinear strain energy density is found in all members. This minimal condition places the design load just below the critical limit load causing snap through of the structure. The optimization scheme is programmed into a nonlinear finite element algorithm to find the large strain energy at critical limit loads. Examples of highly nonlinear trusses found in literature are presented to verify the method.

  12. Locating very high energy gamma ray sources with arc minute accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D. J.; Harris, K.; Hillas, A. M.; Jennings, D. G.; Lamb, R. C.; Lawrence, M. A.; Lang, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The angular accuracy of gamma-ray detectors is intrinsically limited by the physical processes involved in photon detection. Although a number of point-like sources were detected by the COS-B satellite, only two were unambiguously identified by time signature with counterparts at longer wavelengths. By taking advantage of the extended longitudinal structure of Very High Energy gamma-ray showers, measurements in the TeV energy range can pinpoint source coordinates to arc minute accuracy. This was demonstrated using Cerenkov air shower imaging techniques. With two telescopes in coincidence, the individual event circular probable error will be 0.13 deg. The half-cone angle of the field of view is effectively 1 deg.

  13. Diffraction limited gamma-ray optics using Fresnel lenses for micro-arc second angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, G.; von Ballmoos, P.; Gehrels, N.; Krzmanic, J.

    2003-03-01

    Refractive indices at gamma-ray wavelengths are such that material thicknesses of the order of millimeters allow the phase of a wavefront to be changed by up to 2π . Thus a phase Fresnel lens can be made from a simple profiled thin disk of, for example, aluminium or plastic. Such a lens can easily have a collecting area of several square meters and an efficiency >90%. Ordinary engineering tolerances allow the manufacture of a lens which can be diffraction limited in the pico-meter wavelength band (up to ˜MeV) and thus provides a simple optical system with angular resolution better than a micro arc second i.e. the resolution necessary to resolve structures on the scale of the event horizon of super-massive black holes in AGN. However the focal length of such a lens is very long - up to a million km. Nevertheless studies have shown that a mission `Fresnel' using a detector and a phase Fresnel lens on two station-keeping spacecraft separated by such a distance is feasible. Results from these studies and work on other proof of concept studies are presented.

  14. Charge state dependence of cathodic vacuum arc ion energy andvelocity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Schneider, Jochen M.; Anders, Andre

    2006-08-15

    In the literature, conflicting conclusions are reported concerning the charge state dependence of cathodic arc ion energy and velocity distributions. It appears that data from electrostatic energy analyzers indicate charge state dependence of ion energy, whereas time-of-flight methods support charge state independence of ion velocity. Here we present charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions and calculate the corresponding ion velocity distributions in aluminum vacuum arc plasma. We show that the conflicting conclusions reported in the literature for the two different characterization techniques may originate from the commonly employed data interpretation of energy and velocity, in which peak values and average values are not carefully distinguished.

  15. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  16. On the Absorption Spectrum of Noble Gases at the Arc Spectrum Limit

    PubMed Central

    Fano, Ugo; Pupillo, Guido; Zannoni, Alberto; Clark, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    Rydberg spectral lines of an atom are sometimes superimposed on the continuous spectrum of a different configuration. Effects of interaction among different configurations in one of these cases are theoretically investigated, and a formula is obtained that describes the behavior of absorption spectrum intensity. This offers qualitative justification of some experimental results obtained by BEUTLER in studies of absorption arc spectra of noble gases and Ib spectra of some metal vapors. PMID:27308180

  17. Numerical Simulation of Energy Balance in Argon-Helium Mixed Gas Tungsten Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu; Nakata, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Fusaki; Suzuki, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Kei

    High temperature arc plasma produced by employing Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) is highly controllable, since it is stabilized with a shielding gas. Additionally, GTA requires low cost for equipment investment. Therefore, it is widely utilized as a heat source for material processing such as melting, cutting and welding, or decomposition and detoxification of toxic waste. Energy source properties of GTA strongly depend on the physical properties of the shielding gas. For instance, helium (He) gas or admixture of He gas with argon gas is employed as the shielding gas for conditions requiring high productivity in GTA welding process. Since He has low electrical conductivity especially in low temperature range due to high ionization potential, the current channel in He arc plasma is constricted near the arc axis. Consequently, the enhanced heat input intensity into a base material by the constriction increases weld depth and, thus, leads to the high productivity. However, the effect of the admixture on the heat input characteristics to the base metal is still not clear. In this paper, energy source properties of Ar-He GTA are predicted. The properties of arc plasma and the heat input intensity into a water-cooled copper anode are numerically analyzed.

  18. Energy Distribution of a Prototype KSTAR Neutral Beam Ion Source for 300 s Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Doo-Hee; Jeong, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon

    2008-02-01

    A neutral beam test-stand (NBTS) system has been developed for the extraction of a 300 s deuterium beam of 120 kV/65 A as an auxiliary heating system of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The prototype long pulse ion source (LPIS) consists of a plasma generator and a set of tetrode accelerators. Beam extraction for 300 s was achieved at a maximum hydrogen beam power of 1.6 MW (70 kV/23 A) with an arc discharge power of 63 kW. The energy distribution of the ion source was analyzed by water-flow calorimetry (WFC) by monitoring the cooling-water temperature during the arc discharge. The power dissipation rate on the accelerator column was 0.97% of the total extracted ion beam power with a power loss of 0.2% caused by the collision of back stream electrons with the electron dump plate of the plasma generator. 74.2% of the total energy of was estimated to be distributed in the plasma generator and the accelerator for an arc discharge of 300 s. Also, 75.6% of the total energy was distributed in the ion source for an arc discharge of 2 s. The remaining energy was lost through the structures around the water-cooling path.

  19. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  20. Steel: Energy-Efficient Arc Furnace Dust into Saleable Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-29

    Drinkard Metalox, Inc., has developed an innovative new technology to completely process electric arc furnace dust into saleable products by means of a hydro metallurgical process. Order this fact sheet to read how this new technology can both lower energy costs and eliminate the need to dispose of and transport hazardous waste off site.

  1. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-16

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focussed on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy ana-lyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimen-tary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpre-tation. It was found that the ion energy distribution func-tions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be re-duced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum.

  2. Enthalpy By Energy Balance for Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center Arc Jet Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; MacDonald, Christine L.; Martinez, Edward R.; Balboni, John A.; Anderson, Karl F.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Arc Jet Facilities' Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) has been instrumented for the Enthalpy By Energy Balance (EB2) method. Diagnostic EB2 data is routinely taken for all AHF runs. This paper provides an overview of the EB2 method implemented in the AHF. The chief advantage of the AHF implementation over earlier versions is the non-intrusiveness of the instruments used. For example, to measure the change in cooling water temperature, thin film 1000 ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are used with an Anderson Current Loop (ACL) as the signal conditioner. The ACL with 1000 ohm RTDs allows for very sensitive measurement of the increase in temperature (Delta T) of the cooling water to the arc heater, which is a critical element of the EB2 method. Cooling water flow rates are measured with non-intrusive ultrasonic flow meters.

  3. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  4. Relationship between the Cascadia fore-arc mantle wedge, nonvolcanic tremor, and the downdip limit of seismogenic rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Hyndman, Roy D.; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-04-01

    earthquakes anticipated on the Cascadia subduction fault can potentially rupture beyond the geodetically and thermally inferred locked zone to the depths of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) or to the even deeper fore-arc mantle corner (FMC). To evaluate these extreme rupture limits, we map the FMC from southern Vancouver Island to central Oregon by combining published seismic velocity structures with a model of the Juan de Fuca plate. These data indicate that the FMC is somewhat shallower beneath Vancouver Island (36-38 km) and Oregon (35-40 km) and deeper beneath Washington (41-43 km). The updip edge of tremor follows the same general pattern, overlying a slightly shallower Juan de Fuca plate beneath Vancouver Island and Oregon (˜30 km) and a deeper plate beneath Washington (˜35 km). Similar to the Nankai subduction zone, the best constrained FMC depths correlate with the center of the tremor band suggesting that ETS is controlled by conditions near the FMC rather than directly by temperature or pressure. Unlike Nankai, a gap as wide as 70 km exists between the downdip limit of the inferred locked zone and the FMC. This gap also encompasses a ˜50 km wide gap between the inferred locked zones and the updip limit of tremor. The separation of these features offers a natural laboratory for determining the key controls on downdip rupture limits.

  5. Comparative dosimetry of volumetric modulated arc therapy and limited-angle static intensity-modulated radiation therapy for early-stage larynx cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Riegel, Adam C.; Antone, Jeffrey; Schwartz, David L.

    2013-04-01

    To compare relative carotid and normal tissue sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early-stage larynx cancer. Seven treatment plans were retrospectively created on 2 commercial treatment planning systems for 11 consecutive patients with T1-2N0 larynx cancer. Conventional plans consisted of opposed-wedged fields. IMRT planning used an anterior 3-field beam arrangement. Two VMAT plans were created, a full 360° arc and an anterior 180° arc. Given planning target volume (PTV) coverage of 95% total volume at 95% of 6300 cGy and maximum spinal cord dose below 2500 cGy, mean carotid artery dose was pushed as low as possible for each plan. Deliverability was assessed by comparing measured and planned planar dose with the gamma (γ) index. Full-arc planning provided the most effective carotid sparing but yielded the highest mean normal tissue dose (where normal tissue was defined as all soft tissue minus PTV). Static IMRT produced next-best carotid sparing with lower normal tissue dose. The anterior half-arc produced the highest carotid artery dose, in some cases comparable with conventional opposed fields. On the whole, carotid sparing was inversely related to normal tissue dose sparing. Mean γ indexes were much less than 1, consistent with accurate delivery of planned treatment. Full-arc VMAT yields greater carotid sparing than half-arc VMAT. Limited-angle IMRT remains a reasonable alternative to full-arc VMAT, given its ability to mediate the competing demands of carotid and normal tissue dose constraints. The respective clinical significance of carotid and normal tissue sparing will require prospective evaluation.

  6. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  7. Fundamental Limits to Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear vibration energy harvesting has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. However, fundamental limits on the harvestable energy of a harvester subjected to an arbitrary excitation force and different constraints is not yet fully understood. Understanding these limits is not only essential for an assessment of the technology potential, but it also provides a broader perspective on the current harvesting mechanisms and guidance in their improvement. Here, we derive the fundamental limits on the output power of an ideal energy harvester for arbitrary excitation waveforms and build on the current analysis framework for the simple computation of this limit for more sophisticated setups. We show that the optimal harvester maximizes the harvested energy through a mechanical analog of a buy-low-sell-high strategy. We also propose a nonresonant passive latch-assisted harvester to realize this strategy for an effective harvesting. It is shown that the proposed harvester harvests energy more effectively than its linear and bistable counterparts over a wider range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The buy-low-sell-high strategy also reveals why the conventional bistable harvester works well at low-frequency excitation.

  8. Astrophysical implications of high energy neutrino limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Groß, Andreas; Münich, Kirsten; Dreyer, Jens; Rhode, Wolfgang; Biermann, Peter L.

    2007-09-01

    Second generation high energy neutrino telescopes are being built to reach sensitivities of neutrino emission from galactic and extragalactic sources. Current neutrino detectors are already able to set limits which are in the range of some emission models. In particular, the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection Array (AMANDA) has recently presented the so-far most restrictive limit on diffuse neutrino emission [A. Achterberg et al., Phys. Rev. D, submitted for publication, astro-ph/0705.1315.]. Stacking limits which apply to AGN point source classes rather than to single point sources [A. Achterberg, et al., IceCube Collaboration and P.L. Biermann, Astrophys. Phys. 26 (2006) 282] are given as well. In this paper, the two different types of limits will be used to draw conclusions about different emission models. An interpretation of stacking limits as diffuse limits to the emission from considered point source class is presented. The limits can for instance be used to constrain the predicted correlation of EGRET-detected diffuse emission and neutrino emission. Also, the correlation between X-ray and neutrino emission is constrained. Further results for source classes like TeV blazars and FR-II galaxies are presented. Starting from the source catalogs so-far examined for the stacking method, we discuss further potential catalogs and examine the possibilities of the second generation telescopes ICECUBE and KM3NET by comparing catalogs with respect to northern and southern hemisphere total flux.

  9. Comparative characteristics of electron energy spectrum in PIG and arc type discharge plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanyuk, L. I.; Suavilnyy, N. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The electron distribution functions relative to the velocity component directed along the magnetic field are compared for PIG and arc type discharges. The identity of these functions for the plasma region pierced by the primary electron beam and their difference in the peripheral part of the discharge are shown. It is concluded that the electron distribution function in the PIG type discharge is formed during one transit of the primary electron through the discharge gap. The mechanisms of electron energy spectrum formation in both the axis region and the peripheral region of the discharge are discussed.

  10. Electron Energy Estimatons From Rotational Temperature Data In An Auroral Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K.; Jussila, J.

    An arc-like auroral form passed twice over the magnetic zenith at Kilpisjärvi (68.47N, 22.44E), Finland, on 31st January 2001. The form was measured by a zenith- photometer at Kilpisjärvi and by a scanning photometer at Karesuvanto about 150 km Southeast from Kilpisjärvi. The form is studied in terms of rotational tempera- ture in order to estimate energies of precipitating particles causing the emissions. The zenith-photometer is used to clarify the total flux of the electrons and effective emis- sion height, whereas the scanning photometer gives the intensity distribution over the height.

  11. Distributed energy store railgun; The limiting case

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated.

  12. High energy implantation with high-charge-state ions in a vacuum arc ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M. |; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion implantation energy can in principal be increased by increasing the charge states of the ions produced by the ion source rather than by increasing the implanter operating voltage, providing an important savings in cost and size of the implanter. In some recent work the authors have shown that the charge states of metal ions produced in a vacuum arc ion source can be elevated by a strong magnetic field. In general, the effect of both high arc current and high magnetic field is to push the distribution to higher charge states--the mean ion charge state is increased and new high charge states are formed. The effect is significant for implantation application--the mean ion energy can be about doubled without change in extraction voltage. Here they describe the ion source modifications, the results of time-of-flight measurements of ion charge state distributions, and discuss the use and implications of this technique as a means for doing metal iron implantation in the multi-hundreds of keV ion energy range.

  13. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  14. On the anticorrelation of the electric field and peak electron energy within an auroral arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an example of a strongly anticorrelated electric field and particle precipitation, taking into account an application of an extended version of the model of Evans et al. (1977) to the data. A striking feature of the data reported is the high degree of anticorrelation between electric field strength and peak precipitating electron energy. A simple model consisting of a constant current traversing a region in which the conductivities increase in proportion to ionospheric energy deposition provides a qualitative explanation of the observations. However, when the effects of neutral winds, ionization transport, Hall currents, and arc motion, and the nonlinearity of the relationship between peak precipitating electron energy and equilibrium are considered, the conclusions become less clear.

  15. Energy Characterization of Short-Circuiting Transfer of Metal Droplet in Gas Metal Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Luo; Yang, Zhu; Xiaojian, Xie; Rui, Wan

    2015-08-01

    The structure-borne acoustic emission (AE) signals were detected in real time in gas metal arc (GMA) welding and pulse GMA (P-GMA) welding. According to the AE signals, the mode of short-circuiting transfer was analyzed, and the energy gradient and total energy were calculated. The calculation to the AE signals of one metal droplet transfer (MDT) showed that the energy gradient increased with increasing welding heat input not only in GMA welding but also in P-GMA welding. The energy gradient of one MDT in P-GMA welding was higher than that in GMA welding, which indicated that a high energy gradient was the basic reason for the additional vibration energy provided by pulse effect in P-GMA welding. The total energy of AE signals increased with increasing welding heat input not only in GMA welding but also in P-GMA welding. The total energy of AE signals in P-GMA welding was higher than that in GMA welding, which indicated that the additional vibration energy provided by welding pulses was the main cause of the grain structure refining in P-GMA welding. So, the results provided another means to predict the weld grain size and optimize the welding process by AE signals detected in welding.

  16. Theoretical efficiency limits for thermoradiative energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-02-07

    A new method to produce electricity from heat called thermoradiative energy conversion is analyzed. The method is based on sustaining a difference in the chemical potential for electron populations above and below an energy gap and let this difference drive a current through an electric circuit. The difference in chemical potential originates from an imbalance in the excitation and de-excitation of electrons across the energy gap. The method has similarities to thermophotovoltaics and conventional photovoltaics. While photovoltaic cells absorb thermal radiation from a body with higher temperature than the cell itself, thermoradiative cells are hot during operation and emit a net outflow of photons to colder surroundings. A thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.25 eV at a temperature of 500 K in surroundings at 300 K is found to have a theoretical efficiency limit of 33.2%. For a high-temperature thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.4 eV, a theoretical efficiency close to 50% is found while the cell produces 1000 W/m{sup 2} has a temperature of 1000 K and is placed in surroundings with a temperature of 300 K. Some aspects related to the practical implementation of the concept are discussed and some challenges are addressed. It is, for example, obvious that there is an upper boundary for the temperature under which solid state devices can work properly over time. No conclusions are drawn with regard to such practical boundaries, because the work is aimed at establishing upper limits for ideal thermoradiative devices.

  17. Final Design And Manufacturing of the PEP II High Energy Ring Arc Bellows Module

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Nadine R.; Kulikov, Artem; Corlett, John; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    A novel RF shield bellows module developed at SLAC has been successfully manufactured and installed in the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER). Tests indicate that the module meets its performance and operational requirements. The primary function of the bellows module is to allow for thermal expansion of the chambers and for lateral, longitudinal and angular offsets due to tolerances and alignment, while providing RF continuity between adjoining chambers. An update on the Arc bellows module for the PEP-II High Energy Ring is presented. Final design, manufacturing issues, material and coating selection, and tribological and RF testing are discussed. Performance and operational requirements are also reviewed. The RF shield design has been proven during assembly to allow for large manufacturing tolerances without reducing the mechanical spring force below required values. In addition, the RF shield maintains electrical contact even with large misalignments across the module.

  18. Towards a theory for Neptune's arc rings

    SciTech Connect

    Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.; Borderies, N.

    1986-08-01

    It is proposed that the incomplete rings of Neptune consist of a number of short arcs centered on the corotation resonances of a single satellite. The satellite must have a radius of the order of 100 km or more and move on an inclined orbit. Corotation resonances are located at potential maxima. Thus, mechanical energy dissipated by interparticle collisions must be continually replenished to prevent the arcs from spreading. It is shown that each corotation resonance is associated with a nearby Lindblad resonance, which excites the ring particles' orbital eccentricity, thus supplying the energy required to maintain the arc. The ultimate energy reservoir is the satellite's orbital energy. Therefore, interaction with the arcs damps the satellite's orbital inclination. The self-gravity of the arcs limits their contraction and enforces a relation between arc length and mass. The estimated arc masses are so small, of the order of 10 to the 16th g, that the satellite's orbital inclination suffers negligible decay over the age of the solar system. The inferred surface mass densities are comparable to those found in the major rings of Saturn and Uranus. 15 references.

  19. Load limiting energy absorbing lightweight debris catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the representative embodiment of the invention disclosed, a load limiting, energy absorbing net is arranged to overlay a normally-covered vent opening in the rear bulkhead of the space orbiter vehicle. Spatially-disposed flexible retainer straps are extended from the net and respectively secured to bulkhead brackets spaced around the vent opening. The intermediate portions of the straps are doubled over and stitched together in a pattern enabling the doubled-over portions to progressively separate at a predicable load designed to be well below the tensile capability of the straps as the stitches are successively torn apart by the forces imposed on the retainer members whenever the cover plate is explosively separated from the bulkhead and propelled into the net. By arranging these stitches to be successively torn away at a load below the strap strength in response to forces acting on the retainers that are less than the combined strength of the retainers, this tearing action serves as a predictable compact energy absorber for safely halting the cover plate as the retainers are extended as the net is deployed. The invention further includes a block of an energy-absorbing material positioned in the net for receiving loose debris produced by the explosive release of the cover plate.

  20. Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2008-01-01

    Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

  1. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-05-26

    Cooling apparatuses and methods are provided which include one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is coupled to the N controllable components, and dynamically adjusts operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, to provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  2. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-06-09

    Cooling methods are provided which include providing: one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is also provided to dynamically adjust operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, and provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  3. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  4. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy..., Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta...

  5. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  6. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-13

    This report contains TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the United States by 1990. The low, medium, and high world-oil-price scenarios from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. TERA's approach varies by energy commodity to make best use of the information and analytical tools available. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given. Total investment requirements for three modes (pipelines, rails, waterways and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $49.9 to $50.9 billion range depending on the scenario. The scenarios are distinguished primarily by the world price of oil which, given deregulation of domestic oil prices, affects US oil prices even more profoundly than in the past. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past.

  7. Klystron Gun Arcing and Modulator Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S

    2004-05-04

    The demand for 500 kV and 265 amperes peak to power an X-Band klystron brings up protection issues for klystron faults and the energy dumped into the arc from the modulator. This situation is made worse when more than one klystron will be driven from a single modulator, such as the existing schemes for running two and eight klystrons. High power pulsed klystrons have traditionally be powered by line type modulators which match the driving impedance with the load impedance and therefore current limit at twice the operating current. Multiple klystrons have the added problems of a lower modulator source impedance and added stray capacitance, which converts into appreciable energy at high voltages like 500kV. SLAC has measured the energy dumped into klystron arcs in a single and dual klystron configuration at the 400 to 450 kV level and found interesting characteristics in the arc formation. The author will present measured data from klystron arcs powered from line-type modulators in several configurations. The questions arise as to how the newly designed solid-state modulators, running multiple tubes, will react to a klystron arc and how much energy will be dumped into the arc.

  8. Limits to Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Photovoltaic converters: essential requirements * Thermodynamic properties of sunlight * `Top-down' thermodynamic efficiency limits * Single-cell efficiency limits * Multiple-junction devices * Other high-efficiency options * Summary * Acknowledgement * References

  9. Arc driver operation for either efficient energy transfer or high-current generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, R. E.; Silva, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation is made to establish predictable electric arcs along triggered paths for research purposes, the intended application being the heating of the driver gas of a 1 MJ electrically driven shock tube. Trigger conductors consisting of wires, open tubes, and tubes pressurized with different gases were investigated either on the axis of the arc chamber or spiraled along the chamber walls. Design criteria are presented for successful arc initiation with reproducible voltage-current characteristics. Results are compared with other facilities and several application areas are discussed.

  10. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    PubMed

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm. PMID:21944704

  11. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  12. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process for Maximum Ballistic Limit in MIL A46100 Steel Welded All-Metal Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Our recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the process optimization for the attainment of maximum ballistic limit within the weld. The original model consists of six modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) electro-dynamics of the welding gun; (b) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler metal consumable electrode to the weld; (c) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (d) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; (e) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties; and (f) spatial distribution of the material ballistic limit. In the present work, the model is upgraded through the introduction of the seventh module in recognition of the fact that identification of the optimum GMAW process parameters relative to the attainment of the maximum ballistic limit within the weld region entails the use of advanced optimization and statistical sensitivity analysis methods and tools. The upgraded GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler metal electrodes made of the same material. The predictions of the upgraded GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

  13. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  14. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  15. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  16. Arcing in LEO: Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts of the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  17. Arcing in LEO - Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  18. Microbial Life Under Extreme Energy Limitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Jorgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    A great number of the bacteria and archaea on Earth are found in subsurface environments in a physiological state that is poorly represented or explained by laboratory cultures. Microbial cells in these very stable and oligotrophic settings catabolize 104- to 106-fold more slowly than model organisms in nutrient-rich cultures, turn over biomass on timescales of centuries to millennia rather than hours to days, and subsist with energy fluxes that are 1,000-fold lower than the typical culture-based estimates of maintenance requirements. To reconcile this disparate state of being with our knowledge of microbial physiology will require a revised understanding of microbial energy requirements, including identifying the factors that comprise true basal maintenance and the adaptations that might serve to minimize these factors.

  19. Characterization of plasma chemistry and ion energy in cathodic arc plasma from Ti-Si cathodes of different compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, A. O.; Zhirkov, I.; Dahlqvist, M.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Rosen, J.

    2013-04-28

    Arc plasma from Ti-Si compound cathodes with up to 25 at. % Si was characterized in a DC arc system with respect to chemistry and charge-state-resolved ion energy. The plasma ion composition showed a lower Si content, diverging up to 12 at. % compared to the cathode composition, yet concurrently deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. Significant contribution to film growth from neutrals is inferred besides ions, since the contribution from macroparticles, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, cannot alone account for the compositional difference between cathode, plasma, and film. The average ion charge states for Ti and Si were higher than reference data for elemental cathodes. This result is likely related to TiSi{sub x} phases of higher cohesive energies in the compound cathodes and higher effective electron temperature in plasma formation. The ion energy distributions extended up to {approx}200 and {approx}130 eV for Ti and Si, respectively, with corresponding average energies of {approx}60 and {approx}30 eV. These averages were, however, not dependent on Si content in the cathode, except for 25 at. % Si where the average energies were increased up to 72 eV for Ti and 47 eV for Si.

  20. Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feustel, J.

    1981-10-01

    The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds of 5-7.9 m/sec. Applications for utility-grade power production, for irrigation, for mechanical heat production, and for pumped storage in water towers or reservoirs are mentioned, as well as electrical power production in remote areas and for hydrogen production by electrolysis. Power coefficients are discussed, with attention given to the German Growian 3 MW machine. It is shown that the least economically sound wind turbines, the machines with outputs below 100 kW, can vie with diesel plant economics in a good wind regime if the wind turbine operates for 15 yr.

  1. Effects of relative positioning of energy sources on weld integrity for hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuangyu; Li, Yanqing; Liu, Fengde; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Hongtao

    2016-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of laser and arc arrangement on weld integrity for the hybrid laser arc welding processes. Experiments were conducted for a high-strength steel using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser and a metal active gas (MAG) welding facility under two configurations of arc-laser hybrid welding (ALHW) and laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW). Metallographic analysis and mechanical testing were performed to evaluate the weld integrity in terms of weld bead geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties. The morphology of the weld bead cross-section was studied and the typical macrostructure of the weld beads appeared to be cone-shaped and cocktail cup-shaped under ALHW and LAHW configurations, respectively. The weld integrity attributes of microstructure, phase constituents and microhardness were analyzed for different weld regions. The tensile and impact tests were performed and fracture surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The study showed that ALHW produced joints with a better weld shape and a more uniform microstructure of lath martensite, while LAHW weld had a heterogeneous structure of lath martensite and austenite.

  2. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  3. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, E; Pérez-Andújar, A; DeLuca, P M; Mackie, T R

    2009-02-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180 degrees continuous arc proton therapy and for 180 degrees split arc proton therapy (two 90 degrees arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the

  4. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  5. Charge state, angular distribution, and kinetic energy of ions from multicomponent-cathodes in vacuum arc devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G. Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Frolova, V. P.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2014-12-07

    We present research results on vacuum arc plasma produced with multicomponent cathode made of several different elements. The ion mass-to-charge-state spectra of the plasmas were studied by time-of-flight spectrometry. The angular distributions of different ion species were measured, and the kinetic energy of their directed (streaming) motion was determined. It is shown that the fractional composition of ions of different cathode components in the plasma flow from the cathode spot closely matches the fractional content of these components in the composite cathode. The charge states of ions of the various cathode components are determined by the average electron temperature in the cathode spot plasma. The angular distribution of lower mass ions in the plasma from a multicomponent cathode is less isotropic and broader than for the plasma from a single-component cathode of the same light element. The directed kinetic energies of the ions of the different components for plasma from a multicomponent cathode are lower for lighter elements and greater for heavier elements compared to the ion directed energy for plasmas from single-component cathodes made of the same materials. The physical processes responsible for these changes in the ion charge states in multicomponent-cathode vacuum arc plasma are discussed.

  6. Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surfaces of He-CS2, Ne-CS2 and Ar-CS2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhpour, H.; Tozihi, M.

    2013-03-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the He-CS2, Ne-CS2 and Ar-CS2 van der Waals complexes were calculated for the first time at the CCSD(T) level of theory using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set augmented with a set of midbond functions (3s3p2d1f1g). It was found that the calculated interaction potential, using the applied basis set, readily converges to the complete basis set limit. For a broad range of intermolecular separations and configurations, the interaction energies were obtained by the supermolecular approach with the full counterpoise correction for the basis set superposition error (BSSE). In addition, symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations were performed with the same basis set in order to determine the character of the interaction energy of the most stable configuration of each complex at different intermolecular separations in order to make a comparison with the CCSD(T) results. The CCSD(T) calculated potential energy surface of each complex was fitted to an analytic expression to obtain the values of the isotropic dipole-dipole ( ? ) and dipole-quadruple ( ? ) dispersion coefficients of each complex. Finally, the interaction second virial coefficients (B12) were obtained using the calculated potential energy surface and used together with the experimental second virial coefficients of pure gases (CS2, Ar, Ne and He) to obtain the second virial coefficient of mixtures of CS2 with rare gas at different temperatures and mole fractions.

  7. Limiting energy spectrum of a saturated radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Michael; Davidson, Gerald T.

    1988-01-01

    The condition for magnetospheric wave growth in the presence of anisotropic charged particle distributions is used to extend the Kennel-Petschek theory that traditionally imposes an upper bound on the integral flux of charged particles at energies above a certain threshold to provide a limit on the differential flux at any energy above this threshold. A closed-form expression is derived for the limiting energy spectrum consistent with marginal occurrence of a magnetospheric maser at all wave frequencies below a certain fraction of the electron or proton gyrofrequency. The bounded integral can be recast in such a way that repeated differentiations with respect to v(parallel) actually generate a closed expression for the limiting form of the velocity space distribution, and thus for the limiting energy spectrum of the corresponding particles, whenever the anisotropy parameter is an integer.

  8. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, Johanna; Anders, André; Mráz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-06-01

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range of 0.5-8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  9. UV Driven Evaporation of Close-in Planets: Energy-limited, Recombination-limited, and Photon-limited Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of close-in exoplanets irradiated by ionizing photons. We find that the properties of the flow are controlled by the ratio of the recombination time to the flow timescale. When the recombination timescale is short compared to the flow timescale, the flow is in approximate local ionization equilibrium with a thin ionization front where the photon mean free path is short compared to the flow scale. In this "recombination-limited" flow the mass-loss scales roughly with the square root of the incident flux. When the recombination time is long compared to the flow timescale the ionization front becomes thick and encompasses the entire flow with the mass-loss rate scaling linearly with flux. If the planet's potential is deep, then the flow is approximately "energy-limited" however, if the planet's potential is shallow, then we identify a new limiting mass-loss regime, which we term "photon-limited." In this scenario, the mass-loss rate is purely limited by the incoming flux of ionizing photons. We have developed a new numerical approach that takes into account the frequency dependence of the incoming ionizing spectrum and performed a large suite of 1D simulations to characterize UV driven mass-loss around low-mass planets. We find that the flow is "recombination-limited" at high fluxes but becomes "energy-limited" at low fluxes; however, the transition is broad occurring over several orders of magnitude in flux. Finally, we point out that the transitions between the different flow types do not occur at a single flux value but depend on the planet's properties, with higher-mass planets becoming "energy-limited" at lower fluxes.

  10. Role of complementary relationship in Budyko framework from water-limited to energy-limited environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Tian, F.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The complementary relationship and Budyko curve are two kinds of approaches for describing the relationship between catchment-scale actual and potential evaporation. According to a nonlinear complementary relationship model, it was derived that, with constant energy input (denoted by constant radiation term (Erad) of potential evaporation), the changes in aerodynamic term (Eaero) are accompanied with opposite changes in actual evaporation under water-limited conditions, but same direction changes in actual evaporation under energy-limited conditions. As a result, the radiation term and aerodynamic term play different roles in the Budyko curve. In other words, complementary relationship plays a role in the Budyko framework, which should be seriously considered. The role of complementary relationship on the Budyko curve from water-limited to energy-limited environments was schematically analyzed, considering the different correlations between actual evaporation and the radiation and the aerodynamic terms. Under water limited conditions, the catchment with a higher Erad/Eaero would be wetter, and characterized with higher evaporation efficiency and larger properties parameter of Budyko curve. Under energy limited conditions, the role of complementary relationship may be different. Erad/Eaero is found to be connected with the variations of catchment parameter in the Budyko curve, and an exponential relationship between the catchment parameter and Erad/Eaero was derived through dimensional analysis and mathematical reasoning. The analysis will be evaluated using water balance data of a number of catchments from non-humid to humid environments over China.

  11. Experimental limit on low energy antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stochaj, S. J.; Ormes, J. F.; Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from the Low Energy Antiproton Experiment (LEAP), a balloon-borne instrument which was flown in August, 1987. No evidence of antiproton fluxes is found in the kinetic energy range of 120 MeV to 360 MeV, at the top of the atmosphere. The 90-percent is found confidence upper limit on the antiproton/proton ratio in this energy range is 3.5 x 10 to the -5th. In particular, this new experiment places an upper limit on the flux almost an order of magnitude below the reported flux of Buffington et al. (1981).

  12. Beam lifetime and limitations during low-energy RHIC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.V.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Kayran, D.; Montag, C.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Wang, G.

    2011-03-28

    The low-energy physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), motivated by a search for the QCD phase transition critical point, requires operation at low energies. At these energies, large nonlinear magnetic field errors and large beam sizes produce low beam lifetimes. A variety of beam dynamics effects such as Intrabeam Scattering (IBS), space charge and beam-beam forces also contribute. All these effects are important to understand beam lifetime limitations in RHIC at low energies. During the low-energy RHIC physics run in May-June 2010 at beam {gamma} = 6.1 and {gamma} = 4.1, gold beam lifetimes were measured for various values of space-charge tune shifts, transverse acceptance limitation by collimators, synchrotron tunes and RF voltage. This paper summarizes our observations and initial findings.

  13. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  14. Pulsed Long Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a method and an appliance for pulsed arc welding. The method supports dosage of energy required for melting each bead of electrode metal starting from the detachment of a bead. The appliance including a sensor to register bead detachment shows this moment due to the voltage burst in the arc space. Transferred beads of electrode metal are of similar size because of the dosage of energy used for melting each bead, as the consequence, the process is more stable and starting conditions to transfer electrode metal are similar, as the result, a produced weld is improved.

  15. 78 FR 3893 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Technical Conference The... conference be held to address issues raised by Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership's proposed revision to its downstream Nomination Verification Procedure. \\1\\ Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership, 141...

  16. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  17. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Colferai, Dimitri; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at trans-Planckian energies (E ≫MP) and small deflection angles. We show that—owing to the graviton's spin 2—such a limiting form unifies the soft and Regge regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to the deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter b -space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on ℏ/R ˜MP2/E ≪MP, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one naïvely expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering corrections in the (quantum) factorization formula, we are able to recover the classical limit and find the corresponding quantum corrections. Perspectives for the extrapolation of such limiting radiation towards the classical collapse regime (where b is of the order of the gravitational radius R ) are also discussed.

  18. Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873

  19. Flux limits for high energy cosmic photinos from underground experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayet, P.

    1989-03-01

    Underground experiments, which detect the interactions of atmospheric neutrinos, could also be sensitive to photinos. Using data from the Fréjus and Kamiokande detectors we give upper limits on the possible flux of high-energy relativistic photinos incident on the Earth, as functions of the squark or selectron masses. These limits improve considerably the existing ones, by four to nine orders of magnitude or more, especially for very energetic photinos. Although not yet very constraining, they may be used to eliminate the possibility that high-energy cosmic photinos could contribute significantly to the energy density of the Universe. Laboratoire Propre du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, associé à l'École Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

  20. ELS Design Group/SOL-ARC: Energy-Efficient State Office Building, San Jose, Ca, Citation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Recipient of an architectural design citation from the 28th Progressive Architecture Awards is an energy-efficient office building that relies on passive techniques of conservation to produce energy savings. (Author/MLF)

  1. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints. PMID:26262660

  2. Toward efficient aeroelastic energy harvesting through limit cycle shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Increasing demand to harvest energy from renewable resources has caused significant research interest in unsteady aerodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena. Apart from the traditional horizontal axis wind turbines, there has been significant growth in the study of bio-inspired oscillating wings for energy harvesting. These systems are being built to harvest electricity for wireless devices, as well as for large scale mega-watt power generation. Such systems can be driven by aeroelastic flutter phenomena which, beyond a critical wind speed, will cause the system to enter into limitcycle oscillations. When the airfoil enters large amplitude, high frequency motion, leading and trailing edge vortices form and, when properly synchronized with the airfoil kinematics, enhance the energy extraction efficiency of the device. A reduced order dynamic stall model is employed on a nonlinear aeroelastic structural model to investigate whether the parameters of a fully passive aeroelastic device can be tuned to produce limit cycle oscillations at desired kinematics. This process is done through an optimization technique to find the necessary structural parameters to achieve desired structural forces and moments corresponding to a target limit cycle. Structural nonlinearities are explored to determine the essential nonlinearities such that the system's limit cycle closely matches the desired kinematic trajectory. The results from this process demonstrate that it is possible to tune system parameters such that a desired limit cycle trajectory can be achieved. The simulations also demonstrate that the high efficiencies predicted by previous computational aerodynamics studies can be achieved in fully passive aeroelastic devices.

  3. Cloud Arcs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and ... is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly - possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus ...

  4. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N.

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  5. Multi-frequency subspace migration for imaging of perfectly conducting, arc-like cracks in full- and limited-view inverse scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-02-01

    Multi-frequency subspace migration imaging techniques are usually adopted for the non-iterative imaging of unknown electromagnetic targets, such as cracks in concrete walls or bridges and anti-personnel mines in the ground, in the inverse scattering problems. It is confirmed that this technique is very fast, effective, robust, and can not only be applied to full- but also to limited-view inverse problems if a suitable number of incidents and corresponding scattered fields are applied and collected. However, in many works, the application of such techniques is heuristic. With the motivation of such heuristic application, this study analyzes the structure of the imaging functional employed in the subspace migration imaging technique in two-dimensional full- and limited-view inverse scattering problems when the unknown targets are arbitrary-shaped, arc-like perfectly conducting cracks located in the two-dimensional homogeneous space. In contrast to the statistical approach based on statistical hypothesis testing, our approach is based on the fact that the subspace migration imaging functional can be expressed by a linear combination of the Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This is based on the structure of the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix collected in the far-field at nonzero frequency in either Transverse Magnetic (TM) mode (Dirichlet boundary condition) or Transverse Electric (TE) mode (Neumann boundary condition). The investigation of the expression of imaging functionals gives us certain properties of subspace migration and explains why multi-frequency enhances imaging resolution. In particular, we carefully analyze the subspace migration and confirm some properties of imaging when a small number of incident fields are applied. Consequently, we introduce a weighted multi-frequency imaging functional and confirm that it is an improved version of subspace migration in TM mode. Various results of numerical simulations performed on the far

  6. Reconstruction of limited-angle dual-energy CT using mutual learning and cross-estimation (MLCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging has gained a lot of attenuation because of its capability to discriminate materials. We proposes a flexible DECT scan strategy which can be realized on a system with general X-ray sources and detectors. In order to lower dose and scanning time, our DECT acquires two projections data sets on two arcs of limited-angular coverage (one for each energy) respectively. Meanwhile, a certain number of rays from two data sets form conjugate sampling pairs. Our reconstruction method for such a DECT scan mainly tackles the consequent limited-angle problem. Using the idea of artificial neural network, we excavate the connection between projections at two different energies by constructing a relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of the high energy and that of the low one. We use this relationship to cross-estimate missing projections and reconstruct attenuation images from an augmented data set including projections at views covered by itself (projections collected in scanning) and by the other energy (projections estimated) for each energy respectively. Validated by our numerical experiment on a dental phantom with rather complex structures, our DECT is effective in recovering small structures in severe limited-angle situations. This DECT scanning strategy can much broaden DECT design in reality.

  7. Simultaneous integrated boost to intraprostatic lesions using different energy levels of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, S; Erbay, G; Guler, O C; Arslan, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the dosimetry of volumetric-arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a dynamic multileaf collimator using the Monte Carlo algorithm in the treatment of prostate cancer with and without simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) at different energy levels. Methods: The data of 15 biopsy-proven prostate cancer patients were evaluated. The prescribed dose was 78 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV78) including the prostate and seminal vesicles and 86 Gy (PTV86) in 39 fractions to the intraprostatic lesion, which was delineated by MRI or MR-spectroscopy. Results: PTV dose homogeneity was better for IMRT than VMAT at all energy levels for both PTV78 and PTV86. Lower rectum doses (V30–V50) were significantly higher with SIB compared with PTV78 plans in both IMRT and VMAT plans at all energy levels. The bladder doses at high dose level (V60–V80) were significantly higher in IMRT plans with SIB at all energy levels compared with PTV78 plans, but no significant difference was observed in VMAT plans. VMAT plans resulted in a significant decrease in the mean monitor units (MUs) for 6, 10, and 15 MV energy levels both in plans with and those without SIB. Conclusion: Dose escalation to intraprostatic lesions with 86 Gy is safe without causing serious increase in organs at risk (OARs) doses. VMAT is advantageous in sparing OARs and requiring less MU than IMRT. Advances in knowledge: VMAT with SIB to intraprostatic lesion is a feasible method in treating prostate cancer. Additionally, no dosimetric advantage of higher energy is observed. PMID:24319009

  8. PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS IN HIGH-ENERGY ION COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with ions other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams limits are set by space charge, charge exchange, and intrabeam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for intense heavy ions beams. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. Later this decade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  9. Experimental limit on the cosmic diffuse ultrahigh energy neutrino flux.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Hebert, C L; Liewer, K M; Naudet, C J; Saltzberg, D; Williams, D

    2004-07-23

    We report results from 120 h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for < or = 10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of > or = 100 EeV (1 EeV = 10(18) eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes. PMID:15323748

  10. Experimental Limit on the Cosmic Diffuse Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Hebert, C. L.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Saltzberg, D.; Williams, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report results from 120h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for ≤10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of ≥100 EeV (1 EeV=1018 eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes.

  11. Load-limiting landing gear footpad energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Tsai, Ted

    1994-01-01

    As a precursor to future manned missions to the moon, an inexpensive, unmanned vehicle that could carry small, scientific payloads to the lunar surface was studied by NASA. The vehicle, called the Common Lunar Lander, required extremely optimized structural systems to increase the potential payload mass. A lightweight energy-absorbing system (LAGFEAS), which also acts as a landing load-limiter was designed to help achieve this optimized structure. Since the versatile and easily tailored system is a load-limiter, it allowed for the structure to be designed independently of the ever-changing landing energy predictions. This paper describes the LAGFEAS system and preliminary verification testing performed at NASA's Johnson Space Center for the Common Lunar Lander program.

  12. The dosimetric impact of different photon beam energy on RapidArc radiotherapy planning for cervix carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lalit; Yadav, Girigesh; Raman, Kothanda; Bhushan, Manindra; Pal, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to know the effect of three different photon energies viz., 6, 10, and 15 mega voltage (MV) on RapidArc (RA) planning for deep-seated cervix tumor and to develop clinically acceptable RA plans with suitable photon energy. RA plans were generated for 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energies for twenty patients reported with cervix carcinoma. RA plans were evaluated in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to organs at risk (OARs), conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), gradient measure, external volume index of dose distribution produced, total number of monitor units (MUs), nontumor integral dose (ID), and low dose volume of normal tissue. A two-sample paired t-test was performed to compare the dosimetric parameters of RA plans. Irrespective of photon energy used for RA planning, plans were dosimetrically similar in terms of PTV coverage, OARs sparing, CI and HI. The numbers of MUs were 13.4 ± 1.4% and 18.2 ± 1.5% higher and IDs were 2.7 ± 0.8% and 3.7 ± 0.9% higher in 6 MV plans in comparison to that in the 10 and 15 MV plans, respectively. V1Gy, V2Gy, V3Gy, and V4Gy were higher in 6 MV plans in comparison to that in 10 and 15 MV plans. Based on this study, 6 MV photon beam is a good choice for RA planning in case of cervix carcinoma, as it does not deliver additional exposure to patients caused by photoneutrons produced in high energy beams. PMID:26865756

  13. Low dose, limited energy spectroscopic x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson Weker, Johanna; Li, Yiyang; Chueh, William C.

    2015-09-01

    In order to achieve high quality in situ spectroscopic X-ray microscopy of complex systems far from equilibrium, such as lithium ion batteries under standard electrochemical cycling, careful consideration of the total number of energy points is required. Enough energy points are need to accurately determine the per pixel chemical information; however, total radiation dose needs to be limited to avoid damaging the system which would produce misleading results. Here we consider the number of energy points need to accurately reproduce the state of charge maps of a LiFePO2 electrode recorded during electrochemical cycling. We observe very good per pixel agreement using only 13 energy points. Additionally, we find the quality of the agreement is heavily dependent on the number of energy points used in the post edge fit during normalization of the spectra rather than the total number of energies used. Finally, we suggest a straightforward protocol for determining the minimum number of energy points needed prior to initiating any in situ spectroscopic X-ray microscopy experiment.

  14. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-05-01

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  15. TiN coating of the PEP-II low-energy ring aluminum arc vacuum chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.; Harteneck, B.; Millos, G.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II Low-Energy Ring will operate at a nominal energy of 3.1 GeV with a positron beam current of 2.1 A. Design parameters for vacuum components are 3.5 GeV at 3 A. The arc vacuum system is based on an aluminum antechamber concept. It consists of 192 pairs of 2 m long magnet chambers and 5.5 m long pumping chambers. Titanium nitride coating of the entire positron duct is needed in order to suppress beam instabilities caused by multipactoring and the {open_quotes}electron-cloud{close_quotes} effect. An extensive R&D program has been conducted to develop coating parameters that give proper stoichiometry and a suitable thickness of TiN. The total secondary emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum coupons has been measured after the samples were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment. A coating facility has been built to cope with the large quantity of production chambers and the very tight schedule requirements.

  16. 76 FR 43682 - Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v... Renewable Energy Limited (collectively Complainants) filed a formal complaint against the...

  17. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  18. Rashba scattering in the low-energy limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Joel; Maciejko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    We study potential scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the limit that the energy of the scattering electron approaches the bottom of the lower spin-split band. Focusing on two spin-independent circularly symmetric potentials, an infinite barrier and a delta-function shell, we show that scattering in this limit is qualitatively different from both scattering in the higher spin-split band and scattering of electrons without spin-orbit coupling. The scattering matrix is purely off-diagonal with both off-diagonal elements equal to one, and all angular momentum channels contribute equally; the differential cross section becomes increasingly peaked in the forward and backward scattering directions; the total cross section exhibits quantized plateaus. These features are independent of the details of the scattering potentials, and we conjecture them to be universal. Our results suggest that Rashba scattering in the low-energy limit becomes effectively one-dimensional.

  19. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  20. Einstein - Cartan - Dirac theory in the low-energy limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Ryder, L. H.

    1997-12-01

    We look for manifestations of the effects of torsion in the low-energy limit in the context of Einstein - Cartan - Dirac theory (or any theory of gravity in which the torsion tensor is purely axial). To proceed, we introduce the mathematical law governing the transport of orthonormal bases or tetrads in a spacetime with torsion. This law is applied to compute the metric and connection in a rotating and accelerating frame, or laboratory. A spin-0264-9381/14/12/031/img1 particle is placed in this rotating and accelerating frame and the low-energy limit of the Dirac equation is taken by means of the Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation. In addition to obtaining the Bonse - Wroblewski phase shift due to acceleration, Sagnac-type effects, rotation - spin couplings of the Mashhoon type, redshift of the kinetic energy and the spin - orbit coupling term of Hehl and Ni, we also obtain several interesting and significant terms as a consequence of introducing torsion into spacetime. We give a detailed interpretation of these additional terms and discuss their observability in the light of current well-known experimental techniques.

  1. Energy and population: transitional issues and eventual limits.

    PubMed

    Werbos, P J

    1990-08-01

    The implication of population size for US energy requirements is explored in this essay. The basic argument is that the present supply of fuels and energy technologies is not sustainable in the long run, that a wide range of choices is possible when a complete transition is made to sustainable technologies, and that the growth of population and the composition of this growth during the next 30 years are the most serious problems impacting on the achievement of sustainable technology. The importance and future of fuel oil is discussed as well as the transition to sustainable energy supplies: conservation, renewables, nuclear and coal. Dependency on oil can only be changed through time and the infusion of money, but even with these givens, the transition is also dependent on the political and budgetary climate. The race is between crisis and cure. It is argued that the soft energy systems (biomass, solar water heater, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy) along with conservation will increase easily and naturally, but the total potential from these sources amounts to only 10% of the present US energy supply. Conservation offers greater hope because 80% of end-use fossil fuel is used in transportation and industry. Further growth of the population in the US would create a demand to desalinate water, which would increase the demand for energy. A totally soft energy economy is probably not feasible without a drastic reduction in US population. The expected direction is in the increased use of coal, and then nuclear energy. Unfortunately, coal contributes to greenhouse warming, and the supply is limited to 60-100 years. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism is connected to the widespread use of nuclear energy. Some breakthrough technology with cold fusion may offer a safer alternative. High technology renewables such as solar cells can be competitive with nuclear energy, if prices can be kept down. on earth or in space, are being investigated. Exploring a variety of advanced

  2. SU-E-J-53: Dosimetric Evaluation at Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Treatment of Prostate Cancer Using Single Or Double Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D; Salmon, H; Pavan, G; Nardi, S; Anderson, E; Fairbanks, L; Junior, J; Cursino, F; Colodette, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare retrospective prostate treatment plan using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (RapidArc™ - Varian) technique with single or double arcs at COI Group. Methods: Ten patients with present prostate and seminal vesicle neoplasia were replanned as a target treatment volume and a prescribed dose of 78 Gy. A baseline planning, using single arc, was developed for each case reaching for the best result on PTV, in order to minimize the dose on organs at risk (OAR). Maintaining the same optimization objectives used on baseline plan, two copies for optimizing single and double arcs, have been developed. The plans were performed with 10 MV photon beam energy on Eclipse software, version 11.0, making use of Trilogy linear accelerator with Millenium HD120 multileaf collimator. Comparisons on PTV have been performed, such as: maximum, minimum and mean dose, gradient dose, as well as the quantity of monitor units, treatment time and homogeneity and conformity index. OARs constrains dose have been evaluated, comparing both optimizations. Results: Regarding PTV coverage, the difference of the minimum, maximum and mean dose were 1.28%, 0.7% and 0.2% respectively higher for single arc. When analyzed the index of homogeneity found a difference of 0.99% higher when compared with double arcs. However homogeneity index was 0.97% lower on average by using single arc. The doses on the OARs, in both cases, were in compliance to the recommended limits RTOG 0415. With the use of single arc, the quantity of monitor units was 10,1% lower, as well as the Beam-On time, 41,78%, when comparing double arcs, respectively. Conclusion: Concerning the optimization of patients with present prostate and seminal vesicle neoplasia, the use of single arc reaches similar objectives, when compared to double arcs, in order to decrease the treatment time and the quantity of monitor units.

  3. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  4. Optimum rocket propulsion for energy-limited transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuppero, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to effect large-scale return of extraterrestrial resources to Earth orbit, it is desirable to optimize the propulsion system to maximize the mass of payload returned per unit energy expended. This optimization problem is different from the conventional rocket propulsion optimization. A rocket propulsion system consists of an energy source plus reaction mass. In a conventional chemical rocket, the energy source and the reaction mass are the same. For the transportation system required, however, the best system performance is achieved if the reaction mass used is from a locally available source. In general, the energy source and the reaction mass will be separate. One such rocket system is the nuclear thermal rocket, in which the energy source is a reactor and the reaction mass a fluid which is heated by the reactor and exhausted. Another energy-limited rocket system is the hydrogen/oxygen rocket where H2/O2 fuel is produced by electrolysis of water using a solar array or a nuclear reactor. The problem is to choose the optimum specific impulse (or equivalently exhaust velocity) to minimize the amount of energy required to produce a given mission delta-v in the payload. The somewhat surprising result is that the optimum specific impulse is not the maximum possible value, but is proportional to the mission delta-v. In general terms, at the beginning of the mission it is optimum to use a very low specific impulse and expend a lot of reaction mass, since this is the most energy efficient way to transfer momentum. However, as the mission progresses, it becomes important to minimize the amount of reaction mass expelled, since energy is wasted moving the reaction mass. Thus, the optimum specific impulse will increase with the mission delta-v. Optimum I(sub sp) is derived for maximum payload return per energy expended for both the case of fixed and variable I(sub sp) engines. Sample missions analyzed include return of water payloads from the moons of Mars and of

  5. Limit on rotational energy available to excite Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    There is a fundamental relationship between the power that is extracted from Jupiter's rotation to drive magnetospheric processes and the rate at which mass is injected into the Io plasma torus. Half of this power is consumed by bulk motion of the plasma and the other half represents an upper limit on the energy from rotation available for dissipation and in particular to excite the Jovian aurora. Since the rotation of the planet is the only plausible source of energy, the power inferred from the observed auroral intensities requires a plasma injection rate of 2.6 x 10 to the 29th AMU/sec or greater. This in turn leads to a residence time of a torus particle of 48 days or less. These results raise doubts about the applicability of equilibrium thermodynamics to the determination of plasma parameters in the Io torus.

  6. Landauer limit of energy dissipation in a magnetostrictive particle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kuntal

    2014-12-10

    According to Landauer's principle, a minimum amount of energy proportional to temperature must be dissipated during the erasure of a classical bit of information compensating the entropy loss, thereby linking the information and thermodynamics. Here, we show that the Landauer limit of energy dissipation is achievable in a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet having two mutually anti-parallel degenerate magnetization states that store a bit of information. We model the magnetization dynamics using the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of thermal fluctuations and show that on average the Landauer bound is satisfied, i.e. it is in accordance with the generalized Landauer's principle for small systems with stochastic fluctuations. PMID:25379608

  7. Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Energy-Limited Events

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer D. Snow; Dana K. Morton

    2009-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code was primarily written with stress-based acceptance criteria. These criteria are applicable to force, displacement, and energy-controlled loadings and ensure a factor of safety against failure. However, stress-based acceptance criteria are often quite conservative for one time energy-limited events such as accidental drops and impacts. For several years, the ASME Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments has been developing the Design Articles for Section III, Division 3, “Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material and Waste,” and has wanted to establish strain-based acceptance criteria for accidental drops of containments. This Division 3 working group asked the Working Group on Design Methodology (WGDM) to assist in developing these strain-based acceptance criteria. This paper discusses the current proposed strain-based acceptance criteria, associated limitations of use, its background development, and the current status.

  8. Fundamental Efficiency Limitations for Low Electron Energy Cathololuminescence

    SciTech Connect

    SEAGER,CARLETON H.; TALLANT,DAVID R.

    2000-08-01

    The design of field emission displays is severely constrained by the universally poor cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency of most phosphors at low excitation energies. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, the authors have measured the time decay of spectrally-resolved, pulsed CL and photoluminescence (PL) in several phosphors activated by rare earth and transition metal impurities, including Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Tb, and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn. Activator concentrations ranged from {approximately}0.25 to 10%. The CL decay curves are always non-linear on a log(CL)-linear(time) plot--i.e. they deviate from first order decay kinetics. These deviations are always more pronounced at short times and larger activator concentrations and are largest at low beam energies where the decay rates are noticeably faster. PL decay is always slower than that seen for CL, but these differences disappear after most of the excited species have decayed. They have also measured the dependence of steady state CL efficiency on beam energy. They find that larger activator concentrations accelerate the drop in CL efficiency seen at low beam energies. These effects are largest for the activators which interact more strongly with the host lattice. While activator-activator interactions are known to limit PL and CL efficiency in most phosphors, the present data suggest that a more insidious version of this mechanism is partly responsible for poor CL efficiency at low beam energies. This enhanced concentration quenching is due to the interaction of nearby excited activators. These interactions can lead to non-radiative activator decay, hence lower steady state CL efficiency. Excited state clustering, which may be caused by the large energy loss rate of low energy primary electrons, appears to enhance these interactions. In support of this idea, they find that PL decays obtained at high laser pulse energies resemble the non-linear decays seen in the CL data.

  9. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXIII. Does heat dissipation capacity limit the energy budget of lactating bank voles?

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Edyta T; Król, Elżbieta; Chrzascik, Katarzyna M; Rudolf, Agata M; Speakman, John R; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors limiting sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) is a central issue in ecological physiology. According to the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory, the SusMR at peak lactation is constrained by the maternal capacity to dissipate body heat. To test that theory, we shaved lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) to experimentally elevate their capacity for heat dissipation. The voles were sampled from lines selected for high aerobic exercise metabolism (A; characterized also by increased basal metabolic rate) and unselected control lines (C). Fur removal significantly increased the peak-lactation food intake (mass-adjusted least square means ± s.e.; shaved: 16.3 ± 0.3 g day(-1), unshaved: 14.4 ± 0.2 g day(-1); P<0.0001), average daily metabolic rate (shaved: 109 ± 2 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 97 ± 2 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001) and metabolisable energy intake (shaved: 215 ± 4 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 185 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001), as well as the milk energy output (shaved: 104 ± 4 kJ day(-1); unshaved: 93 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P=0.021) and litter growth rate (shaved: 9.4 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1), unshaved: 7.7 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1); P=0.028). Thus, fur removal increased both the total energy budget and reproductive output at the most demanding period of lactation, which supports the HDL theory. However, digestive efficiency was lower in shaved voles (76.0 ± 0.3%) than in unshaved ones (78.5 ± 0.2%; P<0.0001), which may indicate that a limit imposed by the capacity of the alimentary system was also approached. Shaving similarly affected the metabolic and reproductive traits in voles from the A and C lines. Thus, the experimental evolution model did not reveal a difference in the limiting mechanism between animals with inherently different metabolic rates. PMID:26747907

  10. Ionospheric composition in SAR-arcs. [Stable Auroral Red Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Banks, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical ion and electron density profiles in the SAR-arc region are calculated using a model of the ionosphere based on the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations for O(+), NO(+), and O2(+). It is found that an increase in the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N, which results from enhanced N2 vibrational excitation due to the high electron temperatures found in SAR arcs, can cause a reduction in F-region electron densities by up to a factor of two. The increase in the O(+) + N2 reaction rate is shown to result in a marked change in the ion composition in SAR arcs, with NO(+) being an important ion up to altitudes of about 350 km at night. Since observed electron-density depressions in SAR arcs generally vary between factors of two and seven, it is concluded that the increase in the O(+) + N2 reaction rate cannot account for these depressions by itself.

  11. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  12. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings. PMID:26120236

  13. 78 FR 6091 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement Take notice that on December 12, 2012, Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership (Enbridge Energy), with the support...

  14. Weld arc simulator

    DOEpatents

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  15. Exciton fission and solar energy conversion beyond the limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-03-01

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair, but this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs in a process called singlet exciton. Recent measurements in our group by time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state. More importantly, population of the multiexciton state is found to rise concurrently with that of the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photo excitation. This observation provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately following optical excitation. We demonstrate the feasibility of harvesting the multiexciton state for multiple charge carriers and the implementation of singlet fission for solar energy conversion beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  16. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L.; Hu, J.

    2008-11-15

    Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Hu, J.; Tsai, H. L.

    2008-11-01

    Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.

  19. Interface Series: Energy and Exercise. V. Limiting Reagents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses different foods with reference to oxidation and energy production. Amino acid assays are provided for eggs, steak, rice, and lentils and white and dark turkey meat is analyzed for energy and power outputs. (MA)

  20. The discharge mechanism of the high-temperature arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busz-Peuckert, G.; Finkelnburg, W.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of the high temperature Ar arc is interpreted considering those essential points in which it deviates from the known arcs based on earlier measurements and experiments. The following points are discussed individually: the charge carrier balance, the energy balance, the volt amp characteristics, and the difference between high temperature arcs in Ar and N. Besides the volt amp characteristic of a 10 mm long arc in Ar between 10 and 200 amp, the anode fall, cathode fall, and arc gradient were obtained with the aid of probes. The difference between Ar and N arcs are attributed to variations of the heat conditions and electrical conditions at different temperatures of the gas.

  1. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jonathan M; Allwood, Julian M; Borgstein, Edward H

    2011-02-15

    Concern over the global energy system, whether driven by climate change, national security, or fears of shortage, is being discussed widely and in every arena but with a bias toward energy supply options. While demand reduction is often mentioned in passing, it is rarely a priority for implementation, whether through policy or through the search for innovation. This paper aims to draw attention to the opportunity for major reduction in energy demand, by presenting an analysis of how much of current global energy demand could be avoided. Previous work led to a "map" of global energy use that traces the flow of energy from primary sources (fuels or renewable sources), through fuel refinery, electricity generation, and end-use conversion devices, to passive systems and the delivery of final energy services (transport, illumination, and sustenance). The key passive systems are presented here and analyzed through simple engineering models with scalar equations using data based on current global practice. Physically credible options for change to key design parameters are identified and used to predict the energy savings possible for each system. The result demonstrates that 73% of global energy use could be saved by practically achievable design changes to passive systems. This reduction could be increased by further efficiency improvements in conversion devices. A list of the solutions required to achieve these savings is provided. PMID:21226525

  2. CT energy weighting in the presence of scatter and limited energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved CT has the potential to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) through optimal weighting of photons detected in energy bins. In general, optimal weighting gives higher weight to the lower energy photons that contain the most contrast information. However, low-energy photons are generally most corrupted by scatter and spectrum tailing, an effect caused by the limited energy resolution of the detector. This article first quantifies the effects of spectrum tailing on energy-resolved data, which may also be beneficial for material decomposition applications. Subsequently, the combined effects of energy weighting, spectrum tailing, and scatter are investigated through simulations. Methods: The study first investigated the effects of spectrum tailing on the estimated attenuation coefficients of homogeneous slab objects. Next, the study compared the CNR and artifact performance of images simulated with varying levels of scatter and spectrum tailing effects, and reconstructed with energy integrating, photon-counting, and two optimal linear weighting methods: Projection-based and image-based weighting. Realistic detector energy-response functions were simulated based on a previously proposed model. The energy-response functions represent the probability that a photon incident on the detector at a particular energy will be detected at a different energy. Realistic scatter was simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Results: Spectrum tailing resulted in a negative shift in the estimated attenuation coefficient of slab objects compared to an ideal detector. The magnitude of the shift varied with material composition, increased with material thickness, and decreased with photon energy. Spectrum tailing caused cupping artifacts and CT number inaccuracies in images reconstructed with optimal energy weighting, and did not impact images reconstructed with photon counting weighting. Spectrum tailing did not significantly impact the CNR in reconstructed images

  3. 77 FR 22568 - Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Madison Paper Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, Merimil Limited... Industries, FPL Energy Maine Hydro, LLC, and Merimil Limited Partnership, licensees for the Brassua Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application for a New License pursuant to the Federal Power Act (FPA) and...

  4. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  5. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  6. [Arc welder's lung].

    PubMed

    Molinari, Luciana; Alvarez, Clarisa; Semeniuk, Guillermo B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis of electric arc welder or siderotic pneumoconiosis was described by Doig and McLaughlin in 1936 as a lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of iron fumes in electric arc welders. We present a case report of electric arc welder siderosis associated with high levels of ferritin, without findings of iron deposit in any other organ. PMID:21163741

  7. High separative power vacuum arc centrifuge (HSP-VAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Niansheng; Krishnan, M.

    1997-12-01

    The reliability of supply of stable isotopes needed in medicine and science has been a problem for decades. Among the many sources of enriched stable isotopes are the Calutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ICONS of Cambridge Isotopes Limited, and reactors such as at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and elsewhere. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) staff have spearheaded the development of a new type of isotope separator, dubbed the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC). This effort dates to the 1980s under National Science Foundation sponsorship at Yale, the early 1990s under a U.S. Department of Energy grant, and more recently, under AASC internal funding. The VAC consists of a vacuum arc discharge between a metal cathode (containing the substances to be separated) and a mesh anode across a small gap.

  8. Limits of Free Energy Computation for Protein-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed error analysis is presented for the computation of protein-ligand interaction energies. In particular, we show that it is probable that even highly accurate computed binding free energies have errors that represent a large percentage of the target free energies of binding. This is due to the observation that the error for computed energies quasi-linearly increases with the increasing number of interactions present in a protein-ligand complex. This principle is expected to hold true for any system that involves an ever increasing number of inter or intra-molecular interactions (e.g. ab initio protein folding). We introduce the concept of best-case scenario errors (BCSerrors) that can be routinely applied to docking and scoring exercises and used to provide errors bars for the computed binding free energies. These BCSerrors form a basis by which one can evaluate the outcome of a docking and scoring exercise. Moreover, the resultant error analysis enables the formation of an hypothesis that defines the best direction to proceed in order to improve scoring functions used in molecular docking studies. PMID:20467461

  9. DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH INTENSITY ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-01-01

    A device is described for producing an energetic d-c carbon arc discharge between widely spaced electrodes with arc currents in excess of 100 amperes in a magnetic field of about 3000 gauss and witnin an evacuated enclo sure at a pressure of about 10/sup -5/ mm Hg. No defining electrodes are used in the device, thus essentially eliminating the problems of shorting which heretofore limited the amount of current that could be produced in an arc discharge. The energetic carbon arc discharge is sustained by the potential across the electrodes and by carbon ions and electrons released from the electrodes during arc operation. A large part of the potential drop of the arc occurs along the arc and many energetic electrons reach the anode because the arc pressure is relatively low, and few collisions occur. The carbon discharge is also an efficient ion pump.

  10. New limits on coupled dark energy from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jun-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the Planck collaboration has released the first cosmological papers providing the high resolution, full sky, maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. It is crucial to understand that whether the accelerating expansion of our universe at present is driven by an unknown energy component (Dark Energy) or a modification to general relativity (Modified Gravity). In this paper we study the coupled dark energy models, in which the quintessence scalar field nontrivially couples to the cold dark matter, with the strength parameter of interaction β. Using the Planck data alone, we obtain that the strength of interaction between dark sectors is constrained as β < 0.102 at 95% confidence level, which is tighter than that from the WMAP9 data alone. Combining the Planck data with other probes, like the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Type-Ia supernovae ''Union2.1 compilation'' and the CMB lensing data from Planck measurement, we find the tight constraint on the strength of interaction β < 0.052 (95% C.L.). Interestingly, we also find a non-zero coupling β = 0.078±0.022 (68% C.L.) when we use the Planck, the ''SNLS'' supernovae samples, and the prior on the Hubble constant from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) together. This evidence for the coupled dark energy models mainly comes from a tension between constraints on the Hubble constant from the Planck measurement and the local direct H{sub 0} probes from HST.

  11. Upper limit on the photon fraction in highest-energy cosmic rays from AGASA data.

    PubMed

    Risse, M; Homola, P; Engel, R; Góra, D; Heck, D; Pekala, J; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H

    2005-10-21

    A new method to derive an upper limit on photon primaries from small data sets of air showers is developed which accounts for shower properties varying with the primary energy and arrival direction. Applying this method to the highest-energy showers recorded by the AGASA experiment, an upper limit on the photon fraction of 51% (67%) at a confidence level of 90% (95%) for primary energies above 1.25 x 10(20) eV is set. This new limit on the photon fraction above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff energy constrains the -burst model of the origin of highest-energy cosmic rays. PMID:16383814

  12. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  13. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  14. Informatics-Based Energy Fitting Scheme for Correlation Energy at Complete Basis Set Limit.

    PubMed

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-09-30

    Energy fitting schemes based on informatics techniques using hierarchical basis sets with small cardinal numbers were numerically investigated to estimate correlation energies at the complete basis set limits. Numerical validations confirmed that the conventional two-point extrapolation models can be unified into a simple formula with optimal parameters obtained by the same test sets. The extrapolation model was extended to two-point fitting models by a relaxation of the relationship between the extrapolation coefficients or a change of the fitting formula. Furthermore, n-scheme fitting models were developed by the combinations of results calculated at several theory levels and basis sets to compensate for the deficiencies in the fitting model at one level of theory. Systematic assessments on the Gaussian-3X and Gaussian-2 sets revealed that the fitting models drastically reduced errors with equal or smaller computational effort. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27454327

  15. 76 FR 71007 - Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited... intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426....

  16. 78 FR 12048 - Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Abbreviated Application for Limited Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Abbreviated Application for Limited Amendment to Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity On February 11, 2013, Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP (``Gulf Shore''), filed...

  17. 77 FR 15098 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  18. 76 FR 17411 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  19. Atmospheric Energy Limits on Subsurface Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the terrestrial biomass of subterranean organisms may equal or exceed that at the surface. Taken as a group, these organisms can live in heavily saline conditions at temperatures from 115 C to as low as -20 C. Such conditions might exist on Mars beneath the surface oxidant in an aquifer or hydrothermal system, where the surrounding rock would also protect against the solar ultraviolet radiation. The way that such systems could obtain energy and carbon is not completely clear, although it is believed that on Earth, energy flows from the interaction of highly reduced basalt with groundwater produce H2, while carbon is derived from CO2 dissolved in the groundwater. Another potential source is the Martian atmosphere, acting as a photochemical conduit of solar insolation.

  20. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  1. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  2. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  3. Structure of an energetic narrow discrete arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Particle distributions, waves, dc electric fields, and magnetic fields were measured by two sounding rockets at altitudes of 950 and 430 km through an energetic (greater than 5 keV) narrow (about 10 km) stable discrete arc. Although the payloads' magnetic footprints were separated by only 50 km, differences in the arc's structure were observed including the spatial width, peak energy, and characteristic spectra. The energetic electron precipitation included both slowly varying isotropic fluxes that formed an inverted-V energy-time signature and rapidly varying field-aligned fluxes at or below the isotropic spectral peak. The isotropic precipitation had a flux discontinuity inside the arc indicating the arc was present on a boundary between two different magnetospheric plasmas. Dispersive and nondispersive bursts of field-aligned electrons were measured throughout the arc, appearing over broad energy ranges or as monoenergetic beams. Dispersive bursts gave variable source distances less than 8000 km. Plateauing of some of the most intense bursts suggests that waves stabilized these electrons. During the lower altitude arc crossing, the field-aligned component formed a separate inverted-V energy-time signature whose peak energy was half the isotropic peak energy.

  4. Thermodynamical Limit for Correlated Gaussian Random Energy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contucci, P.; Esposti, M. Degli; Giardinà, C.; Graffi, S.

    Let {EΣ(N)}ΣΣN be a family of |ΣN|=2N centered unit Gaussian random variables defined by the covariance matrix CN of elements cN(Σ,τ):=Av(EΣ(N)Eτ(N)) and the corresponding random Hamiltonian. Then the quenched thermodynamical limit exists if, for every decomposition N=N1+N2, and all pairs (Σ,τ)ΣN×ΣN: where πk(Σ),k=1,2 are the projections of ΣΣN into ΣNk. The condition is explicitly verified for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick, the even p-spin, the Derrida REM and the Derrida-Gardner GREM models.

  5. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  6. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  7. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  8. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  9. Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA): Scopes and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Michał H.

    2013-10-01

    The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.

  10. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  11. Ultrasound in arc welding: a review.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Tiago Vieira; Bohórquez, Carlos Enrique Niño

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, the introduction of ultrasound techniques in arc welding with the intention of improving the operational performance and technical characteristics of the welding processes have been studied intensively. In this work is presented a broad review of the literature surrounding the utilization of this technique. Firstly, we discuss the use of traditional mechanical transducers to generate ultrasound in arc welding. Furthermore, we describe the various methods and their application in arc-welding processes. After, is presented a recent method of introducing ultrasonic energy in arc welding, which forms a potential alternative to the use of traditional mechanical type transducers. This method was originally developed in the late 1990s and is called arc with ultrasonic excitation of current. Here, the arc acts not only as a thermal source but also as an emission mechanism for ultrasound, acting directly on the weld pool. We presented and discussed various innovative concepts based on this method, which allows the introduction of ultrasonic energy in the arc welding without the need of any auxiliary device of welding. In addition, we also presented the variations of this method reported in the literature. Finally, we have described the respective effects attributed to the use of this method in the welding of different materials using various welding processes. PMID:25455190

  12. Arc distribution during the vacuum arc remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, Charles Rigel; King, Paul E.; Nordlund, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot–Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  13. Arc Distribution During the Vacuum Arc Remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodside, C. Rigel; King, Paul E.; Nordlund, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot-Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  14. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  15. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-04-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  16. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  17. 76 FR 18212 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for a new... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Madison Paper Industries; Merimil Limited... strongly encourages electronic filing, documents may also be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an...

  18. 75 FR 10243 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 19, 2010, Enbridge...

  19. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  20. Generalized energy-aperture product limit for multi-beam and spotlight SARs

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1995-12-21

    The SAR energy-aperture product limit is extended to multi-beam SARS, Spotlight and moving spotlight SARS. This fundamental limit bounds the tradeoff between energy and antenna size. The kinematic relations between design variables such as platform speed, pulse repetition frequency, beam width and area rate are analyzed in a unified framework applicable to a wide variety of SARs including strip maps, spotlights, vermer arrays and multi-beam SARS, both scanning and swept-beam. Then the energy-aperture product limit is derived from the signal-to noise requirement and the kinematic constraints. The derivation clarifies impact of multiple beams and spotlighting on SAR performance.

  1. The Global Array of Primitve Arc Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Jagoutz, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    harzburgitic residue. Primitive high-K shoshonitic or low-Si alkaline arc melts occur in Sulawesi, Sunda, Mago, and Mexico (2 types), spatially mostly very much limited. We interpret these as derived from limited volumes of metasomatized mantle either residing in the subarc lithosphere or entrained into the mantle wedge.

  2. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  3. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results

  4. Limits to sustained energy intake. XIX. A test of the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Bao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu-Ping; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, De-Hua; Speakman, John R

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated factors limiting lactating Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at three temperatures (10, 21 and 30°C). Energy intake and daily energy expenditure (DEE) increased with decreased ambient temperature. At peak lactation (day 14 of lactation), energy intake increased from 148.7±5.7 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 213.1±8.2 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 248.7±12.3 kJ day(-1) at 10°C. DEE increased from 105.1±4.0 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 134.7±5.6 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 179.5±8.4 kJ day(-1) at 10°C on days 14-16 of lactation. With nearly identical mean litter sizes, lactating gerbils at 30°C exported 32.0 kJ day(-1) less energy as milk at peak lactation than those allocated to 10 or 21°C, with no difference between the latter groups. On day 14 of lactation, the litter masses at 10 and 30°C were 12.2 and 9.3 g lower than those at 21°C, respectively. Lactating gerbils had higher thermal conductance of the fur and lower UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue than non-reproductive gerbils, independent of ambient temperature, suggesting that they were attempting to avoid heat stress. Thermal conductance of the fur was positively related to circulating prolactin levels. We implanted non-reproductive gerbils with mini-osmotic pumps that delivered either prolactin or saline. Prolactin did not influence thermal conductance of the fur, but did reduce physical activity and UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue. Transferring lactating gerbils from warm to hot conditions resulted in reduced milk production, consistent with the heat dissipation limit theory, but transferring them from warm to cold conditions did not elevate milk production, consistent with the peripheral limitation hypothesis, and placed constraints on pup growth. PMID:23737554

  5. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  6. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  7. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  8. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  9. Making and breaking an Island arc: a new perspective from the Oligocene Kyushu-Palau arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Taylor, R. N.; Yuasa, M.; Ohara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a 2000km long remnant island arc that is separated from the active Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system by a series of spreading and rift basins. In this study we present 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data for new samples taken from the entire length of the Kyushu-Palau arc. As such, this data provides the first comprehensive evaluation of temporal and spatial changes that are present in an Eocene-Oligocene island arc. Kyushu-Palau arc geochemistry is evaluated alongside new data from the conjugate arc which is stranded within the IBM fore-arc. Boninitic magmatism gave way to transitional arc suites including high-Mg andesites at c. 45 Ma (Ishizuka et al., 2006). After the transitional 45-41 Ma period, a mature arc system developed through the Eocene-Oligocene time: This volcanism is now preserved as the KPR. Dating results from 33 sites indicate that the KPR was active between 25 and 43 Ma, but the majority of the exposed volcanism occurred in the final phase of this arc, between 25 and 27 Ma. Unlike the IBM, the KPR has only limited systematic along-arc trends and does not include any of the strongly HIMU lavas found to the south of Izu-Bonin. Two components found along the KPR are found to have geochemistry that suggests an origin in the supra-subduction mantle rather than from the descending ocean crust. Firstly, in the south of the arc, EM-2-like lavas are present where the West Philippine Basin was in the final stages of spreading. Secondly, EM-1-like lavas are present in a restricted section of the arc, suggesting a localised heterogeneity. Subduction flux beneath the KPR generally imparted a Pb isotope vector towards low Δ8/4 (<15) and moderate 206Pb/204Pb (>19). This is a similar trend to the Eocene/Oligocene lavas found on the eastern side of the basins which split the arc at 25Ma. Another geochemical heterogeneity is found at the KPR-Daito Ridge intersection where arc magmatism occurred on pre-existing Daito Ridge crust: a

  10. Improvement of Weld Characteristics by Laser-Arc Double-Sided Welding Compared to Single Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhenglong; Zhang, Kezhao; Hu, Xue; Yang, Yuhe; Chen, Yanbin; Wu, Yichao

    2015-11-01

    The single arc welding and laser-arc double-sided welding (LADSW) processes are investigated by virtue of test welds. The impacts of the laser beam during the LADSW process on the weld characteristics are studied from weld geometry, crystal morphology, and the mechanical properties of the joints. Compared with the single arc welding, the LADSW process improves the energy density and reduces the range of arc action, which together leads to a doubling of weld penetration depth. When penetrated by the laser beam, the liquid metal of the arc welding pool experiences severe fluctuations, leading to a finer grain size in the range of 17-26 μm in the LADSW weld, a reduction of nearly 63% compared to the grains in the single arc weld. The tensile strength and elongation-to-failure of the LADSW weld were increased by nearly 10 and 100% over the single arc welding, respectively.

  11. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies with Data Set of ASTRID-2, DMSP, FAST, and SuperDARN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Toshinori, Mukai; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Frederick, R.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Aurorae which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun-aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resembling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) relationship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/1 1/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d), with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of-sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed in POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in event (a),(c),(d), and another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector (event b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in event (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the polar cap arc in event (b) die to limitation of data set. In event (c), O+ with energy more than 1 keV were observed by FAST within a transpolar arc, suggesting that their origin be from plasma sheet. Transpolar arcs are thought to be projection of plasma sheet bifurcation into lobe regime. There

  12. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies With Data Set of Astrid-2, Dmsp, Fast, and Superdarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.; Maezawa, K.; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Superdarn Team

    Auroras which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun- aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resem- bling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF(Interplanetary Magnetic Field) rela- tionship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/11/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d) , with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of- sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed by POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in events (c),(d); another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector in event (b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in events (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the transpolar arc in event (b) due to limitation of data set. Isotropic ions with energy more than 1 keV were observed within transpolar arcs. From these 1 observations it is concluded that the origin of transpolar arcs is from the plasma sheet. This is consistent with the view that transpolar

  13. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  14. Stretched arc discharge in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

  15. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  16. New limit on the low-energy antiproton/proton ratio in the Galactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Beatty, J. J.; Barwick, S.; Gerbier, G.; Bower, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from a balloon-borne apparatus searching for low-energy antiprotons in the Galactic cosmic rays. For energies less than 640 MeV at the top of the atmosphere, no cosmic-ray antiprotons were observed. This yields an upper limit to the antiproton/proton ratio of 0.000046 at the 85-percent confidence level.

  17. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    DOEpatents

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  18. Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Peng, Cheng-Yao; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Limited filamentous bulking caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) was proposed to establish a low energy consumption wastewater treatment system. This method for energy saving was derived from two full-scale field observations, which showed pollutants removal would be enhanced and energy consumption could be reduced by at least 10% using limited filamentous bulking. Furthermore, preliminary investigation including the abundance evaluation and the identification of filamentous bacteria demonstrated that the limited filamentous bulking could be repeated steadily in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor fed with domestic wastewater. The sludge loss did not occur in the secondary clarifier, while COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were improved by controlling DO for optimal filamentous bacterial population. Suspended solids in effluent were negligible and turbidity was lower than 2 NTU, which were distinctly lower than those under no bulking. Theoretical and experimental results indicated the aeration consumption could be saved by the application of limited filamentous bulking. PMID:19837583

  19. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  20. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  1. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  2. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  3. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  4. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. Droplet Arrangement via the Renormalized Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    This is the second in a series of papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for the two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In this model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. Here we focus on the sharp interface version of this energy in the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In our previous paper, we computed the Γ-limit of the leading order energy, which yields the averaged behavior for almost minimizers, namely that the density of droplets should be uniform. Here we go to the next order and derive a next order Γ-limit energy, which is exactly the Coulombian renormalized energy obtained by Sandier and Serfaty as a limiting interaction energy for vortices in the magnetic Ginzburg-Landau model. The derivation is based on the abstract scheme of Sandier-Serfaty that serves to obtain lower bounds for 2-scale energies and express them through some probabilities on patterns via the multiparameter ergodic theorem. Thus, without appealing to the Euler-Lagrange equation, we establish for all configurations which have "almost minimal energy" the asymptotic roundness and radius of the droplets, and the fact that they asymptotically shrink to points whose arrangement minimizes the renormalized energy in some averaged sense. Via a kind of Γ-equivalence, the obtained results also yield an expansion of the minimal energy and a characterization of the zero super-level sets of the minimizers for the original Ohta-Kawasaki energy. This leads to the expectation of seeing triangular lattices of droplets as energy minimizers.

  5. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  6. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  8. Arginine-Ornithine Antiporter ArcD Controls Arginine Metabolism and Interspecies Biofilm Development of Streptococcus gordonii*♦

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Akito; Kuboniwa, Masae; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Hashino, Ei; Amano, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Arginine is utilized by the oral inhabitant Streptococcus gordonii as a substrate of the arginine deiminase system (ADS), eventually producing ATP and NH3, the latter of which is responsible for microbial resistance to pH stress. S. gordonii expresses a putative arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) whose function has not been investigated despite relevance to the ADS and potential influence on inter-bacterial communication with periodontal pathogens that utilize amino acids as a main energy source. Here, we generated an S. gordonii ΔarcD mutant to explore the role of ArcD in physiological homeostasis and bacterial cross-feeding. First, we confirmed that S. gordonii ArcD plays crucial roles for mediating arginine uptake and promoting bacterial growth, particularly under arginine-limited conditions. Next, metabolomic profiling and transcriptional analysis of the ΔarcD mutant revealed that deletion of this gene caused intracellular accumulation of ornithine leading to malfunction of the ADS and suppression of de novo arginine biosynthesis. The mutant strain also showed increased susceptibility to low pH stress due to reduced production of ammonia. Finally, accumulation of Fusobacterium nucleatum was found to be significantly decreased in biofilm formed by the ΔarcD mutant as compared with the wild-type strain, although ornithine supplementation restored fusobacterium biovolume in dual-species biofilms with the ΔarcD mutant and also enhanced single species biofilm development by F. nucleatum. Our results are the first direct evidence showing that S. gordonii ArcD modulates not only alkali and energy production but also interspecies interaction with F. nucleatum, thus initiating a middle stage of periodontopathic biofilm formation, by metabolic cross-feeding. PMID:26085091

  9. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  10. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoske, Richard; Kennedy, Patrick; Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Huxford, Theodore J; Bonavita, Angelo M; Engleman, Greg; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Griest, Wayne H; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  11. Thermodynamic limits to the efficiency of solar energy conversion by quantum devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics imposes a strict limitation to the energy converted from direct solar radiation to useful work by a quantum device. This limitation requires that the amount of energy converted to useful work (energy in any form other than heat) can be no greater than the change in free energy of the radiation fields. Futhermore, in any real energy conversion device, not all of this available free energy in the radiation field can be converted to work because of basic limitations inherent in the device itself. A thermodynamic analysis of solar energy conversion by a completely general prototypical quantum device is presented. This device is completely described by two parameters, its operating temperature T sub R and the energy threshold of its absorption spectrum. An expression for the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of a quantum solar converter was derived in terms of these two parameters and the incident radiation spectrum. Efficiency curves for assumed solar spectral irradiance corresponding to air mass zero and air mass 1.5 are presented.

  12. Energy saving in WWTP: Daily benchmarking under uncertainty and data availability limitations.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, D; Schutz, G; Cornelissen, A; Hernández-Sancho, F; Hansen, J

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can produce significant environmental and economic benefits. Energy benchmarking can be used to compare WWTPs, identify targets and use these to improve their performance. Different authors have performed benchmark analysis on monthly or yearly basis but their approaches suffer from a time lag between an event, its detection, interpretation and potential actions. The availability of on-line measurement data on many WWTPs should theoretically enable the decrease of the management response time by daily benchmarking. Unfortunately this approach is often impossible because of limited data availability. This paper proposes a methodology to perform a daily benchmark analysis under database limitations. The methodology has been applied to the Energy Online System (EOS) developed in the framework of the project "INNERS" (INNovative Energy Recovery Strategies in the urban water cycle). EOS calculates a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the evaluation of energy and process performances. In EOS, the energy KPIs take in consideration the pollutant load in order to enable the comparison between different plants. For example, EOS does not analyse the energy consumption but the energy consumption on pollutant load. This approach enables the comparison of performances for plants with different loads or for a single plant under different load conditions. The energy consumption is measured by on-line sensors, while the pollutant load is measured in the laboratory approximately every 14 days. Consequently, the unavailability of the water quality parameters is the limiting factor in calculating energy KPIs. In this paper, in order to overcome this limitation, the authors have developed a methodology to estimate the required parameters and manage the uncertainty in the estimation. By coupling the parameter estimation with an interval based benchmark approach, the authors propose an effective, fast and reproducible

  13. Exciton binding energy limitations in organic materials and potentials for improvements (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraner, Stefan; Scholz, Reinhard; Müller, Eric; Knupfer, Martin; Koerner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2015-10-01

    In current organic photovoltaic devices, the loss in energy caused by the inevitable charge transfer step leads to a low open circuit voltage, which is one of the main reasons for rather low power conversion efficiencies. A possible approach to avoid these losses is to tune the exciton binding energy below 25 meV, which would lead to free charges upon absorption of a photon, and therefore increase the power conversion efficiency towards the Shockley Queisser limit for inorganic solar cells. We determine the size of the excitons for different one-dimensional organic small molecules or polymers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements and by DFT calculations. Using the measured dielectric constant and exciton extension, the exciton binding energy is calculated for the investigated molecules, leading to a lower limit of the exciton binding energy for ladder-type polymers. We discuss and propose potential ways to increase the ionic and electronic part of the dielectric function in order to further lower the limit of the exciton binding energy in organic materials. Furthermore, the influence of charge transfer states on the exciton size and its binding energy is calculated with DFT methods for the ladder-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) in a dimer configuration.

  14. Along-arc and inter-arc variations in volcanic gas CO2/S signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Robidoux, Philippe; Fischer, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Improving the current estimates of the global volcanic arc CO2 output requires a more accurate knowledge of the volcanic gas CO2/S ratio signature of each individual arc segment. This, when multiplied by sulphur (S) productivity of each arc segment (derived by either studies on melt inclusions or UV-based gas measurements), could in principle yield the individual arc CO2 output and, by summation, the global arc CO2 output. Unfortunately, the process is complicated, among others, by the limited volcanic gas dataset we have available, particularly for poorly explored, but potentially highly productive arc segments (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, etc). We here review the currently available dataset of CO2/S ratios in the volcanic gas literature, and combine this with novel gas observations (partially obtained using the currently expanding DCO-DECADE Multi-GAS network) to provide experimental evidence for the existence of substantial variations in volcanic gas chemistry along individual arc segments, and from one arc segment to another. In Central America [1], for instance, we identify distinct volcanic gas CO2/S (molar) ratio signatures for magmatic volatiles in Nicaragua (~3), Costa Rica (~0.5-1.0) and El Salvador (~1.0), which we ascribe to variable extents of sedimentary carbon addition to a MORB-type (Costa Rica-like) mantle wedge. Globally, volcanic gas CO2/S ratios are typically found to be low (~1.0) in arc segments (e.g., Japan, Kuril-Kamchatka, Chile) where small amount of limestones enter the slab; whilst larger slab/crustal carbon contributions typically correspond to higher CO2/S ratio signatures for gases of other arcs, such as Indonesia (~4.0) or Italy (6 to 9). We find that CO2/S ratios of arc gases positively correlate with Ba/La and U/Th ratios in the corresponding magmas, these trace-element ratios being thought as petrological proxies for the addition slab-fluids to the magma generation zone. This relation implies a dominant slab-derivation of carbon

  15. High-energy limit of collision-induced false vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Sergei; Levkov, Dmitry

    2015-06-01

    We develop a consistent semiclassical description of field-theoretic collision-induced tunneling at arbitrary high collision energies. As a playground we consider a (1 + 1)-dimensional false vacuum decay initiated by a collision of N particles at energy E, paying special attention to the realistic case of N = 2 particles. We demonstrate that the cross section of this process is exponentially suppressed at all energies. Moreover, the respective suppressesion exponent F N ( E) exhibits a specific behavior which is significant for our semiclassical method and assumed to be general: it decreases with energy, reaches absolute minimum F = F min( N ) at a certain threshold energy E = E rt( N ), and stays constant at higher energies. We show that the minimal suppression F min( N ) and threshold energy can be evaluated using a special class of semiclassical solutions which describe exponentially suppressed transitions but nevertheless evolve in real time. Importantly, we argue that the cross section at energies above E rt( N ) is computed perturbatively in the background of the latter solutions, and the terms of this perturbative expansion stay bounded in the infinite-energy limit. Transitions in the high-energy regime proceed via emission of many soft quanta with total energy E rt; the energy excess E - E rt remains in the colliding particles till the end of the process.

  16. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a... Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint against Massachusetts Electric Company (National...

  17. The statistical difference between bending arcs and regular polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, A.; Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Karlsson, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the Polar UVI data set by Kullen et al. (2002) of 74 polar arcs is reinvestigated, focusing on bending arcs. Bending arcs are typically faint and form (depending on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By direction) on the dawnside or duskside oval with the tip of the arc splitting off the dayside oval. The tip subsequently moves into the polar cap in the antisunward direction, while the arc's nightside end remains attached to the oval, eventually becoming hook-shaped. Our investigation shows that bending arcs appear on the opposite oval side from and farther sunward than most regular polar arcs. They form during By-dominated IMF conditions: typically, the IMF clock angle increases from 60 to 90° about 20 min before the arc forms. Antisunward plasma flows from the oval into the polar cap just poleward of bending arcs are seen in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data, indicating dayside reconnection. For regular polar arcs, recently reported characteristics are confirmed in contrast to bending arcs. This includes plasma flows along the nightside oval that originate close to the initial arc location and a significant delay in the correlation between IMF By and initial arc location. In our data set, the highest correlations are found with IMF By appearing at least 1-2 h before arc formation. In summary, bending arcs are distinctly different from regular arcs and cannot be explained by existing polar arc models. Instead, these results are consistent with the formation mechanism described in Carter et al. (2015), suggesting that bending arcs are caused by dayside reconnection.

  18. Energy straggling eliminated as a limitation to charge resolution of transmission detectors. [used for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, G.; Ahlen, S. P.; Price, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that detectors of the energy loss of penetrating charged particles are widely used for particle identification. These measurements are hampered, however, by fluctuations in the amount of energy deposited within the detector. It is shown that this limitation can be overcome with a new nuclear track detector, CR-39(DOP), and that the charge resolution of this detector exceeds that of any other, including semiconductor diodes.

  19. A General Design Framework for MIMO Wireless Energy Transfer With Limited Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Multi-antenna or multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique can significantly improve the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) signal enabled wireless energy transfer (WET). To fully exploit the energy beamforming gain at the energy transmitter (ET), the knowledge of channel state information (CSI) is essential, which, however, is difficult to be obtained in practice due to the hardware limitation of the energy receiver (ER). To overcome this difficulty, under a point-to-point MIMO WET setup, this paper proposes a general design framework for a new type of channel learning method based on the ER's energy measurement and feedback. Specifically, the ER measures and encodes the harvested energy levels over different training intervals into bits, and sends them to the ET via a feedback link of limited rate. Based on the energy-level feedback, the ET adjusts transmit beamforming in subsequent training intervals and obtains refined estimates of the MIMO channel by leveraging the technique of analytic center cutting plane method (ACCPM) in convex optimization. Under this general design framework, we further propose two specific feedback schemes termed energy quantization and energy comparison, where the feedback bits at each interval are generated at the ER by quantizing the measured energy level at the current interval and comparing it with those in the previous intervals, respectively. Numerical results are provided to compare the performance of the two feedback schemes. It is shown that energy quantization performs better when the number of feedback bits per interval is large, while energy comparison is more effective with small number of feedback bits.

  20. ALICE—ARC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlik, C.; Gregersen, A. R.; Kleist, J.; Peters, A.; Saiz, P.

    2008-07-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites.

  1. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  2. Improving the Mach number capabilities of arc driven shock tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; Santiago, J.; I, L.

    1980-01-01

    New systematic trends in one of the performance parameters of pressure loaded arc driven shock tubes have been determined. For a given configuration, the Mach number increases with the cube root of capacitor energy; however, the initial driver gas pressure is relatively unimportant. A qualitative model based on the assumption of Joule-preheating by the arc discharge is discussed.

  3. Experimental investigation of megawatt dc arc heating of nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldman, D. R.; Campbell, J. P.

    1966-01-01

    Four types of arc heaters, each with the capability of providing arc power levels in excess of 1 megawatt in nitrogen, were tested over a range of power levels and nitrogen flow rates to determine their value as heaters for hypersonic tunnels. The data derived should be useful in the design of high energy heaters for various industrial processes.

  4. The loss of material from the cathode of metal arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeliger, R.; Wulfhekel, H.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of arc length, cathode thickness, current strength, gas pressure and the chemical nature of the cathode material and filling gases upon the material loss from Cu, Fe, and Ag cathodes in arcs. The results show that the analysis of the phenomenon is complex and the energy balance is difficult to formulate.

  5. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  6. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  7. Energy-limited escape revised. The transition from strong planetary winds to stable thermospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, M.; Schneider, P. C.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than log 10(-ΦG)< 13.11 erg g-1 because in these planets the radiative energy input is efficiently used to drive the planetary wind. Massive and compact planets with log 10(-ΦG) ≳ 13.6 erg g-1 exhibit more tightly bound atmospheres in which the complete radiative energy input is re-emitted through hydrogen Lyα and free-free emission. These planets therefore host hydrodynamically stable thermospheres. Between these two extremes the strength of the planetary winds rapidly declines as a result of a decreasing heating efficiency. Small planets undergo enhanced evaporation because they host expanded atmospheres that expose a larger surface to the stellar irradiation. We present scaling laws for the heating efficiency and the expansion radius that depend on the gravitational potential and irradiation level of the planet. The resulting revised energy-limited escape concept can be used to derive estimates for the mass-loss rates of super-Earth-sized planets as well as massive hot Jupiters with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres.

  8. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVIII. Energy intake and reproductive output during lactation in Swiss mice raising small litters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Song, De-Guang; Su, Zhen-Cheng; Wei, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xian-Bin; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Limits to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during lactation in Swiss mice have been suggested to reflect the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. However, an alternative explanation is that milk production and food intake are regulated to match the limited growth capacity of the offspring. In the present study, female Swiss mice were experimentally manipulated in two ways - litter sizes were adjusted to be between 1 and 9 pups and mice were exposed to either warm (21°C) or cold (5°C) conditions from day 10 of lactation. Energy intake, number of pups and litter mass, milk energy output (MEO), thermogenesis, mass of the mammary glands and brown adipose tissue cytochrome c oxidase activity of the mothers were measured. At 21 and 5°C, pup mass at weaning was almost independent of litter size. Positive correlations were observed between the number of pups, litter mass, asymptotic food intake and MEO. These data were consistent with the suggestion that in small litters, pup requirements may be the major factor limiting milk production. Pups raised at 5°C had significantly lower body masses than those raised at 21°C. This was despite the fact that milk production and energy intake at the same litter sizes were both substantially higher in females raising pups at 5°C. This suggests that pup growth capacity is lower in the cold, perhaps due to pups allocating ingested energy to fuel thermogenesis. Differences in observed levels of milk production under different conditions may then reflect a complex interplay between factors limiting maternal performance (peripheral limitation and heat dissipation: generally better when it is cooler) and factors influencing maximum pup growth (litter size and temperature: generally better when it is hotter), and may together result in an optimal temperature favouring reproduction. PMID:23720804

  9. Limited-angle multi-energy CT using joint clustering prior and sparsity regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present an easy-to-implement Multi-energy CT scanning strategy and a corresponding reconstruction method, which facilitate spectral CT imaging by improving the data efficiency the number-of-energy- channel fold without introducing visible limited-angle artifacts caused by reducing projection views. Leveraging the structure coherence at different energies, we first pre-reconstruct a prior structure information image using projection data from all energy channels. Then, we perform a k-means clustering on the prior image to generate a sparse dictionary representation for the image, which severs as a structure information constraint. We com- bine this constraint with conventional compressed sensing method and proposed a new model which we referred as Joint Clustering Prior and Sparsity Regularization (CPSR). CPSR is a convex problem and we solve it by Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). We verify our CPSR reconstruction method with a numerical simulation experiment. A dental phantom with complicate structures of teeth and soft tissues is used. X-ray beams from three spectra of different peak energies (120kVp, 90kVp, 60kVp) irradiate the phantom to form tri-energy projections. Projection data covering only 75◦ from each energy spectrum are collected for reconstruction. Independent reconstruction for each energy will cause severe limited-angle artifacts even with the help of compressed sensing approaches. Our CPSR provides us with images free of the limited-angle artifact. All edge details are well preserved in our experimental study.

  10. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  11. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    PubMed

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used. PMID:17355086

  12. 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowke, J. J.; Tanaka, M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on De/W, where De is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode.

  13. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), limited energy study - lighting, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-23

    Systems Corp surveyed and completed energy analyses for 95 representative buildings at Fort Campbell, categorized as Korean War Barracks, Airfield Buildings, and Blanchfield Hospital buildings B and C. The energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) evaluated were high efficiency interior and exterior lighting, and indoor lighting controls. Cost estimates were prepared using MeansData for Windows Spreadsheets, Version 2.Oa. Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project development brochures (PDBs) and DD1391 forms were prepared for four Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects. The total of the four projects that were developed represent $385,283 in annual savings with a simple payback of 6.37 years and a saving to investment ratio (SIR) of 1.89.

  14. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  15. Exciton size and binding energy limitations in one-dimensional organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, S. Koerner, C.; Leo, K.; Scholz, R.; Plasser, F.

    2015-12-28

    In current organic photovoltaic devices, the loss in energy caused by the charge transfer step necessary for exciton dissociation leads to a low open circuit voltage, being one of the main reasons for rather low power conversion efficiencies. A possible approach to avoid these losses is to tune the exciton binding energy to a value of the order of thermal energy, which would lead to free charges upon absorption of a photon, and therefore increase the power conversion efficiency towards the Shockley-Queisser limit. We determine the size of the excitons for different organic molecules and polymers by time dependent density functional theory calculations. For optically relevant transitions, the exciton size saturates around 0.7 nm for one-dimensional molecules with a size longer than about 4 nm. For the ladder-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline), we obtain an exciton binding energy of about 0.3 eV, serving as a lower limit of the exciton binding energy for the organic materials investigated. Furthermore, we show that charge transfer transitions increase the exciton size and thus identify possible routes towards a further decrease of the exciton binding energy.

  16. Limits of mechanical energy storage and structural changes in twisted carbon nanotube ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, Zacharias G.; Zhu, Zhen; Teich, David; Seifert, Gotthard; Tománek, David

    2013-12-01

    Arrays of twisted carbon nanotubes and nanotube ropes are equivalent to a torsional spring capable of storing energy. The advantage of carbon nanotubes over a twisted rubber band, which is used to store energy in popular toys, is their unprecedented toughness. Using ab initio and parametrized density functional calculations, we determine the elastic range and energy storage capacity of twisted carbon nanotubes and nanotube ropes. We find that a twisted nanotube rope may reversibly store energy by twisting, stretching, bending, and compressing constituent nanotubes. We find that in the elastic regime, the interior of a twisted rope encounters hydrostatic pressures of up to tens of GPa. We examine the limits of reversible energy storage and identify structural deformations beyond the elastic limit, where irreversibility is associated with breaking and forming new covalent bonds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated reversible mechanical energy storage capacity of twisted carbon nanotube ropes surpasses that of advanced Li-ion batteries by up to a factor of 4 to 10.

  17. Exciton size and binding energy limitations in one-dimensional organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraner, S.; Scholz, R.; Plasser, F.; Koerner, C.; Leo, K.

    2015-12-01

    In current organic photovoltaic devices, the loss in energy caused by the charge transfer step necessary for exciton dissociation leads to a low open circuit voltage, being one of the main reasons for rather low power conversion efficiencies. A possible approach to avoid these losses is to tune the exciton binding energy to a value of the order of thermal energy, which would lead to free charges upon absorption of a photon, and therefore increase the power conversion efficiency towards the Shockley-Queisser limit. We determine the size of the excitons for different organic molecules and polymers by time dependent density functional theory calculations. For optically relevant transitions, the exciton size saturates around 0.7 nm for one-dimensional molecules with a size longer than about 4 nm. For the ladder-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline), we obtain an exciton binding energy of about 0.3 eV, serving as a lower limit of the exciton binding energy for the organic materials investigated. Furthermore, we show that charge transfer transitions increase the exciton size and thus identify possible routes towards a further decrease of the exciton binding energy.

  18. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guthrie, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment.more » For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.« less

  19. Arc-driven rail accelerator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1987-01-01

    Arc-driven rail accelerator research is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time and rate of ablation. Locations of two simultaneously accelerating arcs were determined by optical and magnetic probes and fron streak camera photographs. All three measurements provide consistent results.

  20. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  1. Making and breaking an island arc: A new perspective from the Oligocene Kyushu-Palau arc, Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Taylor, Rex N.; Yuasa, Makoto; Ohara, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a 2600 km long remnant island arc that is separated from the active Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc by a series of spreading and rift basins. We present 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data for the entire length of the Kyushu-Palau arc as well as for the conjugate arc which is stranded within the IBM fore arc. New 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the KPR was active between 25 and 48 Ma, but the majority of the exposed volcanism occurred in the final phase, between 25 and 28 Ma. Rifting of the Kyushu-Palau arc to form the Shikoku and Parece Vela basins occurred simultaneously along the length of the arc (circa 25 Ma), and at a similar distance from the trench. Unlike the IBM, the KPR has only limited systematic along-arc geochemical trends. Two geochemical components within the KPR indicate an origin in the suprasubduction mantle. First, EM-1-like lavas are identified in a restricted section of the arc, suggesting a localized heterogeneity. Second, EM-2-like arc volcanoes formed on juvenile West Philippine Basin crust, potentially reflecting ingress of mantle from the then active EM-2 province which lies in the west. Another geochemical heterogeneity is found at the KPR-Daito Ridge intersection where the arc developed on preexisting Cretaceous Daito Ridge crust. The geochemical characteristics at this intersection likely result from the involvement of sub-Daito Ridge lithospheric mantle. Subduction flux beneath the KPR generally matches post-45 Ma Eocene/Oligocene lavas in the IBM fore arc, involving fluids and melts derived from altered igneous crust.

  2. Investigations on the radially free full circle arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, W.

    1981-07-01

    The hypothesis that the steady state of a magnetically deflected arc is determined by the equilibrium of the thermodynamic and the magnetohydrodynamic forces is experimentally investigated. An argon arc, burning between two horizontal plane-parallel, insulating plates, bent circularly by its own and an external magnetic field, provided the well-defined conditions by giving a stationary, radially free, full circle arc for the experimental investigation. The local temperature distributions in the arc cross-section were detected spectroscopically as functions of the arc current and the arc radius or curvature. The mass flow field in the arc was determined using basic equations of conservation of energy, mass, and charge, and the known transport parameters of argon at atmospheric pressure. The results represented as a stream line graph, show a symmetric quadruple whirl instead of the expected double whirl, suggested to be due to experimental conditions. The equilibrium of heating and cooling mechanisms inside a curved arc and the relative motion of mass and arc were demonstrated. Experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement.

  3. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  4. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  5. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  6. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  7. Vertical Arc for ILC Low Emittance Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The design and parameters of a vertical arc for the ILC Low Emittance Transport (LET) are reviewed. A 1 TeV CM ILC which relies upon 30 MV/m accelerating cavities with a packing fraction of 65% will require almost 48 km of main linac, which suggests that the total site length including BDS and bunch compressors will be on the order of 53 km. If built in a laser-straight tunnel with the low-energy ends near the surface, and assuming a perfectly spherical ''cue ball'' planetary surface with radius 6370 km, the collider halls will necessarily be 55 meters below grade, as shown in the top plot of Figure 1. Such depths would demand extensive use of deep tunneling, which would potentially drive up the cost and difficulty of ILC construction. An alternate solution is to use discrete vertical arcs at a few locations to allow a ''piecewise straight'' construction in which the depth of the tunnel below grade does not vary by more than a few meters. This approach is shown schematically in the bottom plot of Figure 1. In this Note we consider the issues for a design with one such vertical arc at the 250 GeV/c point (ie, midway down the linac for 1 TeV CM), and a second arc at the entrance to the BDS (ie, the entire BDS lies in one plane, with vertical arcs at each end).

  8. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. I. Droplet Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2013-11-01

    This is the first in a series of two papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for a two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion, also known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model, in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In that model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. We focus on the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In this paper we show that an appropriate setting for Γ-convergence in the considered parameter regime is via weak convergence of the suitably normalized charge density in the sense of measures. We prove that, after a suitable rescaling, the Ohta-Kawasaki energy functional Γ-converges to a quadratic energy functional of the limit charge density generated by the screened Coulomb kernel. A consequence of our results is that minimizers (or almost minimizers) of the energy have droplets which are almost all asymptotically round, have the same radius and are uniformly distributed in the domain. The proof relies mainly on the analysis of the sharp interface version of the energy, with the connection to the original diffuse interface model obtained via matching upper and lower bounds for the energy. We thus also obtain an asymptotic characterization of the energy minimizers in the diffuse interface model.

  9. Dynamic Discharge Arc Driver. [computerized simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, R. E.; Slapnicar, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program using nonlinear RLC circuit analysis was developed to accurately model the electrical discharge performance of the Ames 1-MJ energy storage and arc-driver system. Solutions of circuit parameters are compared with experimental circuit data and related to shock speed measurements. Computer analysis led to the concept of a Dynamic Discharge Arc Driver (DDAD) capable of increasing the range of operation of shock-driven facilities. Utilization of mass addition of the driver gas offers a unique means of improving driver performance. Mass addition acts to increase the arc resistance, which results in better electrical circuit damping with more efficient Joule heating, producing stronger shock waves. Preliminary tests resulted in an increase in shock Mach number from 34 to 39 in air at an initial pressure of 2.5 torr.

  10. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-12-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  11. Semiclassical analysis of the Efimov energy spectrum in the unitary limit

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Rajat K.; Brack, Matthias; Murthy, M. V. N.

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate that the (s-wave) geometric spectrum of the Efimov energy levels in the unitary limit is generated by the radial motion of a primitive periodic orbit (and its harmonics) of the corresponding classical system. The action of the primitive orbit depends logarithmically on the energy. It is shown to be consistent with an inverse-squared radial potential with a lower cutoff radius. The lowest-order WKB quantization, including the Langer correction, is shown to reproduce the geometric scaling of the energy spectrum. The (WKB) mean-squared radii of the Efimov states scale geometrically like the inverse of their energies. The WKB wave functions, regularized near the classical turning point by Langer's generalized connection formula, are practically indistinguishable from the exact wave functions even for the lowest (n=0) state, apart from a tiny shift of its zeros that remains constant for large n.

  12. Semiclassical analysis of the Efimov energy spectrum in the unitary limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Rajat K.; Brack, Matthias; Murthy, M. V. N.

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate that the (s-wave) geometric spectrum of the Efimov energy levels in the unitary limit is generated by the radial motion of a primitive periodic orbit (and its harmonics) of the corresponding classical system. The action of the primitive orbit depends logarithmically on the energy. It is shown to be consistent with an inverse-squared radial potential with a lower cutoff radius. The lowest-order WKB quantization, including the Langer correction, is shown to reproduce the geometric scaling of the energy spectrum. The (WKB) mean-squared radii of the Efimov states scale geometrically like the inverse of their energies. The WKB wave functions, regularized near the classical turning point by Langer’s generalized connection formula, are practically indistinguishable from the exact wave functions even for the lowest (n=0) state, apart from a tiny shift of its zeros that remains constant for large n.

  13. Effects of shielding gas composition on arc profile and molten pool dynamics in gas metal arc welding of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Lu, F. G.; Wang, H. P.; Murphy, A. B.; Tang, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    In gas metal arc welding, gases of different compositions are used to produce an arc plasma, which heats and melts the workpiece. They also protect the workpiece from the influence of the air during the welding process. This paper models gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes using an in-house simulation code. It investigates the effects of the gas composition on the temperature distribution in the arc and on the molten pool dynamics in gas metal arc welding of steels. Pure argon, pure CO2 and different mixtures of argon and CO2 are considered in the study. The model is validated by comparing the calculated weld profiles with physical weld measurements. The numerical calculations reveal that gas composition greatly affects the arc temperature profile, heat transfer to the workpiece, and consequently the weld dimension. As the CO2 content in the shielding gas increases, a more constricted arc plasma with higher energy density is generated as a result of the increased current density in the arc centre and increased Lorentz force. The calculation also shows that the heat transferred from the arc to the workpiece increases with increasing CO2 content, resulting in a wider and deeper weld pool and decreased reinforcement height.

  14. Solving the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space: the zero-energy limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, Tobias; Salmè, Giovanni; Viviani, Michele

    2015-08-01

    The inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for an interacting system, composed of two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is numerically investigated in the ladder approximation directly in Minkowski space, by using for the first time in the continuum an approach based on the Nakanishi integral representation. In this paper, the limiting case of zero-energy states is considered, thus extending an approach that has already been successfully applied to bound states. The numerical values of scattering lengths, are calculated for several values of the Yukawa coupling constant, by using two different integral equations that stem from the Nakanishi framework. Those low-energy observables are compared with (1) the analogous quantities recently obtained in literature, within a totally different framework, and (2) the non-relativistic evaluations, to illustrate the relevance of a nonperturbative, genuine field theoretical treatment in Minkowski space, even in the low-energy regime. Moreover, dynamical functions, like the Nakanishi weight functions and the distorted part of the zero-energy light-front wave functions are also presented. Interestingly, a highly non-trivial issue related to the abrupt change in the width of the support of the Nakanishi weight function, when the zero-energy limit is approached, is elucidated, ensuring a sound basis to the forthcoming evaluation of phase shifts.

  15. Energy Densities in the Strong-Interaction Limit of Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Mirtschink, André; Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2012-09-11

    We discuss energy densities in the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory, deriving an exact expression within the definition (gauge) of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole. Exact results for small atoms and small model quantum dots (Hooke's atoms) are compared with available approximations defined in the same gauge. The idea of a local interpolation along the adiabatic connection is discussed, comparing the energy densities of the Kohn-Sham, the physical, and the strong-interacting systems. We also use our results to analyze the local version of the Lieb-Oxford bound, widely used in the construction of approximate exchange-correlation functionals. PMID:26605721

  16. MAGIC upper limits on the Very High Energy emission from GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bastieri, D.; Gaug, M.; Galante, N.; Garczarczyk, M.; Mizobuchi, S.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.; Stamerra, A.

    2007-07-12

    Since the beginning of its operation in April 2005, the MAGIC telescope was able to observe ten different GRB events since their early beginning, even while the prompt emission was still ongoing. Observations, with energy thresholds spanning between 80 and 300 GeV, did not reveal any {gamma}-ray emission. We present a direct determination of the MAGIC sensitivity in GRB mode and the upper limits for the ten follow-up observations. At energies around 100 GeV, MAGIC is currently the fastest and most sensitive operational GRB detector in the world.

  17. First NIF ARC target shot results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; di Nicola, P.; Hermann, M.; Kalantar, D.; Martinez, D.; Tommasini, R.; NIF ARC Team

    2015-11-01

    The commissioning of the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser system in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently in progress. ARC laser is designed to ultimately provide eight beamlets with pulse duration adjustable from 1 to 50 ps, and energies up to 1.7 kJ per beamlet. ARC will add critical capability for the NIF facility for creating precision x-ray backlighters needed for many current NIF ICF and HED experiments. ARC can also produce MeV electrons and protons for new science experiment on NIF. In the initial set of experiments, 4 of the 8 beamlets are being commissioned up to 1 kJ per beam at 30 ps pulse length using foil and wire targets. X-ray energy distribution, spot size and pulse duration are measured using various diagnostics. This talk will describe the shot setup and results. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E{sub v} = 3 x 10{sup 18} eV. ANITA-1 flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. We report here on our initial analysis, which was performed as a blind search of the data. No neutrino candidates are seen, with no detected physics background. We set model-independent limits based on this result. Upper limits derived from our analysis rule out the highest cosmogenic neutrino models. In a background horizontal-polarization channel, we also detect six events consistent with radio impulses from ultrahigh energy extensive air showers.

  19. An asymptotic-preserving scheme for the semiconductor Boltzmann equation toward the energy-transport limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingwei; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    We design an asymptotic-preserving scheme for the semiconductor Boltzmann equation which leads to an energy-transport system for electron mass and energy as mean free path goes to zero. As opposed to the classical drift-diffusion limit where the stiff collisions are all in one scale, new difficulties arise in the two-scale stiff collision terms because the simple BGK penalization [15] fails to drive the solution to the correct limit. We propose to set up a spatially dependent threshold on the penalization of the stiffer collision operator such that the evolution of the solution resembles a Hilbert expansion at the continuous level. Formal asymptotic analysis and numerical results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of our scheme.

  20. New limits on the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux from the ANITA experiment.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Allison, P; Barwick, S W; Beatty, J J; Besson, D Z; Binns, W R; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P F; Duvernois, M A; Field, R C; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Hoover, S; Israel, M H; Kowalski, J; Learned, J G; Liewer, K M; Link, J T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B C; Miki, C; Miocinović, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C J; Ng, J; Nichol, R J; Palladino, K; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G S; Walz, D; Wang, Y; Wu, F

    2009-07-31

    We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E(nu) approximately 3 x 10(18) eV. ANITA-1 flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. We report here on our initial analysis, which was performed as a blind search of the data. No neutrino candidates are seen, with no detected physics background. We set model-independent limits based on this result. Upper limits derived from our analysis rule out the highest cosmogenic neutrino models. In a background horizontal-polarization channel, we also detect six events consistent with radio impulses from ultrahigh energy extensive air showers. PMID:19792479

  1. Method and apparatus for nondestructive testing. [using high frequency arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    High voltage is applied to an arc gap adjacent to a test specimen to develop a succession of high frequency arc discharges. Those high frequency arc discharges generate pulses of ultrasonic energy within the test specimen without requiring the arc discharges to contact that test specimen and without requiring a coupling medium. Those pulses can be used for detection of flaws and measurements of certain properties and stresses within the test specimen.

  2. Evolution of magnetically rotating arc into large area arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wan-Wan; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Zha, Jun; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2015-06-01

    An arc channel tends to shrink due to its conductivity increasing with the increase of temperature. In this study, to generate large area arc plasma, we construct a magnetically rotating arc plasma generator, which mainly consists of a lanthanide tungsten cathode (13 mm in diameter), a concentric cylindrical graphite anode chamber (60 mm in diameter) and a solenoid coil for producing an axial magnet field. By controlling the cold gas flow, the magnetically rotating arc evolves from constricted mode to diffuse mode, which almost fills the whole arc chamber cross section. Results show that the diffuse arc plasma has better uniformity and stability. The formation mechanism of large area arc plasma is discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11035005, 11475174, and 50876101) and the Science Instrument Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y201162).

  3. Lower Limits on Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Ray and Jet powers of TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaque, Soebur; Dermer, Charles D.; Finke, Justin D.

    2012-02-01

    Lower limits on the power emitted in ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), which are assumed to be protons with energy >~ 1017-1020 eV, are derived for TeV blazars with the assumption that the observed TeV γ-rays are generated due to interactions of these protons with cosmic microwave photons. The limits depend on the spectrum of the injected UHECR protons. While for a -2.2 injection spectrum the lower limits on the powers emitted in UHECRs by 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121 are lower than their respective synchrotron luminosities (~1046 erg s-1), in the case of 1ES 1426+428 it exceeds the corresponding synchrotron luminosity by up to an order of magnitude. The proposed Auger North Observatory should be able to detect 4 × 1019 eV cosmic-ray (CR) protons from 1ES 1426+428 within a few years of operation and test the TeV γ-ray production model by UHECR energy losses while propagating along the line of sight or constrain the intergalactic magnetic field to be larger than ~10-16 G in case of no detection. The lower limits on the apparent-isotropic jet power from accelerated 1010-1020 eV proton spectra in the blazar jet is of the order of the Eddington luminosity of a 109 M ⊙ black hole for a CR injection spectrum -2.2 or harder for all blazars considered except for 1ES 1426+428. In the case of the latter, the apparent-isotropic jet power exceeds the Eddington luminosity by an order of magnitude. For an injection spectrum softer than -2.2, as is required to fit the observed CR data above ~1017-1018 eV, the Eddington luminosity is exceeded by the lower limits on the jet power for all blazars considered.

  4. On the low-energy limit of one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; Dávila, J. M.; Schubert, C.

    2012-09-01

    We present first results of a systematic study of the structure of the low-energy limit of the one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes induced by massive scalars and spinors. Our main objective is the search of KLT-type relations where effectively two photons merge into a graviton. We find such a relation at the graviton-photon-photon level. We also derive the diffeomorphism Ward identity for the 1PI one-graviton-N-photon amplitudes.

  5. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  6. Vertical distribution of vibrational energy of molecular nitrogen in a stable auroral red arc and its effect on ionospheric electron densities. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ. of Am.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Previous solutions of the problem of the distribution of vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen in the thermosphere have either assumed a Boltzmann distribution and considered diffusion as one of the loss processes or solved for the energy level populations and neglected diffusion. Both of the previous approaches are combined by solving the time dependent continuity equations, including the diffusion process, for the first six energy levels of molecular nitrogen for conditions in the thermosphere corresponding to a stable auroral red arc. The primary source of molecular nitrogen excitation was subexcitation, and inelastic collisions between thermal electrons and molecular nitrogen. The reaction rates for this process were calculated from published cross section calculations. The loss processes for vibrational energy were electron and atomic oxygen quenching and vibrational energy exchange. The coupled sets of nonlinear, partial differential equations were solved numerically by employing finite difference equations.

  7. LH launcher Arcs Formation and Detection on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. F.; Challis, C. D.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Mechanisms of arc formation have been analyzed and the critical electric fields for the multipactor effect calculated, compared to the experimental values and found to be within the normal operational space of the LH system on JET. It has been shown that the characteristic electron energy (20-1000)eV for the highest multipactor resonances (N = 4-9) are within the limits of secondary electron yield above 1 required for multipactoring. Electrons with these energies provide the highest gas desorption efficiency when hitting the waveguide walls. The effect of higher waveguide modes and magnetic field on the multipactor was also considered. The distribution function for electrons accelerated by LH waves in front of the launcher has been calculated. The field emission currents have been estimated and found to be small. It is proposed that emission of Fel5, 16 lines, which can be obtained with improved diagnostics, could be used to detect arcs that are missed by a protection system based on the reflected power. The reliability and time response of these signals are discussed. A similar technique based on the observation of the emission of low ionized atoms can be used for a fast detection of other undesirable events to avoid sputtering or melting of the plasma facing components such as RF antenna. These techniques are especially powerful if they are based on emission uniquely associated with specific locations and components.

  8. LH launcher Arcs Formation and Detection on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Yu. F.; Challis, C. D.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.

    2011-12-23

    Mechanisms of arc formation have been analyzed and the critical electric fields for the multipactor effect calculated, compared to the experimental values and found to be within the normal operational space of the LH system on JET. It has been shown that the characteristic electron energy (20-1000)eV for the highest multipactor resonances (N = 4-9) are within the limits of secondary electron yield above 1 required for multipactoring. Electrons with these energies provide the highest gas desorption efficiency when hitting the waveguide walls. The effect of higher waveguide modes and magnetic field on the multipactor was also considered. The distribution function for electrons accelerated by LH waves in front of the launcher has been calculated. The field emission currents have been estimated and found to be small. It is proposed that emission of Fel5, 16 lines, which can be obtained with improved diagnostics, could be used to detect arcs that are missed by a protection system based on the reflected power. The reliability and time response of these signals are discussed. A similar technique based on the observation of the emission of low ionized atoms can be used for a fast detection of other undesirable events to avoid sputtering or melting of the plasma facing components such as RF antenna. These techniques are especially powerful if they are based on emission uniquely associated with specific locations and components.

  9. Thermocapillary and arc phenomena in stainless steel welding

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, S.W.; Olson, D.L.; Burgardt, P.

    1999-02-01

    This investigation characterized the effects of power level and Gaussian heat source size on thermocapillary-induced weld shape and estimated the relative influence of various possible arc phenomena in determining weld shape. Welds made with the CTAW process were compared with similar ones made with a conduction-mode EBW process and the differences were related to arc effects. Evidence of thermocapillary flow was readily apparent in both the GTA welds and the conduction-mode EB welds and was qualitatively similar in both. The similarity between the results obtained with the two processes serves to demonstrate that thermocapillary convection is the dominant factor in heat-to-heat weld shape variability. However, a similar one-to-one correspondence between welds produced with the two processes does not exist. Especially at high power, the EB welds showed stronger thermocapillary convection than the GTA welds. One important arc factor that limits thermocapillary flow in ar welds appears to be an increase in arc size with arc length and arc current. A non-Gaussian arc power distribution in GTAW seems to be most important in limiting the fluid flow. Apparently, the arc power distribution is more nearly rectangular in shape for an argon gas arc. At higher currents, above 200 A, plasma shear force may also be an important contributor to weld shape development. The conduction-mode EB welds demonstrate that thermocapillary flow reversal probably does not occur in welds made with a simple Gaussian heat source. The complex shape behavior is likely a result of an arc effect such as plasma shear.

  10. Revised upper limit to energy extraction from a Kerr black hole.

    PubMed

    Schnittman, Jeremy D

    2014-12-31

    We present a new upper limit on the energy that may be extracted from a Kerr black hole by means of particle collisions in the ergosphere (i.e., the "collisional Penrose process"). Earlier work on this subject has focused largely on particles with critical values of angular momentum falling into an extremal Kerr black hole from infinity and colliding just outside the horizon. While these collisions are able to reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies, it is very difficult for the reaction products to escape back to infinity, effectively limiting the peak efficiency of such a process to roughly 130%. When we allow one of the initial particles to have impact parameter b>2M, and thus not get captured by the horizon, it is able to collide along outgoing trajectories, greatly increasing the chance that the products can escape. For equal-mass particles annihilating to photons, we find a greatly increased peak energy of Eout≈6×Ein. For Compton scattering, the efficiency can go even higher, with Eout≈14×Ein, and for repeated scattering events, photons can both be produced and escape to infinity with Planck-scale energies. PMID:25615298