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Sample records for arc furnace steelmaking

  1. Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Dusts (EAFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Victor; Oustadakis, Pashalis; Tsakiridis, Petros E.; Agatzini-Leonardou, Styliani

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current research study was the development of a hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metals from electric arc furnace dust. The behaviors of zinc, cadmium, iron, and lead in sulfuric acid were investigated. The recovery of the zinc (from zinc oxide) and cadmium is possible with a relatively high yield, as iron and lead remain in the solid residue after two stages of leaching at room temperature. In a third stage, zinc recovery from the zinc ferrite (in the leached residue) was carried out by pressure leaching. Under the optimum conditions of treatment and after three stages of processing, the total extractions of zinc and cadmium were 99 and 94 pct, respectively. Lead and the main part of iron remain in the residue. The proposed process also resulted in the reduction of the initial residue mass by 30 pct.

  2. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  3. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Valorization of electric arc furnace primary steelmaking slags for cement applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Kee-Seok; Jung, Sung Suk; Hwang, Jin Ill; Choi, Jae-Seok; Sohn, Il

    2015-07-01

    To produce supplementary cementitious materials from electric arc furnace (EAF) slags, FeO was reduced using a two-stage reduction process that included an Al-dross reduction reaction followed by direct carbon reduction. A decrease in FeO was observed on tapping after the first-stage reduction, and further reduction with a stirred carbon rod in the second-stage reduction resulted in final FeO content below 5wt%, which is compatible with cement clinker applications. The reduced electric arc furnace slags (REAFS) mixed with cement at a unit ratio exhibited physical properties comparable to those of commercialized ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to obtain fundamental information on the cooling characteristics and conditions required to obtain amorphous REAFS. REAFS can be applied in cement mixtures to achieve the hydraulic properties needed for commercial use. PMID:25863765

  5. Formation of hexachlorobenzene from dusts of an electric arc furnace used in steelmaking: effect of temperature and dust composition.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taichi; Shimura, Mizuki; Kasai, Eiki

    2008-10-01

    A certain amount of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), designated a persistent organic pollutant (POP) by the Stockholm Convention, is emitted from an electric arc furnace (EAF) used in the steelmaking process. To understand the formation and decomposition behaviors of HCB during the treatment of waste gases from an EAF, characterization of dust samples from EAFs in different plants was conducted. Dusts 1 and 2 were bag filter dusts collected from a common steel plant and a special steel plant, respectively. The initial concentrations of HCB in dusts 1 and 2 were 62 and < 0.1 ng/g of dust, respectively. Then a series of heating experiments was carried out with these dust samples under various conditions. The formation of HCB from both dusts was not significant under an Ar atmosphere, although the amount of formation from dust 1 slightly increased with an increase in the holding temperature. Under an Ar--20% O2 atmosphere, however, a remarkable amount of HCB formed from dust 1 above 573 K. A certain amount of HCB was also formed from dust 2, even though the initial concentration of HCB was very low. Moreover, the coexistence of metallic compounds such as CuCl2 had a significant accelerating effect on the formation of HCB. PMID:18939586

  6. Removal of hexavalent chromium in carbonic acid solution by oxidizing slag discharged from steelmaking process in electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Seiji; Okazaki, Kohei; Sasano, Junji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2014-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well-known to be a strong oxidizer, and is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, it is regulated for drinking water, soil, groundwater and sea by the environmental quality standards all over the world. In this study, it was attempted to remove Cr(VI) ion in a carbonic acid solution by the oxidizing slag that was discharged from the normal steelmaking process in an electric arc furnace. After the addition of the slag into the aqueous solution contained Cr(VI) ion, concentrations of Cr(VI) ion and total chromium (Cr(VI) + trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ions decreased to lower detection limit of them. Therefore, the used slag could reduce Cr(VI) and fix Cr(III) ion on the slag. While Cr(VI) ion existed in the solution, iron did not dissolve from the slag. From the relation between predicted dissolution amount of iron(II) ion and amount of decrease in Cr(VI) ion, the Cr(VI) ion did not react with iron(II) ion dissolved from the slag. Therefore, Cr(VI) ion was removed by the reductive reaction between Cr(VI) ion and the iron(II) oxide (FeO) in the slag. This reaction progressed on the newly appeared surface of iron(II) oxide due to the dissolution of phase composed of calcium etc., which existed around iron(II) oxide grain in the slag.

  7. Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

    2003-12-31

    Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

  8. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Chemical characterization of dust particles recovered from bag filters of electric arc furnaces for steelmaking: some factors influencing the formation of hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtaka, Noriaki; Ohtsuka, Yasuo

    2010-11-15

    To make clear some factors controlling the formation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the process of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, six dust samples recovered from different bag filters in commercial EAF steelmaking plants have been characterized with XRD, SEM-EPMA, XPS and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. These dust samples contain 1.9-8.0 mass% of chlorine element, and the XPS and TPD measurements exhibit that the Cl is enriched at the dust surface and composed of the inorganic and organic functionalities, part of the Cl being evolved as HCl in the temperature region of flue gas treatment. All of the samples also include 2.1-6.4 mass% of carbon element, and some of the C can release CO(2) in the TPD up to 300°C to form active carbon sites. The number is related closely to HCB concentration of each dust. Further, it is suggested that the Zn present in the samples consists of ZnFe(2)O(4), ZnO and surface ZnCO(3), and the dust with a larger content of the ZnCO(3) has a higher concentration of HCB. It is possible that HCB formation occurs via gas-solid-solid interactions among gaseous Cl-containing compounds in flue gas, active carbon sites and surface Zn-species produced in exhaust ducts and bag filters. PMID:20674160

  10. RECYCLING OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST: JORGENSEN STEEL FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification Process to recycle and convert K061-tested waste (Electric Arc Furnace) and other by products of the steel-making industry into usable products. he process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs ...

  11. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The

  12. Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.

    PubMed

    Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

    2002-01-01

    Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery. PMID:12423059

  13. Cost efficiency of flame-guniting the lining of open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, M.V.; Kozenko, N.I.; Moiseenko, V.D.; Bondarenko, A.G.

    1988-05-01

    The use of flame-guniting for lining repair to the open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces of a number of Soviet plants is reviewed. Equipment and technology for flame-guniting the lining of furnaces, which provide for both local and general repairs to the walls, roofs, and bottoms of furnaces, are discussed. Methods are given for calculating expenditures for repair work and determining the cost efficiency of flame guniting relative to the increased number of heats per lining life. Results are given from calculations of the projected cost-efficiency of using flame-guniting for furnace lining repair at the metallurgical plants of the Ukranian Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy.

  14. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  15. Recovery of Zinc and Lead from Electric-Furnace Steelmaking Dust at Berzelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczek, Helmut; Kola, Rolf

    1980-01-01

    The Waelz unit at the Berzelius Metallhütten GmbH plant in Duisburg, West Germany, was originally built to recover zinc and lead values in zinc retort residues and slags from lead shaft furnaces. The process has also proved suitable for recovering zinc and lead from steelmaking dusts. The metallurgical characteristics and information on operating costs encountered in the three decades over which this Waelz plant has been in operation at Berzelius are described and discussed.

  16. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  17. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

  18. Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, S.; Arisawa, R.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Murakami, K.; Maegawa, A.; Izaki, M.

    2012-03-01

    Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 μm increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 μm of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60 %.

  19. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust through dissolution in deep eutectic ionic liquids and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Bakkar, Ashraf

    2014-09-15

    The dust waste formed during steelmaking in electric arc furnace (EAF) is rich in ferrous and nonferrous metals. Recycling of this dust as a raw material in iron or steel-making is hazardous and therefore it is mostly dumped. This paper demonstrates recycling of EAF dust through selective dissolution of metal oxides in a deep eutectic ionic liquid. It was found that about 60% of Zn and 39% of Pb could be dissolved from the dust when stirred for 48h in 1 choline chloride:2 urea ionic liquid at 60°C. The resultant electrolyte was subsequently fed to a conventional three-electrode cell where cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were conducted to describe its electrochemical behavior. Two deposition peaks were determined and ascribed to deposition of zinc and lead. Static potentials were successively applied to electrowin metallic zinc. SEM/EDX investigations showed that the zinc electrowon contained remarkable contents of lead. PMID:25156719

  20. Glassification of electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Ek, R.B. ); Schlobohm, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This paper describes the process.

  1. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.W.; Chapman, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sandblasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production. Field testing of the technology was conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in early July of 1991 at the Earle M. Jorgensen Steel Co. (EMJ) plant in Seattle, Washington, and both technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. TCLP testing of the product determined that leachability characteristics of metals in the product meet treatment standards for K061-listed waste. The Process was also shown to be economically viable, based on capital and operating cost estimates, and profit and revenue forecasts for a 21,000 ton-per-year operation. Although this effort showed that the technology holds promise, regulatory compliance should be evaluated on the basis of the actual hardware configuration and operating procedures along with the leachability of the specific product formulations to be used.

  2. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-07-15

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

  3. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Arc Steelmaking - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Iwao Iwasaki; Richard F. Kiesel; David J. Englund; David W. Hendrickson; Rodney L. Bleifuss

    2010-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces, and an increasing number of alternative processes using metallic scrap iron, pig iron and metallized iron ore products. Currently, iron ores from Minnesota and Michigan are pelletized and shipped to the lower Great Lakes ports as blast furnace feed. The existing transportation system and infrastructure is geared to handling these bulk materials. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the needs of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling. A recent commercial installation employing Kobe Steel’s ITmk3 process, was installed in Northeastern Minnesota. The basic process uses a moving hearth furnace to directly reduce iron oxides to metallic iron from a mixture of iron ore, coals and additives. The resulting products can be shipped using the existing infrastructure for use in various steelmaking processes. The technology reportedly saves energy by 30% over the current integrated steelmaking process and reduces emissions by more than 40%. A similar large-scale pilot plant campaign is also currently in progress using JFE Steel’s Hi-QIP process in Japan. The objective of this proposal is to build upon and improve the technology demonstrated by Kobe Steel and JFE, by further reducing cost, improving quality and creating added incentive for commercial development. This project expands previous research conducted at the University of Minnesota Duluth’s Natural Resources Research Institute and that reported by Kobe and JFE Steel. Three major issues have been identified and are addressed in this project for producing high-quality nodular reduced iron (NRI) at low cost: (1) reduce the processing temperature, (2) control the furnace gas atmosphere over the NRI, and (3) effectively use sub

  4. Mineralogical characteristics of electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagni, Ann M.; Hagni, Richard D.; Demars, Christelle

    1991-04-01

    Reflected light microscopy can contribute important information regarding the mineralogy, mineral abundance, internal textures, sizes and shapes of particles in electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are useful to determine the chemical compositions of the specific mineral grains in the dust particles. Furthermore, the mineralogical reactions that have taken place during the pyro-metallurgical treatment of EAF dusts and the mineralogy and textural character of those treated dust samples can be directly observed by reflected light microscopy. Such studies are useful in monitoring the efficiency of experimental pyrometallurgical treatment of EAF dusts which are designed to render them nonhazardous.

  5. TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE BRASS FOUNDRY BY MEANS OF AN ARC CREATED BETWEEN TWO HORIZONTAL ELECTRODES. WHEN MELTED, THE FURNACE TILTS, FILLING MOBILE LADLES FROM THE SPOUT. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Yuh-Ruey; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2011-06-15

    In this study, ZnO crystals were fabricated from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) after alkaline leaching, purification and hydrothermal treatment. The effects of temperature, duration, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on ZnO crystal morphology and size were investigated. Results show a high reaction temperature capable of accelerating the dissolution of ZnO precursor, expediting the growth of 1D ZnO, and increasing the L/D ratio in the temperature range of 100-200°C. ZnO crystals with high purity can also be obtained, using the one-step hydrothermal treatment with a baffle that depends on the different solubility of zincite and franklinite in the hydrothermal conditions. PMID:21497436

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  8. Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1990-05-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

  9. Production of high quality steels using the scrap/electric arc furnace route

    SciTech Connect

    Houpert, C.; Lanteri, V.; Jolivet, J.M.; Guttmann, M.; Birat, J.P.; Jallon, M.; Confente, M.

    1996-12-31

    Europe, after North America, is increasing the share of electric arc furnace steelmaking at the expense of integrated steel production and the trend appears to be long term. The driving forces for this change are strong: availability of scrap, social pressure to recycle materials and economic benefits to be reaped from the small structure associated with this short and slim production route. The increasing use of scrap does raise some problems however, in terms of the tramp element build up within the scrap deposit over time. Scrap pretreatment, which aims at separating steel from non-ferrous material during preparation, is thus attracting a lot of attention. The purpose of the present work was to investigate quantitatively the potential problems related to increased levels in tramp elements, with two objectives: identify, on a case by case basis, the currently existing practical limits and devise countermeasures to further extend these limits by better controlling process parameters for instance.

  10. Onsite recycling of electric arc furnace dust: The Jorgensen Steel Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Licis, I.J.; Bermark, R.C.

    1995-10-01

    The steel-making industry produces a large amount of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust as part of normal production. This waste is listed as KO61, defined as {open_quotes}emission control dust/sludge from the primary production of steel in electric arc furnaces{close_quotes} under 40 CFR 261.32. A glass making technology called Ek Glassification{trademark} (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Process{close_quotes}) has been developed by Roger B. Ek and Associates, Inc. (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Developer{close_quotes}) to recycle EAF dust and convert it, along with other byproducts of the steel-making industry, into marketable commodities. This Process was evaluated under the Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. The project was designed and conducted in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Environmental Quality, the Process Developer and the host test site, the Earle M. Jorgensen (EMJ) Steel Company of Seattle, Washington. Test personnel for EPA were supplied by SAIC Inc., on contract to EPA. The overall objectives of the project were to conduct a pilot scale evaluation of the Process, investigate if toxic metals are leached from the products (such as colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sand-blasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production). Three glass recipes (Glass I, II, and III) were designed by the developer for potential use at EMJ. The EPA portion was focused on determining the toxic metals concentrations of the Glass II recipe, evaluating the P2 impact of using this Process in comparison to traditional methods of waste treatment and disposal, and assessing the economics of both.

  11. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. PMID:24012962

  12. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  13. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Machado, Janaína G M S; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes; Santos, Carlos Alberto Dos; Vilela, Antônio Cezar Faria; Cunha, João Batista Marimon da

    2006-08-25

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), FeCr(2)O (4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4), MgO, Mn(3)O(4), SiO(2) and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4) and FeCr(2)O(4). Magnesium ferrite (MgFe(2)O(4)), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. PMID:16494997

  14. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kujawa, Stephan T.; Battleson, Daniel M.; Rademacher, Jr., Edward L.; Cashell, Patrick V.; Filius, Krag D.; Flannery, Philip A.; Whitworth, Clarence G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  15. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  16. Characterization of directly sampled electric arc furnace dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. R.; Goldstein, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.

    1982-05-01

    As one part of a project to characterize electric arc furnace dust, direct sampling of particulates inside two furnaces has been undertaken. The sampled particles from two separate furnace runs were characterized by analytical electron microscopy. The elemental analyses were performed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Crystal structure determinations were made by convergent beam electron diffraction. The mechanism for particle formation as deduced from the experiments has been successfully incorporated into a theoretical model, which in turn predicts all of the observed features of the sampled particles and furthermore, provides new insights into control of particulate production and resource recovery.

  17. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD): part I: Characterization and leaching by diluted sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Oustadakis, P; Tsakiridis, P E; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues. PMID:20129730

  18. Dual Torch Plasma Arc Furnace for Medical Waste Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kikuchi, M.; Li, Heping; Iwao, T.; Inaba, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of a dual torch plasma arc used for hazardous waste treatment and operated at atmospheric pressure are studied, and also compared with those of the multi-torch plasma arc and the single torch plasma arc. The dual torch plasma arc is generated between the cathode and anode with argon as the working gas. The temperature distributions of the plasma arc are measured using a spectroscope and line pair method with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the DC arc current I = 100 A and argon flow rate Q = 15 slpm. The measurements show that the temperatures of the dual torch arc plasma in the regions near the cathode, the anode and the center point are 10,000 K, 11,000 K and 9,000 K, respectively. And the high temperature region of the multi torch plasma arc is of double or much wider size than that of a conventional dual torch plasma arc and single plasma torch. Based on the preceding studies, a dual torch plasma arc furnace is developed in this study. The measured gas temperature at the center region of the argon arc is about 11,000 K for the case of I = 200 A and Q = 30 slpm operated in atmosphere.

  19. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar; Clemente, Carmen; Alonso, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose

    2007-03-01

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue dust using ammonium carbonate solutions. Once zinc is dissolved: ZnO + 4NH3 + H2O --> Zn(NH3)4(2+) + 2OH- with other impurities (i.e. cadmium and copper), these are eliminated from the zinc solution via cementation with metallic zinc. The purified zinc solution was evaporated (distilled) until precipitation of a zinc carbonate species, which then was calcined to yield a zinc oxide of a high grade. For the unattacked dust residue from the leaching operation, mainly composed of zinc ferrite, several options can be considered: back-recycling to the furnace, further treatment by sodium hydroxide processing or a more safely dumping due to its relatively inertness. PMID:16876937

  20. Burden movement in submerged-arc ferromanganese furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyason, G. J.; See, J. B.

    1981-03-01

    The mechanism by which the burden moves in a submerged-arc furnace was investigated in two large industrial furnaces by the stimulus-response technique with a radiotracer input of the radioisotope 59/26Fe as the stimulus. This radioisotope was suitable only for the measurement of residence-time distributions in the alloy phase and the analysis of the experiments was limited to that phase. A composite model to describe the movement of the burden through the furnace was developed by consideration of the mechanism and position of heat generation within the furnace, the inner structure of the furnace, the general form of the measured residence-time distributions, and the mode of burden descent through the furnace. The composite model consisted of a dispersed plug-flow region in the upper regions of the furnace discharging into a constantly stirred tank reactor beneath the electrode tips. Nonlinear regression analysis of the equations developed from the composite model permitted the selection of optimum values of model parameters to give computed curves that approximated to the residence-time distributions. Since the computed results gave realistic values of the model parameters, it was concluded that the model was a valid representation of burden movement through the furnaces. The role of factors such as the position of the radiotracer addition, the energy input to the furnace, the mode of heat distribution in the furnace, and variations in the feed rate of raw materials was analyzed in an attempt to describe the influence of furnace operating conditions on the values of the model parameters.

  1. FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

  2. Phosphorus: The Noose of Sustainability and Renewability in Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Spooner, Stephen; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-09-01

    With rising ore prices and the continued demand for higher quality steels, much work has been carried out into refining and control prospects of steel chemistry. As several technologies around the world are exploring the control of phosphorus with high priority, an overview of current knowledge, ongoing research, and specific interest areas is presented. The reliance of the basic oxygen furnace steelmaking on iron ore quality is considered with regard to impurity levels, as well as the phosphorus content of direct reduced iron introduction to the electric arc furnace process. This article reviews methods to control phosphorus in steelmaking and proposes a practical approach based on laboratory-scale equilibrium experiments. The article ends by exploring energy savings in steelmaking as well as speculating on further avenues of steel production profitability.

  3. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  4. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  5. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Hardt, David E.; Lee, Steven G.

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  6. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of electric steelmaking through the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bosley, J. J.; Clark, J. P.; Dancy, T. E.; Fruehan, R. J.; McIntyre, E. H.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents a critical review of the outlook for electric steelmaking including an assessment of existing and potential electric arc furnace (EAF) capacity. Suggested areas of development to minimize energy consumption and optimize output are also featured. 20 figs.; 62 tabs.

  8. Physicochemical properties of the zinc-containing dusts of electric furnace steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. P.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Petrakova, N. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2013-07-01

    The properties of the dusts of electric-arc melting in the Severstal' metallurgical works are studied by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. The elemental compositions of dust particles of various sizes are determined, and the complex structural composition of iron-containing oxide phases is revealed. It is shown that, in these systems, the carbon reduction of zinc from zincite is possible in the solid state in the temperature range 600-1000°C. In this case, zinc passes into a gaseous phase and iron oxides are reduced to form metallic iron.

  9. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  10. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, P; Kehagias, T; Tsilika, I; Kaimakamis, G; Chrissafis, K; Kokkou, S; Papadopoulos, D; Karakostas, Th

    2007-01-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase. PMID:16716504

  11. Electric arc furnace dust management: A review of technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zunkel, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    Technologies to recover and recycle values from, stabilize and dispose of, and glassify and sell electric arc furnace dust by pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and hybrid methods continue to emerge, be reduced to commercial practice, then succeed and move forward or fail and fade away. The current development and/or commercial status of the following types of processes have been reviewed and analyzed: pyrometallurgical such as kiln, flame reactor, bath smelting, and plasma and electric furnace-based processes; hydrometallurgical involving acidic or basic leaching alone or combined with electrowinning; hybrid hydrometallurgical/pyrometallurgical stabilization techniques using cement and other additives; and glassification. Comparative costs, the trend toward higher value-added products, and the prognosis for these technologies are assessed. Regulations changed significantly during 1995 regarding allowable disposal methods, toward more flexible options. These changes are affecting current and future dust producers, processors and developers of dust management technology. The impacts are discussed.

  12. Appeals court upholds electric arc furnace dust disposal restrictions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    On July 8, 1994, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld EPA`s 1991 final rule governing the land disposal of electric arc furnace dust, listed as K061 in the RCRA regulations. The Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), believing that EPA had acted {open_quotes}arbitrarily and capriciously,{close_quotes} had petitioned for review of this rule. SMA members argued that K061 is reclaimed-not discarded-to recover metals as part of the steel production process; therefore, the petitioners contended that the agency has no right to regulate slag resulting from treatment of K061.

  13. Research on Sustainable Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruehan, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    The international steel community is faced with the challenge of developing processes that will make steel production more sustainable in the future. Specifically, processes that produce less CO2 and less net waste materials and emissions and that consume less energy are required. This article outlines where energy consumption and CO2 emissions are high and can be reduced. Reductions can be achieved by incremental improvements to existing processes or by a “break-through innovative process”; both strategies are examined. Since most of the energy consumption and CO2 generation occur in ironmaking, research in this area is emphasized. Research on controlling the cohesive zone in the blast furnace, improving the final stages of reduction in direct reduction processes, the use of biomass, and other innovative processes for ironmaking are reviewed. In oxygen steelmaking, improved postcombustion (PC) to allow for more scrap melting is examined. Postcombustion and slag foaming in the electric arc furnace (EAF) in order to reduce energy is reviewed.

  14. Evaluation of the emission characteristics of PCDD/Fs from electric arc furnaces.

    PubMed

    Chang, Moo Been; Huang, Hung Chi; Tsai, Shian Sheng; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping

    2006-03-01

    Distribution of PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran) congeners at two electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in Taiwan is evaluated via intensive stack sampling and analysis. Two kinds of exhaust system in EAFs including stack system and shutter system are selected for measuring dioxin emissions. In addition, dioxin emissions during oxidation and reduction stages at EAF-A were characterized. Results indicate that the PCDD/F concentration of stack gas in EAF-A was 4.39 ng/Nm(3) while total Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration was 0.35 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). The PCDD/F concentration of stack gas in EAF-B was 2.20 ng/Nm(3) and the TEQ concentration was 0.14 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H(p)CDF, OCDD and OCDF are the major contributors of the dioxin concentrations for two EAFs investigated and the percentage of PCDD/F in particulate phase increases as the chlorination level of the PCDD/F congener increases. The results obtained on gas/particulate partitioning of PCDD/Fs in flue gases prior to the APCD in EAFs indicate that more than 90% exists in particulate phase. In EAF-A, the PCDD/F concentration during oxidation stage is slightly higher than that measured during reduction stage, including the sampling points of CO converter outlet, prior to bag filter and stack. Majority of PCDD/Fs emitted from steel-making processes exists in particulate-phase (about 60-70%) at both EAFs investigated. PMID:16169048

  15. Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

  16. The flash reduction of electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li; Themelis, Nickolas J.

    1992-01-01

    The flash processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts is a promising method for recovering zinc and producing nontoxic slags for direct disposal. In order to reduce the zinc content of the dust particles and maintain the iron content in oxide form, a certain range of temperature and oxygen potential must be provided, as dictated by thermodynamic requirements. Experiments were conducted with EAF dusts at three levels of zinc concentration in an electrically heated flash reactor. The results showed that the CO:CO2 ratio in the process gas was the most important parameter. The effects of zinc content in dust and O2 in inlet gas on zinc recovery were secondary. Toxicity leach tests showed that the resulting slag, even at low zinc recovery, can be disposed safely as landfill.

  17. The microwave processing of electric arc furnace dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Huang, Xiaodi

    2008-10-01

    An ideal treatment for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is to cost-effectively process the dust on site to generate high-value products. Microwave heating has the potential to be the ideal approach. In this study, testing was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of treating EAF dust under microwave radiation to produce iron metal and zinc metal instead of zinc oxides as co-products. Microwave processing time and fixed carbon addition amounts were investigated. Different carbons with high fixed carbon contents were also tested and no significant influence was observed. Products of both metallic zinc-rich particles and metallic iron-rich residuals exhibited high purities, which satisfy recycling feedstock requirements.

  18. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away. PMID:21531506

  19. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Analysis of arc emission spectra of stainless steel electric arc furnace slag affected by fluctuating arc voltage.

    PubMed

    Aula, Matti; Mäkinen, Ari; Fabritius, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Control of chromium oxidation in the electric arc furnace (EAF) is a significant problem in stainless steel production due to variations of the chemical compositions in the EAF charge. One potential method to control chromium oxidation is to analyze the emission spectrum of the electric arc in order to find indicators of rising chromium content in slag. The purpose of this study was to determine if slag composition can be gained by utilizing electric arc emission spectra in the laboratory environment, despite electric arc voltage fluctuations and varying slag composition. The purpose of inducing voltage fluctuation was to simulate changes in the industrial EAF process. The slag samples were obtained from Outokumpu Stainless Oy Tornio Works, and three different arc currents were used. The correlation analysis showed that the emission spectra offer numerous peak ratios with high correlations to the X-ray fluorescence-measured slag CrO(x)/FeO(x) and MnO/SiO2 ratios. These ratios are useful in determining if the reduction agents have been depleted in the EAF. The results suggest that analysis of laboratory-scale electric arc emission spectra is suitable for indicating the high CrO(x) or MnO content of the slag despite the arc fluctuations. Reliable analysis of other slag components was not successful. PMID:24405950

  1. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  2. Theoretical and experimental studies of the composition and reducibility of the dust from arc steel-melting furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovpchenko, A. P.; Kamkina, L. V.; Proidak, Yu. S.; Derevyanchenko, I. V.; Kucherenko, O. L.; Bondarenko, M. Yu.

    2010-06-01

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of the dust from electric gas-cleaning filters of the steelmaking furnaces at the Moldavian metallurgical works is studied. The conditions of effective removal of zinc and lead from the ASF gas-cleaning dust are determined.

  3. Process to eliminate hazardous components from the electric arc furnace flue dust and recovering of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lazcano-Navarro, A.

    1988-08-09

    This patent describes a method to recover metals from flue dust generated in an electric arc furnace, the method comprising: charging pelletized or powder flue dust into an electric induction furnace between induction susceptors; sealing of the furnace top to prevent entry of air; injecting natural gas through the bottom of the electric induction furnace as a solitary reducing agent; heating the charge by electromagnetic induction of the susceptors to provide reduction energy; recovering of heavy metals as a zinclead-cadmium alloy in a condenser at the top of the furnace; burning and scrubbing exiting gases in the condenser; and melting the remaining iron to produce steel and slag.

  4. Optimization of anthracite calcination process in a vertical electric arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, J.; Bouvette, J.F.; Dupuis, M.

    1996-10-01

    Anthracite is used for cathode block manufacturing must be calcined prior to its use to eliminate volatile matter and reduce its electrical resistivity. Anthracite calcination in vertical electric arc furnaces is widely used in the industry. It is well known that this technology leads to a radial temperature gradient in the furnace which results in non-homogeneous calcined anthracite properties. Also, operation experience has shown that production of calcination furnaces can be difficult to stabilize if process changes occur, which may lead to variable quality of the calcined material. To optimize the calcination process, an improved control strategy and a mathematical model of Elkem-type electric arc furnace were developed. Using these, it was successfully demonstrated that temperature gradient in the furnace can be reduced and that furnace productivity can be substantially increased.

  5. Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Stegemann, J.A.; Roy, A.; Caldwell, R.J.; Schilling, P.J.; Tittsworth, R.

    2000-02-01

    Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium and nickel contaminants in EAF dust are largely unleachable (<5% available in AALT and pH 5 Stat), as they are found with the predominant spinel ferrite phase in EAF dust. However, even a small proportion of oxidized chromium can result in significant leachate concentrations of highly toxic chromate. The leachability of zinc (7--50% available), lead (2--17% available), and cadmium (9--55% available) can be significant, as large fractions of these contaminants are found as chlorides and oxides. The leaching of these metals is largely controlled by pH. The acid neutralization capacity of the EAF dusts appeared to be controlled by dissolution of lime and zincite, and results from regulatory leaching tests can be misleading because the variable acid neutralization capacity of EAF dusts can lead to very different final leachate pHs (5--12.4). A more informative approach would be to evaluate the total amounts of contaminants available in the long term, and the acid neutralization capacity.

  6. Mineral phases of weathered and recent electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; dos Reis Neto, José Manoel; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

    2008-06-15

    A weathered and a recent sample of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated in a southern Brazilian steel industry, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. One sample, in the form of a wet paste, was collected from the lowest part of a landfill and corresponds to a weathered material whereas the other sample was collected from the top portion of the landfill and corresponds to a recently produced material. The dominant cations present in both samples are iron, zinc and lead with minor amounts of manganese, calcium and silicon. The dominant mineralogical phases identified in both materials are Magnetite, Franklinite and Zincite. The recent sample has Laurionite whereas the weathered sample has Hydrocerussite and Hydrozincite. PMID:18037237

  7. Life cycle cost analysis for the Plasma Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes-Smith, P.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a draft version. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program requested that the Systems Analysis Group investigate the cost effectiveness of using the Plasma Arc Furnace (PAF) module in place of specified thermal and final forms treatment equipment in the baseline Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) study as performed by Bechtel Corporation, September 1992. The attached estimates are based on the process equipment and facilities cost data contained in the Bechtel study. The PAF process equipment and facilities cost data were developed using independent cost estimates for the equipment list provided by SAIC, Waste Management and Technology Division, in cooperation with the Pollution Prevention and Systems Analysis Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Division. In order to develop the total life cycle cost estimate comparison for this study, it was necessary to use a common base for comparison. Although it was felt that the Bechtel MWTP study did not fully reflect the optimum size for the thermal and final forms treatment equipment, it was the best available data at the time.

  8. Combinatorial synthesis of phosphors using arc-imaging furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Tadashi; Toda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Uematsu, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Mineo

    2011-10-01

    We have applied a novel 'melt synthesis technique' rather than a conventional solid-state reaction to rapidly synthesize phosphor materials. During a synthesis, the mixture of oxides or their precursors is melted by light pulses (10-60 s) in an arc-imaging furnace on a water-cooled copper hearth to form a globule of 1-5 mm diameter, which is then rapidly cooled by turning off the light. Using this method, we synthesized several phosphor compounds including Y3Al5O12:Ce(YAG) and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy. Complex phosphor oxides are difficult to produce by conventional solid-state reaction techniques because of the slow reaction rates among solid oxides; as a result, the oxides form homogeneous compounds or solid solutions. On the other hand, melt reactions are very fast (10-60 s) and result in homogeneous compounds owing to rapid diffusion and mixing in the liquid phase. Therefore, melt synthesis techniques are suitable for preparing multi component homogeneous compounds and solid solutions.

  9. Hydrometallurgically recovering zinc from electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antrekowitsch, J.; Antrekowitsch, H.

    2001-12-01

    The increasing use of zinc-containing scrap for steel production has lead to a high zinc content in the electric arc furnace and converter flue dusts. The cost of disposing of this residue is high due to environmental restrictions. Various recycling processes have been developed for these dusts, but most never reached the pilot plant stage and many investigations were stopped because of metallurgical and economical inefficiencies. While pyrometallurgical methods have to deal with high energy consumption, low zinc yield, and valueless residues, hydrometallurgical processes could offer an economical recycling alternative. This paper describes hydrometallurgical methods for recovering zinc from steel industry dust. These methods can be integrated in the primary zinc-winning process or in galvanization. Investigations of sulfuric-acid leaching show high zinc solubility but also a high iron content in the final liquor. As a result, steps for purification are required that cannot be conducted economically. Alternatively, a NaOH leaching gives a satisfying zinc yield and a very low solubility for the iron that remains in the residue.

  10. Radioactively contaminated electric arc furnace dust as an addition to the immobilization mortar in low- and medium-activity repositories.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Menéndez, Esperanza; Andrade, Carmen; Zuloaga, Pablo; Navarro, Mariano; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2004-05-15

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated by the steel-making industry, is in itself an intrinsic hazardous waste; however, the case may also be that scrap used in the process is accidentally contaminated by radioactive elements such as cesium. In this case the resulting EAFD is to be handled as radioactive waste, being duly confined in low- and medium-activity repositories (LMAR). What this paper studies is the reliability of using this radioactive EAFD as an addition in the immobilization mortar of the containers of the LMAR, that is, from the point of view of the durability. Different mixes of mortar containing different percentages of EAFD have been subjected to flexural and compressive strength, initial and final setting time, XRD study, total porosity and pore size distribution, determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient, dimensional stability tests, hydration heat, workability of the fresh mix, and leaching behavior. What is deduced from the results is that for the conditions used in this research, (cement + sand) can be replaced by EAFD upto a ratio [EAFD/(cement + EAFD)] of 46% in the immobilization mortar of LMAR, apparently without any loss in the long-term durability properties of the mortar. PMID:15212272

  11. Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Cerjan-Stefanović, Stefica; Novosel-Radović, Vjera; Jenko, Monika

    2004-06-18

    In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken. For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production process in the Zeljezara Sisak Steel Mill between December 2000 and December 2001, were subjected to a series of tests. The chemical composition of EAF dust samples was investigated by means of a several different analytical methods. The results from the chemical analysis show that the approximate order of abundance of major elements in EAF dusts is as follows: Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si, Pb, S, Cr, Cu, Al, C, Ni, Cd, As and Hg. Granular-metric composition of single samples was determined by applying sieve separation. Scanning electron micro-structural examination of EAF dust microstructure was performed and results indicated that all twelve EAF dusts were composed of solid spherical agglomerates with Fe, Zn, Pb, O, Si and Ca as the principal element. The investigation of grain morphology and the mineralogical composition of EAF dust were taken by combination of high resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (HR AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The analysis of XPS-spectra determined the presence of zinc in the form of ZnO phase and the presence of lead in the form of PbO phase, i.e. PbSO3/PbSO4 forms. The results of the X-ray diffraction phase analysis show that the basis of the examined EAF dust samples is made of a mixture of metal oxides, silicates and sulphates. The metal concentration, anions, pH value and conductivity in water eluates was determined in order to define the influence of EAF dust on the environment. PMID:15177746

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of Zinc Speciation in Electric Arc Furnace Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Chris A.

    2011-04-01

    The remelting of automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the generation of a dust, which contains considerable amounts of zinc and other metals. Typically, the amount of zinc is of significant commercial value, but the recovery of this metal can be hindered by the varied speciation of zinc. The majority of the zinc exists as zincite (ZnO) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) or ferritic spinels ((Zn x Mn y Fe1-x-y )Fe2O4), but other zinccontaining species such as zinc chloride, zinc hydroxide chlorides, hydrated zinc sulphates and zinc silicates have also been identified. There is a scarcity of research literature on the thermodynamic aspects of the formation of these zinc-containing species, in particular, the minor zinc-containing species. Therefore, in this study, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry® 6.1 was utilized to calculate the types and the amounts of the zinc-containing species. The variables studied were: the gas composition, the temperature and the dust composition. At high temperatures, zincite forms via the reaction of zinc vapour with oxygen gas and the zinc-manganese ferrites form as a result of the reaction of iron-manganese particles with zinc vapour and oxygen. At intermediate temperatures, zinc sulphates are produced through the reaction of zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide gas. As room temperature is approached, zinc chlorides and fluorides form by the reaction of zinc oxide with hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases, respectively. Zinc silicate likely forms via the high temperature reaction of zinc vapour and oxygen with silica. In the presence of excess water and as room temperature is approached, the zinc sulphates, chlorides and fluorides can become hydrated.

  13. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way {open_quotes}National Laboratory-University-Industry{close_quotes} partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions.

  14. Innovation approaches to controlling the electric regimes of electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikeev, R. A.; Serikov, V. A.; Ognev, A. M.; Rechkalov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The processes of current passage in an ac electric arc furnace (EAF) are subjected to industrial experiments and mathematical simulation. It is shown that, when a charge is melted, arcs between charge fragments exist in series with main arc discharges, and these arcs influence the stability of the main arc discharges. The measurement of instantaneous currents and voltages allowed us to perform a real-time calculation of the electrical characteristics of a three-phase circuit and to determine the θ parameter, which characterizes the nonlinearity of the circuit segment between electrodes. Based on these studies, we created an advanced system for controlling the electric regime of EAF.

  15. Foamability of stainless steelmaking slags in an EAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, James John

    Foaming in electric furnace steelmaking is desirable to allow for a longer arc and subsequently higher power operation in order to reduce the tap to tap time and consequently increase productivity. Stainless steelmaking slags do not foam as well as carbon steelmaking slags. To produce foam, the foamability or foam index of a slag and the gas generation rate must be adequate. The possible causes for the poor foamability of stainless steelmaking slags were examined in this research. Specifically the foam index of a simulated stainless steelmaking slag containing chrome oxide was measured and the rate at which carbon reacts with Cr2O3, CrO, and FeO was also measured. The experimental results show that the foam index of stainless steelmaking slags is comparable to carbon steelmaking slags provided that the amount of solid chrome oxide particles or complexes is not excessive. This indicates the low foamability is not due to a poor foam index. Gas is normally generated by cycling carbon into the slag, which produces CO by reducing oxides in the slag. The experimental results demonstrate that the reaction rate of carbon with CrO dissolved in the slag and hence the generation of CO is significantly slower than for the reaction rate of carbon with FeO dissolved in slags. Therefore, the lack of FeO or other reducible oxides in stainless steelmaking slags is a primary reason for the poor foamability. Experimental results indicate that limestone, nickel oxide, calcium nitrate, and waste oxide briquettes generate gas at sufficient rates to induce foaming when added to the stainless steelmaking slag. Heat transfer most likely controls the rate of CO2 generated by limestone and NiO reduction is controlled by mass transfer of NiO to the carbon in the slag. WOBs generate gas very rapidly due to intimate mixing of the carbon and iron oxides at unit activity. Calcium nitrate generates gas by dissociation and heat transfer likely controls the dissociation rate. Simple models are

  16. Electric arc furnace dust treatment: investigation on mechanical and magnetic separation methods.

    PubMed

    Sekula, R; Wnek, M; Selinger, A; Wróbel, M

    2001-08-01

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a major issue for processing technologies: Several million tons per year are generated, it contains both valuable and hazardous metals and yet no available treatment process has proven to be superior to all others. Processes currently applied or being developed are either of hydro- or pyrometallurgical type, which are very costly. In the paper testing of some physical separation methods of electric arc furnace dust from Polish steel industry were investigated. SEM, EDX analyses as well as grain size observations of dust particles were additionally performed. All investigations confirmed a possibility of effective magnetic and mechanical separation of EAFD particles. PMID:11720260

  17. 40 CFR Table K-1 to Subpart K of... - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4.... 98, Subpt. K, Table K-1 Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission... charging intermittently every minute. b Temperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the...

  18. 40 CFR Table K-1 to Subpart K of... - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4.... 98, Subpt. K, Table K-1 Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission... charging intermittently every minute. b Temperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the...

  19. 40 CFR Table K-1 to Subpart K of... - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4.... 98, Subpt. K, Table K-1 Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission... charging intermittently every minute. b Temperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the...

  20. 40 CFR Table K-1 to Subpart K of... - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4.... 98, Subpt. K, Table K-1 Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission... charging intermittently every minute. b Temperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the...

  1. Steel: Energy-Efficient Arc Furnace Dust into Saleable Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-29

    Drinkard Metalox, Inc., has developed an innovative new technology to completely process electric arc furnace dust into saleable products by means of a hydro metallurgical process. Order this fact sheet to read how this new technology can both lower energy costs and eliminate the need to dispose of and transport hazardous waste off site.

  2. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  3. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Bloomer, P.E.; Chantaraprachoom, N.; Gong, M.; Lamar, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated {sup 238}Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry.

  4. Submerged arc furnace process superior to the Waelz process in reducing PCDD/F emission during thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Qian; Huang, Shao-Bin; Liao, Wei-Tung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Besides the Waelz process, the submerged arc furnace (SAF) process has also been extensively used to retain metals from ashes and scraps in the metallurgical industry. However, very little is known about the formation and depletion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from this thermal process. In this study, an electric arc furnace (EAF) dust treatment plant adopting the SAF process was investigated and compared to the plant adopting the Waelz process. The predominant contributor of PCDD/F I-TEQ input was the EAF dusts, accounting for 98.4% of the total. The PCDD/F contents in the generated fly ashes of the SAF were extremely low, as almost all the organic compounds for PCDD/F formation were decomposed by the high operating temperatures (1500-1700 °C) of the SAF. Therefore, the PCDD/F emission factor of the SAF process (46.9 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust) was significantly lower than that of the Waelz process (840-1120 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust). Its PCDD/F output/input ratios (0.23 and 0.50 based on mass and toxicity) were also lower than those of the Waelz process plant (0.62 and 1.19). Therefore, the SAF process is superior to the Waelz process in reducing the potential of PCDD/F formation. PMID:23955252

  5. Modernization of the control system and the electrical equipment of DSV vacuum arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dednev, A. A.; Kisselman, M. A.; Nekhamin, S. M.; Kalinin, V. I.; Koshelev, Yu. N.

    2010-06-01

    The results of modernizing one of the DSV-3.2-G1 arc furnaces at OAO Elektrostal’ Metallurgical Works are presented. New automatic control system ACS DSV-3.2 with functions of maintenance, control, and correction of the main technical parameters of vacuum arc remelting is created. The electric furnace is equipped with a modern visual control system for a heat and a unique inert gas (helium) supply system. The rod motion drive is replaced by a modern drive with frequency control of its motion velocity. New control cabinet and desk made of modern elements are mounted. Melting of a pilot series of EP-718 alloy ingots supports the high quality and reliability of the new control systems.

  6. Investigation of potential uses of electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD) in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Zaid, R.Z.; Al-Sugair, F.H.; Al-Negheimish, A.I.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation for the possible uses of electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD) by-product in concrete manufacturing. The effects of EAFD on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete are investigated. The results of standard tests on fresh concrete indicate that EAFD can be used as an effective set retarder. In addition, other standard tests appear to indicate that EAFD will enhance engineering properties of hardened concrete without any side-effects.

  7. Recovering aluminum from aluminum dross in a DC electric-arc rotary furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzonev, Tz.; Lucheva, B.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling of aluminum scrap and dross yields significant economic and energy savings, as well environmental benefits. The recovery of aluminum depends on many factors. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate aluminum recovery under different conditions. In this study, aluminum dross was processed in a direct-current electric-arc rotary furnace. The presence of crushing refractory bodies during processing was found to increase the degree of aluminum recovery by about ten percent.

  8. Plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for {open_quotes}corium{close_quotes} melting

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabji, F.; Cognet, G.; Jegou, C.; Roubaud, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new plasma transferred arc rotary furnace equipment installed for the CEA in the research Centre of Cadarache in France; this project is conducted with EDF technical assistance. It is constructed by GEC-ALSTHOM for the total project and TETRONICS for plasma systems. This furnace is the central unit of a new facility, VULCANO E-30, prototype of a larger one, built in order to study the key phenomena involved in the behaviour and cooling of CORIUM at temperatures up to 3000{degrees}C. This centrifugal and tilted furnace is water cooled in a double shielded jacket. A self crucible is made up by the centrifugation of the powder material. A 300kW transferred arc is created between two plasma electrodes-torches allowing the creation of a plasma column at a high and relatively homogeneous temperature. The furnace is equipped by a product feeder at one of its extremities and by a boarded telemtry system allowing the transmission by infrared signals of the temperature measurements.

  9. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  10. High-Purity Composite Briquette for Direct UMG-Si Production in Arc Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perruchoud, Raymond; Fischer, Jean-Claude

    2013-12-01

    In metallurgical grade Si (MG-Si), the coal (B) and charcoal (P) contents are on average above 30 ppm as the carbon reduction materials used in the arc furnace are either rich in B or in P. A decrease of both impurities by a factor of 3 using purer raw materials would allow for the direct production of the upgraded metallurgical grade (UMG).This would significantly improve the efficiency of the resulting photovoltaic (PV) cells made with the refined solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) or massively decrease the costs of Si purification by shortening the number of steps needed for reaching B and P contents below 1 ppm requested for the SoG-Si used for the PV cells. A composite C/SiO2 briquette fulfilling the purity targets for the direct production of UMG-Si in the arc furnace was developed. The composite contains several carbon materials with different levels of reactivities and quartz sand. The raw materials aspects, the paste and briquette preparation, as well as the final carbonization step are discussed. The finished briquettes are free of volatiles and are mechanically and thermally very stable, thus, ensuring stable arc furnace charges with minimum losses of dust and SiO gas. Semi-industrial trials including the downstream purification steps for the production of SoG-Si by a metallurgical low-cost route are contemplated.

  11. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  12. Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pickles, C A

    2010-07-15

    Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel. PMID:20356673

  13. Steelworks residues and the Waelz kiln treatment of electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeier, G.; Bonestell, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Electric arc furnace dust with a combined zinc and lead content in excess of 20% renders the dumping of this material impossible in many countries, for both statutory and financial reasons. In the Waelz process, dust is treated in a rotary kiln where it is heated to approximately 1,200 C. lead and zinc are volatilized under reducing conditions and collected as fine dust in the off-gas dust collection system. The oxide recovered in the off-gas filters contains approximately 55% Zn and up to 10% Pb, and is ideal feedstock for the Imperial Smelting furnace for lead/zinc recovery. The remaining slag is inert and unleachable so that it can be used as a building aggregate.

  14. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  15. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  16. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples. PMID:17084503

  17. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  18. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  19. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI)c) for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants.

  20. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. OPTIMAL OPERATION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES (EAF) TO MINIMIZE THE GENERATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS AT THE SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manufacture of steel by electric arc furnaces (EAF) is continuing to increase in usage in the United States with current production estimated to be over 63 million tons per year. The reduction of emissions from steel producers has been slow for two main reasons: the nee...

  2. The AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E. ); Downing, K.B. )

    1991-01-01

    After six months of operation of the pilot plant, the viability of in-bath smelting combined with a high level of post combustion has been demonstrated, and the opportunity exists for an early commercialization of the direct ironmaking part of the process while we continue to research direct steelmaking. The program should be of equal interest to integrated and electric furnace producers. Smelting of ore provides virgin iron units. Additionally, the process has the flexibility of melting scrap and varying the ore-to-scrap ratio over wide ranges. This process does not require coke, thus eliminating the cokemaking operation, a major source of environmental concern.

  3. Reduction Kinetics of Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag by Al-Fe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehong; Oh, Joon Seok; Lee, Joonho

    2016-07-01

    Effects of temperature and slag basicity on the reduction rate of iron oxide in molten synthetic electric arc furnace oxidizing slag by Al-40 wt.%Fe alloy was investigated. An alloy sample was dropped into molten slag in an MgO crucible. When the initial slag temperature was 1723 K, there was no reduction. However, when the initial slag temperature was 1773 K and the slag basicity was 1.1, the reduction was initiated and the temperature of the slag rapidly increased. When the slag basicity was 1.1, increasing the initial slag temperature from 1773 K to 1823 K increases the reaction rate. As the slag basicity increased from 1.1 to 1.4 at 1773 K, the reaction rate increased. From SEM analysis, it was found that an Al2O3 or a spinel phase at the slag-metal interface inhibited the reaction at a lower temperature and a lower slag basicity.

  4. The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

    2014-08-30

    Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour. PMID:25113518

  5. Modeling of zinc solubility in stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Lasa, Cristina; Irabien, Angel

    2007-06-18

    Equilibrium models which attempt for the influence of pH on the solubility of metals can improve the dynamic leaching models developed to describe the long-term behavior of waste-derived forms. In addition, such models can be used to predict the concentration of metals in equilibrium leaching tests at a given pH. The aim of this work is to model the equilibrium concentration of Zn from untreated and stabilized/solidified (S/S) electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) using experimental data obtained from a pH-dependence leaching test (acid neutralization capacity, ANC). EAFD is a hazardous waste generated in electric arc furnace steel factories; it contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr or Cd. EAFD from a local factory was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), acid digestion and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Zn and Fe were the main components while the XRD analysis revealed that zincite, zinc ferrite and hematite were the main crystalline phases. Different cement/EAFD formulations ranging from 7 to 20% dry weight of cement were prepared and subjected to the ANC leaching test. An amphoteric behavior of Zn was found from the pH dependence test. To model this behavior, the geochemical model Visual MINTEQ (VMINTEQ) was used. In addition to the geochemical model, an empirical model based on the dissolution of Zn in the acidic zone and the re-dissolution of zinc compounds in the alkaline zone was considered showing a similar prediction than that obtained with VMINTEQ. This empirical model seems to be more appropriate when the metal speciation is unknown, or when if known, the theoretical solid phases included in the database of VMINTEQ do not allow to describe the experimental data. PMID:17324503

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pickles, C A

    2008-01-31

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which is produced as a result of the melting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace, contains considerable amounts of zinc and lead, which are of significant economic value. Typically, the other major components are iron oxide and calcium oxide with minor amounts of other metal oxides. In this research, a detailed thermodynamic study of the pyrometallurgical processing of the dust, using carbon as a reducing agent was performed. The SOLGASMIX solver of Outokumpu HSC Chemistry((R)) 5.1 was used to calculate the equilibrium composition under reducing conditions. The control input dust composition was as follows (in mass percent): 8.100% CaO, 8.250% 2CaO.SiO(2), 11.200% CaCO(3), 8.830% CaO.Fe(2)O(3), 7.840% Fe(3)O(4), 3.770% PbO, 38.150% ZnFe(2)O(4) and 13.860% ZnO. Selective reduction and separation of both the zinc and the lead as metallic vapours, from the iron, in oxide form, was examined. The separation of the zinc or the lead from the iron, was defined quantitatively in terms of the selectivity factor (logbeta) as follows. Equation [see the text] where the subscript symbols refer to the metal being present in gaseous (g), metallic solid (m), solid oxide (o) or metallic liquid (l) form, respectively. The standard calculations were performed for one hundred grams of dust at atmospheric pressure. The variables investigated were as follows; temperature in the range of 1273-1873K, reactant ratio (i.e. moles of carbon per gram of dust), dust composition, addition of inert gas and reduced total pressure. The calculated values were in reasonable agreement with those from previously published studies and also industrial results. PMID:17540503

  7. Behavior of Zn and Fe Content in Electric Arc Furnace Dust as Submitted to Chlorination Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Felipe; Brocchi, Eduardo; Araújo, Victor; Souza, Rodrigo

    2015-08-01

    This work covers initially a general thermodynamics assessment regarding the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) behavior toward direct and reducing chlorination. Then, the use of alternative chlorination agents were also theoretically appreciated, before a set of experiments has been carried out with industrial residue (electric arc furnace dust). Besides identifying zinc ferrite (95.4 pct), the XRD analysis indicated the presence of ZnO (4.6 pct). Therefore, the main objective of the present work is related to a theoretical (thermodynamics) and experimental (kinetics) evaluation of the mentioned residue chemical behavior as submitted to chlorination methods. Several characterization methods were used, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was observed that zinc was present, mostly, in the form of zinc ferrite (franklinite). The thermodynamics study revealed that Zn has a more susceptible behavior regarding the oxides conversion into chlorides. However, this tendency is not necessarily associated with a selective reaction, as showed for the chlorination in the presence of carbon, as both iron and zinc chlorides formation is feasible. The experimental results have indicated that some reaction systems can be further studied in order to identify operational conditions that enable selective formations. So, it was observed that for the calcium chloride reaction conducted at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 30 minutes, the iron content in the residue slightly increases (with 15 pct removal), whereas the zinc content decreases from 20 to 12 pct (53 pct removal), suggesting complementary studies where this possible selectivity could be even more determinant. Such results have also indicated that the direct action of chlorine at 1073 K (800 °C) allowed complete removal of zinc, followed by conversion in the order of 40 pct in iron. Therefore, a complementary investigation over

  8. Analysis of uranium-bearing Fe-phosphide from a submerged arc furnace for phosphorus production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voncken, J. H. L.; Scheepers, E.; Yang, Y.

    2006-10-01

    During a study on the Fe-phosphide phase formed during phosphorus production in a submerged arc furnace, a sample of ferrophosphorus was found which contains a so far unknown uranium-bearing Fe-phosphide. Uranium, as well as other trace metals like Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Zr, originates from the apatite ore used. Ti originates partly from the silica and coke used in the reduction process, but mainly from the clay used to produce ore pellets. In this paper the ferrophosphorus is described with respect to composition and crystalline compounds present. The crystallization sequence is discussed with respect to the FeP-phase diagram. The main phases found in the ferrophosphorus are FeP and Fe2P. With respect to trace and minor metals, it is observed that Si preferably enters the FeP-phase, whereas Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni preferably enter the Fe2P-phase, which is an analogue of the mineral barringerite. This study gives some insight into the behavior of impurities during crystallization of an iron-rich Fe-phosphide melt. The uranium-bearing phase has an overall Me2P-stoichiometry (Fe1.59, Ti0.06, V0.03, Cr0.02, Mn0.06, Ni0.02, U0.15, Zr0.09)2.02 (P0.96, Si0.02)0.98. An X-ray diffraction pattern of this phase is given for identification purposes.

  9. Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

  10. Environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with electric arc furnace steel slag.

    PubMed

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Oblak, Tina; Mladenovič, Ana; Ančar, Janez Šč

    2011-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag can be used as an alternative high-quality material in road construction. Although asphalts with slag aggregates have been recognized as environmentally acceptable, there is a lack of data concerning the potential leaching of toxic Cr(VI) due to the highly alkaline media of EAF slag. Leaching of selected water extractable metals from slag indicated elevated concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI). To estimate the environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with slag, leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using pure water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground asphalt composites with natural aggregates, and asphalt composites in which the natural aggregates were completely replaced by slag were prepared. The concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 6 mo. After 1 and 6 mo, the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in the leachates. The results indicated that chromium in leachates from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. However, the concentrations were very low (below 25 μg L) and did not represent an environmental burden. The leaching of other metals from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was negligible. Therefore, the investigated EAF slag can be considered as environmentally safe substitute for natural aggregates in asphalt mixes. PMID:21712585

  11. Elution of zinc in dust discharged from electric arc furnace in carbonic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, S.; Sasaki, T.; Sasano, J.; Izaki, M.

    2012-03-01

    The dust discharged from an electric arc furnace (EAF) is a valuable resource of zinc. As a fundamental study of extraction of zinc, iron and chlorine in the EAF dust, the elution behavior of them in carbonic acid solution was studied. The influence of the weight of the EAF dust on the elution behavior was examined in this study. Experiment was carried out putting the EAF dust from 1 g to 200 g in weight into 1 L of water that was introduced by CO2. Generally, the pH in the aqueous solution increased with an increase in weight of the additive EAF dust. Maximums of the eluted concentrations of zinc and chloride ion increased with an increase in the weight of the additive EAF dust whereas the extraction ratios of both of them decreased with an increase in the weight of the additive EAF dust. Iron in the EAF dust remained in the dust without elution. The limit of extraction of zinc from the EAF dust to water was given by the solubilities of ZnFe2O4 and ZnO expressed by eq. (6) and eq. (9) respectively.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective chlorination of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pickles, C A

    2009-07-30

    The remelting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the production of a dust, which contains high concentrations of the oxides of zinc, iron, calcium and other metals. Typically, the lead and zinc are of commercial value, while the other metals are not worth recovering. At the present time, EAF dusts are treated in high temperature Waelz rotary kiln-type processes, where the lead and zinc oxides are selectively reduced and simultaneously reoxidized and a crude zinc oxide is produced. Another alternative processing route is selective chlorination, in which the non-ferrous metals are preferentially chlorinated to their gaseous chlorides and in this manner separated from the iron. In the present research, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of this chlorination process has been performed and the following factors were investigated; temperature, amount of chlorine, lime content, silica content, presence of an inert gas and the oxygen potential. High lead and zinc recoveries as gaseous chlorides could be achieved but some of the iron oxide was also chlorinated. Additionally, the calcium oxide in the dust consumes chlorine, but this can be minimized by adding silica, which results in the formation of stable calcium silicates. The optimum conditions were determined for a typical dust composition. The selectivities achieved with chlorination were lower than those for reduction, as reported in the literature, but there are other advantages such as the potential recovery of copper. PMID:19171424

  13. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383

  14. Steel foundry electric arc furnace dust management: stabilization by using lime and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat

    2008-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate treatment for steel foundry electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) prior to permanent disposal. Lime and Portland cement (PC)-based stabilization was applied to treat the EAFD that contains lead and zinc above the landfilling limits, and is listed by USEPA as hazardous waste designation K061 and by EU as 10 02 07. Three types of paste samples were prepared with EAFD content varying between 0 and 90%. The first type contained the EAFD and Portland cement, the second contained the EAFD, Portland cement, and lime, and the third contained the EAFD and lime. All the samples were subjected to toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) after an air-curing period of 28 days. pH changes were monitored and acid neutralization capacity of the samples were examined. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reducing the heavy metal leachability to the levels below the USEPA landfilling criteria. An optimum composition for the EAFD stabilization was formulated as 30% EAFD +35% lime +35% Portland cement to achieve the landfilling criteria. The pH interval, where the solubility of the heavy metals in the EAFD was minimized, was found to be between 8.2 and 9.4. PMID:17977656

  15. Effect of electric arc furnace slag on growth and physiology of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Sandev, Dubravka; Jelić, Sonja; Sedlar, Zorana; Glavaš, Katarina; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2013-12-01

    Basic slag, used in this study as a potential source of certain nutrients, is a byproduct of the production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF). A pot experiment with two nutrient-poor substrates was conducted to investigate to compare the effect of EAF steel slag and fertilizers NPK + F e on growth and availability of specific nutrients to maize. Mineral content of both substrate and plant leaves, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured following six weeks of cultivation. As steel slag also contains trace amounts of heavy metals, certain oxidative parameters (antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation) were evaluated as well. The steel slag improved soil mineral composition, increased above ground maize biomass by providing Fe, Mn, Mg, K and partly P and improved photosynthetic parameters. The potential phytotoxicity of EAF slag containing substrates was not determined as evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde), GR (glutathione reductase) and APX (ascorbate peroxidase) levels. The obtained results show that EAF steel slag is comparable to NPK + F e in supplying nutrients for maize growth, indicating the potential of EAF steel slag as an inexpensive and non-phytotoxic nutrient supplier especially in poor soils. PMID:24275594

  16. Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Guylaine; Duchesne, Josée

    2006-07-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1 mg/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level (TCRL). The EAFD showed a complex heterogeneous mineralogy with spinel minerals group predominance. A sequential extractions method has permitted the determination of the amount of available metals (potentially mobile component) from the EAFD as follows: Cr (3%), Ni (6%), Pb (49%) and Zn (40%). Solubility controls on Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were identified in the EAFD. This means that the Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in solution were controlled by the solubility of some phases from EAFD. The concentrations of Ni and Zn, which are metals not regulated by TCRL were below 0.41 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively. The solubility control on Pb was sufficient to decrease its concentration (<0.24 mg/L) to a level below the TCRL. However, the control on Cr was not sufficient to decrease its concentration (between 117 and 331 mg/L) to below the TCRL. PMID:16361056

  17. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work. PMID:26433358

  18. Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with PVC: dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching.

    PubMed

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, Sam; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E

    2014-06-15

    Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the dust as well as assessing the suitability of using the thermal de-chlorination of the common plastic (PVC) under inert atmosphere was carried out to assess the possibility of Zn and other heavy metals extraction (Pb and Cd) from EAFD. The dielectric and thermal properties of EAFD, PVC and their mixtures were measured. Once combined and heated the metal oxides present in the dust reacted with HCl released from PVC during thermal de-chlorination, forming metal chlorides which were subsequently recovered by leaching with water. It was found that zinc chloride could be almost completely recovered in the leaching stage, with the overall recovery of Zn reaching 97% when the EAFD:PVC ratio was 1:2. The investigation highlighted that franklinite, the most refractory mineral to leaching, was completely destroyed. The leaching residue was found to compose mainly of magnetite and hematite. PMID:24769846

  19. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    PubMed

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm. PMID:21944704

  20. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode. PMID:11080580

  1. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    PubMed

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber. PMID:25646901

  2. Long and short-term performance of a stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C Fernández; Galiano, Y Luna; Rodríguez-Piñero, M A; Parapar, J Vale

    2007-09-30

    The application of class F fly ash, cement and lime to the Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) of electric arc furnace dust containing hazardous metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr is described. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the setting conditions during the S/S treatment and to know the behaviour of an aged solidified and stabilized waste. In order to determine the efficiency attained by the S/S process, USEPA TCLP, and other leaching tests have been accomplished. In addition, the compressive strength of the solidified waste at different times has been determined. In order to study the influence of the environmental conditions in which setting occurs, experiments were carried out with samples of the same composition, under different setting conditions: laboratory environment, stove at a temperature of 40-60 degrees C and setting in a hermetically sealed plastic bag at room temperature. All the samples were subjected to the TCLP test at 28 days, and the metal content of the resulting leachates was analysed. The results show that in some cases the setting conditions of the mixtures have a noticeable influence on the characteristics of the leachate. The evolution with time of some S/S solids, one month after their manufacture and more than 9 years after that has also been evaluated, by means of their leaching behaviour. The results obtained in this work have shown, in all the laboratory cured samples that the leachate pH decrease in the course of time, and consequently the leaching behaviour is in general worse. This could be due to the carbonation of the S/S solid and the subsequent loss of alkalinity. PMID:17459579

  3. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses. PMID:17365298

  4. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  5. In vitro assessment of genotoxic effects of electric arc furnace dust on human lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Gajski, Goran

    2009-02-15

    In vitro genotoxic effects of leachates of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) on human peripheral lymphocytes, assessed prior and following the treatment with a strong alkaline solution were investigated using the alkaline comet assay. Prior and following the treatment, lymphocytes were incubated with leachate of EAFD for 6 and 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Negative controls were also included. Mean values of the tail lengths established in the samples treated with the leachate stemming from the original dust for 6 and 24 hours, were 15.70 microm and 16.78 microm, respectively, as compared to 12.33 microm found in the control sample. Slight, but significant increase in the tail length was also found with the dust treated with a strong alkaline solution (13.37 microm and 13.60 microm). In case of high heavy metal concentrations (the extract of the original furnace dust), the incubation period was revealed to be of significance as well. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that alkaline comet assay could be used as a rapid, sensitive and low-cost tool when assessing genotoxicity of various waste materials, such as leachates of the electric arc furnace dust. PMID:19132591

  6. 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF CHARGING AISLE. VIEW OF 50 TON CAPACITY CHARGING BUCKET. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. VIEW OF 7 1/2 TON CAPACITY ALLIANCE SIDE DOOR CHARGING MACHINE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF POURING AISLE. VIEW OF THE NATION'S FIRST VACUUM DEGASSING UNIT (1956). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Future Steelmaking Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  14. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  15. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.

    PubMed

    Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2009-11-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter

  16. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  17. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Yu, Xinyao; ZHAO, Peng

    2009-10-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash, OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results. Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected. The distribution of heavy metals of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed. Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work, carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced. Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect. The results indicate that, a. when melted, the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly; b. it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly, and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace.

  18. The influence of the structure of the metal load removal from liquid steel in electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Crisan, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    One of the main technical and economic indicators in the steel industry and steel respectively the development it is the removal of liquid steel. This indicator depends on several factors, namely technology: the structure and the quality metal load, the degree of preparedness of it, and the content of non-metallic material accompanying the unit of drawing up, the technology for the elaboration, etc. research has been taken into account in drawing up steel electric arc furnace type spring EBT (Electric Bottom taping), seeking to load and removing components of liquid steel. Metal load has been composed of eight metal grades, in some cases with great differences in terms of quality. Data obtained were processed in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB, the results obtained being presented both graphically and analytically. On the basis of the results obtained may opt for a load optimal structure metal.

  19. Cr(VI) Generation During Flaring of CO-Rich Off-Gas from Closed Ferrochromium Submerged Arc Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Preez, S. P.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    Ferrochromium (FeCr) is the only source of new Cr units used in stainless steel production, which is a vital modern day alloy, making FeCr equally important. Small amounts of Cr(VI) are unintentionally formed during several FeCr production steps. One such production step is the flaring of CO-rich off-gas from closed submerged arc furnaces (SAF), for which Cr(VI) formation is currently not quantified. In this study, the influence of flaring temperature, size of the particles passing through the flare, and retention time within the flame were investigated by simulating the process on laboratory scale with a vertical tube furnace. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted on the overall dataset obtained, which indicated that retention time had the greatest impact on pct Cr(VI) conversion, followed by particle size and temperature. The MLR analysis also yielded an optimum mathematical solution, which could be used to determine the overall impact of these parameters on pct Cr(VI) conversion. This equation was used to determine realistic and unrealistic worst-case scenario pct Cr(VI) conversions for actual FeCr SAFs, which yielded 2.7 × 10-2 and 3.5 × 10-1 pct, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the current unsubstantiated pct Cr(VI) conversion used in environmental impact assessments for FeCr smelters, i.e., 0.8 to 1 pct.

  20. Investigation of stabilization/solidification for treatment of electric arc furnace dust: Dynamic leaching of monolithic specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Laforest, Guylaine Duchesne, Josee

    2007-12-15

    Diffusion-controlled leaching of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) from electric arc furnace dust treated with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was evaluated. Monolithic specimens were evaluated under dynamic leaching conditions for 84 days with periodic leachant renewal. The influence of leaching time, nature of the leachant, binder type and the water/solid ratio of the monoliths were investigated. Results obtained showed both binders can immobilize heavy metals in the monoliths under dynamic leaching conditions, with cumulative quantity of leached metal under 0.138 mg (Cr). Alkaline leachant increased metal release from specimens and reducing the water/solid ratio of the monolith allowed for a decrease in the cumulative mass of metals leached. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations indicated that the metals were evenly distributed throughout the specimens for both binders. Decalcification was observed on the OPC monolith border following leaching. This decrease in Ca corresponded to an altered zone (20 {mu}m), identified by scanning electron microscopy. The GGBFS sample did not show an altered zone.

  1. Influence of amount of oxidizing slag discharged from stainless steelmaking process of electric arc furnace on elution behavior into fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, S.; Shimomura, T.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Takahashi, T.; Izaki, M.

    2012-03-01

    Fundamental study was carried out for provision for acidification of soil due to acid rain. The influence of weight of the additive slag on elution behavior of the slag into water was studied in this study. Elution experiment was carried out on a basis of JIS K 0058-1. Generally, the pH in the aqueous solution increased with an increase in weight of the additive slag. The pH converged to approximately eight. Calcium, magnesium and manganese, which were essential elements for plants, were eluted from the slag irrespective to elution condition. The eluted concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with an increase in weight of the additive slag. Silicon and zinc were also eluted depending on the conditions. Aluminum that was harmful for plants was not eluted from the used slag.

  2. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  3. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. PMID:20542633

  4. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Evaluation of ASD systems for electric arc furnace and argon oxygen decarburization refiner baghouse fans. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) control of the baghouse fans for Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and Argon Oxygen Decarburization Vessel (AOD) can improve operations, reduce the degree of dust generation, and provide significant energy savings. The purpose of the project was to quantify the benefits, both in energy savings and other process improvements and to demonstrate the methodology of applying adjustable speed drives, to two baghouse fans from a system perspective. The report describes the approach to accomplishing the ASD equipment installation, the test procedure and methodology and provides the test results and economic return. The test results indicated that by using ASDs to control the extraction fan air flow for the EAF and AOD, the following benefits would be achieved on an annual basis: EAF annual energy savings, 267,929 kWh valued at $11,575; EAF dust reduction, overall, 2--3%; EAF dust reduction, during the flatbath period, 35%; and AOD annual energy savings, 1,443,078 kWh valued at $62,341.

  6. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values. PMID:18780219

  7. Citotoxicity status of electroplating wastewater prior/after neutralization/purification with alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kopjar, Nevenka; Durgo, Ksenija; Elez, Loris; Gustek, Stefica Findri; Colic, Jasna Franekic

    2009-02-15

    Toxicological safety of new procedure for the neutralisation/purification of wastewater originated from zinc plating facility was investigated. Wastewater was treated with alkaline solid residue-by-product of zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust. For determination of cytotoxic potential of untreated and purified wastewater MTT test on HEp2 (human laryngeal carcinoma) and HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cells lines and alkaline comet assay on human leukocytes were used. Then 100% of the sample as well as different dilutions were tested. Compared to negative control 100, 75 and 50% of the sample of untreated wastewater significantly decreased survival of both HEp2 and HeLa cell lines. In the presence of undiluted sample survival percentage of HeLa and HEp2 cells were only 2.3 and 0.3% respectively. Only undiluted purified wastewater showed slight but insignificant decrease of the survival of both cell lines. Even 0.5% of the sample of original electroplating wastewater exhibited significantly higher value of all comet assay parameters compared to negative control. There was no significant difference between negative control and purified wastewater for any of comet assay parameters. Significantly lower level of primary DNA damage recorded after treatment with purified water, even comparable with negative control, confirmed effectiveness of the purification process. PMID:19132590

  8. Solidification/stabilization of electric arc furnace dust using coal fly ash. Analysis of the stabilization process.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C F; Rodríguez-Piñero, M; Vale, J

    2001-03-30

    In this paper, the stabilization of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn is described. The treatment involves a waste solidification/stabilization (S/S) process, using coal fly ash as the fundamental raw material and main binder. The article also contains a brief review of the most important recent publications related to the use of fly ash as S/S agents. The efficacy of the process has been evaluated mainly through leaching tests on the solidified products and compliance with some imposed leachate limits. The concentration of metals leaching from the S/S products was strongly leachate pH dependent; thus, the final pH of the leachate is the most important variable in reaching the limits and, therefore, in meeting the stabilization goals. In this study, the dependence relationship between the leachate pH and the concentrations of metals in the leachate are analyzed; in some cases, this allows us to estimate the speciation of contaminants in the S/S solids and to understand the mechanism responsible for reduced leachability of heavy metals from solidified wastes. PMID:11230914

  9. A novel hydrothermal method for zinc extraction and separation from zinc ferrite and electric arc furnace dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-gang; Li, Yang; Gao, Jian-ming; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrothermal process was developed to extract zinc from pure zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanopowder and zinc-containing electric arc furnace (EAF) dust using hexahydrated ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O) as a decomposing agent. The effects of solid FeCl3·6H2O to ZnFe2O4 ratio by mass ( R F/Z), hydrothermal reaction temperature, and time on zinc extraction were systematically investigated. In the results, when the hydrothermal reaction is conducted at 150°C for 2 h with R F/Z of 15:20, the efficiency of zinc extraction from ZnFe2O4 reaches 97.2%, and the concentration of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the leaching solution is nearly zero, indicating a high selectivity for zinc. In addition, the zinc extraction efficiency from the EAF dust reaches 94.5% in the case of the hydrothermal reaction performed at 200°C for 10 h with the solid FeCl3·6H2O to EAF dust ratio by mass ( R F/EAF dust) of 15:10. Zinc and iron separation is achieved by adjusting the pH value of the leaching solution according to the different precipitation pH values of metal hydroxides.

  10. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  11. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  12. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    PubMed

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study. PMID:16849138

  13. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The characterization and the agitation leaching of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by diluted sulphuric acid have been studied in Part I, as a separate article. The aim of the present research work (Part II) is the development of a purification process of the leach liquor for the recovery of high-purity zinc by electrowinning. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of the following four (4) unit operations: (1) Removal of iron as easily filterable crystalline basic sulphate salt of the jarosite type, at atmospheric pressure, by chemical precipitation at pH: 3.5 and 95 degrees C. (2) Zinc solvent extraction by Cyanex 272 at pH: 3.5, T: 40 degrees C, with 25% extractant concentration. (3) Stripping of the loaded organic phase by zinc spent electrolyte (62.5 g/L Zn(2+)) at T: 40 degrees C with diluted H(2)SO(4) (3 mol/L). (4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2). PMID:20434263

  14. A Kinetic Ladle Furnace Process Simulation Model: Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone Model Using FactSage Macro Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ende, Marie-Aline; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The ladle furnace (LF) is widely used in the secondary steelmaking process in particular for the de-sulfurization, alloying, and reheating of liquid steel prior to the casting process. The Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone model using the FactSage macro processing code was applied to develop a kinetic LF process model. The slag/metal interactions, flux additions to slag, various metallic additions to steel, and arcing in the LF process were taken into account to describe the variations of chemistry and temperature of steel and slag. The LF operation data for several steel grades from different plants were accurately described using the present kinetic model.

  15. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Julian

    1980-09-01

    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  16. Zn distribution and speciation in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes by synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Lu, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Zinc is an important element in steelmaking industry not only for its impact on environment but also for its hazardous influence to steel production. Collecting information about the chemical association of zinc in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes is fundamental for monitoring its behavior during further treatment. In the work presented here, the spatial distribution, and chemical forms of zinc in accumulated particles of zinc-containing steelmaking wastes, including electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) and basic oxygen furnace OG sludge (BOF OG), have been investigated using synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy. Results of μ-XRF analysis showed that zinc distributed in two ways. One was shared with iron and its distribution showed a positive correlation with that of iron. The other was accumulated in some well-defined hot spots with high amount and its distribution showed negative correlation with that of iron. For EAFD, results of μ-XANES spectroscopy indicated that zinc was mainly present in the form of ZnFe2O4 within the whole particles no matter the spots with high or low zinc content. Whereas for BOF OG, ZnFe2O4 was the main constituent in well-defined hot spots while in other regions zinc was mainly in the form of zinc carbonate. These results indicated that chemical reaction between zinc and other components occurred during the formation of accumulated OG sludge particles. If the above findings could be confirmed by more systematic investigations, it will provide valuable information for treating and utilizing these metallurgical residues.

  17. MgO Solubility in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Assis, Andre N.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    A predominantly liquid and MgO-saturated slag is preferred in EAF and BOF steelmaking. Fully liquid slag provides a better environment for faster mass transfer due to lower bulk viscosities and larger liquid slag volume and these help dephosphorization and desulfurization. Also, an MgO-saturated slag would be preferable in order to increase the lifetime of furnace refractory lining by reducing the extent of dissolution. This article will demonstrate the factors that would influence MgO saturation, which includes FeO, CaO, P2O5, and Al2O3 contents and temperature. In addition, this paper comments on the applicability and accuracy of FactSage prediction, which are compared to laboratory experiments. The results indicate that FactSage may underestimate MgO solubility by up to 2.5 wt pct at higher basicities while there is reasonable agreement with current measurements at lower basicities.

  18. Study of The Maximum Uptake Capacity on Various Sizes of Electric Arc Furnace Slag in Phosphorus Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afnizan, W. M. W.; Hamdan, R.; Othman, N.

    2016-07-01

    The high content of uncontrolled phosphorus concentration in wastewater has emerged as a major problem recently. The excessive amount of phosphorus that is originated from domestic waste, unproper treated waste from septic tanks, as well as agricultural activities have led to the eutrophication problem. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was initiated to evaluate the potential of the Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS), a by-product waste from steel making industry in removing phosphorus concentrations in aqueous solutions. In this work several particle sizes ranging from (9.5-12.4 mm, 12.5-15.9 mm, 16.0-19.9 mm, 20.0-24.9 mm, 25-37.4 mm) with a known weight (20±0.28 g, 40±0.27 g, 60±0.30 g, 80±0.29 g and 100±0.38 g) were used to study the effect of different particle sizes towards phosphorus removal. Each particle size of EAFS was shaken in synthetic phosphorus solutions (10 mg/l, 20 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 40 mg/l and 50 mg/l) at a contact time of 2 hours. Final concentrations of phosphorus were sampled and the measurement was made using WESTCO Discrete Analyzer equipment. Results showed that the highest of the maximum uptake capacity of each EAFS particle size distribution achieved at 0.287, 0.313, 0.266, 0.241 and 0.25 mg/g as particle size range was varied from 9.5-12.4 mm to 25-37.4 mm. In conclusion, the maximum uptake capacity of each EAFS mostly was determined to occur at adsorbent weight of 20 to 40 g in most conditions.

  19. Distribution of air and serum PCDD/F levels of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum and copper smelters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Shih, Tung-Seng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2009-12-30

    Metallurgical processes, such as smelting, can generate organic impurities such as organic chloride chemicals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The objective of this study was to elucidate the serum PCDD/F levels of 134 workers and ambient air levels around electric arc furnaces (EAF), secondary copper smelters and secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) in Taiwan. The highest serum PCDD/F levels were found in the ALSs workers (21.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), with lower levels in copper smelter workers (21.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), and the lowest in the EAF plant workers (18.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). This was still higher than the levels for residents living within 5 km of municipal waste incinerators (14.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). For ambient samples, the highest ambient air PCDD/F level was in the copper smelters (12.4 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), with lower levels in ALSs (7.2 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), and the lowest in the EAF industry (1.8 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)). The congener profiles were consistent in serum and in air samples collected in the copper smelters, but not for ALSs and EAF. In secondary copper smelters, the air PCDD/Fs levels might be directly linked to the PCDD/Fs accumulated in the workers due to the exceedingly stable congener pattern of the PCDD/F emission. PMID:19717228

  20. Determination of minor elements in steelmaking flue dusts using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2005-07-15

    Element determination in solid waste products from the steel industry usually involves the time-consuming step of preparing a solution of the solid. Laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to the analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Sn, elements of importance from the point of view of their impact on the environment, in electric arc furnace flue dust (EAFD). A simple method of sample preparation as pressed pellets using a mixture of cellulose and paraffin as binder material was applied. Calibration standards were prepared spiking multielement solution standards to a 1:1 ZnO+Fe(2)O(3) synthetic matrix. The wet powder was dried and mechanically homogenised. Quantitative analysis were based on external calibration using a set of matrix matched calibration standards with Rh as a internal standard. Results obtained using only one-point for calibration without matrix matched, needing less time for standardization and data processing, are also presented. Data are calculated for flue dust reference materials: CRM 876-1 (EAFD), AG-6203 (EAFD), AG-6201 (cupola dust) and AG-SX3705 (coke ashes), and for two representative electrical arc furnace flue dusts samples from Spanish steelmaking companies: MS-1 and MS-2. For the reference materials, an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the MS samples matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solutions (CN). The analytical precision was found to be better than 7% R.S.D. both within a single pellet and between several pellets of the same sample for all the elements. PMID:18970147

  1. Optimization of Post Combustion in Steelmaking (TRP 9925)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. R. J. Matway

    2004-03-31

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF), and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) for producing steel, the major off gas is carbon monoxide (CO). If the CO can be combusted to CO{sub 2}, and the energy transferred to the metal, this reaction will reduce the energy consumed in the EAF and allow for more scrap melting in the BOF which would significantly lower the energy required to produce steel. This reaction is referred to as post combustion. In order to optimize the post combustion process, computational fluid dynamic models (CFD) of the two steelmaking processes were developed. Before the models could be fully developed information on reactions affecting post combustion had to be obtained. The role of the reaction of CO{sub 2} with scrap (iron) was measured at the temperatures relevant to post combustion in laboratory experiments. The experiments were done to separate the effects of gas phase mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and solid state mass transfer through the iron oxide formed by the reaction. The first CFD model was for the EAF using the FIDAP-CFD{trademark} code. Whereas this model gave some useful results it was incomplete due to problems with the FIDAP program. In the second EAF model, the CFX{trademark} code was used and was much more successful. The full 3-D model included all forms of heat transfer and the back reactions of CO{sub 2} with the metal and scrap. The model for the EAF was a full 3-D model and consisted of a primary oxygen lance with side wall injectors for post combustion. The model could predict the degree of post combustion and heat transfer. The BOF model was a slice of the BOF for which there was symmetry. The model could predict post combustion, heat transfer, temperature profiles and the effect of operating variables such as oxygen flow rates and distribution. The present research developed several new models such as limited combustion and depostcombustion. These were all documented by MSA Pass as a sub-contract. Instruction manuals were

  2. Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric; Lecuire, Jean Marie

    2002-04-26

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major mineralogical forms present in these wastes are Fe3O4, ZnO, ZnFe2O4 and PbOHCl. The proposed process consists of a hydrometallurgical treatment of wastes based on selective leaching of zinc and lead. Initially, a leaching is carried out utilizing a chelating agent, nitrilotriacetate anion (NTA3-), as the protonated form HNTA2-. Treatment of five EAFD samples for an hour at room temperature with a molar solution of reagent results in total leaching of the ZnO. In all cases the solubilized iron does not exceed 3 wt.%. The recovery of zinc and lead is performed by precipitation of metallic sulfides with a solution of Na2S4 sodium tetrasulfide 2M. These metallic sulfides can be used as metallurgical raw materials and the chelating reagent can be reused in the process after pH adjustment. The results of the normalized leaching test AFNOR X31-210 conducted on the leaching residues, shows that all the samples meet acceptance thresholds for hazardous wastes landfill. However, the residues contain a considerable amount of zinc as ZnFe2O4. The extraction of the zinc element requires the destruction of the ferrite structure. In this process, ZnFe2O4 is treated by FeCl3.6H2O. The reaction consists in a particle O2-/Cl- exchange allowing the recovery of zinc as ZnCl2 and iron as hematite Fe2O3. The separation of these products is accomplished by simple aqueous leaching. All of the zinc is extracted in a 8h treatment at 150 degrees C with a molar ratio FeCl3.6H2O/ZnFe2O4 equal to 10. Ultimate solid residues, which have been concentrated in iron, can be oriented towards the steel industry. PMID:11900917

  3. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  4. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinila, E.; Pihlajamäki, T.; Bossuyt, S.; Hänninen, H.

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  5. 11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. PMID:25261762

  8. Research and Analysis on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Molten Bath with Bottom-Blowing in EAF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Ma, Guohong; Cheng, Ting

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-blowing technology is widely adopted in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking to promote the molten bath fluid flow, accelerate the metallurgical reaction, and improve the quality of molten steel. In this study, a water model experiment and a computational fluid dynamics model were established to investigate the effects of bottom-blowing gas flow rate on the fluid flow characteristics in the EAF molten bath. The results show that the interaction among the bottom-blowing gas streams influences the molten bath flow field, and increasing the bottom-blowing gas flow rate can accelerate the fluid flow and decrease the volume of the dead zone. Based on industrial application research, the physical and chemical properties of the molten bath with bottom-blowing were analyzed. Compared with traditional melting conditions without bottom-blowing, bottom-blowing technology demonstrates obvious advantages in promoting the heat transfer and metallurgical reactions in the molten bath. With the bottom-blowing arrangement, the dephosphorization and decarburization rates are accelerated, the contents of FeO and T. Fe in endpoint slag are decreased, and the endpoint carbon-oxygen equilibrium of molten steel is improved.

  9. On the distribution and bonding environment of Zn and Fe in glasses containing electric arc furnace dust: a mu-XAFS and mu-XRF study.

    PubMed

    Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Paloura, E C; Kavouras, P; Kehagias, Th; Komninou, Ph; Karakostas, Th; Erko, A

    2007-04-01

    We apply synchrotron radiation assisted X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), SR-XRF mapping as well as micro- and conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (mu-XAFS and XAFS) spectroscopies in order to study the bonding environment of Fe and Zn in vitrified samples that contain electric arc furnace dust from metal processing industries. The samples are studied in the as-cast state as well as after annealing at 900 degrees C. The SR-XRF results demonstrate that annealing does not induce any significant changes in the distribution of either Fe or Zn, in both the as-cast and annealed glasses. The mu-XAFS spectra recorded at the Fe-K and Zn-K edges reveal that the structural role of both Fe and Zn remains unaffected by the annealing procedure. More specifically, Fe forms both FeO(6) and FeO(4) polyhedra, i.e. acts as an intermediate oxide while Zn occupies tetrahedral sites. PMID:16987597

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 visible light catalysts with controllable crystalline phase and morphology from Ti-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Lulu; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2016-09-01

    TiO2 visible light catalysts with different crystalline phases and morphologies were synthesized from titanium-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag (Ti-bearing EAF slag) by using a simple acidolysis process. The effects of the pH of the HCl solution, liquid to solid ratio (RL/S, HCl solution to the residue ratio, mL/g) and acidolysis time on the micro-morphology and crystalline phase of as-prepared TiO2 photocatalysts were systematically investigated. The results indicated that with decreasing pH in the HCl solution and increasing RL/S, the crystalline phase and micro-morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanostructures tended to transform from anatase type TiO2 with spherical nanoparticle structures to rutile type TiO2 with needle-like nanorod structures. The acidolysis time had little influence on the crystalline phase but great impact on the size of the obtained TiO2. The growth mechanism of TiO2 from Ti-bearing EAF slag during the acidolysis process was also discussed. In addition, the influence of RL/S on the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 was studied. The results showed that the photodegradation efficiency for Rhodamine B solution could reach 91.00% in 120min when the RL/S was controlled at 50:1. PMID:27593268

  11. [Utilization of a transferred arc-plasma rotating furnace to melt and found oxide mixtures at around 2000 degrees C (presentation of the film VULCANO)].

    PubMed

    Cognet, G; Laffont, G; Jegou, C; Pierre, J; Journeau, C; Sudreau, F; Roubaud, A

    1999-03-01

    Unless security measures are taken, a hypothetical accident resulting from the loss of the cooling circuit in a pressurized water nuclear reactor could cause the heart of the reactor to melt forming a bath, called the corium, mainly composed of uranium, zirconium and iron oxides as well as the structural steel. This type of situation would be similar to the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In order to limit the consequences of such an accident, the Atomic Energy Commission has implemented a large study program [1] to improve our understanding of corium behavior and determine solutions to stabilize it and avoid its propagation outside the unit. The VULCANO installation was designed in order to perform the trials using real materials which are indispensable to study all the phenomena involved. A film on the VULCANO trials was presented at the Henri Moissan commemorative session organized by the French National Academy of Pharmacy. The rotating furnace used to melt and found the mixture simulating the corium is a direct descendant of the pioneer work by Henri Moissan. An electrical arc is directed at the center of the load to melt which is maintained against the walls by centrifugal force. After six high-temperature trials performed with compositions without uranium oxide, the first trial with real corium showed that the magma spread rather well, a result which is quite favorable for cooling. PMID:10365468

  12. New possibilities of Consteel furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

    2012-06-01

    The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

  13. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metallized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metallized iron nodules at low cost.

  14. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions. PMID

  15. Looking southwest toward the basic oxygen steelmaking plant from a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest toward the basic oxygen steelmaking plant from a neighborhodd in Braddock by Eleventh Street. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Proceedings of the 45th electric furnace conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 46th Electric Furnace Conference. Topics included are: EAF Dust Decomposition and Metals Recovery at ScanDust, Optimization of Electric Arc Furnace Process by Pneumatic Stirring, and Melt Down Control for Electric Arc Furnaces.

  17. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  18. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  19. Modernization of open-hearth steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Most of the steel that has been produced domestically has been made by the open-hearth method - an obsolete technology that is now being phased out. Open-hearth steelmaking is labor- and energy-intensive, consumes large quantities of raw materials, and adversely impacts the environment. Nearly all open-hearth (OH) shops and the equipment therein have been fully amortized, and practical experience and research both here and abroad have shown that further capital investment in these facilities would be inexpedient. The use of OH steelmaking has thus declined rapidly in recent years worldwide (especially in the developed nations), leading to its almost complete disappearance in some countries. The worldwide trend is toward electrical and converter steelmaking processes, and this has significantly reshaped the face of the industry as a whole.

  20. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting

    DOEpatents

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.

    1994-12-13

    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  1. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Lage, J; Fernández, B; Garcia, S; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM10 levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM10 were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM10. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH4(+), K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). PMID:25864153

  2. Rate of coal devolatilization in iron and steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, R.S.; Rio Doce, C.V. do; Fruehan, R.J.; Ozturk, B. . Center for Iron and Steel Making Research)

    1991-01-01

    The devolatilization of coal particles under ironmaking and steelmaking conditions was studied. A new experimental technique was developed to measure the rates of devolatilization. A unique method was used to prepare coal particles based on thick coal bands rich in a given maceral group. Experiments with these single particles gave good reproducibility. The rates of devolatilization for all coal types from low to high rank coals were measured in the gaseous atmosphere and within the slag phase. Real time x-ray images were taken for high volatile, low volatile and anthracite coals devolatilizing in a molten smelting slag. The rate in terms of percentage devolatilization were relatively independent of coal type and a small function of furnace temperature at high heating rates and temperatures studied. The rates depended on particle size and heating rates. The results were consistent with internal transport controlled processes primarily heat transfer. Furthermore the rates were the same in the gas and slag phase which is consistent with heat transfer control.

  3. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  4. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

  5. Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

  6. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  7. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D.; May, James B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  8. 1. LOOKING NORTH AT THE BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING PLANT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH AT THE BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING PLANT. THE FLUX HANDLING BUILDING IS ON THE RIGHT, THE MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING IS IN THE CENTER, THE BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS (BOP) SHOP IS IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND, AND OPEN HEARTH No. 2 BUILDING IS ON THE LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Modeling of Dephosphorization using Bloated Droplet Theory in Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankit; Kundu, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    A considerable fraction of refining of hot metal in basic oxygen steelmaking is carried out in emulsion layer by interaction between the metal droplets and slag. The top oxygen blowing ejects metal droplets into the slag which then undergo refining reactions and return to the metal bath. During this period, the carbon in metal droplets reacts with available oxygen to form carbon monoxide. Above a certain threshold decarburization rate, the evolved carbon monoxide inside the droplet causes the droplet to bloat which increases its surface area. The bloating affects the residence time and the rate of certain interfacial reactions. Here, efforts have been made to study dephosphorization in metal droplet in emulsion by coupling dephosphorization kinetics with the 'bloated droplet theory'. As observed in industrial furnaces, the calculated phosphorous concentration in droplet was found to be lower than that of metal bath. Dephosphorization model developed using mixed transport control model was found to fit industrial data. The results obtained were in satisfactory agreement with the available data and a step ahead in improving the understanding of dephosphorization in steelmaking.

  10. Gasification of carbon-bearing raw materials in plasma-arc electric furnace with heater and risk of explosion in syngas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Pinaev, A. V.; Faleev, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    Saw dust was gasified at combined and separated impact of the heater and arc discharge on the raw material. It is shown that because of combustion of a part of produced syngas in the heater the raw material can be gasified with power inputs reduced by 20-25 % in comparison with plasma gasification. Data on parameters of combustion and detonation of syngas mixtures with oxygen and air at a change in the ratio between fuel components CO and H2 and between fuel and oxidizer are shown for the first time.

  11. Phosphorus removal from slow-cooled steelmaking slags: Grain size determination and liberation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fregeau-Wu, E.; Iwasaki, I.

    1995-07-01

    The major obstacle in recycling steelmaking slags to the blast furnace is their phosphorus content. Removal of the phosphorus, which is primarily associated with the silicate and phosphate phases, would allow for greater recycle of these slags for their iron, manganese, and lime contents. Calculations show that separation of the silicates from the oxide phases would remove nearly 90% of the phosphorus from the slag. The variable grain size of the as-received slag made liberation by fine grinding difficult. Therefore, slow-cooling experiments were undertaken to improve the grain size distribution. The grain size distributions were determined using in-situ image analysis. The samples were ground to their apparent liberation size and high gradient magnetic separation was used to separate the magnetic oxides from the nonmagnetic silicates and phosphates. Liberation analysis and modeling was performed on selected separation products for discussion of benefication characteristics.

  12. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.

    2016-04-01

    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  13. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  14. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  15. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  16. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  17. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  18. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  19. Electric furnaces. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning electric furnaces and devices to improve safety and efficiency. Arc melting furnaces and vertical lifted portable furnaces are among those described. Patents describing online monitoring and control of electric furnaces are included. Devices that exhaust gases and fumes and recycle furnace dust are also mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study. PMID:20598338

  1. The future steelmaking industry and its technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.; Paxton, H.W.; Giarratani, F.; Lave, L. |

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a vision of the future steelmaking industry including its general characteristics and technologies. In addition, the technical obstacles and research and development opportunities for commercialization of these technologies are identified. The report is being prepared by the Sloan Steel Industry Competitiveness Study with extensive input from the industry. Industry input has been through AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute), SMA (Steel Manufacturers Association) and contacts with individual company executives and technical leaders. The report identifies the major industry drivers which will influence technological developments in the industry for the next 5--25 years. Initially, the role of past drivers in shaping the current industry was examined to help understand the future developments. Whereas this report concentrates on future technologies other major factors such as national and international competition, human resource management and capital concerns are examined to determine their influence on the future industry. The future industry vision does not specify specific technologies but rather their general characteristics. Finally, the technical obstacles and the corresponding research and development required for commercialization are detailed.

  2. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  3. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  4. 40 CFR 63.10680 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart, you must have or obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71. ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking... this subpart if you own or operate an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking facility that is an...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10680 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart, you must have or obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71. ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking... this subpart if you own or operate an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking facility that is an...

  6. 40 CFR 63.10680 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart, you must have or obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71. ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking... this subpart if you own or operate an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking facility that is an...

  7. 40 CFR 63.10680 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart, you must have or obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71. ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking... this subpart if you own or operate an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking facility that is an...

  8. 40 CFR 63.10680 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart, you must have or obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71. ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking... this subpart if you own or operate an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking facility that is an...

  9. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  10. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  11. Furnace afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.F. II

    1987-01-13

    An afterburner is described for the exhaust effluvia of a furnace, which exhaust contains combustible material, the afterburner comprising: a. an elongated, generally cylindrical combustion chamber having an inlet for the exhaust at or adjacent one end thereof, and an outlet at or adjacent its other end, b. means operable to induce a draft through the combustion chamber from its inlet to its outlet, c. a series of air nozzles disposed to direct jets of air into the interior of the combustion chamber. Certain nozzles are arranged to direct air jets into the combustion chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a clockwise direction, and the remainder of the nozzles and arranged to direct air jets into the chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a counter-clockwise direction, whereby to induce turbulence within the chamber to intermix the air and the exhaust thoroughly, and d. means operable to deliver air to the air nozzles.

  12. Carburizer process in electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, V. P.; Babichevskii, G. V.; Prokopenko, Ya. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    The behavior of coke and carbon in heating and melting of steel scrap is considered. The efficiency of carbon assimilation in the period of metal melting is estimated for various versions of introduction of a lump carbon-containing material into an EAF charge. The use of a carbon-containing material as an alternative heat source in EAF is analyzed.

  13. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  14. Cold bonded briquettes with high temperature properties for blast furnace burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, R.; Auslander, E.; Rankin, R.

    1997-12-31

    A combination briquetting process and proprietary binder system, that combines numerous revert materials into a productive blast furnace feed material, has been developed by Ferrous Environmental Recycling Corporation (FERCO). It has been proven that, when used at 5% of the blast furnace burden, these briquettes yield a coke savings of 40 lbs./NTHM and a production rate increase of approximately 4%. Residual elements in the briquettes are controlled through chemical analysis and careful blending, so that there are no adverse effects in steelmaking. The process combines several revert materials, including coke breeze and blast furnace flue dust, with a proprietary binder to produce a briquette with excellent high temperature properties. The briquette is designed to consume waste stream reverts with the significant added benefits of lower blast furnace fuel rates and increased hot metal production. Since 1988, nearly 750,000 tons of these briquettes have been produced and consumed.

  15. Modified Claus furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.

    1986-03-11

    A Claus thermal conversion furnace is described comprising a primary furnace chamber, a burner in the primary furnace chamber, an oxidant containing gas supply inlet connected to the burner, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the burner, an outlet extending from the furnace, a secondary reaction chamber in heat but not gas exchange relationship with the primary furnace chamber, the secondary reaction chamber extending through the length of the primary furnace chamber to a point in the outlet extending from the furnace, a hydrogen sulfide decomposing catalyst in the secondary reaction chamber, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the secondary reaction chamber.

  16. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-08-01

    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  17. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  18. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  19. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual technical report for year ending November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Direct Steelmaking Program has completed the third year of research and development since cost-share funding was provided by the Department of Energy. The physical chemistry programs conducted by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been completed. A pilot plant has been constructed and successfully operated at Universal, Pennsylvania, and construction of a new, two-zone vessel pilot plant has been completed and trial operation is underway. The success of the pilot plant operation coupled with the development of process models involving reaction rates, heat-transfer and fluid-flow rates, and mass and energy balances has led to a basic study of a 350,000 tonne per year demonstration plant that gives promise of being a low capital and operating cost alternative for ironmaking as compared to the coke oven, blast furnace process. It has the further advantages of ease of startup and shutdown, lower energy consumption, and modularity so that capacity can be adapted to need. The physical chemistry programs at CMU and MIT studied fundamental reactions among ore, coal, flux, slag, metal droplets, and the liquid metal bath. Work at CMU centered on slag foaming studies, coal devolatilization, dissolution of hematite and wustite pellets in bath smelting slags, reduction of FeO in slag by char, extent of reverse or depostcombustion reactions in postcombustion gases, and developing an overall smelting model.

  20. Arc distribution during the vacuum arc remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, Charles Rigel; King, Paul E.; Nordlund, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot–Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  1. Arc Distribution During the Vacuum Arc Remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodside, C. Rigel; King, Paul E.; Nordlund, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot-Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  2. On-line flatness measurement in the steelmaking industry.

    PubMed

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  3. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Garcίa, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  4. Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams

    SciTech Connect

    Whellock, J.G.; Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Multiple model approach to evaluation of accelerated carbonation for steelmaking slag in a slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Lu; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) exhibits highly alkaline properties due to its high calcium content, which is beneficial to carbonation reaction. In this study, accelerated carbonation of BOFS was evaluated under different reaction times, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios in a slurry reactor. CO2 mass balance within the slurry reactor was carried out to validate the technical feasibility of fixing gaseous CO2 into solid precipitates. After that, a multiple model approach, i.e., theoretical kinetics and empirical surface model, for carbonation reaction was presented to determine the maximal carbonation conversion of BOFS in a slurry reactor. On one hand, the reaction kinetics of BOFS carbonation was evaluated by the shrinking core model (SCM). Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as a reaction product through the scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, which provided the rationale of applying the SCM in this study. The rate-limiting step of carbonation was found to be ash-diffusion controlled, and the effective diffusivity for carbonation of BOFS in a slurry reactor were determined accordingly. On the other hand, the carbonation conversion of BOFS was predicted by the response surface methodology (RSM) via a nonlinear mathematical programming. According to the experimental data, the highest carbonation conversion of BOFS achieved was 57% under an L/S ratio of 20 mL g(-1), a CO2 flow rate of 0.1 L min(-1), and a pressure of 101.3 kPa at 50 °C for 120 min. Furthermore, the applications and limitations of SCM and RSM were examined and exemplified by the carbonation of steelmaking slags. PMID:27038901

  7. Cleaning flue gases from an open-hearth furnace when the bath is blown with oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Yu.L.; Kanenko, G.M.; Chalyi, L.G.; Shulika, E.G.; Glazunov, V.N.; Kostyukov, A.K.; Pastushenko, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    To develop recommendations on the cleaning of process gases to satisfy health standards, the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine conducted studies of dust and gas emissions from two 400-ton open-hearth furnaces operated by the ore-and-scrap process with subsurface and combination blowing of the bath by oxygen. Oxygen was injected through the combination lateral burners into the flame during cold-charging and heating. Different variants of overhead and subsurface injection lances were evaluated. The results show that the traditional types of gas cleaning (high-pressure Venturi tubes, electrostatic precipitators) can be used with the introduction of the proposed methods of intensifying open-hearth steelmaking with oxygen.

  8. Dephosphorization of Steelmaking Slag by Leaching with Acidic Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yong; Diao, Jiang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Xiaosa; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Bing

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, dephosphorization of steelmaking slag by leaching with acidic aqueous solution composed of citric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ion-exchanged water was investigated. The buffer solution of C6H8O7-NaOH-HCl system prevented changes in the pH values. Kinetic parameters including leaching temperature, slag particle size and pH values of the solution were optimized. The results showed that temperature has no obvious effect on the dissolution ratio of phosphorus. However, it has a significant effect on the dissolution ratio of iron. The dephosphorization rate increases with the decrease of slag particle size and the pH value of the solution. Over 90% of the phosphorus can be dissolved in the solution while the corresponding leaching ratio of iron was only 30% below the optimal condition. Leaching kinetics of dephosphorization follow the unreacted shrinking core model with a rate controlled step by the solid diffusion layer, the corresponding apparent activation energy being 1.233 kJ mol-1. A semiempirical kinetic equation was established. After leaching, most of the nC2S-C3P solid solution in the steelmaking slag was selectively dissolved in the aqueous solution and the iron content in the solid residue was correspondingly enriched.

  9. Energy Balance Around Gas Injection into Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabah, Shabnam; Brooks, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, a simplified approach of energy balance around gas injection into oxygen steelmaking has been carried out in a cold model. The aim is to provide an estimation of the amount of energy consumed by the different parts of the injection process such as dissipation, stirring of the bath, cavity formation, and splashing. Calculation of jet power used by different processes has been carried for various operating conditions and cavity modes ( i.e., splashing and penetrating). Calculations showed that dissipation and splashing are the dominant processes where most of the power of the jet is used, whereas cavity formation consumes the least amount. In the splashing mode, the percentage of total input power going into dissipation was about 59 to 63 pct, whereas it was found to be 2.6 to 50 pct in the penetrating mode. In splashing mode, about 30 pct power from the nozzle was used to create splash which is proved to be an efficient mode for droplet generation as less power is required to create droplets. At a certain lance height, the percentages of total input power used for splashing and dissipation were found equal. Below this lance height, all the cavities were found to be in penetrating mode. This simplified approach provides an improved understanding of the gas injection process and may be used for developing models of the injection process of steelmaking.

  10. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M.; Li, T.; Hassan, M.; Han, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in

  13. Industrial applications of thermal sprayed coatings in Venezuelan steelmaking industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liscano, S.; Nuñez, E.; Gil, L.; Zerpa, R.

    2013-11-01

    The metal components subjected to high temperature conditions, abrasive wear, corrosion, impact, etc.; tend to present degradation of manufacturing material, causing the failure imminent of the component. One of the alternatives to minimize or eliminate such effect is the application of ceramic coatings, which are thermal insulators and exhibit high mechanical strength. Its extreme hardness, coupled with the low friction properties and chemical stability, allowing its use in a wide variety of applications. Therefore, the following paper describes the application of thermal sprayed coatings obtained by HVOF and Plasma technologies like alternative to protect the metallic equipment in different venezuelan industrial sectors, such as to operate under aggressive conditions of service, such as the steelmaking nationals industries. This study presents applications cases of ceramic-based coatings, in order to minimize the sticking of metallic material in components of reduction reactor of FINMET® and MIDREXTM process.

  14. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Tan, Chung-Sung; Chang, E-E

    2013-04-01

    Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (η) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time. PMID:23458276

  17. High-Gravity Carbonation Process for Enhancing CO2 Fixation and Utilization Exemplified by the Steelmaking Industry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Shen, Ai-Lin; Lin, Michael; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-20

    The high-gravity carbonation process for CO2 mineralization and product utilization as a green cement was evaluated using field operation data from the steelmaking industry. The effect of key operating factors, including rotation speed, liquid-to-solid ratio, gas flow rate, and slurry flow rate, on CO2 removal efficiency was studied. The results indicated that a maximal CO2 removal of 97.3% was achieved using basic oxygen furnace slag at a gas-to-slurry ratio of 40, with a capture capacity of 165 kg of CO2 per day. In addition, the product with different carbonation conversions (i.e., 0%, 17%, and 48%) was used as supplementary cementitious materials in blended cement at various substitution ratios (i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20%). The performance of the blended cement mortar, including physicochemical properties, morphology, mineralogy, compressive strength, and autoclave soundness, was evaluated. The results indicated that the mortar with a high carbonation conversion of slag exhibited a higher mechanical strength in the early stage than pure portland cement mortar, suggesting its suitability for use as a high early strength cement. It also possessed superior soundness compared to the mortar using fresh slag. Furthermore, the optimal operating conditions of the high-gravity carbonation were determined by response surface models for maximizing CO2 removal efficiency and minimizing energy consumption. PMID:26397167

  18. Study on Indirect Measuring Technology of EAF Steelmaking Decarburization Rate by Off-gas Analysis Technique in Hot State Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kai; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhu, Rong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, measurement method of EAF Steelmaking decarburization rate is studied. Because of the fuel gas blown and air mixed, the composition of hot temperature off-gas is measurand unreally, and the flow rate is unknown too, the direct measurement of EAF decarburization rate by furnace gas analysis is unrealized. Firstly, the off-gas generation process is discussed. After that, dynamic concentration of CO2, CO, and O2 in off-gas and EAF oxygen supply rate are monitored in real time. Finally, the concentration and volume flow rate of off-gas are obtained to measure the EAF decarburization rate indirectly. The results of the hot state experiments show that the decarburization rate in oxidization step can reach up to about 0.53 mol/s, and the forecasting carbon concentration is 1.14% corresponding to the average carbon concentration (1.43%) in finial metal samples. The measurement of decarburization rate by off-gas analysis technique can be reasonable in EAF production process.

  19. Arc distribution and motion during the vacuum arc remelting process as detected with a magnetostatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodside, Rigel

    Currently, the temporal arc distribution across the ingot during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is not a known or monitored parameter. It is has previously been shown that arcs can spatially constrict during VAR, and this constriction can lead to undesired defects in the material. Additionally, correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot are critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. An arc position measurement system capable of locating slow moving arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace was developed. The system is based on non-invasive magnetic field measurements and VAR specific forms of the magnetostatic Biot-Savart Law. Electromagnetic finite element modeling assists the analysis. The measurement system was installed on an industrial VAR furnace at the ATI facility in Albany, OR. Data were taken during the commercial production of titanium alloy. Although more arcs were present than could be resolved with the number of sensors applied, overall arc distribution shifts were detected. Arc distribution and motion during the final production of Ti-6Al-4V were examined. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior was not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system provides new information. Finally, a solidification model was used to assess the potential impact of the different arc distribution modes. It is shown the magnetohydrodynamic stirring patterns in the molten pool are affected, which results in localized variations in solidification times in particular at the side wall.

  20. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  1. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  2. Space station furnace facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  4. Space Station Furnace Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S.D.; Lehoczky, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} g) environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks (IRs). The Core System provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate Experiment Modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first Instrument Rack include a High Temperature Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ), and a Low Temperature Gradient Furnace (LGF). A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  5. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  6. Programmable Multizone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Edmund Y.; Larson, David J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Moving thermal gradients created without mechanical motion. Furnace having multiple, individually programmable heating zones developed for use in experiments on directional solidification. Holds rod specimen and generates thermal gradients moving along specimen. Elimination of translation mechanism makes furnace more compact and reduces vibrations, which disturb experiment. Availability of different temperature profiles through programming makes it versatile tool for research at low thermal gradients traveling at moderate speeds.

  7. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyyy of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart YYYYY

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the requirements of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) shown in the...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. YYYYY, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart YYYYY of...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyyy of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart YYYYY

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the requirements of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) shown in the...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. YYYYY, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart YYYYY of...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyyy of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart YYYYY

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the requirements of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) shown in the...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. YYYYY, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart YYYYY of...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyyy of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart YYYYY

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the requirements of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) shown in the...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. YYYYY, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart YYYYY of...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyyy of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart YYYYY

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with the requirements of the NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) shown in the...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. YYYYY, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart YYYYY of...

  13. A Model for Dissolution of Lime in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Rahul; Roy, Ushasi; Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2016-04-01

    In a previous study by Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015), a dynamic model of the LD steelmaking was developed. The prediction of the previous model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) for the bath (metal) composition matched well with the plant data (Cicutti et al. in Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, Stockholm City, 2000). However, with respect to the slag composition, the prediction was not satisfactory. The current study aims to improve upon the previous model Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) by incorporating a lime dissolution submodel into the earlier one. From the industrial point of view, the understanding of the lime dissolution kinetics is important to meet the ever-increasing demand of producing low-P steel at a low basicity. In the current study, three-step kinetics for the lime dissolution is hypothesized on the assumption that a solid layer of 2CaO·SiO2 should form around the unreacted core of the lime. From the available experimental data, it seems improbable that the observed kinetics should be controlled singly by any one kinetic step. Accordingly, a general, mixed control model has been proposed to calculate the dissolution rate of the lime under varying slag compositions and temperatures. First, the rate equation for each of the three rate-controlling steps has been derived, for three different lime geometries. Next, the rate equation for the mixed control kinetics has been derived and solved to find the dissolution rate. The model predictions have been validated by means of the experimental data available in the literature. In addition, the effects of the process conditions on the dissolution rate have been studied, and compared with the experimental results wherever possible. Incorporation of this submodel into the earlier global model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) enables the prediction of the lime dissolution rate

  14. A Model for Dissolution of Lime in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Rahul; Roy, Ushasi; Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study by Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015), a dynamic model of the LD steelmaking was developed. The prediction of the previous model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) for the bath (metal) composition matched well with the plant data (Cicutti et al. in Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, Stockholm City, 2000). However, with respect to the slag composition, the prediction was not satisfactory. The current study aims to improve upon the previous model Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) by incorporating a lime dissolution submodel into the earlier one. From the industrial point of view, the understanding of the lime dissolution kinetics is important to meet the ever-increasing demand of producing low-P steel at a low basicity. In the current study, three-step kinetics for the lime dissolution is hypothesized on the assumption that a solid layer of 2CaO·SiO2 should form around the unreacted core of the lime. From the available experimental data, it seems improbable that the observed kinetics should be controlled singly by any one kinetic step. Accordingly, a general, mixed control model has been proposed to calculate the dissolution rate of the lime under varying slag compositions and temperatures. First, the rate equation for each of the three rate-controlling steps has been derived, for three different lime geometries. Next, the rate equation for the mixed control kinetics has been derived and solved to find the dissolution rate. The model predictions have been validated by means of the experimental data available in the literature. In addition, the effects of the process conditions on the dissolution rate have been studied, and compared with the experimental results wherever possible. Incorporation of this submodel into the earlier global model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) enables the prediction of the lime dissolution rate

  15. High gradient directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

  16. Kinetics of Aqueous Leaching and Carbonization of Steelmaking Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakh, S. N.; Rawlins, C. H.; Robertson, D. G. C.; Richards, V. L.; Peaslee, K. D.

    2008-02-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide by steelmaking slag was studied in an atmospheric three-phase system containing industrial slag particles, water, and CO2 gas. Batch-type reactors were used to measure the rate of aqueous alkaline leaching and slag particle carbonization independently. Four sizes of slag particles were tested for the Ca leaching rate in deionized water at a constant 7.5 pH in an argon atmosphere and for carbonate conversion with CO2 bubbled through an aqueous suspension. Conversion data (fraction of Ca leached or converted to carbonate) were evaluated to determine the rate-limiting step based on the shrinking core model. For Ca leaching, the chemical reaction is the controlling mechanism during the initial period of time, which then switches to diffusion through the developed porous layer as the rate-limiting step. Carbonate conversion proceeded much slower than leaching conversion and was found to be limited by diffusion through the product calcium carbonate layer. The calculated value of diffusivity was found to be 5 × 10-9 cm2/s, which decreased by an order of magnitude with increasing carbonization conversion as a result of changing density of the product layer. The experimental data fit the shrinking core model well after correction for the particle specific surface area.

  17. Motions of alloying additions in the CAS steelmaking operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, D.; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    1993-08-01

    Water model studies in a pilot scale ladle ( D = 1.12 m and L = 0.93 m) were carried out to investigate the subsurface motion of both buoyant and sinking additions during the CAS (com-position adjustment by sealed argon bubbling systems) alloy addition procedure in steelmaking. This technique involves placing a refractory baffle around a rising gas/liquid plume within a stirred ladle of steel. Alloy additions are then made by projecting them into the slag-free region of steel within the baffled region. It was found that such particles while moving through the upwelling two-phase plume region can experience a significant reduction in drag forces, causing buoyant particles to penetrate more deeply than anticipated for a homogeneous fluid. Therefore, considering reduced drag on particles penetrating the upwelling gas liquid plume region, predictions were made for the trajectories of spherical-shaped particles using Newton’s law of motion. Predictions were in very reasonable agreement with those measured. Incorporating the velocity fields in industrial size vessels already reported by the present authors, trajectories of spherical-shaped additions (diameter ˜ 80 mm) in a 150-ton ladle during CAS operations were then predicted. The industrial implications of such trajectories, together with the alloy’s dissolution and dispersion behavior, were also analyzed. Finally, advantages of the CAS alloy addition procedure over conventional methods, in terms of the recovery rates of buoyant additions, are discussed.

  18. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  19. Sulfide Capacity in Ladle Slag at Steelmaking Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allertz, Carl; Sichen, Du

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide capacity measurements were conducted at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 °C and 1600 °C) for the quaternary Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 system, for typical compositions used in the ladle in steelmaking. A copper-slag equilibrium was used under controlled oxygen and sulfur potentials. The sulfide capacity is strongly dependent on the composition and it was found to increase with the basic oxides, while it decreases with increase of the acidic components. It was found that CaO is more effective in holding sulfur in the slag compared to MgO when replacing SiO2. For the present slag compositions, Al2O3 and SiO2 behaved similar with respect to sulfur, and no considerable effect could be recorded when replacing one for the other. The sulfide capacity was also found to be strongly dependent on the temperature, increasing with temperature. The present results were compared with industrial data from the ladle, after vacuum treatment, and they were in good agreement.

  20. Some Aspects of Interfacial Phenomena in Steelmaking and Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. J.; Viswanathan, N. N.; Muhmood, L.; Kapilashrami, E.; Seetharaman, S.

    2016-03-01

    Unique experiments were designed to study the surface phenomena in steelmaking reactions. The concept of surface sulfide capacities and an understanding of the surface accumulation of surface-active species, based on experimental results, are presented. In order to understand the flow phenomenon at slag/metal interface, experiments were designed to measure the interfacial velocity of S on the surface of an iron drop immersed in an aluminosilicate slag using the X-ray sessile drop method. The oscillation of the iron drop in the slag due to the change in the surface concentration of sulfur at the slag-metal interface was monitored by X-ray imaging. From the observations, the interfacial velocity of sulfur was evaluated. Similar experiments were performed to measure the interfacial velocity of oxygen at the interface as well as the impact of oxygen potential on the interfacial velocity of sulfur. The interfacial shear viscosity and the dilatational modulus were also evaluated. In a study of the wetting of alumina base by iron drop at constant oxygen pressure under isothermal condition, the contact angle was found to be decreased with the progress of the reaction leading to the formation of hercynite as an intermediate layer creating non-wetting conditions. In the case of silica substrate, an intermediate liquid fayalite layer was formed.

  1. Some Aspects of Interfacial Phenomena in Steelmaking and Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. J.; Viswanathan, N. N.; Muhmood, L.; Kapilashrami, E.; Seetharaman, S.

    2016-08-01

    Unique experiments were designed to study the surface phenomena in steelmaking reactions. The concept of surface sulfide capacities and an understanding of the surface accumulation of surface-active species, based on experimental results, are presented. In order to understand the flow phenomenon at slag/metal interface, experiments were designed to measure the interfacial velocity of S on the surface of an iron drop immersed in an aluminosilicate slag using the X-ray sessile drop method. The oscillation of the iron drop in the slag due to the change in the surface concentration of sulfur at the slag-metal interface was monitored by X-ray imaging. From the observations, the interfacial velocity of sulfur was evaluated. Similar experiments were performed to measure the interfacial velocity of oxygen at the interface as well as the impact of oxygen potential on the interfacial velocity of sulfur. The interfacial shear viscosity and the dilatational modulus were also evaluated. In a study of the wetting of alumina base by iron drop at constant oxygen pressure under isothermal condition, the contact angle was found to be decreased with the progress of the reaction leading to the formation of hercynite as an intermediate layer creating non-wetting conditions. In the case of silica substrate, an intermediate liquid fayalite layer was formed.

  2. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  3. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  4. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  5. Reaction between Steel-Making Slag and Carbonaceous Materials While Mixing with High Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lan; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the extensive applications in numerous high temperature processes such as iron- and steel-making, coke-making etc. partly in the place of coke, the investigation into the reaction mechanism of waste plastics has become increasingly necessary. In this paper a fundamental study on the behavior of a typical component of waste plastics, high density polyethylene (HDPE), in a mixture with coke at a 1:1 ratio in mass base was conducted during the reaction with iron oxide in steel-making slag at 1823 K and was compared with coke and graphite. The reaction mechanism of carbonaceous materials was analyzed based on the contents of CO and CO2 in the off-gas monitored by an infrared (IR) gas analyzer. It is clear from the results that the reaction of HDPE and coke mixture with steel-making slag approached equilibrium of the Boudouard reaction more quickly and closely than coke or graphite.

  6. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Zanner, Frank J.; Grose, Stephen M.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived.

  8. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

    1997-04-15

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

  9. On the nature of iron-chromium oxides in stainless steel steelmaking slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteazzi, P.; Magrini, M.; Ramous, E.

    1986-02-01

    A number of slags from electric steelmaking production of AISI 420 and AISI 304 steels, were examined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The slag samples were taken before and after oxygen blowing. The slag constitution showed the presence of a metallic part, MO mixed oxide and Fe-Cr spinel (Fe2+ Fe{x/3+} Cr2-xO4' x<1).

  10. 40 CFR 420.40 - Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory. 420.40 Section 420.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  11. Process of discharging charge-build up in slag steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag-containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  12. 40 CFR 420.40 - Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory. 420.40 Section 420.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 420.40 - Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory. 420.40 Section 420.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  14. 40 CFR 420.40 - Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the steelmaking subcategory. 420.40 Section 420.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  15. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

  16. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  17. High Efficiency Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

    1985-08-27

    Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

  18. High efficiency furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

    1985-12-31

    Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

  19. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  20. Cloud Arcs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and ... is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly - possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus ...

  1. Recycling EAF dust leaching residue to the furnace: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia, I.; Romero, R.; Iglesias, N.; Carranza, F.

    1999-08-01

    Simulation programs have been devel oped to study the effect of recycling the electric arc furnace dust leaching residues to the furnace. Residues from sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide leaching have been tested. Results enable the furnace-leaching response to be defined in accord with the recycling rate and conditions for zero stabilization to be determined. Either of the two alternative treatments eliminates the resulting environmental problem. Regarding the management and minimization of residues, the alkaline treatment route is more favorable than the acid one. The preliminary economic evaluation of the alkaline method is very promising.

  2. Simulation of Flow Fluid in the BOF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Ya-Guang; Wang, Yong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) smelting process consists of different chemical reactions among oxygen, slag, and molten steel, which engenders a vigorous stirring process to promote slagging, dephosphorization, decarbonization, heating of molten steel, and homogenization of steel composition and temperature. Therefore, the oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness vary during the smelting process. This simulation demonstrated a three-dimensional mathematical model for a 100 t converter applying four-hole supersonic oxygen lance and simulated the effect of oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness on the flow of molten bath. It is found that as the oxygen flow rate increases, the impact area and depth increases, which increases the flow speed in the molten bath and decreases the area of dead zone. Low oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact depth and accelerates the flow speed of liquid steel on the surface of the bath, while high oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact area, thereafter enhances the uniform distribution of radial velocity in the molten steel and increases the flow velocity of molten steel at the bottom of furnace hearth. As the slag thickness increases, the diameter of impinging cavity on the slag and steel surface decreases. The radial velocity of liquid steel in the molten bath is well distributed when the jet flow impact on the slag layer increases.

  3. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  4. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  6. Implement proper furnace safety interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.D.; Schoenmaker, G.J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur during the initial light-off process for the furnace. The deficiencies that cause these events can be grouped into three broad categories: (1) human error; (2) incorrect or incomplete safety controls and equipment arrangement; and (3) equipment malfunction. This article presents a safety system that helps address all three of these categories for light-off events. No system is totally foolproof, but the use of a safety system, along with strict operating discipline, will reduce the number of furnace events encountered over the lifetime of the equipment. (Note that the controls typically referred to as ``combustion control,`` which include process temperature control, fuel-gas control, oxygen trim/draft control, and the like, are not part of the control described here.) Note also that although this system was developed for cracking furnaces in ethylene plants, it is equally applicable to other types of radiant-wall multiple-burner furnaces. It can be used for both new installations and retrofit situations. This safety system is not applicable to boilers or other devices with only one or two burners.

  7. Multi-zone furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeck, G.A.

    1986-05-06

    A multi-zone furnace is described which consists of: a furnace chamber having at least one heat zone and at least one zone adjacent to the heat zone and disposed along the length of the furnace chamber; the heat zone having a hearth at a level different from the hearth level of the adjacent zone; a walking beam conveyor disposed in the furnace chamber and operative in a short stroke mode to convey a product along the hearth of the heat zone, and in a long stroke mode to convey a product from the heat zone to the adjacent zone.

  8. Water-cooled units in ultrapower electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, M. G.; Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The thermophysical processes that occur in the skull-metallic pipe-water system under quasistationary and dynamic conditions, when shock heat flows appear, are analyzed. The limiting conditions of water cooling of panels, which are accompanied by the appearance of boiling crisis and pre-emergency and emergency thermophysical processes, are considered.

  9. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  10. Radiantly heated furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pargeter, J.K.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a travelling hearth furnace comprising at least one impermeable hearth member adapted to travel generally horizontally along a path from a first locus to a second locus, means to cause the hearth member to travel along the path. Means directs radiant hat toward the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the first locus positions a thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the second locus removes objects from the hearth member. Means, positioned intermediate the first locus and the second locus, positions additional objects on the thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member.

  11. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  12. Exothermic furnace module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of exothermic material stacked one upon another to produce a desired temperature profile when ignited. The exothermic material segments are constructed in the form of an annular element having a recess opening which defines an open central core throughout the vertical axis of the stacked exothermic material. The sample container is arranged within the core of the stacked exothermic heating material.

  13. Modeling of Droplet Generation in a Top Blowing Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Subagyo; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of metal droplets ejected due to impinging gas jet on the surface of liquid metal is an important parameter for the understanding and for the modeling of the refining kinetics of reactions in slag-metal emulsion zone. In the present work, a numerical study has been carried out to critically examine the applicability of droplet generation rate correlation previously proposed by Subagyo et al. on the basis of dimensionless blowing number (N B). The blowing number was re-evaluated at the impingement point of jet with taking into account the temperature effect of change in density and velocity of the gas jet. The result obtained from the work shows that the modified blowing number N B,T at the furnace temperature of 1873 K (1600 °C) is approximately double in magnitude compared to N B calculated by Subagyo and co-workers. When N B,T has been employed to the Subagyo's empirical correlation for droplet generation, a wide mismatch is observed between the experimental data obtained from cold model and hot model experiments. The reason for this large deviation has been investigated in the current study, and a theoretical approach to estimate the droplet generation rate has been proposed. The suitability of the proposed model has been tested by numerically calculating the amount of metals in slag. The study shows that the weight of metals in emulsion falls in the range of 0 to 21 wt pct of hot metal weight when droplet generation rate has been calculated at ambient furnace temperature of 1873 K (1600 °C).

  14. Sustainable Steelmaking Using Biomass and Waste Oxides (TRP9902)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Fruehan

    2004-09-30

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed to employ renewable energy in the form of wood charcoal to produce hot metal. The process was aimed at the market niche of units ranging from 400,000 to 1 million tons of hot metal a year. In the new process, a Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF) would be combined with a smelter to produce hot metal. This combination was proposed to overcome the technical hurdles of energy generation in smelters and the low productivity of RHFs, and also allow the use of wood charcoal as energy source and reductant. In order to assess the feasibility of the new process, it was necessary to estimate the productivity of the two units involved, the RHF and the smelter. This work concentrated on the development of a productivity model for the RHF able to predict changes in productivity according to the type of carbon and iron oxides used as feed materials. This model was constructed starting with the most fundamental aspect of reduction in composites measuring intrinsic rates of oxidation of different carbons in CO{sub 2}-CO atmospheres and reduction of different oxides in the same atmospheres. After that, a model was constructed considering the interplay of intrinsic kinetics and the transfer of heat to and within pellets such as used in the RHF. Finally, a productivity model for the RHF was developed based on the model developed for a pellet and the differences in heat transfer conditions between the laboratory furnace and the actual RHF. The final model produced for the RHF predicts production rates within 30% of actual plant data reported with coal and indicates that productivity gains as high as 50% could be achieved replacing coal with wood charcoal in the green balls owing to the faster reaction rates achieved with the second carbon. This model also indicates that an increase of less than 5% in total carbon consumption should take place in operations using wood charcoal instead of coal.

  15. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  16. Fuel stoker and furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, T.L.; Schafer, G.L.; Swett, H.D.

    1984-02-14

    A furnace having a primary heat exchange unit also providing a combustion chamber, a secondary heat exchange unit connected by an upper crossover conduit to the primary heat exchange unit, and a tertiary heat exchange unit connected by a lower V-shaped crossover conduit to the secondary heat exchange unit. A third crossover conduit connects the V-shaped crossover conduit with the primary heat exchange unit. Vibrating means are provided between the secondary and tertiary heat exchange units to vibrate the walls thereof and dislodge clinging fly ash so that it falls into the V-shaped crossover conduit for removal by the screw conveyor. A burner assembly of a furnace includes a combustion air housing carrying a circular, stationary grate with an annular valley for carrying fuel during combustion. A central opening is connected to a fuel conveyor for introduction of fuel to the grate through the lower portion of the housing. Combustion air introduction conduits on the housing are remote from the fuel introduction passages and introduce air under pressure at the lower portion of the grate. An agitator and discharge ring is provided on the grate and is rotated on the grate by a suitable drive sprocket mechanism to agitate the fuel for more complete burning thereof and to remove burned ash. A horizontal burner plate is supported by a plurality of legs connected to the agitator and discharge ring over the grate to promote more complete combustion of the fuel.

  17. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  18. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  19. Modelling of furnaces and combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Kahil, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents an account of the art of modelling for heat transfer and fluid flows in furnaces and combustors. After describing the different types of furnace flows, the author deals with the conservation equations. The different turbulence modelling assumptions, the more complicated problem of turbulent combustion modelling, and various types of turbulent flames are also described and reviewed, with appropriate models being assigned.

  20. Renewable energy steelmaking: On a new process for ironmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Otavio

    The purpose of the present work is to assess the feasibility of a new ironmaking process combining a Rotary Hearth Furnace and a Bath Smelter to produce commercial iron. In the process proposed the RHF uses iron ore and wood charcoal as the energy source. Considering the regrowing of trees, wood charcoal is an energy source virtually free of net CO2 emissions. However, it cannot be used in current large-scale blast furnaces with high productivity due to low strength and density. The new process can use wood charcoal would since the feed used in the RHF is of composite pellets formed from the agglomeration of powders of carbon and iron oxides. The methodology used in the assessment of the new process was to start with the most fundamental aspect of reduction in composites measuring intrinsic rate constants for carbon oxidation by CO2 and wustite reduction by CO in conditions set to minimize the influence of heat transfer and other phenomena. In this assessment, a reduction model for the chemical kinetics of reactions in composites of carbon and iron oxides was developed resulting in the measurement of intrinsic kinetic constants. The model developed for the intrinsic kinetics of reactions achieved good agreement in representing the rate data collected in small samples but overpredicted measured rates in pellets. Thus, a second model was developed considering the intrinsic kinetics of chemical reactions along with heat transfer for the reduction of composite pellets. In this model, the kinetic rate laws derived previously were used along with the equations of continuity and differential enthalpy balance providing a model of reduction in pellets. This model achieved good representation of the experimental data collected. For example, in simulating a large pellet of wood charcoal and hematite, a rate of mass loss of 0.2630g/min is computed from the model comparing well with a rate of 0.2877g/min measured experimentally. A third model used to predict the productivity

  1. AISI-DOE Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual report for the year ending November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-02-01

    This program has completed its 5th year since cost-share funding provided by DOE. The following tasks are reported on: budget, patents, talks, and publications; design and construction of gas cleaning and tempering loop; construction of pressurized smelter and operation of combined smelter and offgas system; study for ironmaking demonstration plant and for steelmaking processes; and laboratory research programs at universities and companies.

  2. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOEpatents

    Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

    1998-08-04

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag. 1 fig.

  3. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOEpatents

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; White, Jack C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  4. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOEpatents

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; White, Jack C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  5. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY. BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY (EPA/540/SR-92/017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock & Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B&W cyc...

  6. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

    1999-10-19

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  7. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22643421

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  11. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  12. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  13. Microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor for trace-metals in furnace exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.; Rhee, D. Y.; Thomas, P.; Cohn, D. R.; Surma, J. E.; Titus, C. H.

    1996-10-01

    A microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor has been successfully demonstrated for sensitive (<1 ppb), real time measurements of trace metals in furnace exhaust. The instrument uses a robust, up to 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave plasma sustained in a portion of the undiluted furnace exhaust flow for atomic emission spectroscopy. The waveguide device is constructed of refractory materials compatible with high-temperature environments (≳500 °C) and is flange mountable into the inside of the furnace exhaust duct. Fused quartz fiber optics in close proximity to the plasma flame transmit the UV through visible emission (190-690 nm) to three spectrometers for simultaneous monitoring of several metals. This instrument has been used for continuous monitoring for a 49 h period with 0.5 s time resolution on a dc graphite electrode arc furnace during a soil vitrification test. Results are presented for chromium, manganese, and iron emissions during soil loading operations.

  14. Glass Furnace Model Version 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-06

    GFM2.0 is a derivative of the GFM code with substantially altered and enhanced capabilities. Like its predecessor, it is a fully three-dimensional, furnace simulation model that provides a more accurate representation of the entire furnace, and specifically, the glass melting process, by coupling the combustion space directly to the glass batch and glass melt via rigorous radiation heat transport models for both the combustion space and the glass melt. No assumptions are made with regardmore » to interfacial parameters of heat, flux, temperature distribution, and batch coverage as must be done using other applicable codes available. These critical parameters are calculated. GFM2.0 contains a processor structured to facilitate use of the code, including the entry of teh furnace geometry and operating conditions, the execution of the program, and display of the computational results. Furnace simulations can therefore be created in a straightforward manner.« less

  15. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  16. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  17. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  18. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  19. Weld arc simulator

    DOEpatents

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  20. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  2. Floor furnace burns to children.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S

    1983-01-01

    Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of Lead Oxide in a Mixture of Stainless Steelmaking and Nonferrous Smelting Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Shigeru; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2012-06-01

    In our previous paper, a slag modification process involving the mixing of stainless steelmaking and nonferrous smelting slags was proposed for preventing the disintegration of the stainless steelmaking slag. In order to use this method, the behavior of heavy metals especially PbO contained in the nonferrous slag has to be assessed. In the present study, the activity coefficient of PbO in CaO-SiO2-FetO-Al2O3-MgO and CaO-SiO2-FetO slags saturated with iron was measured at 1673 K. The results showed that the activity coefficient of PbO increased with basicity and had a maximum value when the basicity was approximately 1.0. The equilibrium PbO content in the modified slag had a minimum value that corresponded to a mixing ratio of 0.6. The trend was similar to the change in the removal ratio of PbO observed in the previous study. Therefore, the change in the oxygen potential and the change in the activity coefficient of PbO can be considered the cause of this trend.

  4. Performance evaluation for carbonation of steel-making slags in a slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Chen, Chung-Hua; Chen, Yi-Hung; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-02-15

    CO(2) sequestration by the aqueous carbonation of steel-making slag under various operational conditions was investigated in this study. The effects of the operational conditions, including type of steel-making slag, reaction time, reaction temperature, and CO(2) flow rate, on the performance of the carbonation process were evaluated. The results indicated that the BOF slag had the highest carbonation conversion, approximately 72%, at a reaction time of 1h, an operating pressure of 101 kPa and a temperature of 60°C due to its higher BET surface area of BOF slag compared to UF, FA, and BHC slags. The major factors affecting the carbonation conversion are reaction time and temperature. The reaction kinetics of the carbonation conversion can be expressed by the shrinking-core model. The measurements of the carbonated material by the SEM and XRD instruments provide evidence indicating the suitability of using the shrinking-core model in this investigation. Comparison of the results with other studies suggests that aqueous carbonation by slurry reactor is viable due to its higher mass transfer rate. PMID:21168964

  5. Arc melting and homogenization of ZrC and ZrC + B alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darolia, R.; Archbold, T. F.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used to arc-melt and to homogenize near-stoichiometric ZrC and ZrC-boron alloys, giving attention to the oxygen contamination problem. The starting material for the carbide preparation was ZrC powder with an average particle size of 4.6 micron. Pellets weighing approximately 3 g each were prepared at room temperature from the powder by the use of an isostatic press operated at 50,000 psi. These pellets were individually melted in an arc furnace containing a static atmosphere of purified argon. A graphite resistance furnace was used for the homogenization process.

  6. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  7. Efficient 'Optical Furnace': A Cheaper Way to Make Solar Cells is Reaching the Marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    von Kuegelgen, T.

    2008-10-01

    In Bhushan Sopori's laboratory, you'll find a series of optical furnaces he has developed for fabricating solar cells. When not in use, they sit there discreetly among the lab equipment. But when a solar silicon wafer is placed inside one for processing, Sopori walks over to a computer and types in a temperature profile. Almost immediately this fires up the furnace, which glows inside and selectively heats up the silicon wafer to 800 degrees centigrade by the intense light it produces. Sopori, a principal engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been researching and developing optical furnace technology for around 20 years. He says it's a challenging technology to develop because there are many issues to consider when you process a solar cell, especially in optics. Despite the challenges, Sopori and his research team have advanced the technology to the point where it will benefit all solar cell manufacturers. They are now developing a commercial version of the furnace in partnership with a manufacturer. 'This advanced optical furnace is highly energy efficient, and it can be used to manufacture any type of solar cell,' he says. Each type of solar cell or manufacturing process typically requires a different furnace configuration and temperature profile. With NREL's new optical furnace system, a solar cell manufacturer can ask the computer for any temperature profile needed for processing a solar cell, and the same type of furnace is suitable for several solar cell fabrication process steps. 'In the future, solar cell manufacturers will only need this one optical furnace because it can be used for any process, including diffusion, metallization and oxidation,' Sopori says. 'This helps reduce manufacturing costs.' One startup company, Applied Optical Systems, has recognized the furnace's potential for manufacturing thin-film silicon cells. 'We'd like to develop thin-film silicon cells with higher efficiencies, up to 15 to 18 percent, and we believe

  8. Crystal growth and furnace analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakhoul, Youssef M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

  9. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  10. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  11. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  12. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  13. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  14. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  15. 76 FR 33274 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... according to the procedures prescribed in 5 CFR 1320.12. On June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30813), EPA sought comments... Request; NESHAP for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities (Renewal) AGENCY... electronic docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov . Title: NESHAP for Area Sources: Electric Arc...

  16. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  17. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  18. [Arc welder's lung].

    PubMed

    Molinari, Luciana; Alvarez, Clarisa; Semeniuk, Guillermo B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis of electric arc welder or siderotic pneumoconiosis was described by Doig and McLaughlin in 1936 as a lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of iron fumes in electric arc welders. We present a case report of electric arc welder siderosis associated with high levels of ferritin, without findings of iron deposit in any other organ. PMID:21163741

  19. Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.A.; Swanson, D.E; Chango, R.F. . Burns Harbor Div.)

    1994-09-01

    Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%/year while fuel rate decreased 1%/year. This presentation summarizes the early repairs, relines and improvements that have sustained and enhanced the furnace's performance. The fourth reline of both furnaces will be discussed in detail. As part of the 1991 reline of D furnace its lines were improved and modern penstocks installed. The bosh, tuyere jacket, hearth jacket and both cast floors were replaced. The furnace now has a larger hearth making it easier to control and, liquid level is no longer a problem when pulling the wind to shut down. The new cast floor with its increased trough length has much improved separation of slag from iron and lowered refractory consumption. Since the cast floors on D furnace were changed, there has been a reduction in accidents and absenteeism. This may be related to the change in work practices on the new cast floors. The 1994 reline of C furnace incorporates those improvements made on D furnace in 1991. In addition, C furnace will have high-density cooling which is expected to double its campaign from 6 to 12 years, without interim repairs.

  20. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.; Arvidson, A.N.

    1994-05-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

  1. Evaluation of steelmaking slag as basal media for coastal primary producers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Yano, Hitomi; Koba, Kyohei; Katayama, Takahiro; Asaoka, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishijima, Wataru

    2015-11-15

    The use of granular steelmaking slag as a substitute for natural sand in the construction of tidal flats was investigated. Using an intertidal flat simulator, we evaluated dephosphorization slag mixed with 8% by dry weight of dredged sediment (DPS+DS) as a basal medium for the growth of benthic macro- and microalgae in comparison with silica sand mixed with 8% dredged sediment (SS+DS). Species compositions of macro- and microalgae were distinctly different between DPS+DS and SS+DS. The mean dry weight of macroalgae on DPS+DS was three orders of magnitude higher than that on SS+DS. Sediment shear strength and pH were higher in DPS+DS than in SS+DS or in the sediment of natural tidal flats. These results suggest that DPS contributes to changing the sediment environment, thereby changing the algal composition compared to the composition on natural tidal flats. PMID:26362456

  2. Separation of ZnO from the Stainless Steelmaking Dust and Graphite Mixture by Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun; Wu, Liushun; Wang, Jue; Wang, Haichuan; Dong, Yuanchi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, microwave was used to treat stainless steelmaking dust containing zinc oxide. The effects of heating time, carbon content and zinc oxide content on the removal efficiency of zinc oxide and the reduction efficiency of iron oxide were investigated. Experimental results show that, for the sample with 16% (mass percent, the same below) graphite heated for 10 minutes by 10 kW power microwave, the removal efficiency of zinc oxide is between 80% and 90% and the metallization ratio of iron oxide is between 40% and 60%; Initial zinc oxide content has a slight effect on the removal efficiency of zinc oxide. The results indicate microwave treatment is one of the feasible ways to process metallurgical solid waste containing the metal with low boiling point.

  3. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  4. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  5. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  6. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  7. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  8. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature. PMID:25846002

  9. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  10. Automatic furnace downloading to SUPREM format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Martin; Findlater, Keith; McGinty, Jim; Rankin, N.; Yarr, A.

    1999-04-01

    Technology CAD (TCAD) is a commonly used tool in process development and analysis. The task of creating the process in the required format for the TCAD deck is non-trivial and often prone to error due to the detailed nature of the furnace processing. Ensuring that the simulation deck is matched to the actual furnace process is also a key area. There is a difference between what is programmed into the furnace and what the wafers actually see. This work presents a method of automatic download of the actual furnace parameters to a format directly readable by the process simulator SUPREM, and examines the consequences of the furnace variability inherent in batch processing. The three furnace zones can be seen to interact and product best-worst case simulations to aid in the prediction of manufacturability.

  11. Energy aspects of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Janice E.; Dugdale, Peter J.; Landry, Christian J. F.; R. Morris, David; Steward, Frank R.; Wilson, Timothy C. W.

    1980-06-01

    The energy effects accompanying the processing of the feed material to a lead blast furnace are considered in terms of a reversible model. Relative to this model the efficiencies of operating furnaces are found to be in the range 18 to 35 pct. The effects of the effluent gas CO2/CO ratio and temperature and oxygen enrichment of the blast air in the thermodynamic efficiency are quantified. Improvements in efficiency achieved in industrial furnaces as a result of oxygen enrichment of the blast air are substantially greater than those predicted. Mass and enthalpy balances on an industrial lead blast furnace are presented from which it is estimated that approximately 9 pct of the carbon charged to the furnace is lost due to the solution loss reaction in the upper regions of the furnace.

  12. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  13. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  14. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  15. Experimental study on sulfur removal from ladle furnace refining slag in hot state by blowing air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-hua; Lin, Lu; Wu, Qi-fan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the present problem of sulfur enrichment in the metallurgical recycling process of ladle furnace (LF) refining slag, a simple and efficient method of removing sulfur from this slag was proposed. The proposed method is compatible with current steelmaking processes. Sulfur removal from LF refining slag for SPHC steel (manufactured at a certain steel plant in China) by blowing air in the hot state was studied by using hot-state experiments in a laboratory. The FactSage software, a carbon/sulfur analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to test and analyze the sulfur removal effect and to investigate factors influencing sulfur removal rate. The results show that sulfur ions in LF refining slag can be oxidized into SO2 by O2 at high temperature by blowing air into molten slag; SO2 production was observed to reach a maximum with a small amount of blown O2 when the temperature exceeded 1350°C. At 1370°C and 1400°C, experimental LF refining slag is in the liquid state and exhibits good fluidity; under these conditions, the sulfur removal effect by blowing air is greater than 90wt% after 60 min. High temperature and large air flow rate are beneficial for removing sulfur from LF refining slag; compared with air flow rate, temperature has a greater strongly influences on the sulfur removal.

  16. Effect of P2O5 and FetO on the Viscosity and Slag Structure in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Shu, Q. F.; Sridhar, S.; Zhang, M.; Guo, M.; Zhang, Z. T.

    2015-04-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of P2O5 and FetO on the viscosity and structure of steelmaking slags. An understanding of the viscous behavior and structure of FetO-bearing smelting slags is essential to control the dephosphorization in steelmaking process and to efficiently recycle the phosphorus from steelmaking slags. It is found that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO-P2O5 slags slightly increases with increasing P2O5 content, while the viscosity decreases with increasing FetO content. The degree of the polymerization of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra, is found to increase with increasing P2O5 content and decrease with increasing FetO content. It is also noted that the peaks of Raman spectra between 800 and 1200 cm-1 were nearly absent at the FetO content of 22.46 wt pct; whereas according to 29Si MAS-NMR and FTIR analysis, it is clearly seen that the [SiO4]-tetrahedra-related peaks existed even for the same slag. This may confirm that small quantities of extra-framework iron species can absorb the Raman scattering and damp the Raman signal intensity and the presence of FetO in the slag does not necessarily eliminate [SiO4]-tetrahedra.

  17. Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.

    1994-11-01

    for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

  18. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  19. VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

    1958-03-11

    This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

  20. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  1. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  2. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  3. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  4. Neural-Net-Based Predictive Modeling of Spout Eye Size in Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaneeswaran, Ekambaram; Brooks, Geoffrey; Xu, Xiaodong Bernard

    2012-06-01

    Gas stirring is commonly used in pyrometallurgical vessels to enhance mass and heat transfer and to promote impurity removal. In the case of secondary steelmaking, the spout eye area is caused by the escape of the gas from the top of the smelt where the liquid steel is directly exposed to the air, and oxygen can be picked up through the spout eye area that can reduce the quality of steel. Thus, controlling the size of the spout eye area is very important to improving the quality of the steel and to keeping the consistency of the product. The set of prevailing models to predict spout eye size are based on specific practically difficult variables, e.g., height of slag in hot upper layer of vessels and gas flow rate at nozzle exit. Recently, the cold model results showed that the stirring process can be conveniently monitored by the signals such as (1) the image signal from the top of the vessel, (2) the sound of the stirring process, and (3) the vibration on the wall of the vessel. This article outlines the key details of a novel research investigation using neural-network-based predictive modeling such as general regression neural networks (GRNN) with genetic adaptive calibrations. Predictive capacities and generalization potentials of five model constructs ( i.e., with different sets of input parameters) were explored, and the neural net modeling yielded encouraging outcomes, e.g., (1) excellent goodness-of-fit generalization measures including high values of correlation and R 2 validation parameters ( e.g., r = 0.921 and R 2 = 0.845 in a model validation), and (2) low values of root mean square of errors ( e.g., 3.034). Overall, the research outlined in this article demonstrates that the spout eye size can be effectively predicted by predictive neural net modeling with convenient and practically measurable variables such as sound and vibration observations on the steelmaking vessels. These results have only been demonstrated for a cold model of the process, and

  5. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  13. 41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  14. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  15. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  16. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  17. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  18. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  19. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  20. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  1. Tubular furnace for performance of gas reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, H.

    1984-04-03

    There is described a furnace for the performance of gas reactions in a ceramic assembly of tubes in which the heating chambers, the recuperators and the flue gas-branch channel are arranged in a compact, energy saving type of construction. The furnace is especially suited for the production of hydrocyanic acid according to the BMA process (hydrocyanic acid-methane-ammonia process).

  2. Description of a high temperature quenching furnace for the study of the directional solidification of nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Kelley, J.B.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1994-06-01

    A high temperature resistance furnace has been modified for the study of directional solidification of nickel-base superalloys such as alloys 718 and 625. The furnace will be used to study segregation and solidification phenomena that occur in consumable-electrode melting processes such as vacuum arc remelting and electro-slag remelting. The system consists of a water cooled high temperature furnace (maximum temperature {approximately}2900 C), roughing vacuum,system, cooling system, cooled hearth, molten metal quenching bath, and a mechanism to lower the hearth from the furnace into the molten metal bath. The lowering mechanism is actuated by a digital stopping motor with a programmable controller. The specimen (1.9 cm dia {times} 14 cm long) is melted and contained within an alumina tube (2.54 cm dia {times} 15.24 cm long) which is seated on a copper hearth cooled with {approximately}13 C water. Directional solidification can then be accomplished by decreasing the furnace temperature while holding the specimen in position, maintaining the temperature gradient in the furnace and lowering the specimen at a controlled rate or a combination of both. At any point the specimen can be lowered rapidly into the 70 C molten metal bath to quench the specimen, preserve the solidification structure, and minimize solid state diffusion, enhancing the ability to study the localized solidification conditions.

  3. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  4. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  5. Precision control of high temperature furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.G.

    1994-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to provide precision control of high temperature furnaces. It is another object of the present invention to combine the power of two power supplies of greatly differing output capacities in a single furnace. This invention combines two power supplies to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. Further, this invention comprises a means for high speed measurement of temperature of the process by the method of measuring the amount of current flow in a deliberately induced charged particle current.

  6. GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS THE CREEK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. Cellular Automata Modeling of Decarburization of Metal Droplets in Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankit; Kundu, T. K.

    2016-02-01

    In steelmaking, a supersonic jet is blown over the bath to refine the hot metal to produce steel. The refining process primarily consists of removal of impurities from the hot metal to a permissible level. The impact of oxygen jet on the surface of the hot metal bath results in ejection of droplets, which mix with slag and form emulsion. The formed emulsion plays an important role in refining reactions kinetics and understanding of this process is required todevelopimproved process control model for the steel industry. In this paper, cellular automata technique has been explored to simulate decarburization in emulsion caused by interfacial reactions between the metal droplets and slag. In the course of the work, a framework has also been developed to quantify the contribution of carbon monoxide, generated by decarburization, in bloating of metal droplets and formation of halo around the droplets. The model has incorporated diffusion and decarburization reaction based on probabilities to study the evolution of the system. Simulations with varying parameters have been performed and decarburization trends obtained are comparable with the experimentally determined data reported in literatures.

  8. Hazardous ions uptake behavior of thermally activated steel-making slag.

    PubMed

    Jha, V K; Kameshima, Y; Nakajima, A; Okada, K

    2004-10-18

    This study concerns the utilization of waste steel-making slag, a by-product that contains mainly CaO, Fe(2)O(3) and SiO(2). The as-received slag was ground and thermally activated by temperature treatment from 110 to 1000 degrees C for 24 h. Although the as-received slag was amorphous, it became partially crystallized during grinding. These crystalline phases were larnite and iron oxide but other crystalline phases also appeared in addition to larnite after calcination. The uptake of Ni(2+), PO(4)(3-) and NH(4)(+) by the samples was investigated from solutions with initial concentrations of 10 mmol/l. The sample calcined at 800 degrees C showed the highest Ni(2+) uptake (4.85 mmol/g) whereas the highest simultaneous uptake of PO(4)(3-) (2.75 mmol/g) and NH(4)(+) (0.25 mmol/g) was achieved by calcining the material at 700 degrees C. The principal mechanism of Ni(2+) uptake is thought to involve replacement of Ca(2+) by Ni(2+). The mechanism of PO(4)(3-) uptake is mainly by formation of calcium phosphate while that of NH(4)(+) involves sorption by the porous silica surface of the samples. PMID:15511584

  9. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:21889848

  10. Efficient removal of arsenic (V) from water using steel-making slag.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Sengupta, A; Bhadu, M K; Pandey, A; Mondal, A

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the potential use of steel-making slag as an arsenic-removal medium. Systematic analysis of slag material revealed a composition of oxides of calcium, iron, silicon, and phosphorous. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the equilibrium time was shown to be 2 hours, and the removal capacity to be 99%, with an adsorbent loading capacity of 1.25g/l. The adsorption kinetics were shown to follow a pseudo-second-order rate equation, and the adsorption isotherm closely followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermic models. Variations in solution pH levels demonstrated that with a decrease in the initial solution pH, the adsorption capacity decreases. This is attributed to the leaching of silica and phosphate from the slag to the solution, which imparted a competing effect for adsorption sites. However, with an alkaline pH, such leaching was reduced, and due to formation of calcium carbonate from the leached calcium from the slag material, the arsenic removal efficiency increased as it was co-precipitated with calcium carbonate. PMID:25109198

  11. Dependence of Temperature and Slag Composition on Dephosphorization at the First Deslagging in BOF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao-gang; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Zhang, Zhi-ming; Liu, Zhi-ming; Deng, Chang-fu

    2016-04-01

    Effects of temperature and slag composition on dephosphorization in a 120 ton top-bottom combined blown converter steelmaking process by double slag method were studied. The slag properties were determined by scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the transition oxidation temperature between dephosphorization and decarbonization Tf is not the favorable temperature for the first deslagging. The optimum first deslagging temperature is confirmed to be approximately 1,673 K which is about 70 K higher than Tf. High melting temperatures phases (such as 3CaO·SiO2) in the slag with high basicity and MgO content are unfavorable to the dephosphorization. The optimum process condition for dephosphorization at the first deslagging in present work is approximately 1,673 K in temperature, 2.0 in slag basicity, 6 and 17 mass% in MgO and T.Fe content, 6 mass% ≤ MnO content.

  12. Evaluation of the economic feasibility of a processing plant for steelmaking slag.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Deyvid R R; Fontes, Wanna C; Mendes, Julia C; Silva, Guilherme J B; Peixoto, Ricardo A F

    2016-02-01

    The utilisation of steelmaking slag as recycled aggregate for concretes is a widely investigated solution for mitigating the expenditure and environmental impacts of its storage. The Brazilian steel industry is investing in research and slag reprocessing practices, aiming to reuse most of its metallic fraction and properly allocate the non-metallic fraction, saving energy and reducing mining impacts. Research results demonstrate the technical and environmental feasibility of steel slag aggregates for civil construction. However, it is essential to evaluate whether the processing of the slag is economically feasible for this purpose. Economic analysis of the processing of steel slag was conducted through simulation - Monte Carlo method - in which it is possible to determine the risks and uncertainties inherent to the project. The costs that comprise the proposed project, from design through construction and operation itself, were estimated at US$2.8 million. The result of the simulation indicates economic feasibility of the project with 98% certainty, and an estimated profit of around 42%. PMID:26634879

  13. Research and Development for Thermoelectric Generation Technology Using Waste Heat from Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Takashi; Murai, Ryota; Makino, Kazuya; Nagano, Kouji; Kajihara, Takeshi; Kaibe, Hiromasa; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Matsuno, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-01

    In Japan, integrated steelworks have greatly lowered their energy use over the past few decades through investment in energy-efficient processes and facilities, maintaining the highest energy efficiency in the world. However, in view of energy security, the steelmaking industry is strongly required to develop new technologies for further energy saving. Waste heat recovery can be one of the key technologies to meet this requirement. To recover waste heat, particularly radiant heat from steel products which has not been used efficiently yet, thermoelectric generation (TEG) is one of the most effective technologies, being able to convert heat directly into electric power. JFE Steel Corporation (JFE) implemented a 10-kW-class grid-connected TEG system for JFE's continuous casting line with KELK Ltd. (KELK), and started verification tests to generate electric power using radiant heat from continuous casting slab at the end of fiscal year 2012. The TEG system has 56 TEG units, each containing 16 TEG modules. This paper describes the performance and durability of the TEG system, which has been investigated under various operating conditions at the continuous casting line.

  14. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  15. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  16. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  17. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  18. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  19. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  20. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  1. Reheat furnace upgrade results in production increase

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, A.H.; Fuhrman, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    This project is a unique example of the technique of high-intensity convective heating for generating significant material preheating that can be used to increase furnace production rate. The mathematical model predicted a production increase of 17%. The furnace has demonstrated a 22% higher sustained production rate. Oxidation rates have been gradually reduced and will be improved further by the installation of level 2 controls. The burner systems have proved to be reliable in a harsh operating environment. There has been a small improvement in the specific fuel consumption. In the case of a top-fired reheat furnace, convective pre-heating installed at the charge end of the furnace will result in a significant increase in production rate. The static thermal model developed for this project is a reliable tool for the prediction of performance of the modified furnace. The use of the high-velocity burners in the mixing zone was an effective substitute for the customary baffle wall. The installation had the benefit of preventing over-pressurization of the furnace discharge doors and enabled the operator to achieve a considerable improvement in pressure control. In addition, the removal of the baffle wall eliminated the shadowing effect where the incoming load is shaded from radiation from the heating zone. Additional turbulence in the mixing zone also had a significant impact by increasing the amount of heat removed from flue gas before it is vented from the furnace.

  2. Microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor for trace-metals in furnace exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Thomas, P.; Cohn, D.R.; Surma, J.E.; Titus, C.H.

    1996-10-01

    A microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor has been successfully demonstrated for sensitive ({lt}1 ppb), real time measurements of trace metals in furnace exhaust. The instrument uses a robust, up to 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave plasma sustained in a portion of the undiluted furnace exhaust flow for atomic emission spectroscopy. The waveguide device is constructed of refractory materials compatible with high-temperature environments ({approx_gt}500{degree}C) and is flange mountable into the inside of the furnace exhaust duct. Fused quartz fiber optics in close proximity to the plasma flame transmit the UV through visible emission (190{endash}690 nm) to three spectrometers for simultaneous monitoring of several metals. This instrument has been used for continuous monitoring for a 49 h period with 0.5 s time resolution on a dc graphite electrode arc furnace during a soil vitrification test. Results are presented for chromium, manganese, and iron emissions during soil loading operations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  4. Horizontal tapping furnace and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsche, E.R.

    1987-07-14

    A metallurgical furnace is described including: a furnace floor and a furnace wall means extending generally upwardly about the floor, the furnace having a vertical axis and a horizontal axis, means mounting the furnace for pivotal tilting movement about the horizontal axis between a non-tilted, normal upright position, and a tilted discharge position with the furnace tilted less than 15/sup 0/ to the vertical axis; a hearth zone defined between the floor and wall means adapted to house a bath of liquid metal of predetermined volume, the hearth zone having an upper end defining a predetermined upper level for the bath and for a layer of liquid slag floating on the upper level, when the furnace is in a non-tilted, normal upright position; the hearth zone having a lower end adjacent the floor, a tapping passage extending through the wall means from a liquid metal discharge outlet at an outer end into the lower end of the hearth zone, at an inner end, the discharge outlet being defined by an outwardly facing passage wall and the passage at the outer end; the tapping passage disposed generally parallel to the horizontal axis and vertically below the predetermined upper level, when the furnace is in the non-tilted, normal, upright position; a discharge outlet closure having a closure surface and pivotally mounted externally of the passage for pivotal to and for movement towards and away from the furnace wall means between a first position. The closure surface engages the passage wall at the outer end to fully close the discharge outlet, and a second position spaced apart from the passage wall.

  5. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxén, Henrik

    1990-10-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation model, which provides a picture of the internal conditions of the BF, can be used to evaluate the current state of the process and to predict the effect of operating actions on the performance of the furnace.

  6. Contamination of furnace-drawn silica fibers.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, P

    1977-03-01

    Contamination originating in an electric resistance furnace was found to increase substantially the losses of unclad and plastic-clad silica fibers. In contrast, the losses of doped silica fibers with sufficient cladding thickness were unaffected by impure drawing conditions. Operating the furnace without muffle tube and protecting the preform with a pure, inert gas injected via a counter-flow resulted in practically contamination-free operation and unclad-fiber losses as low as 3 dB/km. The removal of the muffle tube significantly simplified the furnace operation and reduced the cycling time from many hours to a few minutes. PMID:20168565

  7. A thermodynamic investigation into reactive-metal melting-furnace explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Steven C.; McLaughlin, David F.

    2005-10-01

    Western Zirconium, a plant in the Nuclear Fuels Business Unit of Westinghouse Electric Company, recently embarked on a significant safety-centered improvement to its vacuum-arc remelting (VAR) process. The improvement involved the relocation of the control room and installation of a programmable logic controller control strategy for the VAR furnaces. A critical consideration for the control strategy involved the implementation of the correct response to a breach in the water containment system that would allow water to contact the molten reactive metal in the furnace. Western Zirconium performed a random sampling of reactive metal melters in the United States to ascertain and evaluate the range of industry responses. Two distinct, and differing, approaches were discovered. In order to develop a better understanding and evaluate the responses, Western Zirconium, in conjunction with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Department, evaluated the thermodynamics involved in the reactions of molten reactive metals with water.

  8. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  9. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  10. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  11. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  12. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  13. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  14. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  15. 21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  18. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  19. 46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace apparatus. 164.009-11 Section 164.009-11...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-11 Furnace apparatus. (a) The test furnace apparatus consists of a furnace tube, stabilizer, draft shield,...

  20. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  1. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  2. Direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag for CO2 sequestration at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Rushendra Revathy, T D; Palanivelu, K; Ramachandran, A

    2016-04-01

    Rapid increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has forced the international community towards adopting actions to restrain from the impacts of climate change. Moreover, in India, the dependence on fossil fuels is projected to increase in the future, implying the necessity of capturing CO2 in a safe manner. Alkaline solid wastes can be utilized for CO2 sequestration by which its disposal issues in the country could also be met. The present work focuses to study direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag (SS) at room temperature and low-pressure conditions (<10 bar). Direct mineral carbonation of SS was carried out in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The process parameters that may influence the carbonation of SS, namely, CO2 gas pressure, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and reaction time were also studied. The results showed that maximum sequestration of SS was attained in the aqueous route with a capacity of 82 g of CO2/kg (6 bar, L/S ratio of 10 and 3 h). In the gas-solid route, maximum sequestration capacity of about 11.1 g of CO2/kg of SS (3 bar and 3 h) was achieved indicating that aqueous route is the better one under the conditions studied. These findings demonstrate that SS is a promising resource and this approach could be further developed and used for CO2 sequestration in the country. The carbonation process was evidenced using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TG analysis. PMID:26681331

  3. The statistical difference between bending arcs and regular polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, A.; Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Karlsson, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the Polar UVI data set by Kullen et al. (2002) of 74 polar arcs is reinvestigated, focusing on bending arcs. Bending arcs are typically faint and form (depending on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By direction) on the dawnside or duskside oval with the tip of the arc splitting off the dayside oval. The tip subsequently moves into the polar cap in the antisunward direction, while the arc's nightside end remains attached to the oval, eventually becoming hook-shaped. Our investigation shows that bending arcs appear on the opposite oval side from and farther sunward than most regular polar arcs. They form during By-dominated IMF conditions: typically, the IMF clock angle increases from 60 to 90° about 20 min before the arc forms. Antisunward plasma flows from the oval into the polar cap just poleward of bending arcs are seen in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data, indicating dayside reconnection. For regular polar arcs, recently reported characteristics are confirmed in contrast to bending arcs. This includes plasma flows along the nightside oval that originate close to the initial arc location and a significant delay in the correlation between IMF By and initial arc location. In our data set, the highest correlations are found with IMF By appearing at least 1-2 h before arc formation. In summary, bending arcs are distinctly different from regular arcs and cannot be explained by existing polar arc models. Instead, these results are consistent with the formation mechanism described in Carter et al. (2015), suggesting that bending arcs are caused by dayside reconnection.

  4. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  5. Onboard photo: Crystal Growth Furnace experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-50) astronaut Bornie Dunbar wears protective goggles to assemble a zeolite sample cartridge for the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) in the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) science module.

  6. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    SciTech Connect

    Godfree, J.

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  7. Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  8. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  9. 40 CFR 63.10690 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as provided in Table 1 of this subpart. (b) The notification of... developed and submitted proposed monitoring information in accordance with 40 CFR part 64”. ...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Other Information and Requirements § 63.10690 What parts of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.10690 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as provided in Table 1 of this subpart. (b) The notification of... developed and submitted proposed monitoring information in accordance with 40 CFR part 64”. ...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Other Information and Requirements § 63.10690 What parts of...

  11. 40 CFR 63.10690 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as provided in Table 1 of this subpart. (b) The notification of... developed and submitted proposed monitoring information in accordance with 40 CFR part 64”. ...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Other Information and Requirements § 63.10690 What parts of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.10690 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as provided in Table 1 of this subpart. (b) The notification of... developed and submitted proposed monitoring information in accordance with 40 CFR part 64”. ...: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Other Information and Requirements § 63.10690 What parts of...

  13. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE CARRIE FURNACES, FROM THE TOP OF WATER TOWER. CARRIE FURNACES No. 6 AND No. 7 ARE ON THE LEFT, AND FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ARE ON THE RIGHT. THE TOWN OF RANKIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. ALICE—ARC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlik, C.; Gregersen, A. R.; Kleist, J.; Peters, A.; Saiz, P.

    2008-07-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites.

  16. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  17. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N.

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  18. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  19. Pulsed Long Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a method and an appliance for pulsed arc welding. The method supports dosage of energy required for melting each bead of electrode metal starting from the detachment of a bead. The appliance including a sensor to register bead detachment shows this moment due to the voltage burst in the arc space. Transferred beads of electrode metal are of similar size because of the dosage of energy used for melting each bead, as the consequence, the process is more stable and starting conditions to transfer electrode metal are similar, as the result, a produced weld is improved.

  20. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  1. Monochromatic imaging studies of sustained metal vapor arcs burning on 150 mm diameter molten iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.L.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    Monochromatic imaging was used to investigate the excited-state density distributions of Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region of a 3,100 A dc metal vapor arc burning between molten iron surfaces in a vacuum arc furnace. Multiple images were acquired at four wavelengths. The images were corrected and Abel inverted to yield the absolute radial intensity distributions for Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region. The results show a structured, axisymmetric plasma consisting of a high density `core` of Fe{sup +} emitters centered between the electrode surfaces situated against a relatively broad, flat excited-state Fe distribution.

  2. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  3. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  4. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  5. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  6. Volt-ampere characteristics of a nitrogen DC plasma arc with anode melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guo-Hua; Meng, Yue-Dong; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2013-06-01

    The characteristics of a nitrogen arc using a graphite cathode and a melting anode in a pilot-scale plasma furnace are investigated. The voltage is examined as a function of current and apparent plasma length. The voltage increases non-linearly with the increase of apparent plasma length, with the current fixed. The experimental data so obtained are compared with the predictions of the Bowman model for the electric arc, and with numerical simulations as well. The level of agreement between the experimental data at the melting anode and the numerical predictions confirms the suitability of the proposed the Bowman model. These characteristics are relevant to the engineering design and evaluation of a DC plasma furnace and reactor for the treatment of hazardous fly ash waste.

  7. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events

  9. Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

  10. 94. Photocopied August 1978. THE FURNACE ROOM ON THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. Photocopied August 1978. THE FURNACE ROOM ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE POWER HOUSE AT SAULT STE. MARIE. THE ROWS OF ROTARY FURNACES SHOWN HERE WERE REPLACED C. 1915-1920 BY 10,000 TO 20,000 H.P. TAPPING FURNACES. ONE TAPPING FURNACE WAS LOCATED TO THE WEST OF THE ROW OF HORRY FURNACES, THE OTHER WAS LOCATED IN A SEPARATE FURNACE HOUSE BUILT ON THE EAST OF THE POWER HOUSE. (E) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  12. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  13. Evolution of magnetically rotating arc into large area arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wan-Wan; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Zha, Jun; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2015-06-01

    An arc channel tends to shrink due to its conductivity increasing with the increase of temperature. In this study, to generate large area arc plasma, we construct a magnetically rotating arc plasma generator, which mainly consists of a lanthanide tungsten cathode (13 mm in diameter), a concentric cylindrical graphite anode chamber (60 mm in diameter) and a solenoid coil for producing an axial magnet field. By controlling the cold gas flow, the magnetically rotating arc evolves from constricted mode to diffuse mode, which almost fills the whole arc chamber cross section. Results show that the diffuse arc plasma has better uniformity and stability. The formation mechanism of large area arc plasma is discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11035005, 11475174, and 50876101) and the Science Instrument Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y201162).

  14. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  15. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.N.

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  16. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  17. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  18. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  19. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  20. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  1. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  2. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional conduction/radiation problem for an alumina crucible in a zirconia heater/muffle tube enclosing a liquid iron sample was solved numerically. Variations in the crucible wall thickness were numerically examined. The results showed that the temperature profiles within the liquid iron sample were significantly affected by the crucible wall thicknesses. New zirconia heating elements are under development that will permit continued experimental investigations of the zirconia furnace. These elements have been designed to work with the existing furnace and have been shown to have longer lifetimes than commercially available zirconia heating elements. The first element has been constructed and tested successfully.

  3. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  4. ARC and Melting Efficiency of Plasma ARC Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. C.; Nunes, A. C.; Evans, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of partial penetration Variable Polarity Plasma Arc welds were made at equal power but various combinations of current and voltage on 2219 Aluminum. Arc efficiency was measured calorimetrically and ranged between 48% and 66% for the conditions of the welds. Arc efficiency depends in different ways on voltage and current. The voltage effect dominates. Raising voltage while reducing current increases arc efficiency. Longer, higher voltage arcs are thought to transfer a greater portion of arc power to the workpiece through shield gas convection. Melting efficiency depends upon weld pool shape as well as arc efficiency. Increased current increases the melting efficiency as it increases the depth to width ratio of the weld pool. Increased plasma gas flow does the same thing. Higher currents are thought to raise arc pressure and depress liquid at the bottom of the weld pool. More arc power then transfers to the workpiece through increasing plasma gas convection. If the power is held constant, the reduced voltage lowers the arc efficiency, while the pool shape change increases the melting efficiency,

  5. 33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  8. ROMPS critical design review. Volume 3: Furnace module design documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the furnace module design documentation, the furnace module Easylab programs definitions and command variables are described. Also included are Easylab commands flow charts and fault conditions.

  9. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  10. 22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  11. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  14. 52. Winch located at base of No. 1 Furnace for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Winch located at base of No. 1 Furnace for pulling ladle cars from furnace to pig machine. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  16. 36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  18. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. Arc jet diagnostics tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Two objectives were addressed during a 10 week 1988 NASA/ASEE summer faculty fellowship at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF). These objectives were the evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species in an arc jet environment, and the determination of atomic recombination coefficients for reaction cured glass (RCG) coated high temperature surface insulation (HRSI) materials subjected to simulated reentry conditions. Evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species provided some of the first measurements of point compositions in arc jet tunnel environments. A major objective of this project centered around the sampling residence time. A three staged vacuum sampling system pulled the molecules and atoms from the arc jet to a quadrupole ionization mass spectrometer in 400 milliseconds. Conditions investigated included a composition survey across the nozzle exit at 3 cm z-distance from the nozzle exit for 3 different currents. Also, a point composition survey was taken around a shock created by the presence of a blunt body.

  20. Characterisation of trace metals in atmospheric particles in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, K.; Strezov, V.; Nelson, P. F.; Stelcer, E.

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this work are to provide a detailed physicochemical assessment of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of three iron and steelmaking plants and to indicate the importance of chemical characterisation of the particles, in addition to the assessment of the particle size and concentrations. In this study, atmospheric sampling sites were selected downstream of three iron and steel processing operations in Australia and one background site in an urban area with little industrial activity. The collected particles were analysed for a range of particle size mass concentrations and detailed chemical analysis of the trace metals Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in the corresponding particle size ranges was carried out. The PM2.5 fractions in the PM10 particles at all sampling sites ranged from 35 to 62% indicating fine particles made a significant contribution to this size fraction at these sampling sites. Similarly, PM1 to the total PM10 at all sites varied from 20 to 46% and contributed significantly to the PM10 mass loading. When compared to the background sampling site, all detected metals in the particles collected near the iron and steelmaking operations had 3.4-14 times higher concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. Iron (Fe) was found to be the dominant metal in the particles collected in vicinity of the iron and steel processing industries contributing up to 12% of the total particle mass loading. This study suggests that the metal composition of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 varies significantly between sites and the associated metal exposure value is considerably higher in the vicinity of iron and steel processing industries than in the urban area for the same particle concentration level.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Interaction Between Supersonic Oxygen Jets and Molten Slag-Metal Bath in Steelmaking BOF Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2015-02-01

    The impinging of multiple jets onto the molten bath in the BOF steelmaking process plays a crucial role in reactor performance but is not clearly understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the multiple jets and slag-metal bath in a BOF by means of the three-phase volume of fluid model. The validity of the model is first examined by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurement of time-averaged cavity dimensions through a scaled-down water model. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. The mathematical model is then used to investigate the primary transport phenomena of the jets-bath interaction inside a 150-ton commercial BOF under steelmaking conditions. The numerical results show that the cavity profile and interface of slag/metal/gas remain unstable as a result of the propagation of surface waves, which, likely as a major factor, governs the generation of metal droplets and their initial spatiotemporal distribution. The total momentum transferred from the jets into the bath is consumed about a half to drive the movement of slag, rather than fully converted as the stirring power for the metal bath. Finally, the effects of operational conditions and fluid properties are quantified. It is shown that compared to viscosity and surface tension of the melts, operating pressure and lance height have a much more significant impact on the slag-metal interface behavior and cavity shape as well as the fluid dynamics in the molten bath.

  2. A Solar Furnace for Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Edwin C.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial arts students at Litchfield (Minnesota) High School designed and built a solar furnace for research and experimentation and to help heat the industrial arts department. A teacher describes the construction process and materials and the temperature record keeping by the physics classes. Student and community interest has been high. (MF)

  3. Method of controlling a reclamation furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Mainord, K. R.

    1985-12-10

    This invention relates to an improved method of controlling temperatures within a cleaning or reclamation furnace which is normally used to reclaim metal parts contaminated with combustible materials by pyrolyzing the combustible materials. A reclamation furnace usually includes a primary heat-input burner employed to heat the contaminated parts in the primary heating chamber, an afterburner chamber contained within the heating chamber having a secondary burner to burn volatile gases which are given off by the combustible materials as the parts are heated, and two separately-controlled automatic valve and spray nozzle assemblies connected to the primary heating chamber. Each nozzle assembly is connected to a pressurized water source to deliver a water-spray injection into the heating chamber. First and second temperature sensors are located in the discharge stack leading from the afterburner chamber and in the furnace heating chamber respectively to actuate either one or both of the separately-controlled automatic valve and spray nozzle assemblies responsive to the temperature of the burned stack gases and the furnace interior temperature.

  4. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  5. Water-cooled furnace heads for use with standard muffle tube furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1975-01-01

    The design of water-cooled furnace seals for use in high-temperature controlled-atmosphere gas and vacuum studies is presented in detailed engineering drawings. Limiting design factors and advantages are discussed.

  6. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  7. Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  8. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  9. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace 'D' blown-in 17 July 1911, the fourth experimental 'thin-lined furnace' to be built in the United States. Photo courtesy Ralph A. Dise, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. FURNACE SHOWING DURING DEMOLITION. C HOOK USED TO CHANGE ROLLS IS VISIBLE IN FRONT OF FURNACE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  15. 57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and Turbo Blower Building are at left, the pig-casting machine and Furnace A at center right. In foregound are the 50-ton ladle cars used to transport hot metal to Valley Mould & Iron Co. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  19. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the 'tripper' car, which distributed ore and limestone into trestle bins below. The 'larryman' then weighed and discharged these materials into skip cars, which carried them to the top of the furnace. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH