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Sample records for arc ion plated

  1. Iron-Nitride Thin Films Prepared by Arc-Discharge-Type Ion-Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Kazuo; Kawashimo, Yasushi; Nakasone, Masami; Harada, Shigehisa; Tasaki, Akira

    1984-12-01

    Ferromagnetic iron-nitride thin films were studied as part of a programme of research into recording media. Samples were prepared by using a new type of ion-plating called “arc-discharge-type ion-plating”. In order to ionize metal vapor and nitrogen gas effectively, a new ionization electrode was introduced between 2× 10-4 and 2× 10-3 Torr. Nitrized films were obtained when the films were prepared above 2× 10-4 Torr. The composition of the films was analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy, and it was confirmed that the films were highly corrosion-resistant.

  2. Electrochemical Corrosion Characteristics of Arc-Ion-Plated AlTiN Coating for Marine Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Kim, MyoungJun; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) coating was deposited by arc ion plating onto mirror finish STS 304 plate. The surface and cross-section of the coating was characterized by SEM and EDX analysis. Several electrochemical corrosion experiments were performed including rest potential measurement, potentiodynamic polarization experiment and Tafel analysis. The result of the experiments indicated that the AlTiN coating presented lower corrosion current density than the substrate material (STS 304) under uniform corrosion environment. It was also observed that AlTiN coating may have a risk of being attacked by localized corrosion attack such as pitting when pores or micro/nano particles in the coating are exposed to chloride ion containing corrosion environment, especially marine environment. PMID:27433658

  3. Synthesis and characterization of CrCN-DLC composite coatings by cathodic arc ion-plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Y.; Wang, L. L.; Liu, H. D.; Yan, S. J.; Chen, Y. M.; Fu, D. J.; Yang, B.

    2013-07-01

    CrCN-DLC composite coatings were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and cemented carbides substrates using pure Cr targets under C2H2 ambient by cathodic arc ion plating system. The influence of C2H2 flow rate on the structure and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated systemically. The coatings structure and bonding state were characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical composition was measured by EDS. The mechanical performance and tribological behaviour of the coatings were studied by a hardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that with increasing C2H2 flow rate from 50 to 100 sccm, the corresponding hardness of coatings increased firstly and then decreased with further addition of C2H2 flow rate. The coatings deposited at lower C2H2 flow rate (less than 200 sccm) exhibited a relatively higher hardness value (more than HV0.0252000) and then the hardness decrease with increasing C2H2 flow rate. The friction coefficient also exhibited similar variation trend, when the C2H2 flow rate was higher than 100 sccm, the friction coefficient decreased and then maintained in a relatively lower value from 0.18 to 0.24, which may be attribute to the increasing carbon content and the coating exhibited more diamond-like structure.

  4. In Vivo Osseointegration Performance of Titanium Dioxide Coating Modified Polyetheretherketone Using Arc Ion Plating for Spinal Implant Application.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chi, Meng-Hui; Hung, Yi-Wen; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), which has biomechanical performance similar to that of human cancellous bone, is used widely as a spinal implant material. However, its bioinertness and hydrophobic surface properties result in poor osseointegration. This study applies a novel modification method, arc ion plating (AIP), that produces a highly osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings on a PEEK substrate. This PEEK with TiO2 coating (TiO2/PEEK) was implanted into the femurs of New Zealand white male rabbits to evaluate its in vivo performance by the push-out test and histological observation. Analytical results show that AIP can prepare TiO2 coatings on bullet-shaped PEEK substrates as implant materials. After prolonged implantation in rabbits, no signs of inflammation existed. Newly regenerated bone formed more prominently with the TiO2/PEEK implant by histological observation. The shear strength of the bone/implant interface increases as implantation period increases. Most importantly, bone bonding performance of the TiO2/PEEK implant was superior to that of bare PEEK. The rutile-TiO2 coatings achieved better osseointegration than the anatase-TiO2 coatings. Therefore, AIP-TiO2 can serve as a novel surface modification method on PEEK for spinal interbody fusion cages. PMID:26504800

  5. In Vivo Osseointegration Performance of Titanium Dioxide Coating Modified Polyetheretherketone Using Arc Ion Plating for Spinal Implant Application

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chi, Meng-Hui; Hung, Yi-Wen; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), which has biomechanical performance similar to that of human cancellous bone, is used widely as a spinal implant material. However, its bioinertness and hydrophobic surface properties result in poor osseointegration. This study applies a novel modification method, arc ion plating (AIP), that produces a highly osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings on a PEEK substrate. This PEEK with TiO2 coating (TiO2/PEEK) was implanted into the femurs of New Zealand white male rabbits to evaluate its in vivo performance by the push-out test and histological observation. Analytical results show that AIP can prepare TiO2 coatings on bullet-shaped PEEK substrates as implant materials. After prolonged implantation in rabbits, no signs of inflammation existed. Newly regenerated bone formed more prominently with the TiO2/PEEK implant by histological observation. The shear strength of the bone/implant interface increases as implantation period increases. Most importantly, bone bonding performance of the TiO2/PEEK implant was superior to that of bare PEEK. The rutile-TiO2 coatings achieved better osseointegration than the anatase-TiO2 coatings. Therefore, AIP-TiO2 can serve as a novel surface modification method on PEEK for spinal interbody fusion cages. PMID:26504800

  6. High-temperature oxidation resistant (Cr, Al)N films synthesized using pulsed bias arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Lin, Guoqiang; Lu, Guoying; Dong, Chuang; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-09-01

    (Cr, Al)N films were deposited by pulsed bias arc ion plating on HSS and 316L stainless steel substrates. With pulsed substrate bias ranging from -100 V to -500 V, the effect of pulsed bias on film composition, phase structure, deposition rate and mechanical properties was investigated by EDX, XRD, SEM, nanoindentation and scratch measurements. The high-temperature (up to 900 °C) oxidation resistance of the films was also evaluated. The results show that Al contents and deposition rates decrease with increasing pulsed bias and the ratio of (Cr + Al)/N is almost constant at 0.95. The as-deposited (Cr, Al)N films crystallize in the pseudo-binary (Cr, Al)N and Al phases. The film hardness increases with increasing bias and reaches the maximum 21.5 GPa at -500 V. The films deposited at -500 V exhibit a high adhesion force, about 70 N, and more interestingly good oxidation resistance when annealed in air at 900 °C for 10 h.

  7. Oxygen-Plasma-Treated Indium-Tin-Oxide Films on Nonalkali Glass Deposited by Super Density Arc Plasma Ion Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Kihyon; Son, Jun Ho; Jung, Gwan Ho; Lee, Jong-Lam; Choi, Kyu Han; Song, Kyu Ho; Ahn, Kyung Chul

    2008-02-01

    The effects of O2 plasma treatment on both the chemical composition and work function of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film were investigated. ITO films were deposited on non-alkali glass substrate by super density arc plasma ion plating for application in active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The water contact angle decreased from 38 to 11° as the ITO films were treated with O2 plasma for 60 s at a plasma power of 150 W, indicating an increase in the hydrophilicity of the surface. It was found that there were no distinct changes in the microstructure or electrical properties of the ITO films with O2 plasma treatment. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy data revealed that O2 plasma treatment decreased the amount of carbon contamination and increased the number of unscreened states of In3+ and (O2)2- peroxo species. This played the role of increasing the work function of the ITO films by 1.7 eV. As a result, the turn-on voltage of the OLED decreased markedly from 24 to 8 V and the maximum luminance value of the OLED increased to 2500 cd/m2.

  8. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  9. DUAL HEATED ION SOURCE STRUCTURE HAVING ARC SHIFTING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1959-04-14

    An ion source is presented for calutrons, particularly an electrode arrangement for the ion generator of a calutron ion source. The ion source arc chamber is heated and an exit opening with thermally conductive plates defines the margins of the opening. These plates are electrically insulated from the body of the ion source and are connected to a suitable source of voltage to serve as electrodes for shaping the ion beam egressing from the arc chamber.

  10. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  11. Auroral arcs and ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiolo, Romain

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides an overwiew of the chapter "Auroral Arcs and Ion Outflow" from the AGU book "Auroral Dynamics and Space Weather" (eds Y. Zhang and L. J. Paxton). This topic covers a wide range of domains, from auroral acceleration processes, auroral arc morphology and dynamics to global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and atmospheric erosion. This presentation mainly focuses on the observational properties of auroral ion outflow. Recent observations about their large-scale spatial distribution and link with auroral forms will be presented. Auroral ion outflow statistical dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity and its modulation by auroral dynamics at the timescale of substorms will also be discussed.

  12. Submerged arc welding of heavy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The submerged arc process is particularly suitable for heavy plate welding because of its ability to combine very high deposit rates along with excellent quality. It does these things without the smoke and spatter often accompanying other processes. It is available today in several forms that are pointed to the fabricators of heavy sections with long, short or round about welds. Tandem arc full automatic equipment is particularly suitable for those long heavy welds where speed and deposit rate are of the first order. An attachment called long stick-out which makes use of the IR drop on long electrode extensions can be included on this equipment to increase deposition rates 50% or more.

  13. COASTING ARC ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1957-09-10

    An improved ion source is described and in particular a source in which the ions are efficiently removed. The plasma is generated in a tubular amode structure by the oscillation of electrons in an axial magnetic field, as in the Phillips Ion Gage. The novel aspect of the source is the expansion of the plasma as it leaves the anode structure, so as to reduce the ion density at the axis of the anode and present a uniform area of plasma to an extraction grid. The structure utilized in the present patent to expand the plasma comprises flange members of high permeability at the exitgrid end of the amode to diverge the magnetic field adjacent the exit.

  14. Study on nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films with various Si contents deposited by cathodic vacuum arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Muders, C. M.; Kumar, A.; Jiang, X.; Pei, Z. L.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films were deposited on high speed steel substrates by the vacuum cathode arc ion plating (AIP) technique. By virtue of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the influence of silicon content on the film microstructure and characteristics was investigated systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure as well as cross-section morphologies. With increasing the silicon content, a deterioration of the preferred orientation and a dense globular structure were detected. In the meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation, Rockwell indenter and reciprocating test were also utilized to analyze the hardness, elastic modulus, H3/E2, friction coefficient, adhesive strength and wear rate of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films. The results showed that an optimal silicon content correlated with the best mechanical and tribological properties of the presented Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films existed. With increasing the silicon content, the hardness, elastic modulus and the ratio H3/E2 first were improved gradually, and then were impaired sharply again. When the silicon content reached to 6 at.%, the film possessed the highest hardness, elastic modulus and ratio H3/E2 of approximately 24 GPa, 218 GPa and 0.31, respectively. Besides, films containing both 6 at.% and 10 at.% Si contents obtained a relatively low friction coefficient and a good adhesive strength. The wear rate decreased with an increase in hardness, with the highest hardness corresponding to a wear rate around 1.3 × 10-5 mm3/(N m) of the film with 6 at.% Si content. The correlations between hardness and tribological properties for the films were also examined. The essence of above phenomena was attributed to the variations of microstructure and morphologies in the films induced by the increasing silicon content.

  15. Ion plating for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    The ion plating techniques are classified relative to the instrumental set up, evaporation media, and mode of transport. A distinction is drawn between the low vacuum (plasma) and high vacuum (ion beam) techniques. Ion plating technology is discussed at the fundamental and industrial level. At the fundamental level, the capabilities and limitations of the plasma (evaporant flux) and film characteristics are evaluated. And on the industrial level, the performance and potential uses of ion plated films are discussed.

  16. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width {approximately}35 cm for a nominal beam area of {approximately}1,000 cm{sup 2}, and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of {approximately}100 keV. Separately, they`ve developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they`ve developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications.

  17. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  18. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  19. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  20. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  1. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  2. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Falabella, Steven

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  3. Ion charge state fluctuations in vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yushkov, Georgy Yu

    2004-12-14

    Ion charge state distributions of cathodic vacuum arcs have been investigated using a modified time-of-flight method. Experiments have been done in double gate and burst gate mode, allowing us to study both systematic and stochastic changes of ion charge state distributions with a time resolution down to 100 ns. In the double gate method, two ion charge spectra are recorded with a well-defined time between measurements. The elements Mg, Bi, and Cu were selected for tests, representing metals of very different properties. For all elements it was found that large stochastic changes occur even at the limit of resolution. This is in agreement with fast changing arc properties observed elsewhere. Correlation of results for short times between measurements was found but it is argued that this is due to velocity mixing rather than due to cathode processes. The burst mode of time-of-flight measurements revealed the systematic time evolution of ion charge states within a single arc discharge, as opposed to previous measurements that relied on data averaged over many pulses. The technique shows the decay of the mean ion charge state as well as the level of material-dependent fluctuations.

  4. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-07-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in {approximately}0.5 A current beams with {approximately}20 {micro}s pulse widths and {approximately}10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce {approximately}0.5 A, {approximately}60 keV Gd (A{approximately}158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported.

  5. Stress fields of the overriding plate at convergent margins and beneath active volcanic arcs.

    PubMed

    Apperson, K D

    1991-11-01

    Tectonic stress fields in the overriding plate at convergent plate margins are complex and vary on local to regional scales. Volcanic arcs are a common element of overriding plates. Stress fields in the volcanic arc region are related to deformation generated by subduction and to magma generation and ascent processes. Analysis of moment tensors of shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes in volcanic arcs indicates that the seismic strain field in the arc region of many convergent margins is subhorizontal extension oriented nearly perpendicular to the arc. A process capable of generating such a globally consistent strain field is induced asthenospheric corner flow below the arc region. PMID:17774792

  6. Vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Qi, N.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.G.

    1998-02-01

    Heavy ion fusion is one approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear power production, in which a small DT target is bombarded by an intense flux of heavy ions and compressed to fusion temperatures. There is a need in present HIF research and development for a reliable ion source for the production of heavy ion beams with low emittance, low beam noise, ion charge states Q=1+ to 3+, beam current {approximately}0.5A, pulse width {approximately}5{endash}20 {mu}s, and repetition rate {approximately}10 pulses per second. We have explored the suitability of a vacuum arc ion source for this application. Energetic, high current, gadolinium ion beams were produced with parameters as required or close to those required. The performance parameters can all be improved yet further in an optimized ion source design. Here we describe the ion source configuration used, the experiments conducted, and the results obtained. We conclude that a vacuum arc based metal ion source of this kind could be an excellent candidate for heavy ion fusion research application. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Effects of Mo content on microstructure and corrosion resistance of arc ion plated Ti-Mo-N films on 316L stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shao, Zhigang; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Shuang; Suo, Ni

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar plates are one of the most important components in PEMFC stack and have multiple functions, such as separators and current collectors, distributing reactions uniformly, and etc. Stainless steel is ideal candidate for bipolar plates owing to good thermal and electrical conductivity, good mechanical properties etc. However, stainless steel plate still cannot resist the corrosion of working condition. In this work, ternary Ti-Mo-N film was fabricated on 316L stainless steel (SS316L) as a surface modification layer to enhance the corrosion resistance. Effects of Mo content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo-N films are systematically investigated by altering sputtering current of the Mo target. XRD results reveal that the preferred orientation changes from [111] to [220] direction as Mo content in the film increases. The synthesized Ti-Mo-N films form a substitutional solid solution of (Ti, Mo)N where larger Mo atoms replace Ti in TiN crystal lattice. The TiN-coated SS316L sample shows the best corrosion resistance. While Mo content in the Ti-Mo-N films increases, the corrosion resistance gradually degrades. Compared with the uncoated samples, all the Ti-Mo-N film coated samples show enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated PEMFC working condition.

  8. Plate motion controls on back-arc spreading. [Cenozoic movement in Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fein, J. B.; Jurdy, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The motions of the subducting and the overriding plates influence the spatial and temporal distribution of back-arc spreading. Cenozoic plate motions in hot spot-fixed and no-net-rotation reference frames were studied with attention to correlations between changes in motion and episodes of back-arc spreading in the western Pacific. The results suggest that major back-arc opening occurs when both the overriding plate retreats from the trench in an absolute sense and the subducting plate undergoes a significant speed-up. Neither phenomenon alone is sufficient to initiate spreading. Three major plate velocity increases can be identified in the Cenozoic: (1) the Pacific plate 5-9 Ma; (2) the Indian plate at 27 Ma; and (3) the Pacific plate at 43 Ma, due to its shift from northerly to more westerly motion. At the present time, the Indian and Philippine are the only overriding plates that are retreating from their Pacific trenches and back-arc spreading occurs only on these two retreating plates. Although the Indian plate has been retreating for at least 25 Ma, back-arc spreading began only following the Pacific plate speed-up 5-9 Ma. Earlier, during the Indian plate speed-up, no overriding plates were retreating strongly and no back-arc spreading epsiodes are preserved from this time. For the earliest Pacific plate shift at 43 Ma, the Eurasian plate was not advancing, thus creating the only favorable plate kinematic conditions in the Cenozoic for back-arc basin formation in this region. It is unclear whether extension in the Japan Sea is a result of these conditions.

  9. Ion plating technique improves thin film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Ion plating technique keeps the substrate surface clean until the film is deposited, allows extensive diffusion and chemical reaction, and joins insoluble or incompatible materials. The technique involves the deposition of ions on the substrate surface while it is being bombarded with inert gas ions.

  10. Ion flux from the cathode region of a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect

    Kutzner, J. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper reviews the properties of the ion flux generated in the vacuum arc. The structure and distribution of mass erosion from individual cathode spots and the characteristics of current carriers from the cathode region at moderate arc currents are described. The main theories concerning ion acceleration in cathode spots are discussed.

  11. Measurements of the total ion flux from vacuum arc cathodespots

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu; Savkin,Konstantin P.; Brown, Ian G.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.

    2005-05-25

    The ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured in two vacuum arc systems. The first was a vacuum arc ion source which was modified allowing us to collect ions from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The second discharge system essentially consisted of a cathode placed near the center of a spherically shaped mesh anode. In both systems, the ion current streaming through the mesh was measured by a biased collector. The mesh anodes had geometric transmittances of 60 percent and 72 percent, respectively, which were taken into account as correction factors. The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50-500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent. The normalized ion current is generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates range from 16-173 mu g/C.

  12. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasmasources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Savkin, Konstantin P.; Yushkov, Georgiu Yu.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.; Anders, A.; Brown, Ian G.

    2005-07-01

    The total ion current generated by a vacuum arc plasma source was measured. The discharge system investigated allowed ion collection from the arc plasma streaming through a hemispherical mesh anode with geometric transparency of 72 percent. A range of different cathode materials was investigated, and the arc current was varied over the range 50-500 A. We find that the normalized ion current (Iion/Iarc) depends on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent and generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The application of a strong axial magnetic field in the cathode and arc region leads to increased normalized ion current, but only by virtue of enhanced ion charge states formed in a strong magnetic field.

  13. Measurement of total ion flux in vacuum Arc discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Brown, Ian G.

    2004-04-12

    A vacuum arc ion source was modified allowing us to collections from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The mesh had ageometric transmittance of 60 percent, which was taken into account as acorrection factor. The ion current from twenty-two cathode materials wasmeasured at an arc current of 100 A. The ion current normalized by thearc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with valuesinthe range from 5 percent to 11 percent. The normalized ion current isgenerally greater for light elements than for heavy elements. The ionerosion rates were determined fromvalues of ion currentand ion chargestates, which were previously measured in the same experimental system.The ion erosion rates range from 12-94 mu g/C.

  14. Role of plate kinematics and plate-slip-vector partitioning in continental magmatic arcs: Evidence from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, B.A.; Farber, D.L.; Wallace, G.S.; Lopez, R.; Palacios, O.

    1998-09-01

    New structural and geochronological data from the Cordillera Blanca batholith in the Peruvian Andes, coupled with Nazca-South American plate-slip-vector data, indicate that oblique convergence and associated strike-slip partitioning strongly influenced continental magmatic arc evolution. Both the strain field and mode of magmatism (plutonism vs. volcanism) in the late Miocene Peruvian Andes were controlled by the degree to which the arc-parallel component of the plate slip vector was partitioned into the arc. Strong strike-slip partitioning at ca. 8 Ma produced arc-parallel sinistral shear, strike-slip intercordilleran basins and east-west-oriented tension fractures that facilitated emplacement of the Cordillera Blanca batholith (ca. 8.2 {+-} 0.2 Ma). Periods during which the strike-slip component was not partitioned into the arc (ca. 10 and ca. 7 Ma) were associated with roughly arc-normal contraction and ignimbrite volcanism. The data thus support the contention that contraction within continental magmatic arcs favors volcanism, whereas transcurrent shear favors plutonism. The tie between oblique convergence and batholith emplacement in late Miocene Peruvian Andes provides a modern analogue for batholiths emplaced as the result of transcurrent shear in ancient arcs.

  15. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  16. Parallel plate radiofrequency ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.

    1982-01-01

    An 8-cm-diam. argon ion thruster is described. It is operated by applying 100 to 160 Mhz rf power across a thin plasma volume in a strongly divergent static magnetic field. No cathode or electron emitter is required to sustain a continuous wave plasma discharge over a broad range of propellant gas flow. Preliminary results indicate that a large fraction of the incident power is being reflected by impedance mismatching in the coupling structure. Resonance effects due to plasma thickness, magnetic field strength, and distribution are presented. Typical discharge losses obtained to date are 500 to 600 W per beam ampere at extracted beam currents up to 60 mA.

  17. Industrialization of the ion plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    A new process referred to as ion plating by induction heating (IPIH) is described, which combines the advantages of both ion plating and induction heating. The IPIH apparatus consists of the specimen (cathode) to be coated and the evaporation heating source, which is a ceramic crucible containing the metal to be heated. The specimen is an internal part of the high-voltage ceramic-metal vacuum feedthrough and is connected to the negative terminal of the high-voltage power supply, the positive terminal of the power supply being grounded. The plating conditions are the same as those most commonly used in industrial ion plating. A number of metals - such as nickel, iron, platinum - which were practically impossible to deposit by resistance heating evaporation can now be effectively evaporated and deposited to any desired thickness. Excellent adherence is observed for many metals deposited on various metal surfaces in thicknesses from 0.15 to 50 microns, regardless of the materials selected for coating and substrate.

  18. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (<50-100 km). The obtained

  19. Ion sputter textured graphite electrode plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N.; Forman, R.; Sovey, J. S.; Wintucky, E. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A specially textured surface of pyrolytic graphite exhibits extremely low yields of secondary electrons and reduced numbers of reflected primary electrons after impingement of high energy primary electrons. Electrode plates of this material are used in multistage depressed collectors. An ion flux having an energy between 500 iV and 1000 iV and a current density between 1.0 mA/sq cm and 6.0 mA/sq cm produces surface roughening or texturing which is in the form of needles or spires. Such textured surfaces are especially useful as anode collector plates in high tube devices.

  20. Multiply stripped ion generation in the metal vapor vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Feinberg, B.; Galvin, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    We consider the charge state distribution of ions produced in the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma discharge. A high current metal ion source, the MEVVA ion source, in which the ion beam is extracted from a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma, has been used to obtain the spectra of multiple charged ions produced within the cathode spots. A computer calculation of the charge state distribution that evolves within the spots via stepwide ionization of ions by electron impact provides a theoretical basis for comparison of the data. In this paper we report on the measured charge state distributions for a wide variety of metallic species and compare these results with the predictions of this theory. 55 refs.

  1. Sputtering and ion plating for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtering and ion plating technologies are reviewed in terms of their potential and present uses in the aerospace industry. Sputtering offers great universality and flexibility in depositing any material or in the synthesis of new ones. The sputter deposition process has two areas of interest: thin film and fabrication technology. Thin film sputtering technology is primarily used for aerospace mechanical components to reduce friction, wear, erosion, corrosion, high temperature oxidation, diffusion and fatigue, and also to sputter-construct temperature and strain sensors for aircraft engines. Sputter fabrication is used in intricate aircraft component manufacturing. Ion plating applications are discussed in terms of the high energy evaporant flux and the high throwing power. Excellent adherence and 3 dimensional coverage are the primary attributes of this technology.

  2. One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector

    SciTech Connect

    He Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P.

    2011-08-15

    A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm x 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

  3. Energy Distribution of a Prototype KSTAR Neutral Beam Ion Source for 300 s Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Doo-Hee; Jeong, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon

    2008-02-01

    A neutral beam test-stand (NBTS) system has been developed for the extraction of a 300 s deuterium beam of 120 kV/65 A as an auxiliary heating system of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The prototype long pulse ion source (LPIS) consists of a plasma generator and a set of tetrode accelerators. Beam extraction for 300 s was achieved at a maximum hydrogen beam power of 1.6 MW (70 kV/23 A) with an arc discharge power of 63 kW. The energy distribution of the ion source was analyzed by water-flow calorimetry (WFC) by monitoring the cooling-water temperature during the arc discharge. The power dissipation rate on the accelerator column was 0.97% of the total extracted ion beam power with a power loss of 0.2% caused by the collision of back stream electrons with the electron dump plate of the plasma generator. 74.2% of the total energy of was estimated to be distributed in the plasma generator and the accelerator for an arc discharge of 300 s. Also, 75.6% of the total energy was distributed in the ion source for an arc discharge of 2 s. The remaining energy was lost through the structures around the water-cooling path.

  4. Lithium ion diffusion through glassy carbon plate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, M.; Nohmi, S.; Funabiki, A.; Abe, T.; Ogumi, Z.

    1998-07-01

    The electrochemical permeation method was applied to the determination of the diffusion coefficient of Li{sup +} ion (D{sub Li{sup +}}) in a glassy carbon (GC) plate. The cell was composed of two compartments, which were separated by the GC plate. Li{sup +} ions were inserted electrochemically from one face, and extracted from the other. The flux of the permeated Li{sup +} ions was monitored as an oxidation current at the latter face. The diffusion coefficient was determined by fitting the transient current curve with a theoretical one derived from Fick's law. When the potential was stepped between two potentials in the range of 0 to 0.5 V, transient curves were well fitted with the theoretical one, which gave D{sub Li{sup +}} values on the order of 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, when the potential was stepped between two potentials across 0.5 V, significant deviation was observed. The deviation indicated the presence of trap sites as well as diffusion sites for Li{sup +} ions, the former of which is the origin of the irreversible capacity of GC.

  5. Evidence that the electrostatic ion cyclotron instability is saturated by ion heating. [in auroral arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Bering, E. A.; Mozer, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Observations have been made of electric field oscillations near the local ion gyro frequency and of an intense beam of plasma ions at the edge of an auroral arc. The observations are in good agreement with ion heating as the saturation mechanism for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves.

  6. Temporal development of ion beam mean charge state in pulsed vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as 'Mevva' ion sources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is known that the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4, depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presence or absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well as background gas pressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significant decrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can be observed up to a few milliseconds, until a ''noisy'' steady-state value is established. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in the ion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beam energy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of the influence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beam mean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown that for fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of the distance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may be associated with charge exchange processes in the discharge plasma.

  7. Deformation of island-arc lithosphere due to steady plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Steady plate subduction elastically brings about permanent lithospheric deformation in island arcs, though this effect has been neglected in most studies based on elastic dislocation theory. We investigate the characteristics of the permanent lithospheric deformation using a kinematic model, in which steady slip motion is given along a plate interface in the elastic lithosphere overlying the viscoelastic asthenosphere under gravity. As a rule of thumb, long-term lithospheric deformation can be understood as a bending of an elastic plate floating on non-viscous fluid, because the asthenosphere behaves like water on the long term. The steady slip below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary does not contribute to long-term lithospheric deformation. Hence, the key parameters that control the lithospheric deformation are only the thickness of the lithosphere and the geometry of the plate interface. Slip on a plate interface generally causes substantial vertical displacement, and gravity always tries to retrieve the original gravitational equilibrium. For a curved plate interface gravity causes convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, while for a planar plate interface gravity causes convex downward bending. Larger curvature and thicker lithosphere generally results in larger deformation. When the curvature changes along the plate interface, internal deformation is also involved intrinsically, which modifies the deformation field due to gravity. Because the plate interface generally has some curvature, at least near the trench, convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, which involves uplift of island-arc and subsidence around the trench, is always realized. On the other hand, the deformation field of the island-arc lithosphere sensitively depends on lithospheric thickness and plate interface geometry. These characteristics obtained by the numerical simulation are consistent with observed topography and free-air gravity anomalies in subduction

  8. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  9. Vacuum arc ion source development at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-08-01

    Ion beams produced by the Mevva ion source are well suited for the injection into a synchrotron accelerator due to the low repetition rate (0.2 ... 5 Hz, the higher repetition rate is for the optimization of the linear accelerator only) and the short pulse length (up to 0.5ms). From the beginning of the authors experience with the Mevva ion source at GSI they tried to improve the reliability of pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and to minimize the noise on the extracted ion beam. For accelerator application this is highly necessary, otherwise the accelerator tuning and optimization becomes very difficult or even impossible. Already the beam transport becomes difficult for a noisy beam, because space charge compensation can be destroyed (at least partially). Furthermore a noisy dc-beam results in some rf-buckets which might be even empty.

  10. Analysis of Effects of the Arc Voltage on Arc Discharges in a Cathode Ion Source of Neutral Beam Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuqian; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong

    2016-04-01

    A hot cathode bucket ion source is used for the EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) neutral beam injector. The thermal electrons emitted from the surface of the cathode are extracted and accelerated by the electric field formed by the arc voltage, which is applied between the arc chamber of the ion source and the cathode. This paper analyzes the effects of arc voltage on the arc discharge in a hot cathode high current ion source. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101000) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405207)

  11. Extended electrode technique. [gas metal arc welding of metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaper, V. D.; Pollack, A.

    1972-01-01

    The extended electrode technique is a unique welding process which utilizes manual gas-metal-arc (GMAW) semi-automatic equipment and close, square butt joints to effectively produce a weld. The technique takes advantage of the resistance heating of the electode extension to effect the root pass. Weldments as large as 72-X30-X2-inch have been fabricated with this technique under normal shipyard welding conditions. Mechanical properties and explosion bulge tests indicate that satisfactory results are obtained with this process. Potential savings of approximately 50 percent can be achieved in flat welding and repair of heavy structural steel members.

  12. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Belchenko, Yu I; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, I A; Kolmogorov, V V; Listopad, A A; Mishagin, V V; Putvinsky, S V; Shulzhenko, G I; Smirnov, A

    2014-02-01

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode. PMID:24593569

  13. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  14. Predicting ion charge state distributions of vacuum arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Schulke, T.

    1996-04-01

    Multiply charged ions are present in vacuum arc plasmas. The ions are produced at cathode spots, and their charge state distributions (CSDs) depend on the cathode material but only little on the arc current or other parameters as long as the current is relatively low and the anode is not actively involved in the plasma production. There are experimental data of ion CSDs available in the literature for 50 different cathode materials. The CSDs can be calculated based on the assumption that thermodynamic equilibrium is valid in the vicinity of the cathode spot, and the equilibrium CSDs `freeze` at a certain distance from the cathode spot (transition to a non-equilibrium plasma). Plasma temperatures and densities at the `freezing points` have been calculated, and, based on the existence of characteristic groups of elements in the Periodic Table, predictions of CSDs can be made for metallic elements which have not yet been used as cathode materials.

  15. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  16. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  17. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  18. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael; Beilis, Isak

    2012-06-15

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  19. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-01

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ("heavy-ion fusion"). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly "wobbling" each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  20. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  1. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-15

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ('heavy-ion fusion'). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly 'wobbling' each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  2. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this ismore » sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.« less

  3. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Freeman, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  4. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-11-03

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  5. Effect of preheat on residual stress distributions in arc-welded mild steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Adedayo, S.M.; Adeyemi, M.B.

    2000-02-01

    Residual stress distribution in the longitudinal and transverse directions on a 6-mm-thick arc-welded mild steel plate was experimentally examined with and without initial preheat. Stress measurements were completed by monitoring strain changes on mounted strain gauges resulting from successive milling of the welded plate specimens. Machining stresses were also compensated for by carrying out measurements of strain changes due to milling operation of a stress-free unwelded annealed mild steel plate. High tensile residual stresses exist close to the weld line in both longitudinal and transverse stresses. Maximum longitudinal residual stress values existing close to the weld line are reduced (between 50 and 75%) due to the effect of initial metal preheat of 200 C of the welded steel plate.

  6. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  7. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  8. Selective electroless copper plating on silicon seeded by copper ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, S.; Sood, D. K.; Zmood, R. B.

    1994-12-01

    We report on the successful use of copper (self) ion implantation into silicon to seed the electroless plating of copper on silicon (100) surfaces. Copper ions were implanted into silicon to doses of 5 times 10(exp 14)-6.4 times 10(exp 16) ions\\sq cm using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion implanter at extraction voltages of 10 kV and 20 kV. A copper film was then deposited onto implanted silicon using a commercial electroless plating solution. The ion energy was kept low enough to facilitate a low critical 'seed' threshold dose which was measured to be 2 times 10(exp 15) Cu ions/sq cm. Test patterns were made using polyimide to study the adaptability of this technique to forming thick structures. Plated films were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry, energy-dispersive X-rays and Auger electron spectroscopy. The adhesion of films was estimated by a 'Scotch tape test'. The adhesion was found to improve with increasing dose. However, thicker films exhibited rather poor adhesion and high internal stress. Detailed examinations of the top and bottom of the film establish that delamination takes place at the amorphous-crystalline interface of the implanted silicon. SEM results show that the films grow first as isolated islands which become larger and eventually coalesce into a continuous film as the plating time is increased.

  9. Large-ion lithophile elements delivered by saline fluids to the sub-arc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Mibe, Kenji; Bureau, Hélène; Reguer, Solenn; Mocuta, Cristian; Kubsky, Stefan; Thiaudière, Dominique; Ono, Shigeaki; Kogiso, Tetsu

    2014-12-01

    Geochemical signatures of arc basalts can be explained by addition of aqueous fluids, melts, and/or supercritical fluids from the subducting slab to the sub-arc mantle. Partitioning of large-ion lithophile elements between aqueous fluids and melts is crucial as these two liquid phases are present in the sub-arc pressure-temperature conditions. Using a micro-focused synchrotron X-ray beam, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra were obtained from aqueous fluids and haplogranite or jadeite melts at 0.3 to 1.3 GPa and 730°C to 830°C under varied concentrations of (Na, K)Cl (0 to 25 wt.%). Partition coefficients between the aqueous fluids and melts were calculated for Pb, Rb, and Sr ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]). There was a positive correlation between [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] values and pressure, as well as [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] values and salinity. As compared to the saline fluids with 25 wt.% (Na, K)Cl, the Cl-free aqueous fluids can only dissolve one tenth (Pb, Rb) to one fifth (Sr) of the amount of large-ion lithophile elements when they coexist with the melts. In the systems with 13 to 25 wt.% (Na, K)Cl, [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] values were greater than unity, which is indicative of the capacity of such highly saline fluids to effectively transfer Pb and Rb. Enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements such as Pb and Rb in arc basalts relative to mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) has been attributed to mantle source fertilization by aqueous fluids from dehydrating oceanic plates. Such aqueous fluids are likely to contain Cl, although the amount remains to be quantified.

  10. Cascadia subducting plate fluids channelled to fore-arc mantle corner: ETS and silica deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; McCrory, P. A.; Wech, A.; Kao, H.; Ague, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we first summarize the constraints that on the Cascadia subduction thrust, there is a 70 km gap downdip between the megathrust seismogenic zone and the Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) that lies further landward; there is not a continuous transition from unstable to conditionally stable sliding. Seismic rupture occurs mainly offshore for this hot subduction zone. ETS lies onshore. We then suggest what does control the downdip position of ETS. We conclude that fluids from dehydration of the downgoing plate, focused to rise above the fore-arc mantle corner, are responsible for ETS. There is a remarkable correspondence between the position of ETS and this corner along the whole margin. Hydrated mineral assemblages in the subducting oceanic crust and uppermost mantle are dehydrated with downdip increasing temperature, and seismic tomography data indicate that these fluids have strongly serpentinized the overlying fore-arc mantle. Laboratory data show that such fore-arc mantle serpentinite has low permeability and likely blocks vertical expulsion and restricts flow updip within the underlying permeable oceanic crust and subduction shear zone. At the fore-arc mantle corner these fluids are released upward into the more permeable overlying fore-arc crust. An indication of this fluid flux comes from low Poisson's Ratios (and Vp/Vs) found above the corner that may be explained by a concentration of quartz which has exceptionally low Poisson's Ratio. The rising fluids should be silica saturated and precipitate quartz with decreasing temperature and pressure as they rise above the corner.

  11. Obliquely convergent plate motion and its relation with forearc sliver movement, El Salvador volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, B.; DeMets, C.; Garibaldi, N.; Hernandez, W.; Hernandez, D.

    2012-12-01

    The magmatic arc in El Salvador is interpreted to result from the subduction of the Cocos plate underneath the Caribbean plate along the Middle America trench. In addition, El Salvador contains a fore-arc sliver that moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc. Well-defined strike-slip faults along the magmatic arc accommodate forearc sliver motion, but are offset at several locations by en echelon pull-apart step-overs with abundant normal faults. All basaltic-andesitic magmatic centers (San Miguel, San Vincente, San Salvador, Santa Ana) are located within these step-overs, while the two major rhyolitic calderas (Ilopango, Coatepeque) occur directly along the strike-slip faults. There are two puzzling aspects about the strike-slip tectonism. First, a silicic, shallow magma body that intrudes the San Miguel fault zone (part of the El Salvador fault system) was emplaced syn-tectonically (sigmoidal field and magnetic foliations, subhorizontally plunging magnetic lineations and dextral shear at the microscale). Within the dextrally sheared portion of the intrusion, an obsidian band with a 40Ar/39Ar age of 7.46 Ma indicates that dextral strike-slip tectonism in the Salvadoran arc has been an ongoing process for ~7.5 Ma. This casts significant doubt on whether Cocos ridge subduction (that started ~1 Ma ago) is the cause of the ongoing forearc movement. The potentially more significant problem is that the fore-arc sliver in El Salvador moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc despite a nearly orthogonal angle of convergence (with a convergence rate of ~77 mm/yr) near El Salvador and absence of significant frictional coupling along the subduction interface. Further, GPS indicates that the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran forearcs define a semi-rigid sliver moving at nearly the same trench-parallel rates despite along-trench changes in the subduction angle. Consequently, it is tempting to attribute the movement of both forearc slivers to Cocos ridge subduction

  12. Patterns of seismogenesis for giant plate-boundary earthquakes in island-arc-type subduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The global record of giant earthquake occurrence in subduction zones during the instrumental and historical eras is woefully short; only about 16 events with magnitudes above 8.4 are reasonably well documented since 1700. We find no examples of giant (M > 8.4) interplate thrust events and/or wide-ranging tsunamis sourced in the classic island arcs with fast backarc spreading (Bonin, Marianas, Tonga-Kermadec, Vanuatu, and South Scotia). The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 (SAE) ruptured a sector of the INDIA-BURMA subduction boundary and evidently had no known historical antecedents, suggesting that the return time may be many centuries to millennia and consistent with low convergence rates. Moreover, the persistence of rupture to the north in the weakly volcanic Nicobar/Andaman sector gives one pause to reflect on the assumption that island arcs, especially those with active back-arc spreading such as the Marianas, do not produce great interplate- thrust earthquakes. The Andaman/Nicobar subduction segment is an unusual island arc. Only two arc volcanoes occur between the convergent plate boundary west of the Andamans and the backarc ridge/transform system to the east. Backarc spreading in the Andaman/ Nicobar segment is unusual because the NNW spreading directions are nearly parallel to the trench/deformation-front as do the INDIA-BURMA plate motions across it. This geometry suggests that arc-normal extension, trench migration and associated slab normal motions may not mechanically decouple this subduction system. The Nicobar sector of the rupture for the 2004 event is roughly 200 km wide judging from the aftershock distribution; a distribution that persists to the east under the Nicobar Islands, suggesting that the plate-boundary dip is very shallow in that latitude range. If this is correct, then the down-dip limitation on seismogenic slip set by serpentinized forearc mantle (Hyndman et al., 2003) may not control rupture width as it apparently does for many

  13. Alloy vapor deposition using ion plating and flash evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1971-01-01

    Method extends scope of ion plating technique to include deposition of alloy films without changing composition of plating alloy. Coatings flow with specimen material without chipping or peeling. Technique is most effective vacuum deposition method for depositing alloys for strong and lasting adherence.

  14. High energy implantation with high-charge-state ions in a vacuum arc ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M. |; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion implantation energy can in principal be increased by increasing the charge states of the ions produced by the ion source rather than by increasing the implanter operating voltage, providing an important savings in cost and size of the implanter. In some recent work the authors have shown that the charge states of metal ions produced in a vacuum arc ion source can be elevated by a strong magnetic field. In general, the effect of both high arc current and high magnetic field is to push the distribution to higher charge states--the mean ion charge state is increased and new high charge states are formed. The effect is significant for implantation application--the mean ion energy can be about doubled without change in extraction voltage. Here they describe the ion source modifications, the results of time-of-flight measurements of ion charge state distributions, and discuss the use and implications of this technique as a means for doing metal iron implantation in the multi-hundreds of keV ion energy range.

  15. Lateral Structural Variation of the Downgoing Philippine Sea Plate beneath the SW Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Iidaka, T.; Arai, R.; Kato, A.; Sato, H.; Ito, T.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Ito, K.

    2012-04-01

    A well-known seismogenic zone along the Southwest Japan arc, where M8-class megathrust earthquakes repeatedly occur, is dominated by the northwestward subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate. This megathrust zone is separated into western and eastern parts by the Izu-Bonnin arc, which has collided to the Japan arc since middle Miocene. The western part, where a typical oceanic crust is being subducted, is known as fault areas of the 1946 Nankai (M8.0) and 1944 Tonankai (M7.9) earthquakes. An area just east of the Tonankai fault is considered to be a source region of the forthcoming Tokai Earthquake. The eastern part, characterized by the subduction of the forearc side of the Izu-Benin arc, is a fault area of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake of M7.9. In the recent 10 years, intensive active and passive source seismic experiments were undertaken in the above megathrust fault areas. The most prominent and common feature of the seismic profiles west of the Izu collision zone is very strong reflection from the subducted PHS plate. This reflection, beginning at the deepest limit of the locked part of the plate boundary, extends downward to the wedge mantle. Amplitude analysis for the strong reflection indicates a very thin (200-500 m) low velocity (3-4 km/s) layer situated at the top of the plate boundary. A seismic profile crossing the 1944 Tonankai earthquake delineated detailed structural change along the downgoing plate. Namely, near the deepest limit of the locked part, a single low velocity layer as mentioned above exists at the top of the plate. But, in the deeper part, reflectors form more complicated distribution with a several kilometer thickness. It should be noted that very low frequency (VLF) earthquakes are concentrated within or beneath this reflective zone. The remarkable spatial correspondence between the cluster of VLF events and the reflective zone strongly indicates that dehydrated fluids are ascending from the oceanic lithosphere and trapped in the

  16. High current vacuum-arc ion source for ion implantation and coating deposition technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Ryabchikov, Igor A.; Stepanov, Igor B.; Dektyarev, Sergey V.

    2006-03-15

    This work is devoted to the development and investigation of a high current ion source based on dc vacuum-arc plasma generation. Extraction and acceleration of ion beams are realized in a repetitively pulsed mode with the pulse repetition rate up to 200 pps, the pulse duration up to 400 {mu}s, the accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, and the pulsed ion-beam current up to 2 A. To remove microparticles from the vacuum-arc plasma a straight-line plasma filter is used. Examples of the source use for realization of high-intensity and high-concentration ion implantation regimes including those with formation of doped layers at depths that exceed ion projective range for more than an order of magnitude are presented. At the expense of change in order and intensity of ion and plasma material treatment, the advantage of application of one source for execution of material surface pretreatment and activation regimes, formation of wide transition layers between the substrate and coating, coating deposition, and high-intensity ion mixing using ions of the same type was shown.

  17. A high current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Gensler, S.W.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Liu, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1997-12-31

    AASC is presently developing a vacuum arc ion source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) and other commercial applications. Induction linear accelerators that produce energetic heavy ions beams are a prime candidate for power-producing fusion reactors. A source of heavy ions with low emittance and low beam noise, 1+ to 3+ charge states, {approx}0.5 A current, 5--20 {micro}s pulse widths and {approximately}10 Hz repetition rates is required. A gadolinium (A {approx} 158) ion beam with {approx}0.12 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, {approx}2.5 cm diameter extraction aperture and 20 {micro}s pulse width has been produced for HIF studies. The authors have measured that >80% Gd ions were in the 2+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was {approx}1.5% and the beam emittance was {approx}0.3 {pi} mm mrad (normalized). With {approx}8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr background gas pressure, the beam was well space-charge neutralized and good propagation of the 20 {micro}s long Gd ion beams was observed. Details of the work will be presented. The results of the experiment imply that the vacuum arc ion source is a highly promising candidate for HIF applications.

  18. Advances in sputtered and ion plated solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1985-01-01

    The glow discharge or ion assisted vacuum deposition techniques, primarily sputtering and ion plating, have rapidly emerged and offer great potential to deposit solid lubricants. The increased energizing of these deposition processes lead to improved adherence and coherence, favorable morphological growth, higher density, and reduced residual stresses in the film. These techniques are of invaluable importance where high precision machines tribo-components require very thin, uniform lubricating films (0.2 m), which do not interface with component tolerances. The performance of sputtered MoS2 films and ion plated Au and Pb films are described in terms of film thickness, coefficient of friction, and wear lives.

  19. Filtered cathodic arc deposition with ion-species-selectivebias

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Lim, SunnieH.N.

    2006-10-05

    A dual-cathode arc plasma source was combined with acomputer-controlled bias amplifier such as to synchronize substrate biaswith the pulsed production of plasma. In this way, bias can be applied ina material-selective way. The principle has been applied to the synthesismetal-doped diamond-like carbon films, where the bias was applied andadjusted when the carbon plasma was condensing, and the substrate was atground when the metal was incorporated. In doing so, excessive sputteringby too-energetic metal ions can be avoided while the sp3/sp2 ratio can beadjusted. It is shown that the resistivity of the film can be tuned bythis species-selective bias. The principle can be extended tomultiple-material plasma sources and complex materials

  20. ARCS 3 ionospheric artificial argon ion beam injections - Waves near the heavy ion gyrofrequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlandson, R. E.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kaufmann, R. L.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Low-frequency electric field data below the proton gyrofrequency are presented for the duration of the argon ion beam experiment conducted as part of the Argon Release for Controlled Studies (ARCS) program. An argon ion beam was injected from the subpayload antiparallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field at altitudes from 250 to 405 km. During the injections, the wave spectra were broadband near the subpayload and narrow-band near heavy ion gyrofrequencies at perpendicular separation distances between 42 and 254 m. It is suggested that the narrow-band waves are associated with both the perpendicular argon ion beam and an unexpected flux of low-energy ions which peaked in energy near 15 eV and pitch angle near 90 deg with respect to the magnetic field.

  1. Generation of multicomponent ion beams by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, Yu. G.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents the results of time-of-flight mass spectrometry studies of the elemental and mass-to-charge state compositions of metal ion beams produced by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode (WC-Co{sub 0.5}, Cu-Cr{sub 0.25}, Ti-Cu{sub 0.1}). We found that the ion beam composition agrees well with the stoichiometric composition of the cathode material from which the beam is derived, and the maximum ion charge state of the different plasma components is determined by the ionization capability of electrons within the cathode spot plasma, which is common to all components. The beam mass-to-charge state spectrum from a compound cathode features a greater fraction of multiply charged ions for those materials with lower electron temperature in the vacuum arc cathode spot, and a smaller fraction for those with higher electron temperature within the spot. We propose a potential diagram method for determination of attainable ion charge states for all components of the compound cathodes.

  2. Generation of multicomponent ion beams by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode.

    PubMed

    Savkin, K P; Yushkov, Yu G; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the results of time-of-flight mass spectrometry studies of the elemental and mass-to-charge state compositions of metal ion beams produced by a vacuum arc ion source with compound cathode (WC-Co(0.5), Cu-Cr(0.25), Ti-Cu(0.1)). We found that the ion beam composition agrees well with the stoichiometric composition of the cathode material from which the beam is derived, and the maximum ion charge state of the different plasma components is determined by the ionization capability of electrons within the cathode spot plasma, which is common to all components. The beam mass-to-charge state spectrum from a compound cathode features a greater fraction of multiply charged ions for those materials with lower electron temperature in the vacuum arc cathode spot, and a smaller fraction for those with higher electron temperature within the spot. We propose a potential diagram method for determination of attainable ion charge states for all components of the compound cathodes. PMID:20192356

  3. Low jitter metal vapor vacuum arc ion source for electron beam ion trap injections

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Glenn E.; Boyer, Craig N.; Seely, John F.; Tan, J.N.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2005-07-15

    We describe a metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) ion source containing eight different cathodes that are individually selectable via the control electronics which does not require moving components in vacuum. Inside the vacuum assembly, the arc plasma is produced by means of a 30 {mu}s pulse (26 kV,125 A) delivering 2.4 mC of charge to the cathode sample material. The trigger jitter is minimized (<200 ns) to improve the capture efficiency of the ions which are injected into an ion trap. During a single discharge, the over-damped pulse produces an ion flux of 8.4x10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2}, measured by an unbiased Faraday cup positioned 20 cm from the extractor grid, at discharge rates up to 5 Hz. The electronic triggering of the discharge is via a fiber optic interface. We present the design, fabrication details, and performance of this MeVVA, recently installed on the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

  4. A Dangling Slab, Amplified Arc Volcanism, Mantle Flow and Seismic Anisotropy in the Kamchatka Plate Corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Levin, V.; Brandon, M. T.; Lees, J.; Peyton, V.; Gordeev, E.; Ozerov, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula in Russian East Asia lies at the junction of a transcurrent plate boundary, aligned with the western Aleutian Islands, and a steeply-dipping subduction zone with near-normal convergence. Seismicity patterns and P-wave tomography argue that subducting Pacific lithosphere terminates at the Aleutian junction, and that the downdip extension (>150km depth) of the slab edge is missing. Seismic observables of elastic anisotropy (SKS splitting and Love-Rayleigh scattering) are consistent with asthenospheric strain that rotates from trench-parallel beneath the descending slab to trench-normal beyond its edge. Present-day arc volcanism is concentrated near the slab edge, in the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch eruptive centers. Loss of the downdip slab edge, whether from thermo-convective or ductile instability, and subsequent ``slab-window'' mantle return flow is indicated by widespread Quaternary volcanism in the Sredinny range inland of Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch, as well as the inferred Quaternary uplift of the central Kamchatka depression. The slab beneath Klyuchevskoy has shallower dip (35o) than the subduction zone farther south (55o) suggesting a transient lofting of the slab edge, either from asthenospheric flow or the loss of downdip load. Such lofting may induce pressure-release melting to supply the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch eruptive centers. Petrologic indicators of high magma-peridotite equilibrium temperatures, long residence times for the hydrous arc-volcanic component, and weak expression of subducted sediment flux support the lofting hypothesis, and discourage an alternate interpretation in terms of accelerated slab rollback and/or a heightened influx of subducted volatiles. Over the late Cenozoic, the Komandorsky Basin subducted beneath northern Kamchatka and produced arc volcanics in the Sredinny Range. Several lines of evidence suggest the northeast migration of a plate triple junction (North America/Pacific/Komandorsky) along the

  5. Ion plated gold films: Properties, tribological behavior and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1987-01-01

    The glow discharge energizing favorably modifies and controls the coating/substrate adherence and the nucleation and growth sequence of ion plated gold films. As a result the adherence, coherence, internal stresses, and morphology of the films are significantly improved. Gold ion plated films because of their graded coating/substrate interface and fine uniform densely packed microstructure not only improve the tribological properties but also induce a surface strengthening effect which improves the mechanical properties such as yield, tensile, and fatigue strength. Consequently significant improvements in the tribological performance of ion plated gold films as compared to vapor deposited gold films are shown in terms of decreased friction/wear and prolonged endurance life.

  6. The new applications of sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential industrial applications of sputtering and ion plating are strictly governed by the unique features these methods possess. The outstanding features of each method, the resultant coating characteristics and the various sputtering modes and configurations are discussed. New, more complex coatings and deposits can be developed such as graded composition structures (metal-ceramic seals), laminated and dispersion strengthened composites which improve the mechanical properties and high temperature stability. Specific industrial areas where future effort of sputtering and ion plating will concentrate to develop intricate alloy or compound coatings and solve difficult problem areas are discussed.

  7. Growth defects in thick ion-plated coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial ion plating conditions were selected to deposit metallic coatings such as copper, gold, and chromium 2 micrometer thick on metal and glass substrates. The surface finishes of 304 stainless steel, copper, and brass were utilized with mechanically and electrolytically polished surfaces. Nodular growth occurred in these coatings during ion plating as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface irregularities such as scratches, steps, ledges, and so forth are responsible for outward growth, the typical cone type, whereas surface contaminants and loosely settled foreign particles are responsible for lateral growth; namely, the extreme localized surface outgrowths. These defect crystallographic features create porosity in the coatings when subjected to stresses and strains.

  8. Segmentation of plate coupling, fate of subduction fluids, and modes of arc magmatism in Cascadia, inferred from magnetotelluric resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Evans, Rob L.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Maris, Virginie; McGary, R. Shane

    2014-11-01

    magnetotelluric (MT) profiles have been acquired across the Cascadia subduction system and transformed using 2-D and 3-D nonlinear inversion to yield electrical resistivity cross sections to depths of ˜200 km. Distinct changes in plate coupling, subduction fluid evolution, and modes of arc magmatism along the length of Cascadia are clearly expressed in the resistivity structure. Relatively high resistivities under the coasts of northern and southern Cascadia correlate with elevated degrees of inferred plate locking, and suggest fluid- and sediment-deficient conditions. In contrast, the north-central Oregon coastal structure is quite conductive from the plate interface to shallow depths offshore, correlating with poor plate locking and the possible presence of subducted sediments. Low-resistivity fluidized zones develop at slab depths of 35-40 km starting ˜100 km west of the arc on all profiles, and are interpreted to represent prograde metamorphic fluid release from the subducting slab. The fluids rise to forearc Moho levels, and sometimes shallower, as the arc is approached. The zones begin close to clusters of low-frequency earthquakes, suggesting fluid controls on the transition to steady sliding. Under the northern and southern Cascadia arc segments, low upper mantle resistivities are consistent with flux melting above the slab plus possible deep convective backarc upwelling toward the arc. In central Cascadia, extensional deformation is interpreted to segregate upper mantle melts leading to underplating and low resistivities at Moho to lower crustal levels below the arc and nearby backarc. The low- to high-temperature mantle wedge transition lies slightly trenchward of the arc.

  9. Electroless nickel plating of arc discharge synthesized carbon nanotubes for metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannatham, M.; Sankaran, S.; Prathap, Haridoss

    2015-01-01

    Electroless nickel (EN) plating was performed on arc discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for various deposition times. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization techniques are used to identify the presence of nickel deposition on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the degree of graphitization. The results indicate that impurities are less in the purified CNTs as compared to raw carbon soot. Increasing deposition time up to 60 min increases uniform deposition of nickel throughout the length of the CNTs. However, for deposition time longer than 60 min, nickel particles are seen separated from the surface of the CNTs. Uniformly coated nickel CNTs throughout their length are potential candidates for reinforcements in composite materials. Magnetic properties of the nickel coated CNTs, with deposition time of 30 and 60 min were also evaluated. The magnetic saturation of nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 30 min is less compared to nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 60 min.

  10. The production of ion conics by oblique double layers. [of auroral arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetized test ions are subjected to acceleration through a numerically simulated oblique double layer in order to determine whether they emerge with velocity vectors aligned with or oblique to the ambient magnetic field. A criterion for oblique alignment, depending on the double-layer parameters and on the external magnetization, is obtained. When it is applied to observed and theoretical auroral double layers, this criterion predicts that accelerated heavy ions will be substantially less magnetic field aligned than will accelerated hydrogen ions, thus suggesting auroral double layers as a source of high-energy ion conics. Test particle simulations are also used to investigate the perpendicular heating of ions at low altitudes by the electric fields associated with moving auroral arcs. The rapid motion of small-scale structures in the arcs is suggested as a source of low-energy conical ion distributions, and the slow drifts of the entire arc forms are inferred to heat ionospheric ions.

  11. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  12. Charge state dependence of cathodic vacuum arc ion energy andvelocity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Schneider, Jochen M.; Anders, Andre

    2006-08-15

    In the literature, conflicting conclusions are reported concerning the charge state dependence of cathodic arc ion energy and velocity distributions. It appears that data from electrostatic energy analyzers indicate charge state dependence of ion energy, whereas time-of-flight methods support charge state independence of ion velocity. Here we present charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions and calculate the corresponding ion velocity distributions in aluminum vacuum arc plasma. We show that the conflicting conclusions reported in the literature for the two different characterization techniques may originate from the commonly employed data interpretation of energy and velocity, in which peak values and average values are not carefully distinguished.

  13. Chromium ion plating studies for enhancement of bearing lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Six 440-C hardened stainless steel roller bearing test rods were ion plated with various chromium films of thicknesses from .2 microns to 7 microns. The thinner (approximately .2 microns) coating sample had 3 times the fatigue life of the unplated (standard) specimens. Contrastingly, the samples having thicker coatings (several microns) had short fatigue lives (about 3% of the unplated standard).

  14. Transition from ring to beam arc distributions of water ions near the Space Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution function of water ions produced near the Space Shuttle by charge exchange between ionospheric oxygen ions and outgassed water molecules is studied. The transition from a ring to a beam arc distribution function is described. The number density of water ions is found to increase monotonically with decreasing distance from the Shuttle.

  15. Multiple ionization of metal ions by ECR heating of electrons in vacuum arc plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Zorin, V. G.; Razin, S. V.; Vizir, A. V.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2004-05-01

    A joint research and development effort has been initiated, whose ultimate goal is the enhancement of the mean ion charge states in vacuum arc metal plasmas by a combination of a vacuum arc discharge and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating. Metal plasma was generated by a special vacuum arc mini-gun. Plasma was pumped by high frequency gyrotron-generated microwave radiation. The results have demonstrated substantial multiple ionization of metal ions. For a lead plasma, ECR heating increased the maximum attainable ion charge state from Pb2+ up to Pb6+. The confinement parameter was as high as ˜109 cm-3 s. Further increase of the ion charge states will be attained by increasing the vacuum arc plasma density and optimizing the ECR heating conditions.

  16. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  17. A study of vacuum arc ion velocities using a linear set of probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenbild, Stefan; Grubel, Christoph; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-15

    The most likely velocity of ions moving away from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured using a set of probes along the path of plasma expansion. The goal was to determine how much, if any, change of the ion drift velocity occurs in the expanded plasma. The arc discharge current was perturbed to create plasma density markers whose travel is picked up by the set of probes. It was found that the perturbation with current oscillations did not result in consistent data because ion current maxima and minima are not only determined by the plasma production but by the transients of the arc pulse and by the asymmetry of the ion velocity distribution function. Perturbation with a short current spike was more conclusive. The ion velocity was measured to be slightly reduced with increasing distance from the cathode, which can be explained by collisions of ions with the background of neutrals. The ion velocity was increased when the arc current was increased, which correlated with enhanced arc voltage and power dissipation. The ion velocity could be enhanced when the plasma was produced in a non-uniform magnetic field.

  18. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding island arcs: Insights from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, U. S.; Marshak, S.; Granja Bruna, J.

    2008-12-01

    Thrust belts develop on both sides of island arcs at several localities around the world, such as southern Indonesia, Vanuatu, Panama, and the northeastern Caribbean. In all cases, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, an inactive arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bordered by a north-verging accretionary prism and the Puerto Rico trench on the north, and by the south-verging Muertos thrust belt and the Muertos trough on the south. There are three models to explain such bivergent thrusting: (1) Bivergent thrusting develops where a reversal of the polarity of subduction is underway and the backarc thrust system overlies an incipient subduction zone; (2) Compression of the backarc region due to trenchward traction, applied at the base of the overriding plate by the subduction process; and (3) The arc and both thrust systems constitute a bivergent thrust wedge, whose development is driven entirely by crustal-level forces applied at a single subduction zone. The third model implies that island arc bivergent thrusting is analogous to that which develops during continent-continent collisions. Observations of deformational features from the Muertos thrust belt together with inferences from regional geometry of island arcs and simple sandbox kinematic models, lead to the conclusion that such island arcs are best explained as crustal bivergent thrust wedges. Modeling suggests, in particular, that an imbricate thrust wedge in the backarc region develops only if the arc behaves as a relatively rigid block that can transmit compressive stresses to the backarc region. In such circumstances, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely in the forearc and arc, and the backarc is a frontal (dip-slip) thrust system. The rigid block behavior of the arc may be explained by its mafic composition.

  19. Upper plate absolute motion and slab-anchor force control on back-arc deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuret, A.; Lallemand, S.

    2003-04-01

    In order to test how the combined effects of overriding plate motion and trench migration can account for the variability of back-arc tectonic regimes, their "normal to the trench" absolute motion components and the strain regime of all oceanic subduction zones were compiled. Strain regime was estimated following Jarrard (1986), in a semiquantitative way. The upper plate absolute motion (Vup) is calculated in the hotspot HS3-NUVEL1A (Gripp and Gordon, 2002) reference frame and trench migration (Vt) from Vup, corrected from deformation rate of back-arc region, mainly given by GPS data. As slabs tend to sink because of their age-related-mass-excess relative to the surrounding mantle, it is generally assumed that most of the trenches have a spontaneous seaward motion (trench rollback). Ages at trench have thus also been compiled ( from Muller et al, 1997) to test a possible control of trench migration with slab age. Our values underline a high control of strain regime by Vup, but inconsistencies still remain with this single parameter. To account for all the observed deformations, trench migration is needed. There are more or less as much subduction zones with seaward Vt as landward ones, and, for 90% of subduction zones, Vt never reach 50 mm/y in the two directions. The expected relation between trench migration and slab age is far to be verified: landward trench migrations exist in many subduction zones, and, among them, many have old slabs. Several examples indicate that the slab tend to follow the trench migration and, so, to move transversely in the surrounding mantle. As a consequence, Vt is close to the "normal to the trench" slab migration and gives informations about the slab anchor force : slabs are not perfectly anchored but their possible motions appear to be limited. This 50 mm/y limitation of slab migration may provide new constraints on the poorly known slab-anchor force. No evidence of age related trench rollback have beeen found. It does not

  20. Plasma diagnostics in a PVD triode ion plating installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Stan Lambert Maria

    1998-12-01

    In this thesis, two diagnostics tools are combined to relate the plasma process parameters in the triode ion plating system (BAI 640) to the film microstructure of wear resistant coatings. As diagnostics tools, the energy-resolved mass analyzer of Balzers (PPM 421) and self-constructed Langmuir probes are used. The PPM 421 detects ion fluxes from the whole plasma volume, with its highest sensitivity along the axis of the ion optics while the probe measures electron and ion fluxes in the proximity of the probe. It is important to know which ions and which neutrals, with how much energy or speed, impinge on the surface of the substrates. An ion mass scan and a neutral mass scan, performed by the PPM 421 inserted next to the substrate table, can give information on the most important species, while the energy scan gives information on the energy distribution of these species. These so called energy spectra of neutrals and ions are a convolution of different energy distributions. This indicates that there are potential hills in the plasma were the ions can accelerate. The fast neutrals mostly originate from a charge exchange collision with the ions. The Langmuir probe can help to locate the potential hills in the plasma. Moreover, a simple current-voltage measurement, performed by this type of collecting probe, can give the value of the plasma parameters with some reasonable accuracy. In combination with the results of the film microstructure, performed by X-ray diffraction, the process parameters of a deposition can be optimized to obtain films with controlled adhesion properties, friction protection and microhardness. The configuration of the triode ion plating installation is given in its different modes used in this thesis, e.g. heating, etching and ion plating/evaporation mode. Finally, film properties, such as the macroscopic residual stress, the stress free lattice parameter, the preferred orientation, the Vickers microhardness and film thickness is discussed

  1. Evaluation of collagen immobilized to silicon plates by ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Iwaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    A study has been made of immobilization of collagen coated on the substrate by ion beam in order to elucidate the effects of ion bombardment on cell adhesion strength. Substrates used were silicon plates, on which 0.3% type-I collagen solution was coated using a spin coater. The collagen-coated silicon was bombarded with 50 keV He+ ions at doses from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1015 ions/cm2 using a RIKEN TK-100 ion implanter. The collagen-immobilized specimens were mounted on a parallel-plate flow chamber to perform the collagen adhesion tests with a flowing shear stress. Morphological observations of collagen were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The chemical condition of collagen was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The collagen layer in the non-bombarded specimen was about 20 nm in thickness. STEM micrographs showed that collagen layer has thinned due to contraction by ion bombardment as the dose increased. After the collagen adhesion test, collagen layer surface with the non-bombarded specimen was peeled off by shear stress. As the dose increased, the detachment of collagen was suppressed. Detachment of collagen was hardly observed for the dose of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2. The XPS results of collagen structures showed that ion bombardment generated new bonds between collagen molecules in the collagen layer. It is concluded that the increase of collagen adhesion at higher doses is due to the ion-beam immobilization of collagen molecules resulting from new bond generation by displaced atoms and excited atoms between collagen molecules in the collagen layer.

  2. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils concept (invited).

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Suominen, P; Tarvainen, O; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The main limitation to further improve the performance of ECR ion sources is set by the magnet technology related to the multipole magnet field used for the closed minimum-B structure. The JYFL ion source group has sought different approaches to improve the strength of the minimum-B structure required for the production of highly charged ion beams. It was found out that such a configuration can be realized with arc shaped coils. The first prototype, electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils (ARC-ECRIS), was constructed and tested at JYFL in 2006. It was confirmed that such an ion source can be used for the production of highly charged ion beams. Regardless of several cost-driven compromises such as extraction mirror ratio of 1.05-1.2, microwave frequency of 6.4 GHz, and beam line with limited capacity, Ar(4+) beam intensity of up to 2 μA was measured. Subsequent design study has shown that the ARC-ECRIS operating at the microwave frequency above 40 GHz could be constructed. This specific design would be based on NbTi-wires and it fulfills the experimental magnetic field scaling laws. In this article, the ARC-ECRIS concept and its potential applications will be described. PMID:22380159

  3. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  4. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-16

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focussed on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy ana-lyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimen-tary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpre-tation. It was found that the ion energy distribution func-tions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be re-duced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum.

  5. Durability of cutting inserts coated with ion-plated AlTiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădănac, A.; Bosoancă, G.; Manole, V.; Bălan, A. C.; Popa, M.; Huşanu, V.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that during the cutting processes, due to the high contact pressures, to the high temperatures, to the relative velocities and shocks between the contact surfaces tool-part can lead to a wear more or less pronounced of the metal carbide cutting inserts. Are known numerous coating processes regarding the increasing the durability of the used cutting inserts, namely by deposition of different materials, having protection role for the cutting inserts locating and clearance surfaces, methods as: vapor chemical deposition at low pressure, pulverization, cathodic arc ion plating, vacuum thermal evaporation and condensation from the vapor phase. Researches carried out by authors in this paper, have followed the deposition of aluminum and titanium materials (AlTiN) in thin layers, on surface of some metal carbide cutting inserts profiled. The depositions of AlTiN materials are new coatings which consists in deposition of the compound solid of AlTiN in the form of vapor in thin layers on different tools or/and the cutting inserts. In the purpose of increasing the cutting inserts durability, they used deposition method by cathodic arc ion plating in vacuum. The authors chose this method due to its advantages, which can be enumerate: the relatively low costs of the equipment, the simplicity in operation, the possibility to be used also to realize researches and industrial installations. As a result of using this method was found a considerable increase of the durability for the metal carbide cutting inserts coated with AlTiN materials, used in the cutting process compared to cutting inserts which were not coated.

  6. Ion currents and energies in reactive low-voltage ion plating: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlinger, Johannes P.; Pulker, Hans K.

    1990-12-01

    Reactive Low-Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) is a plasma-assisted evaporation process that produces anorganic oxide- and nitride films with a closed microstructure. in order to better understand the process and the resulting film properties a BALZERS PPM 400 Plasmamonitor, a combination of a quadrupole mass filter and an energy selective ion optics, has been used to study the relative abundancies and energy distributions of the ions impinging on the growing film in the RLVIP process. The device is discussed and preliminary results are presented: The plasma is anisotropic. Surprisingly it contains ions with higher energies than expected from the self-bias potential.

  7. Screen-Cage Ion Plating Of Silver On Polycrystalline Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1995-01-01

    Screen-cage ion plating (SCIP) cost-effective technique offering high throwing power for deposition of adherent metal films on ceramic substrates. Applies silver films to complexly shaped substrates of polycrystalline alumina. Silver adheres tenaciously and reduces friction. SCIP holds promise for applying lubricating soft metallic films to high-temperature ceramic components of advanced combustion engines. Other potential uses include coating substrates with metal for protection against corrosion, depositing electrical conductors on dielectric substrates, making optically reflective or electrically or thermally conductive surface layers, and applying decorative metal coats to ceramic trophies or sculptures.

  8. Influence of the ARC patterning method and annealing on the contact adhesion of Ni/Cu-plated solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jong Wook; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Doo Won; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-05-01

    Ni/Cu two-step plating is a promising metallization technique because low contact resistance and improved contact adhesion can be achieved after the Ni annealing process. Also, narrow fingers, which are required for high-efficiency solar cells, can be formed by plating. However, the reliability of contact adhesion is still considered one obstacle to industrializing solar cells with plated metal contacts. In this experiment, the influence of ARC opening methods on plated contact adhesion was investigated because the roughnesses of the Si surfaces produced by using pico-second laser ablation and photolithography may be different. Also, the annealing process was conducted before and after plating Cu/Ag metal stacks. The sequence of the annealing can be significant for efficient production because plating is a wet process while annealing is a dry process. The contact adhesion was measured by using a peel-off test. The test was conducted on a 1.5-mm-wide by a 60 ~ 70- mm-long bus bar area. A 3.2-N/mm adhesion force was recorded as a highest average value along the bus bar.

  9. Hybrid gas-metal co-implantation with a modified vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M.; Yushkov, G.Y.; Evans, P.J.; Oztarhan, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Liu, F.; MacGill, R.A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Wang, Z.

    1996-08-01

    Energetic beams of mixed metal and gaseous ion species can be generated with a vacuum arc ion source by adding gas to the arc discharge region. This could be an important tool for ion implantation research by providing a method for forming buried layers of mixed composition such as e.g. metal oxides and nitrides. In work to date, we have formed a number of mixed metal-gas ion beams including Ti+N, Pt+N, Al+O, and Zr+O. The particle current fractions of the metal-gas ion components in the beam ranged from 100% metallic to about 80% gaseous, depending on operational parameters. We have used this new variant of the vacuum arc ion source to carry out some exploratory studies of the effect of Al+O and Zr+O co-implantation on tribology of stainless steel. Here we describe the ion source modifications, species and charge state of the hybrid beams produced, and results of preliminary studies of surface modification of stainless steel by co-implantation of mixed Al/O or Zr/O ion beams. 5 figs, 21 refs.

  10. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  11. Noise factor of microchannel plate with ion barrier film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-lin; Shi, Feng; Li, Zhou-kui; Zhu, Yu-feng; Zhang, Ni; Gu, Yan; Sun, Jian-ning; Cong, Xiao-qing; Zhao, Hui-min; Pan, Jing-sheng; Qian, Yun-sheng; Zheng, Shao-cheng; Chang, Ben-kang

    2012-10-01

    According to definition of noise factor of microchannel plate and the test principle, the authors set up a test installation, and measured the numerical values of MCPs which were made of different materials and channel pore including no / with ion barrier film in input of MCP. In order to seek the technical approach to reduce noise factor of MCP at the same time, we tested and analyzed the relation between noise factor and MCP voltage, combined relation between signal-to-noise ratio of GEN Ⅲ image intensifier and MCP voltage, open out relation between signal-to-noise ratio of GEN Ⅲ image intensifier and noise factor of MCP with ion barrier film.

  12. Multiple Ionization Of Metal Ions By ECR Heating Of Electrons In Vacuum Arc Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Razin, S. V.; Savkin, K. P.

    2005-03-01

    A joint research and development effort has been initiated, whose ultimate goal is the enhancement the mean ion charge states in vacuum arc metal plasmas by a combination of a vacuum arc discharge and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating. Metal plasma was generated by a special vacuum arc mini-gun and injected into mirror magnetic trap. Plasma was pumped by high frequency gyrotron-generated microwave radiation (frequency 37.5 GHz, max power 100 kW, pulse duration 1.5 ms). Using of powerful microwaves makes it possible to sustain sufficient temperature of electrons needed for multiple ionizations at high plasma density (more then 1013 cm-3). Parameter of multiple ionization efficiency Neτi, where Ne is plasma density, τi, is ion lifetime, in such a case could reach rather high value ˜109 cm-3-s. In our situation τi = Ltrap/Vi, where Ltrap is trap length, Vi is plasma gun flow velocity. The results have demonstrated substantial multiple ionization of metal ions (including metals with high melting temperature). For a metal (lead, platinum) plasma, ECR heating shifted the average ion charge up to 5+. Further increase of the ion charge states will be attained by increasing the vacuum arc plasma density and optimizing the ECR heating conditions.

  13. Production of distributed phase plates using an energetic ion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas J.; Warner, Joy A.; LeBarron, Nelson E.; LaDelia, Salvatore

    1999-04-01

    Laser-driven implosion experiments require optical phase conversion to create a uniformly irradiated target. Distributed phase plates provide a quasi-random phase front that aids in beam smoothing on the target; however, the DPP must survive the high fluences of the tripled OMEGA beam at 351 nm. The continuous DPP produces higher efficiency and less risk of damage to opposing optics than the previous binary design. DPPs are created by exposing a gray scale pattern in photoresist and then etching the pattern in to silica. Several problems were solved during the development stage of ion etching DPPs. The etch uniformity was limited to less than 6 percent across a 28-cm clear aperture by modeling the 16-cm ion source and erosion characteristics of the photoresist and silica. Surface texturing was linked to overheating of the photoresist by the ion source and was solved by radiant cooling. Near-field defects capable of focusing damage in levels of fluence on downstream optics were created in the photoresist exposure process and were removed after etching. The damage thresholds of the silica surface generally increase after etching is fare is taken to avoid re-sputtering of tooling onto the optics surface. Sixty ion-etched DPPs were installed in December 1997 and, currently, damage has not been observed on the optics.

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Plasma Arc Brazed AISI 304L Stainless Steel and Galvanized Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yajuan; Li, Ruifeng; Yu, Zhishui; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Plasma arc brazing is used to join the AISI 304L stainless steel and galvanized steel plate butt joints with the CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. The effect of parameters on weld surface appearance, interfacial microstructure, and composition distribution in the joint was studied. The microhardness and mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the welded specimens. The results indicated that good appearance, bead shape, and sufficient metallurgical bonding could be obtained when the brazing process was performed with a wire feeding speed of 0.8 m/min, plasma gas flow rate of 3.0 l/min, welding current of 100 A, and welding speed of 27 cm/min. During plasma arc brazing process, the top corner of the stainless steel and galvanized steel plate were heated and melted, and the melted quantity of stainless steel was much more than that of the galvanized steel due to the thermal conductivity coefficient difference between the dissimilar materials. The microhardness test results shows that the microhardness value gradually increased from the side of the galvanized steel to the stainless steel in the joint, and it is good for improving the mechanical properties of joint. The tensile strength was a little higher than that of the brazing filler, and the fracture position of weld joint was at the base metal of galvanized steel plate.

  15. Effects of filament geometry on the arc efficiency of a high-intensity He+ ion source.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, T; Kisaki, M; Shinto, K; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Sasao, M; Tsumori, K; Kaneko, O; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Hirano, Y; Wada, M

    2008-10-01

    A strongly focusing high-intensity He(+) ion source equipped with three concave electrodes has been designed and constructed as the beam source for a high-energy He(0) neutral beam probe system to diagnose fusion-produced alpha particles in thermonuclear fusion plasmas. The reduction of heat load onto the concave extraction electrodes is particularly important for a long pulse operation, as the heat load deforms the electrodes and thus the beam focal length. The effects on the arc efficiency (beam current/arc power) of the ion source due to the discharge filament structure (straight-type and L-shape-type filaments), size (filament diameters of 2 and 1.5 mm), number, and the locations have been studied. Choice of the appropriate filament structure improved the arc efficiency by 17%. PMID:19044629

  16. Generation of high charge state platinum ions on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Nikolaev, A G; Izotov, I V; Savkin, K P; Golubev, S V; Oks, E M

    2014-02-01

    The hybrid high charge metal ion source based on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation into simple magnetic trap has been developed. Two types of magnetic traps were used: a mirror configuration and a cusp one with inherent "minimum-B" structure. Pulsed high power (>100 kW) gyrotrons with frequency 37.5 GHz and 75 GHz were used for heating the vacuum arc plasma injected into the traps. Two different ways were used for injecting the metal plasma-axial injection by a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and simultaneous radial injection by a number of sources mounted radially at the midplane of the traps. This article represents all data gathered for platinum ions, thus making comparison of the experimental results obtained with different traps and injections convenient and accurate. PMID:24593607

  17. Measurements of the Ion Species of Cathodic Arc Plasma in an Axial Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-19

    Metal and gas ion species and their charge state distributions were measured for pulsed copper cathodic arcs in argon background gas in the presence of an axial magnetic field. It was found that changing the cathode position relative to anode and ion extraction system as well as increasing the gas pressure did not much affect the arc burning voltage and the related power dissipation. However, the burning voltage and power dissipation greatly increased as the magnetic field strength was increased. The fraction of metal ions and the mean ion charge state were reduced as the discharge length was increased. The observations can be explained by the combination of charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization. They confirm that previously published data on characteristic material-dependent charge state distributions (e.g., Anders and Yushkov, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, pp. 4824-4832, 2002) are not universal but valid for high vacuum conditions and the specifics of the applied magnetic fields.

  18. Ion Species and Charge States of Vacuum Arc Plasma with Gas Feed and Longitudinal Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-06-23

    The evolution of copper ion species and charge state distributions is measured for a long vacuum arc discharge plasma operated in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of several 10 mT and working gas (Ar). It was found that changing the cathode-anode distance within 20 cm as well as increasing the gas pressure did not affect the arc burning voltage and power dissipation by much. In contrast, burning voltage and power dissipation were greatly increased as the magnetic field was increased. The longer the discharge gap the greater was the fraction of gaseous ions and the lower the fraction of metal ions, while the mean ion charge state was reduced. It is argued that the results are affected by charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization.

  19. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  20. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.; Oztarhan, A.; Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal-gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the "inverse" concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  1. Overriding plate deformation and variability of fore-arc deformation during subduction: Insight from geodynamic models and application to the Calabria subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter P.; Duarte, João. C.

    2015-10-01

    In nature, subducting slabs and overriding plate segments bordering subduction zones are generally embedded within larger plates. Such large plates can impose far-field boundary conditions that influence the style of subduction and overriding plate deformation. Here we present dynamic laboratory models of progressive subduction in three-dimensional space, in which the far-field boundary conditions at the trailing edges of the subducting plate (SP) and overriding plate (OP) are varied. Four configurations are presented: Free (both plates free), SP-Fixed, OP-Fixed, and SP-OP-Fixed. We investigate their impact on the kinematics and dynamics of subduction, particularly focusing on overriding plate deformation. The results indicate that the variation in far-field boundary conditions has an influence on the slab geometry, subduction partitioning, and trench migration partitioning. Our models also indicate that in natural (narrow) subduction zones, assuming a homogeneous overriding plate, the formation of back-arc basins (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, Aegean Sea, and Scotia Sea) is generally expected to occur at a comparable location (250-700 km from the trench), irrespective of the boundary condition. In addition, our models indicate that the style of fore-arc deformation (shortening or extension) is influenced by the mobility of the overriding plate through controlling the force normal to the subduction zone interface (trench suction). Our geodynamic model that uses the SP-OP-Fixed setup is comparable to the Calabria subduction zone with respect to subduction kinematics, slab geometry, trench curvature, and accretionary configuration. Furthermore, the model can explain back-arc and fore-arc extension at the Calabria subduction zone since the latest middle Miocene as a consequence of subduction of the narrow Calabrian slab and the immobility of the subducting African plate and overriding Eurasian plate. This setting induced strong trench suction, driving fore-arc extension, and

  2. Ion-plating of solar cell arrays encapsulation task: LSA project 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkers, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An ion plating process by which solar cells can be metallized and AR coated, yielding efficiencies equal to or better than state-of-the-art cells, was developed. It was demonstrated that ion plated AR films may be used as an effective encapsulant, offering primary protection for the metallization. It was also shown that ion plated metallization and AR coatings can be consistent with the project cost goals.

  3. Oligocene and Miocene arc volcanism in northeastern California: evidence for post-Eocene segmentation of the subducting Farallon plate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, J.P.; Egger, A.E.; John, D.A.; Cousens, B.; Fleck, R.J.; Henry, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    axis of the modern arc in northeastern California, suggesting that the Cascade arc south of modern Mount Shasta migrated west during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, while the arc north of Mount Shasta remained in essentially the same position. We interpret these patterns as evidence for an Eocene to Miocene tear in the subducting slab, with a more steeply dipping plate segment to the north, and an initially more gently dipping segment to the south that gradually steepened from the Middle Miocene to the present.

  4. Along-Arc Variation in Slab Surface Temperature Caused By 3D Material Circulation at the Plate Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishige, M.; Van Keken, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the northeast Japan arc, we can observe the along-arc variation of Quaternary volcano distribution, topography, seismic wave velocity, and Bouguer gravity anomaly whose characteristic wavelength is ~80 km. These observations may be related to 3D thermal structure in the mantle wedge and/or subducting Pacific slab. As a possible explanation of this, small-scale convection in the mantle wedge of thermal and chemical origin has been proposed so far. In this presentation, we will show another possible explanation for it. It is known mainly based on surface heat flow observation that the mantle wedge in this region is decoupled from the subducting Pacific slab down to ~80 km depth for geological time scale. We also observe that the down-dip limit of low angle thrust type earthquakes in this region is ~50 km depth. These suggest that in the northeast Japan arc, the mantle wedge and the slab decouples by brittle failure down to 50 km depth and by plastic deformation from 50 to 80 km depth. In order to test the effects of the plate interface on the thermal structure in this region, we construct 3D finite element models. The mantle flow is computed only in the mantle wedge, whereas temperature is computed for the whole model domain. We assume a thin, low viscosity layer just above the slab surface from 50 to 80 km depth to decouple the mantle wedge and the slab. We find that the along-arc variation in the slab surface temperature gradually develops with time. Its characteristic wavelength is ~100 km, which is comparable to or slightly higher than that observed. It arises because of the small-scale 3D circulation in the assumed low viscosity layer. The wavelength and the time of onset may depend on the viscosity and dimension of the low viscosity layer. Surface heat flow, on the other hand, does not show significant along-arc variation because forearc mantle is kept cold and hence rigid. These findings suggest that the observed along-arc variation in the northeast Japan

  5. Morphology of gold and copper ion-plated coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Copper and gold films (0.2 to 2 microns thick) were ion plated onto polished 304-stainless-steel, glass, mica surfaces. These coatings were examined by SEM for defects in their morphological growth. Three types of defects were distinguished: nodular growth, abnormal or runaway growth, and spits. The cause for each type of defect was investigated. Nodular growth is due to inherent substrate microdefects, abnormal or runaway growth is due to external surface inclusions, and spits are due to nonuniform evaporation (ejection of droplets). All these defects induce stresses and produce porosity in the coatings and thus weaken their mechanical properties. During surface rubbing, large nodules are pulled out, leaving vacancies in the coatings.

  6. Contribution of neutral production to ion flux from a vacuum arc source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Stanley, Jr.; Lockner, Thomas R.

    1996-02-01

    This article describes studies of the effect of electrode spacing on the performance of vacuum arc plasma sources for ion accelerators and other applications. We measured the time-resolved emission of neutrals from a compact arc source with a titanium cathode and 100 A drive current and found that the source emitted roughly 100 atoms for each extracted ion. The inferred neutral pressure in the arc gap was about 500 mTorr. The result suggested the possibility of achieving significant ionization in the plasma expansion region by increasing the anode-cathode gap length, thereby forcing the drive current to flow through the gas column. With a new two-stage trigger, we were able to ignite arcs with gaps as long as 20 cm. Extended gaps doubled the ion flux, gave better output directionality, and helped to stabilize the location of emission spots on the cathode. These improvements, coupled with direct observations of discharge luminosity, support the hypothesis of ionization of the expanding vapor.

  7. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2008-02-01

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed. PMID:18315170

  8. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Khizhnyak, V. I.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2008-02-15

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 {mu}s, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  9. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.

  10. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Frolova, V P

    2016-02-01

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%. PMID:26931963

  11. Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S. H. Fang, X.; Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup −} beam with ε {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 π mm mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup −}}/I{sub H{sup −}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

  12. The alpine paleo-arcs in the Adriatic plate margin (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Silvana; Vigano', Alfio; Macera, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The North-eastern Italy (Adriatic paleo-margin) is a laboratory to study past orogenetic processes. The paleo-margin was involved in the subduction of the Mesozoic Tethys lithosphere with development of (a) an early magmatic belt, (b) a typical fore-arc crust, (c) a back-arc crust and (d) a collisional paleo-arc. Early alpine magmatic belt. This is represented by the Re di Castello, Central Adamello, Mt. Marser and Corno Alto plutons of ultrabasic to intermediate composition, the Mt. Ospedale diorite dykes, and other ultrabasic to andesitic dykes distributed in the Southern Alps basement and cover. The ages of these magmatic rocks span between Upper Cretaceous (Northern Calcareous Alps and Dolomites), Paleocene (Val Camonica and Valtellina) and Middle Eocene (Adamello). Volcanics of Middle Eocene age are widespread in the Western Trentino and in the Southern Lombardy sedimentary sequences. In Trentino they crop out in a very restricted zone because of the transpressive deformation and shortening of the Giudicarie fault zone. Adriatic fore-arc crust. This is represented by the high-grade Austroalpine Tonale nappe and the Lombardian Edolo/Morbegno basements which show evidence of a pervasive crustal deformation. These basements show swarms of pseudotachylytes often associated to mylonites, testifying crustal deformation at a critical depth in the Adriatic paleo-margin during the alpine subduction/collision. Adriatic back-arc crust. This is testified by Paleocene to Oligocene ultrabasic to basic dykes and volcanics in the Venetian region. These volcanic rocks show HIMU-DM-OIB geochemical features, ascribed to deep mantle upwelling after a possible failure of the slab. Collisional paleo-arc. Subduction was followed by a collisional to post-collisional magmatism at Oligocene, characterized by intrusion of large tonalite to quartz-diorite plutons (e.g., Western Adamello, Presanella, Ries, Rensen), apophyses, dykes and volcanics, very common in the Southern Alps and in

  13. The Relationships of Plate Triple-junction Evolution, Trench-Arc Lengthening, Boninite Generation, and SSZ Spreading Centers to Ophiolite Formation, High-Temperature Soles, and Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Dewey, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A review of modern-day island arcs, the locations of boninite eruptions, the conditions necessary for hot upper plate spreading, potential regions of shallow SSZ flux melting, and formation of high-temperature metamorphic soles along the subduction channels indicates that many future, recent and ancient large slab ophiolite obduction events can be related to triple junctions that link SSZ spreading centers with trenches. These subduction systems leading to large slab ophiolite obduction events typically face stable continental margins. Boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high-temperature and low-pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic mantle asthenosphere and lithosphere, which previously likely experienced melt extraction. Metamorphic conditions associated with metamorphic soles formation likewise require a hot upper plate lithosphere that, based on sole protolith, geochronologic and thermochronologic data, rapidly heats and then refrigerates and decompresses MORB-OIB type subcreted lithosphere. Numerous examples of present-day and recent SSZ spreading centers that link with two trenches or a trench and transform are considered ideal sites for ophiolite and boninite generation. The SZZ fore-arc spreading centers that link to the trench lines and triple junctions at the front of the arc may also continue towards the arc and back arc, creating no distinction between fore-arc and back-arc spreading episodes or to the transform-linked spreading centers from fore-arc to back arc. These SSZ spreading centers, which may be transiently produced during arc evolution over short or protracted time periods, act to open gaps in the arc massif and lengthen the trench, fore-arc and the arc crustal massif. They lead to an evolving arc magmatic front that begins in the infant fore-arc where ophiolite generation occurs at, near or in

  14. Origin of the oceanic basalt basement of the Solomon Islands arc and its relationship to the Ontong Java Plateau-insights from Cenozoic plate motion models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cenozoic global plate motion models based on a hotspot reference frame may provide a useful framework for analyzing the tectonic evolution of the Solomon Islands convergent margin. A postulated late Miocene collision of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) with a NE-facing arc is consistent with the predicted path of the OJP across the Pacific Basin and its Miocene arrival at the trench. Late-stage igneous activity (65-30 Ma) predicted for the OJP as it rode over the Samoan hotspot occurred in correlative stratigraphic sections on Malaita, the supposed accreted flake of OJP in the Solomon Islands arc. Convergence similar to the present velocities between Australia and the Pacific plates was characteristic of the last 43 million years. Prior to 43 Ma Pacific-Australia plate motions were divergent, seemingly at odds with geologic evidence for early Tertiary convergence, particularly in Papua New Guinea. A postulated South Pacific plate may have existed between Australia and the Pacific plate and would have allowed implied northward subduction along the northeastern Australia plate boundary that lasted into the early Eocene. Subsequent reorganization of plate motions in the middle Eocene correlates with middle Eocene marginal basin formation along ridges oblique to the main plate boundary. Cessation of spreading on the Pacific-South Pacific Ridge and its subsequent subduction beneath Asia followed the change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma. A trapped remnant of the extinct, NW-trending ridge may still lie beneath the western Philippine Sea. The terminal deformation, metamorphism and ophiolite obduction in the Eocene orogen of the southwest Pacific also correlates with the major change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma and the subsequent compression of the dying Eocene arc against outlying continental and oceanic crustal blocks of the Australian plate. The Solomon Islands oceanic basement may represent juxtaposition of oceanic plateaus of the Australian plate beneath

  15. Variations of upper plate mechanics, seismicity, and arc volcanism along the Middle America Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, J.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.; van Dinther, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Middle America Trench (MAT) extends from the Riviera Fracture Zone offshore Mexico down to the Panama Fracture Zone. Along the MAT, the oceanic Cocos plate changes in character from the older, deeper and relatively smooth plate offshore Guatemala-Nicaragua to the ~20 km thick crust of Cocos Ridge off Costa Rica. These changes occur because the northern part of the the Cocos plate has been formed at the East Pacific Rise, while the southern part is formed at the Cocos-Nazca spreading center, which is in turn influenced by the Galapagos Hotspot, originating prominent submarine structures such as the Cocos Ridge. In contrast, the terrane forming the overriding plate in the Pacific convergent margin, which is mainly made by the Caribbean Igneous Province rocks, is relatively homogeneous. Thus, this region is an excellent natural example to study the effect of changes in the incoming plate on the tectonics and deformation of the overriding plate. The Nicaragua lake in the north is a result of upper plate extension related to rollback of the subducting slab, whereas in the south, the Talamanca Cordillera indicates compression of the Caribbean crust probably related with the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. We present numerical models that help to understand the long-term effects of variable subducting oceanic crust age and thickness on upper plate deformation and magmatism. Furthermore, we investigate the seismic behavior of these different convergent systems. The applied numerical model consists of a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical finite difference scheme with visco-elasto-plastic rheology and a stick-slip frictional formulation to simulate spontaneous nucleation, propagation and arrest of earthquake-like ruptures on physically consistent faults.

  16. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  17. Ion velocities in direct current arc plasma generated from compound cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhirkov, I.; Rosen, J.; Eriksson, A. O.

    2013-12-07

    Arc plasma from Ti-C, Ti-Al, and Ti-Si cathodes was characterized with respect to charge-state-resolved ion energy. The evaluated peak velocities of different ion species in plasma generated from a compound cathode were found to be equal and independent on ion mass. Therefore, measured difference in kinetic energies can be inferred from the difference in ion mass, with no dependence on ion charge state. The latter is consistent with previous work. These findings can be explained by plasma quasineutrality, ion acceleration by pressure gradients, and electron-ion coupling. Increasing the C concentration in Ti-C cathodes resulted in increasing average and peak ion energies for all ion species. This effect can be explained by the “cohesive energy rule,” where material and phases of higher cohesive energy generally result in increasing energies (velocities). This is also consistent with the here obtained peak velocities around 1.37, 1.42, and 1.55 (10{sup 4} m/s) for ions from Ti{sub 0.84}Al{sub 0.16}, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}, and Ti{sub 0.90}C{sub 0.10} cathodes, respectively.

  18. Measurement of electron temperature and density in the DIII-D neutral beam ion source arc chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, D.H.; Busath, J.; Hong, R.

    1993-10-01

    A swept-bias Langmuir probe diagnostic was employed with the DIII-D neutral beam ion source in an effort to study the effects of filament temperature, arc power, and backstreaming energetic electrons on the electron temperature and density of the arc discharge inside the ion source arc chamber. The arc chamber contains six Langmuir probes biased with a negative dc voltage. These probes provide a feedback signal for regulation of the arc power supply, and give a relative indication of plasma uniformity within the arc chamber. For this study, one probe was reconnected to a voltage-sweeping power supply, and probe current versus voltage characteristics were generated. These characteristics provided the information necessary to calculate electron temperature and density. With arc discharge only, the results demonstrated that an filament temperature increases, so does electron density. Electron temperature decreases at a faster rate, however, as required to maintain constant ion maturation current (regulated by the arc power supply). The results also demonstrated that increasing arc power (through control of the arc power supply) results in higher electron temperature and density. Experiments were also performed with probe voltage sweeps during beam extraction, at various accelerator voltage levels and at different delay times after beam turn-on with a fixed acceleration voltage. These results indicated an increase in electron temperature and density as acceleration voltage is increased. However, nearly identical trends result when arc discharges are produced at the same parameter settings as during these beams, but without beam extraction. This indicates minimal influence of backstreaming energetic electrons on electron temperature and density in the arc chamber. Temperature and density also remain fairly constant over time during a long beam pulse.

  19. [Preliminary study of atomic emission spectrometry of Ti (H) plasma produced by vacuum arc ion source].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-Feng; Wu, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yi-Fu; Lu, Biao; Wen, Zhong-Wei

    2014-03-01

    In order to study the discharge process of vacuum arc ion source, make a detail description of the discharge plasma, and lay the foundation for further research on ion source, atomic emission spectrometry was used to diagnose the parameters of plasma produced by vaccum arc ion source. In the present paper, two kinds of analysis method for the emission spectra data collected by a spectrometer were developed. Those were based in the stark broadening of spectral lines and Saba-Boltzmann equation. Using those two methods, the electron temperature, electron number density and the ion temperature of the plasma can be determined. The emission spectroscopy data used in this paper was collected from the plasma produced by a vacuum are ion source whose cathode was made by Ti material (which adsorbed hydrogen during storage procedure). Both of the two methods were used to diagnose the plasma parameters and judge the thermal motion state of the plasma. Otherwise, the validity of the diagnostic results by the two methods were analyzed and compared. In addition, the affection from laboratory background radiation during the spectral acquisition process was discussed. PMID:25208416

  20. Transition from ring to beam arc distributions of water ions near the space shuttle orbiter

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, I.H. )

    1990-09-01

    The distribution function of water ions produced near the space shuttle by charge exchange between ionospheric oxygen ions and outgassed water molecules is investigated using solutions of Liouville's equation with a source term modeling the charge exchange process. A transition from ring distributions to beamlike distributions termed beam arc distributions is found with decreasing distance upstream from the orbiter. This beam arc distribution corresponds to a finite section of a ring distribution and not to a conventional beam distribution. The ratio of water ion number density to oxygen ion number density is calculated; typical values within 50 m of the shuttle are in excess of 2% with a maximum value of the order of 20% for nominal parameters, suggsting that these ions must be considered with interpreting particle data from near the space shuttle. An argument for a plasma density enhancement of the order of 10% very close to the shuttle, due to kinematic effects (corresponding to pileup of plasma) and not to plasma creation, is also presented. This kinetmatic density enhancement is insufficient, by an order of magnitude, to explain the plasma density enhancements inferred from Spacelab 2 data.

  1. Analysis of structure and bonding strength of AlTiN coatings by cathodic ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejun, Kong; Haoyuan, Guo

    2015-04-01

    AlTiN coating was prepared on the surface of YT14 hard alloy cutter by cathodic arc ion plating, and the surface-interface morphologies, line scans of the interface elements and valence state of chemical elements were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively, and bonding strength of the coating was measured with scratching tester. The results show that the elements of Al and N mainly exist in the AlTiN coating with an AlN and AlTiN hard phase, and (the) Ti element mainly exists in the coating with a TiN hard phase, which improve wear resistance of AlTiN coating. The elements of Al, Ti and N are diffused at the coating interface, in which part of Ti atoms are replaced by Al atoms at the TiN lattice, still keep face-centered cubic structure of TiN coating to form metallurgical bonding, and bonding strength of the coating interface measured by scratching tester is 78.75 N, which is beneficial to improving service life of AlTiN coating prepared on the surface of carbide tool cutter.

  2. Crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, remnant arc on the Philippine Sea plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Azusa; Kaneda, Kentaro; Oikawa, Mitsuhiro

    2016-02-01

    We acquired 27 wide-angle seismic profiles to investigate variation in crustal structure along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a 2600-km-long remnant island arc in the center of the Philippine Sea plate; 26 lines were shot across the strike of the KPR at 13°-31°N, and one was shot along the northernmost KPR. The derived P-wave velocity (Vp) models show that the KPR has a crustal thickness of 8-23 km, which is thicker than the neighboring backarc basin oceanic crusts of the West Philippine Basin to the west and the Shikoku and Parece Vela Basins to the east. While the KPR crust consists mainly of lower crusts with a Vp of 6.8-7.2 km/s, the thicker crust contains a thick middle crust with Vp of 6.0-6.8 km/s. In general, the KPR crust is thicker in the north than in the south. The uppermost mantle velocities just below the KPR bathymetric highs are lower than 8.0 km/s and are commonly associated with a slightly high Vp of 7.2 km/s at the base of the crust. Large amplitude reflection signals are sometimes observed at far offsets on several lines suggesting the existence of several reflectors at depths of 23-40 km in the mantle beneath the KPR. The characteristics of these reflections are similar to these observed beneath the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) island arc, the tectonically conjugate arc of the KPR before backarc basin spreading. Very thin crust and high Pn velocities characterize the transition between the KPR and the eastern basins, which is probably a relic of the initial stage of the rifting. West of the KPR, the crust varies in structure from north to south as a result of the different tectonic settings in which it evolved.

  3. Seismicity and the nature of plate movement along the Himalayan arc, Northeast India and Arakan-Yoma: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. K.; Kumar, G. V. R. Krishna

    1987-03-01

    The Himalaya together with Arakan-Yoma form a well defined seismic belt to the north and east of the Indian Peninsula. The Seismicity along this belt is attributed mostly to collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates. However, the exact nature of activity along the major thrusts and faults is not well understood. The seismicity along the entire Himalaya and Northern Burma has been studied in detail. It has been found that besides the Main Boundary Fault and the Main Central Thrust several transverse features are also very active. Some of these behave like steeply dipping fracture zones. Along the Arakan-Yoma most of the seismicity appears to be due to subduction of the Indian lithosphere to the east. Analysis of focal mechanism solutions for the Himalaya shows that although thrust movements are predominant, normal and strike-slip faulting is taking place along some of the transverse features. In addition to thrusting, strike-slip faulting is also taking place along the Arakan-Yoma. Orientation of P-axes for all thrust solutions show a sharp change from predominantly east-west along the Burmese arc to N-S and NE-SW along the Himalaya. The direction further changes to NW-SE along the Baluchistan arc. It appears that the Indian lithosphere is under compression from practically all sides. The present day seismicity of Northeast India and Northern Burma can be explained in terms of a plate tectonics model after Nandy (1976). No simple model appears to be applicable for the entire Himalaya.

  4. The ancestral cascades arc: Cenozoic evolution of the central Sierra Nevada (California) and the birth of the new plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, C.J.; Hagan, J.C.; Putirka, K.; Pluhar, C.J.; Gans, P.B.; Wagner, D.L.; Rood, D.; DeOreo, S.B.; Skilling, I.

    2008-01-01

    We integrate new stratigraphic, structural, geochemical, geochronological, and magnetostratigraphic data on Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada to arrive at closely inter-related new models for: (1) the paleogeography of the ancestral Cascades arc, (2) the stratigraphic record of uplift events in the Sierra Nevada, (3) the tectonic controls on volcanic styles and compositions in the arc, and (4) the birth of a new plate margin. Previous workers have assumed that the ancestral Cascades arc consisted of stratovolcanoes, similar to the modern Cascades arc, but we suggest that the arc was composed largely of numerous, very small centers, where magmas frequently leaked up strands of the Sierran frontal fault zone. These small centers erupted to produce andesite lava domes that collapsed to produce block-and-ash flows, which were reworked into paleocanyons as volcanic debris flows and streamflow deposits. Where intrusions rose up through water-saturated paleocanyon fill, they formed peperite complexes that were commonly destabilized to form debris flows. Paleocanyons that were cut into Cretaceous bedrock and filled with Oligocene to late Miocene strata not only provide a stratigraphic record of the ancestral Cascades arc volcanism, but also deep unconformities within them record tectonic events. Preliminary correlation of newly mapped unconformities and new geochronological, magnetostratigraphic, and structural data allow us to propose three episodes of Cenozoic uplift that may correspond to (1) early Miocene onset of arc magmatism (ca. 15 Ma), (2) middle Miocene onset of Basin and Range faulting (ca. 10 Ma), and (3) late Miocene arrival of the triple junction (ca. 6 Ma), perhaps coinciding with a second episode of rapid extension on the range front. Oligocene ignimbrites, which erupted from calderas in central Nevada and filled Sierran paleocanyons, were deeply eroded during the early Miocene uplift event. The middle Miocene event is recorded by growth

  5. Rolling contact fatigue life of chromium ion plated 440C bearing steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.; Davis, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) test specimens of heat treated 440C bearing steel were chromium ion plated in thicknesses from 0.1 to 8.0 micron and tested in RCF tester using 700 ksi maximum Hertzian stress. Heavy coatings, greater than about 5 micron in thickness, peeled off or spalled readily, whereas thin coatings, less than 3 micron thick, were tenacious and did not come off. Furthermore, significant improvement in RCF life was obtained with thin chromium ion plated test specimens. The average increase in B10 life was 75% compared with unplated 440C. These preliminary results indicate that ion plating is a promising way to improve bearing life.

  6. Development of high efficiency Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source at CERN ISOLDEa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penescu, L.; Catherall, R.; Lettry, J.; Stora, T.

    2010-02-01

    We report here recent developments of Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility, hosted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). As a result of the propositions to improve the ionization efficiency, two FEBIAD prototypes have been produced and successfully tested in 2008. Off-line studies showed that the 1+ ionization efficiencies for noble gases are 5-20 times larger than with the standard ISOLDE FEBIAD ion sources and reach 60% for radon, which allowed the identification at ISOLDE of R229n, an isotope that had never previously been observed in the laboratory. A factor of 3 increase is also expected for the ionization efficiency of the other elements. The experimental and theoretical methodology is presented. The theoretical model, which gives precise insights on the processes affecting the ionization, is used to design optimal sources (grouped under the name of VADIS—Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source) for the different chemical classes of the produced isotopes, as already demonstrated for the noble gases.

  7. Inner Surface Modification of a Tube by Magnetic Glow-Arc Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gu-Ling; Wang, Jiu-Li; Wu, Xing-Fang; Feng, Wen-Ran; Chen, Guang-Liang; Gu, Wei-Chao; Niu, Er-Wu; Fan, Song-Hua; Liu, Chi-Zi; Yang, Si-Ze

    2006-05-01

    A new method named the magnetic glow-arc plasma source ion implantation (MGA-PSII) is proposed for inner surface modification of tubes. In MGA-PSII, under the control of an axial magnetic field, which is generated by an electric coil around the tube sample, glow arc plasma moves spirally into the tube from its two ends. A negative voltage applied on the tube realized its inner surface implantation. Titanium nitride (TiN) films are prepared on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube in diameter 90 mm and length 600 mm. Hardness tests show that the hardness at the tube centre is up to 20 GPa. XRD, XPS and AES analyses demonstrate that good quality of TiN films can be achieved.

  8. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energydistributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Mraz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-03-23

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range 0.5 8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin-film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  9. Ion distribution effects of turbulence on a kinetic auroral arc model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwall, J. M.; Chiu, Y. T.

    1982-01-01

    An inverted-V auroral arc structure plasma-kinetic model is extended to phenomenologically include the effects of electrostatic turbulence, with k-parallel/k-perpendicular being much less than unity. It is shown that, unless plasma sheet ions are very much more energetic than the electrons, anomalous resistivity is not a large contributor to parallel electrostatic potential drops, since the support of the observed potential drop requires a greater dissipation of energy than can be provided by the plasma sheet. Wave turbulence can, however, be present, with the ion cyclotron turbulence levels suggested by the ion resonance broadening saturation mechanism of Dum and Dupree (1970) being comparable to those observed on auroral field lines. The diffusion coefficient and net growth rate are much smaller than estimates based solely on local plasma properties.

  10. Ion distribution effects of turbulence on a kinetic auroral arc model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, J. M.; Chiu, Y. T.

    1982-03-01

    An inverted-V auroral arc structure plasma-kinetic model is extended to phenomenologically include the effects of electrostatic turbulence, with k-parallel/k-perpendicular being much less than unity. It is shown that, unless plasma sheet ions are very much more energetic than the electrons, anomalous resistivity is not a large contributor to parallel electrostatic potential drops, since the support of the observed potential drop requires a greater dissipation of energy than can be provided by the plasma sheet. Wave turbulence can, however, be present, with the ion cyclotron turbulence levels suggested by the ion resonance broadening saturation mechanism of Dum and Dupree (1970) being comparable to those observed on auroral field lines. The diffusion coefficient and net growth rate are much smaller than estimates based solely on local plasma properties.

  11. Petrology and age of volcanic-arc rocks from the continental margin of the Bering Sea: implications for Early Eocene relocation of plate boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, A.S.; Pickthorn, L.-B.G.; Vallier, T.L.; Marlow, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Eocene volcanic flow and dike rocks from the Beringian margin have arc characteristics, implying a convergent history for this region during the early Tertiary. Chemical and mineralogical compositions are similar to those of modern Aleutian-arc lavas. They also resemble volcanic-arc compositions from western mainland Alaska, although greater chemical diversity and a stronger continental influence are observed in the Alaskan mainland rocks. Early Eocene ages of 54.4-50.2 Ma for the Beringian samples are well constrained by conventional K-Ar ages of nine plagioclase separates and by concordant 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and total-fusion experiments. A concordant U-Pb zircon age of 53 Ma for the quartz-diorite dike is in good agreement with the K-Ar data. Plate motion studies of the North Pacific Ocean indicate more northerly directed subduction prior to the Tertiary and a continuous belt of arc-type volcanism extending from Siberia, along the Beringian margin, into mainland Alaska. Around 56 Ma (chron 25-24), subduction changed to a more westerly direction and subduction-related volcanism ceased for most of mainland Alaska. The increasingly oblique angle of convergence should have ended subduction along the Beringian margin as well. However, consistent ages of 54-50 Ma indicate a final pulse in arc-type magmatism during this period of plate adjustment. -from Authors

  12. Construction and testing of arc dipoles and quadrupoles for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, P.; Muratore, J.; Anerella, M.

    1995-05-01

    The production run of superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is well underway. Of the 288 arc dipoles needed for the collider, more than 120 have been delivered. More than 150 arc quadrupoles have been delivered. All of these magnets have been accepted for RHIC. This paper reports the construction and performance of these magnets. Novel features of design and test, introduced to enhance technical performance and control costs, are also discussed. Other papers submitted to this Conference summarize work on the sextupoles and tuning quads, arc correctors, and combined corrector-quadrupole-sextupole assemblies (CQS).

  13. Lithium plating in a commercial lithium-ion battery - A low-temperature aging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzl, Mathias; Kasper, Michael; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-02-01

    The formation of metallic lithium on the negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, also known as lithium plating, leads to severe performance degradation and may also affect the cell safety. This study is focused on the nondestructive characterization of the aging behavior during long-term cycling at plating conditions, i.e. low temperature and high charge rate. A commercial graphite/LiFePO4 Li-ion battery is investigated in order to elucidate the aging effects of lithium plating for real-world purposes. It is shown that lithium plating can be observed as a loss of cyclable lithium which affects the capacity balance of the electrodes. In this way, lithium plating counteracts its own occurrence during prolonged cycling. The capacity losses due to lithium plating are therefore decreasing at higher cycle numbers and the capacity retention curve exhibits an inflection point. It is further shown that the observed capacity fade is partly reversible. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveals a significant increase of the ohmic cell resistance due to electrolyte consumption during surface film formation on the plated lithium. Additional cell opening provides important quantitative information regarding the thickness of the lithium layer and the corresponding mass of the plated lithium.

  14. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  15. Mantle amphibole control on arc and within-plate chemical signatures: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirkhah, M.; Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Emami, M. H.; McLeod, C.

    2012-04-01

    New analyses of Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province in west Iran shed light on the nature of collision zone magmatism. The rocks are from the Turkish-Iranian plateau within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Compositions are typically basanite, hawaiite and alkali basalt. Sr-Nd isotope values are close to BSE, which is similar to Quaternary alkali basalts of NW Iran, but distinct from a depleted source melting under Mount Ararat. The chemical signatures suggests variable melting of two distinct sources. One inferred source produced melts with La/Nb from~3.5 to~1.2, which we model as the result of depletion of amphibole during ≤1% melting in the garnet stability field. We infer phlogopite in the source of potassic lavas from Takab. Lithosphere delamination or slab break-off mechanisms for triggering melting are problematic, as the lithosphere is~150-200km thick. It is possible that the negative dT/dP section of the amphibole peridotite solidus was crossed as a result of lithospheric thickening in the collision zone. This explanation is conditional upon the mantle source being weakly hydrated and so only containing a small proportion of amphibole, which can be exhausted during small degrees of partial melting. Our model maybe viable for other magmatic areas within orogenic plateaux, e.g. northern Tibet. Depletion of mantle amphibole may also help explain larger scale transitions from arc to within-plate chemistry in orogens, such as the Palaeogene Arabia-Eurasia system.

  16. Seismic structure of subducted Philippine Sea plate beneath the southern Ryukyu arc by receiver function and local earthquakes tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic coupling of the Ryukyu subduction zone is assumed to be weak from the lack of historical interplate large earthquakes. However, recent investigation of repeating slow slip events (Heki & Kataoka, 2008), shallow low frequency earthquakes (Ando et al., 2012), and source of 1771 Yaeyama mega-tsunami (Nakamura, 2009), showed that the interplate coupling is not weak in the south of Ryukyu Trench. The biannually repeating SSEs (Mw=6.5) occur at the depth of 20-40 km on the upper interface of the subducted Philippine Sea plate beneath Yaeyama region, where earthquake swarm occurred on 1991 and 1992. To reveal the relation among the crustal structure, earthquake swarms, and occurrence of slow slip events (SSE), local earthquake tomography and receiver function (RF) analysis was computed in the southwestern Ryukyu arc. A tomographic inversion was used to determine P and S wave structures beneath Iriomote Island in the southwestern Ryukyu region for comparison with the locations of the SSE. The seismic tomography (Thurber & Eberhart-Phillips, 1999) was employed. The P- and S- wave arrival time data picked manually by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) are used. The 6750 earthquakes from January 2000 to July 2012 were used. For the calculation of the receiver function, the 212 earthquakes whose magnitudes are over 6.0 and epicentral distances are between 30 and 90 degrees were selected. The teleseicmic waveforms observed at two short-period seismometers of the JMA, and one broadband seismometer of F-net of National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention were used. The water level method (the water level is 0.01) is applied to original waveforms. Assuming that each later phase in a RF is the wave converted from P to S at a depth, I transformed the time domain RF into the depth domain one along each ray path in a reference velocity model. The JMA2001 velocity model is used in this study. The results of tomography show that the low Vp and high Vp

  17. Rocketborne observations of ion convection and electric fields in dayside and nightside visual auroral arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Creutzberg, F.

    1981-08-01

    We present ionospheric ion convection measurements in a series of four rocket payloads in and near dayside and nightside auroral arcs: one at Cape Parry (75.4/sup 0/N invariant latitude) near 1300 MLT and three at Churchill (70.0/sup 0/N invariant latitude) between 1900 and 2200 MLT. Direct measurements were made of the ionospheric ion velocity distribution function, and the observed ion convection velocities and equivalent convective electric fields were correlated with the energetic particle precipitation, the optical morphology of the aurora, and the topology of the geomagnetic field. Both in the postnoon and premidnight sectors it was observed that (1) equatorward of the region(s) of precipitation the ion flow was predominantly westward, with velocity of about 1 km/s; (2) poleward of the region(s) the flow was predominantly westward, with velocity of about 1 km/s; (2) poleward of the region(s) the flow was predominantly eastward: (3) the change in the flow direction, where observed, occurred near though not exactly at the edges of the precipitation region; (4) the flow inside the precipitation region was lower; (5) the reversal of the ion flow, where observed, occurred on closed magnetic field lines; and (6) the convective electric field typically dropped from 40 to 80 mV/m outside the precipitation region to 10 to 30 mV/m within. In the dayside Cape Perry flight, where quantitative photometric measurements were available, detailed anticorrelation between the ion convection speed and the green line emission intensity was also observed.

  18. Some novel design features of the LBL metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The family of MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion sources developed at LBL over the past several years has grown to include a number of different source versions with a wide range of some of the design and operational parameters. The MicroMEVVA source is a particularly compact version, about 2 cm diameter and 10 cm long, while the MEVVA IV weighs some 30 kG. MEVVAs IV and V incorporate multiple cathode assemblies (16 and 18 separate cathodes, respectively), and the operating cathode can be switched rapidly and without down-time. The new MEVVA V embodiment is quite compact considering its broad beam (10 cm), high voltage (100 kV) and multiple cathode features. The large-area extractor grids used in the MEVVA V were fabricated using a particularly simple technique, and they are clamped into position and so can be changed simply and quickly. The electrical system used to drive the arc is particularly simple and incorporates several attractive features. In this paper we review and describe a number of the mechanical and electrical design features that have been developed for these sources. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Industrial potential, uses, and performance of sputtered and ion plated films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    The sputtering and ion plating technology is reviewed in terms of their potential, uses and performance. It offers the greatest flexibility in coating preparation, since coatings can be tailored in any preferred chemical combination, and graded type interfaces (ceramic to metal seals) can be formed. Sputtered and ion plated film characteristics such as the degree of adherence, coherence and morphological growth which contribute to film performance and reliability are described and illustrated as used in practice. It is concluded that the potential future of sputtered and ion plated films for industrial applications will depend primarily upon greater comprehension of materials selection, possible elimination of restrictions for coating/substrate combinations and the awareness of utilizing the proper deposition parameters.

  20. Arcing in space structures in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Marinelli, W. J.; Weyl, G.; Carleton, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes results of an experimental and theoretical program to investigate arcing of structures containing dielectric and conducting materials when they are biased negatively with respect to a plasma. An argon ion source generated Ar(+) ions of directed energy 20 to 40 eV and density approximately 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3) that impinged upon samples containing a dielectric material on top of a negatively biased Kovar plate. Arcing events were studied for bias voltages between -300 and -1000V with respect to the ion beam. The samples were Dow Corning 93-500 adhesive on Kovar, fused silica cover slips bonded on Kovar, and silicon solar cells mounted on Kovar. Measurements of discharge current, Kovar plate voltage, and radiation from the arc versus time were carried out. Microsecond duration exposure images and optical spectra in the 0.24 to 0.40 micron band were also acquired during arcing events. Arcing events were found to be associated with exposed adhesive and means were found to eliminate arcing altogether. The charging of a silica cover plate and the fields around the plate were calculated using a particle-in-cell code. Models were developed to explain the ignition of the arc and the physical processes occurring during the discharge.

  1. Ion charge state distributions of pulsed vacuum arc plasmas in strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Yushkov, G.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Brown, I.

    1998-02-01

    Vacuum arc plasmas with discharge currents of 300 A and duration 250 {mu}s have been produced in strong magnetic fields up to 4 T. Ion charge state distributions have been measured for C, Al, Ag, Ta, Pt, Ho, and Er with a time-of-flight charge-mass spectrometer. Our previous measurements have been confirmed which show that ion charge states can be considerably enhanced when increasing the magnetic field up to about 1 T. The new measurements address the question of whether or not the additional increase continues at even higher magnetic field strength. It has been found that the increase becomes insignificant for field strengths greater than 1 T. Ion charge state distributions are almost constant for magnetic field strengths between 2 and 4 T. The results are explained by comparing the free expansion length with the freezing length. The most significant changes of charge state distributions are observed when these lengths are similar. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ar-C2H6 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Garcia, A. N. C.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Barata, J. A. S.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility of ions in argon-ethane gaseous mixtures (Ar-C2H6) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr and for reduced electric fields in the 10 Td to 25 Td range, at room temperature. For Ar concentrations below 80% two peaks were observed in the time of arrival spectra which were attributed to ion species with 3-carbons (C3H7+, C3H8+ and C3H9+) and with 4-carbons (which includes C4H7+, C4H9+, C4H10+ and C4H12+ ions). For Ar concentrations above 80% a third peak appears, which may belong to C5H11+. The time of arrival spectra for Ar concentrations of 80%, 85%, 90% and 95% are displayed in the present paper as well as the reduced mobilities determined from the peaks observed for a typical reduced electric field used in gaseous detectors (E/N = 15 Td).

  3. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.

    2015-04-01

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D+, D2+, D3+ or H+, H2+, H3+). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ˜80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D2+, H2+ and D+, H+ ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ˜1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ˜300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1 MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 107 s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 106 s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5 Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  4. Preliminary tropospheric ozone DIAL, water vapour, and aerosol lidar measurements during ARC-IONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Firanski, Bernard J.

    2009-09-01

    A new lidar instrument, dubbed AeRO (Aerosol Raman Ozone) Lidar, is being developed at Environment Canada's Centre For Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE). The new system will use three lasers to simultaneously measure ozone, water vapour and aerosol profiles (including extinction) from near ground to the tropopause. The main thrust will focus on understanding Air Quality within the airshed with the capability of looking at Stratospheric Tropospheric Exchange (STE) processes to determine the magnitude and frequency of such events leading to elevated levels of tropospheric ozone. In addition a wind profiler through a partnership with University of Western Ontario will soon be deployed to CARE to provide complementary observations of the tropopause. The lidar participated in the ARC-IONS field campaign during April and July of 2008. During the field campaign, daily ozonesondes were released to further compliment the lidar measurements. Details of the system design and preliminary results from the lidar measurements will be presented.

  5. High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-06-19

    Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ~;; 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 ?s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states.

  6. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.

    2012-02-15

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent ''minimum-B'' structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap - axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 {mu}s) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  7. Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy via Detection of Forward-Scattered Helium Ions with a Microchannel Plate.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Taylor J; White, Ryan M; Keller, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    A microchannel plate was used as an ion sensitive detector in a commercial helium ion microscope (HIM) for dark-field transmission imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). In contrast to previous transmission HIM approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach detects forward-scattered helium ions on a dedicated annular shaped ion sensitive detector. Minimum collection angles between 125 mrad and 325 mrad were obtained by varying the distance of the sample from the microchannel plate detector during imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict detector angular ranges at which dark-field images with atomic number contrast could be obtained. We demonstrate atomic number contrast imaging via scanning transmission ion imaging of silica-coated gold nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles. Although the resolution of STIM is known to be degraded by beam broadening in the substrate, we imaged magnetite nanoparticles with high contrast on a relatively thick silicon nitride substrate. We expect this new approach to annular dark-field STIM will open avenues for more quantitative ion imaging techniques and advance fundamental understanding of underlying ion scattering mechanisms leading to image formation. PMID:27153003

  8. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation have been evaluated. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, and an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. These mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  9. Ion emission intensity ratios as a function of electrode gap, melting current, and pressure during low current vacuum arc remelting

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.L.; Grose, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    The arc energy distribution in the electrode gap plays a central role in the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. However, very little has been done to investigate the response of this important process variable to changes in process parameters. Emission spectroscopy was used to investigate variations in arc energy in the annulus of a VAR furnace during melting of 0.43 m diameter Alloy 718 electrode into 0.51 in diameter ingot. Time averaged (1 second) intensity data from various chromium atom and ion (Cr{sup +}) emission lines were simultaneously collected and selected intensity ratios were subsequently used as air energy indicators. These studies were carried out as a function of melting current, electrode gap, and CO partial pressure. The data were modeled and the ion electronic energy was found to be a function of electrode gap, the energy content of the ionic vapor decreasing with increasing gap length; the ion ratios were not found to be sensitive to pressure. On the other hand, the chromium atom electronic energy was difficult to model in the factor space investigated, but was determined to be sensitive, to pressure. The difference in character of the chromium ion and atom energy fluctuations in the furnace annulus are attributed to the difference in the origins of these arc species and the non-equilibrium nature of the metal vapor arc. Most of the ion population is emitted directly from cathode spots, whereas much of the atomic vapor arises due to vaporization from the electrode and pool surfaces. Also, the positively charged ionic species interact more strongly with the electron gas than the neutral atomic species, the two distributions never equilibrating due to the low pressure.

  10. The structure of ion plated films in relation to coating properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1985-01-01

    Ion plating is an ion assisted or glow discharge deposition technique, where ions or energetic atoms transfer energy, momentum and charge to the substrate and the growing film in a manner which can be controlled to favorably modify surface, subsurface chemistry, and microstructure. The glow discharge energizing effects from the initial nucleation stages to the final film growth are discussed. As a result, adherence, coherence, internal stresses, density and morphology of the coatings are significantly improved, over the conventional (nonion-assisted) techniques which in turn favorably affect the surface initiated failures caused by friction, wear, erosion, corrosion and fatigue. Ion plated films because of their graded coating/substrate interface, fine, uniform, densely packed film structure also induce a surface strengthening effect which improved the mechanical properties such as yield, tensile strength and fatigue life. Since a uniform, continuous film can be obtained at lower nominal film thickness, this effect is of great importance in solid film lubrication and in corrosion protection.

  11. Plate kinematics, slab shape and back-arc stress: A comparison between laboratory models and current subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuret, A.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Lallemand, S.

    2007-04-01

    A combination of statistical studies on present-day subduction zones and three-dimensional (3D) laboratory models is performed with the aim to clarify the way that plate kinematics control the geometry of the slab and the overriding plate deformation in subduction zones. In 3D laboratory models, the analogue of a two layer linearly viscous lithosphere-upper mantle system is achieved by means of silicon putty glucose syrup tank experiment. The subducting and overriding plate velocities are systematically changed by exploring the variability field of natural plate kinematics. Both statistical and modelling approaches recognize the importance of overriding plate motion on subduction process behavior: (1) trenches migrate at a rate close to the overriding plate motion, but always move slower than the overriding plates. The mechanism at work is a direct consequence of "slab anchoring" opposed by both lithosphere and mantle viscous resistance and is responsible for overriding plate deformation and slab geometry variability. (2) An overriding plate shortens when the overriding plate moves toward the trench and conditions that are favourable for overriding plate extension are created when the overriding plate moves away from the trench. (3) Shallow and steep dips are found if the overriding plate moves toward and away from the trench, respectively.

  12. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF 6.4 MM (0.25 INCH) ARC-CAST MOLOBDENUM AND MOLYBDENUM-TZM PLATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND 300 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. SHIELDS, JR.; P. LIPETZKY; A. J. MUELLER

    2001-04-11

    THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF 6.4 mm (0.25 INCH) LOW CARBON ARC-CAST (LCAC) MOLYBDENUM AND ARC-CAST MOLYBDENUM-TZM ALLOY PLATE WERE MEASURED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND 300 DEGREES C USING COMPACT TNESION SPECIMENTS. THE EFFECT OF CRACK PLANE ORIENTATION (LONGITUDINAL VS. TRANSVERSE) AND ANNEALING PRACTICE (STRESS-RELIEVED VS. RECRYSTALLIZED) WERE EVALUATED. DEPENDING UPON THE TEST TEMPERATURE EITHER A STANDARD K[SUB]IC OR A J-INTEGRAL ANALYSIS WAS USED TO OBTAIN THE TOUGHNESS VALUE. AT ROOM TEMPERATURE, REGARDLESS OF ALLOY, ORIENTATION, OR MICROSTURECTURE, FRACTURE TOUGHNESS VALUES BETWEEN 15 AND 22 MPa m{sup 1/2} (14 AND 20 KSI IN{sup 1/2}) WERE MEASURED. THESE K[SUB]IC VALUES WERE CONSISTENT WITH MEASUREMENTS BY THE AUTHORS. INCREASING TEMPERATURE IMPROVES THE TOUGHNESS, DUE TO THE FACT THAT ONE TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THE DUCTIVE-BRITTLE TRANSITION BEHAVIOR OF MOLYBDENUM. AT 300 DEGREES C, THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF RECRYSTALLIZED LCAC AND ARC-CAST TZM MOLYBDENUM WERE ALSO SIMILAR AT APPROXI MATELY 64 MPa m{sup 1/2} (58 KSI IN{sup 1/2}). IN THE STRESS-RELIEVED CONDITION, HOWEVER, THE TOUGHNESS OF ARC-CAST TZM (91 MPa m{sup 1/2}/83 KSI IN{sup 1/2}) WAS HIGHER THAN THAT OF THE LCAC MOLYBDENUM (74 MPa m{sup 1/2}/67 KSI IN{sup 1/2}).

  13. Oblique collision and accretion of the Netherlands Leeward Antilles island arc: A structural analysis of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Amanda Gail

    2007-12-01

    The Netherlands Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc is an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. The Leeward Antilles islands (Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire) are located offshore western Venezuela, within the obliquely convergent diffuse plate boundary zone. Outcrop analysis, microthermometry, and 2D marine seismic reflection data provide evidence of three generations of regional deformation since the Late Cretaceous. Outcrop analysis of structural features, including faults, joints, and veins, characterizes the kinematic history of the islands. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins coupled with apatite fission-track dating provides the island exhumation history. Finally, marine reflection seismic data processing and interpretation of newly acquired data elucidates offshore structures to integrate with our onshore results. The oldest regional deformation, resulting in both ductile (D1) and brittle (F 1) structures, is attributed to displacement partitioning along the arcuate Caribbean plate boundary. Associated crustal thinning initiated island exhumation, at a rate of 0.18 km/my, from a maximum burial depth of 6 km in the Late Cretaceous (˜89 Ma). Coeval with D1/F1 deformation and exhumation, stretching of the island arc resulted in extensive basin rifting that separated the island blocks. At ˜55 Ma, a change in the relative motion of the Caribbean plate altered plate boundary dynamics. Displacement along the right-lateral Caribbean transform fault and Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar strike-slip fault system created a wrench tectonic regime within the diffuse plate boundary zone. A second generation of brittle structures (F2) developed while the islands were at a maximum burial depth of 2 km during the Paleocene/Eocene. Since ˜45 Ma, continued motion along the strike-slip fault systems and oblique plate convergence resulted in the youngest generation of structural features (F3). Regional

  14. Charge state, angular distribution, and kinetic energy of ions from multicomponent-cathodes in vacuum arc devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G. Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Frolova, V. P.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2014-12-07

    We present research results on vacuum arc plasma produced with multicomponent cathode made of several different elements. The ion mass-to-charge-state spectra of the plasmas were studied by time-of-flight spectrometry. The angular distributions of different ion species were measured, and the kinetic energy of their directed (streaming) motion was determined. It is shown that the fractional composition of ions of different cathode components in the plasma flow from the cathode spot closely matches the fractional content of these components in the composite cathode. The charge states of ions of the various cathode components are determined by the average electron temperature in the cathode spot plasma. The angular distribution of lower mass ions in the plasma from a multicomponent cathode is less isotropic and broader than for the plasma from a single-component cathode of the same light element. The directed kinetic energies of the ions of the different components for plasma from a multicomponent cathode are lower for lighter elements and greater for heavier elements compared to the ion directed energy for plasmas from single-component cathodes made of the same materials. The physical processes responsible for these changes in the ion charge states in multicomponent-cathode vacuum arc plasma are discussed.

  15. Opening of the Grenada back-arc Basin and evolution of the Caribbean plate during the Mesozoic and early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouysse, Philippe

    1988-06-01

    Geological and geophysical data indicate that the Grenada Basin was presumably created, during the Paleocene, by sundering of a proto-Eastern Caribbean arc into a remnant arc to the west (Aves Swell) and an active arc to the east (Lesser Antilles Ridge). Grenada Basin spreading is thought to have been penecontemporaneous with the creation of the Yucatan Basin located at the opposite side of the Caribbean Sea. I suggest that a continuous Mesozoic Caribbean Arc (M.C.A.), including the Greater Antilles, the Aves-Lesser Antilles system, and the Aruba-Blanquilla Chain (Netherland-Venezuelan Antilles), was initiated in the Pacific, probably about 130-120 Ma ago. Its arrival in front of, and its subsequent motion inside the Central Atlantic ("Tethyan") seaway caused the opening of both Yucatan and Grenada basins which occurred at the two initial points of contact with the North and South American cratons. In contrast to the style of many other island arcs, this back-arc spreading event occurred only once in the long history of the M.C.A. The Lesser Antilles appear to be the oldest currently active intra-oceanic island arc.

  16. Provenance change of sediment input in the northeastern foreland of Pamir related to collision of the Indian Plate with the Kohistan-Ladakh arc at around 47 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jimin; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Ji, Weiqiang; Fu, Bihong; Wang, Jiangang; Jin, Chunsheng

    2016-02-01

    The Pamir plateau forms a prominent tectonic salient that marks the western end of the Himalayan orogen containing several terranes that were accreted to Eurasia from the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic. A detailed knowledge of the tectonic evolution of the Pamir salient during the Cenozoic is important for our understanding of the intracontinental deformation in the western Himalaya. Although the tectonic evolution of the Pamir salient has long been studied, the timing of collision between the Indian Plate and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc is still a matter of debate. We present new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons, magnetic fabrics, and stable isotopes from the foreland basin on the northeastern margin of the Pamir that indicate a change in sediment provenance started at about 47 Ma. Sediments in the southwest Tarim Basin were partially derived from the uplifted and eroded Karakoram and Kohistan terranes created by the collision between the Indian Plate and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc at circa 47 Ma, as a result of northward thrusting and propagation of the Indian Plate under Eurasia.

  17. The contribution of ion-cyclotron waves to electron heating and SAR-arc excitation near the storm-time plasmapause. [Stable Auroral Red arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The potential role of ion-cyclotron waves in the electron heating process has been studied, using the HOTRAY code. It is demonstrated that ion-cyclotron waves can play an important role in both the energy transfer to plasmaspheric electrons and the subsequent downward heat conduction to SAR arc altitudes. In particular, such waves can experience enhanced path integrated amplification along the steep plasmapause density gradient. The latter tends to keep the wave normal angle small on several successive bounces across the equator, thus allowing cyclotron-resonant amplification leading to a total gain of up to 20 e-foldings. When the wave propagation vector becomes highly oblique, absorption occurs during Landau resonance with thermal plasmaspheric electrons, increasing the electron temperature in the direction parallel to the ambient field and leading directly to heat conduction into ionosphere.

  18. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  19. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films. Part 2; Ion-Plated Lead Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed dry solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, an investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of ion-plated lead films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa (maximum Hertzian contact pressure of 1.2 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7 x 10(exp -7 Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx. 20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less then 1 percent). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films investigated herein resulted from the environmental conditions. The main criteria for judging the performance of the ion-plated lead films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 1(exp -6) cu mm/N.m or less, respectively. The ion-plated lead films met both criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum but failed in humid air and in dry nitrogen, where the coefficient of friction was higher than the criterion. Both the lead film wear rate and the ball wear rate met that criterion in all three environments. Adhesion and plastic deformation played important roles in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films in contact with 440C stainless steel balls in the three environments. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of materials: transfer of lead wear debris to the counterpart 440C stainless steel and transfer of 440C stainless steel wear debris to the counterpart lead.

  20. Vacuum Sputtered and Ion-Plated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1982-01-01

    The plasma or ion-assisted coating techniques such as sputtering and ion plating are discussed in view of wear and corrosion protection. The basic processes and the unique features of the technique are discussed in regard to the synthesis and development of high reliability wear and corrosion resistant films. The ions of the plasma which transfer energy, momentum, and charge to the substrate and the growing films can be beneficially used. As a result, coating adherence and cohesion is improved. Favorable morphological growth such as high density and porosity-free films can be developed, and residual stresses can be reduced.

  1. Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy via Direct Detection of Transmitted Helium Ions with a Multichannel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, Taylor; White, Ryan; Keller, Robert

    A multichannel plate was used as an ion sensitive transmission detector in a commercial helium ion microscope for annular dark-field imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy. In contrast to previous transmission helium ion microscopy approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach directly detects transmitted helium ions on an annular detector. Monte Carlo simulations are used to predict detector collection angles at which annular dark-field images with atomic number contrast are obtained. We demonstrate atomic number contrast imaging via scanning transmission ion imaging of silica-coated gold nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles. While the resolution of this transmission technique is limited by beam broadening in the substrate, we image magnetite nanoparticles with high contrast on a relatively thick silicon nitride substrate. We expect this new approach to annular dark-field scanning transmission ion microscopy will open avenues for more quantitative ion imaging techniques, such as direct mass-thickness determination, and advance fundamental understanding of underlying ion scattering mechanisms leading to image formation.

  2. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2015-04-08

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +} or H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ∼80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sup +}, H{sup +} ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ∼1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ∼300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1 MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 10{sup 7} s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 10{sup 6} s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5 Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  3. Chromatic characterization of ion-exchanged glass binary phase plates for mode-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; Montero-Orille, Carlos; Moreno, Vicente; Mateo, Eduardo F; Liñares, Jesús

    2015-04-10

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) in few-mode fibers is regarded as a promising candidate to increase optical network capacity. A fundamental element for MDM is a modal transformer to LP modes which can be implemented in a free-space basis by using multiregion phase plates, that is, LP plates. Likewise, several wavelengths have to be used due to wavelength multiplexing purposes, optical amplification tasks, and so on. In this work we show that efficient monolithic binary phase plates for different wavelengths can be fabricated by ion-exchange in glass and used for MDM tasks. We introduce an optical characterization method of the chromatic properties of such phase plates which combines the inverse Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (IWKB) together with Mach-Zehnder and Michelson-based interferometric techniques. The interferometric method provides a measurement of the phase step for several wavelengths, which characterizes the chromatic properties of the phase plate. Consequently, it is shown that the IWKB method allows us to design and characterize the phase plates in an easy and fast way. PMID:25967318

  4. Stress relaxation in unirradiated and in helium ion bombarded glass plates: Dimensional stability

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1984-02-15

    The deformation of thin glass plates during bombardment with 140-keV He/sup +/ ions was measured with an external capacitor. The contour of the plates was determined interferometrically before irradiation, after irradiation, and after aging for several years. These results showed that the calibration of the capacitor equipment by dead-weight loading a silica plate was faulty. The deflection of a vitreous silica free cantilever on dead-weight loading was measured interferometrically, and the results showed that deformation occurred within the clamp. It was confirmed that placing a ground shield about the electrode of the capacitor increases the calculated deflections. Data for the permanent deformation of a stressed plate of vitreous silica are analyzed, and it is concluded that stress relaxation by a bulk viscoelastic deformation cannot be detected by a change in plate contour because the maximum precision for such a determination could not detect apparent viscosities greater than approx.10/sup 29/ P. The stress relaxation of the irradiated vitreous silica plates was about 10% in three years corresponding to an apparent post-irradiation viscosity of approx.10/sup 20/ P. The stress relaxations observed for the other glasses, Pyrex, BK7, and LF2 were much greater, and it is uncertain to what extent they were a viscoelastic effect or an annealing effect. The behavior of a sample of a facsimile radioactive waste storage glass, 76--68 indicated it was not a uniform product; the contour became irregular; hence, these techniques were not appropriate for it.

  5. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  6. Ion signals with R134a and R134 in a parallel plate proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, J. E.; Onel, Y.

    2006-10-01

    The electrical signals from a PPAC (parallel plate avalanche counter) are identical for R134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and R134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) except for the ion part, which, for R134a, is slower and smaller, but with the same area. The two compounds are identical except for the location of one fluorine atom. With three fluorine atoms on one end, the more common R134a has a large electric dipole moment, about the same as water; while R134 is symmetric, with no dipole moment. The attraction of the polar R134a molecules interferes with the motion of the ions, which results in a longer ion collection time. The counter is two circular plates of 1.0 cm^2 area separated by 0.5 mm operating at 700 torr and 2120 V. The ion signal is constant for a time t0 and then goes linearly to zero at time t1. The values of t0 and t1 are 1.3 μs and 1.8 μs for R134a, but only 0.8 μs and 1.3 μs for R134. These are not precise times because the signals are very small and the values depend on the location of the primary ion formation (from a ^137Cs γ source). During the constant part of the signal the ions are moving between the plates. The signal goes toward zero as the ions are collected at the cathode. For both gasses the large signal from electrons is fast with a full width at half maximum of only 1.0 ns.

  7. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  8. Juan de Fuca Plate Ridge-to-Trench Experiment: initial results from active source seismic imaging of the Juan de Fuca plate and Cascadia fore-arc (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Han, S.; Gibson, J. C.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Horning, G.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Abers, G. A.; Trehu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Active source seismic data were acquired during the Juan de Fuca Ridge-to-Trench experiment (June-July 2012) to characterize the evolution and structure of the Juan de Fuca plate from formation at the ridge, through evolution in the plate interior, to subduction at the Cascadia trench. The survey provides plate-scale images of the sediments, crust, and shallowest mantle along two ridge-perpendicular transects, one extending from Axial seamount to the Oregon margin near Hydrate Ridge and the other from near Endeavour segment to Grays Harbor offshore Washington. In addition, a 450 km long trench-parallel line ~10 km seaward of the Cascadia deformation front was acquired to characterize variations in plate structure along the margin. Coincident long-streamer (8 km) multi-channel seismic (MCS) and wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data were collected along each transect. Using these data, our current investigations focus on the properties of the thick sediment blanket covering the Juan de Fuca plate and evidence for fluid flow at the deformation front, crustal structure within the plate interior and near the deformation front, and tracking the downgoing plate beneath the margin. Highlights include the discovery of numerous pockmarks on the seafloor providing evidence of active fluid flow up to 60 km west of the deformation front. Along the Oregon transect, a bright decollement horizon is imaged at ~1sec twtt above basement whereas at the Washington margin, protothrusts of the deformation front reach to the top of the oceanic crust. Variations in sediment properties are documented within the margin-parallel transect with changes in the stratigraphic level of decollement. While crustal thickness is quite uniform along the margin (~ 6 km), variations in crustal reflectivity and in shallowest mantle velocities are observed over ~30-50 km length scales that could be related to structural variations in the Cascadia subduction zone. Further landward, the top of the

  9. New ion-assisted filtered cathodic arc deposition (IFCAD) technology for producing advanced thin films on temperature-sensitive substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    An innovative Ion-Assisted Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (IFCAD) system has been developed for low temperature production of thin-film coatings. The IFCAD system employs electro-magnetic and mechanical filtering techniques to remove unwanted macroparticles and neutral atoms from the plasma stream. Therefore, only ions within a defined energy range arrive at the substrate surface, depositing thin-films with excellent mechanical and optical properties. Ion- Assisted-Deposition is coupled with Filtered Cathodic Arc technology to enhance and modify the arc deposited thin- films. Using an advanced computer controlled plasma beam scanning system, high quality, large area, uniform IFCAD multi-layer film structures are attained. Amorphous Diamond- Like-Carbon films (up to 85% sp3 bonded carbon; and micro- hardness greater than 50 GPa) have been deposited in multi- layer thin-film combinations with other IFCAD source materials (such as: Al2O3) for optical and tribological applications. Rutile TiO2 (refractive index of 2.8 at 500 nm) has been deposited with this technology for advanced optical filter applications. The new IFCAD technology has been included in development programs, such as: plastic and glass lens coatings for optical systems; wear resistant coatings on various metal substrates, ultra smooth, durable, surface hydrophobic coatings for aircraft windows; EUV coatings for space instrumentation; transparent conductive coatings; and UV protective coatings for solar cell concentrator plastic Fresnel lens elements for space power.

  10. Preliminary results with saturable microchannel array plates. [featuring positive ion feedback elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Microchannel array plates with a performance comparable to that of a conventional channel electron multiplier have been obtained for the first time. These array plates employ an angled electrostatic field to inhibit the feedback of positive ions within the microchannels. Saturated output pulse height distributions with modal gain values in excess of 10 million have been obtained and stable operation demonstrated over a range of ambient pressures from 0.0000001 to 0.00008 torr. However, a time-dependent reduction in the gain has been observed with these experimental plates because of the accumulation of charge on the insulating strips which are inserted in the wall of the microchannel to establish the angled electrostatic field.

  11. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Dake, L.S.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    A preliminary examination of two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation is presented. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, or an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. No attempt was made to optimize the coatings for either method. These experimental mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor in order to estimate their relative environmental stability. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors, suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  12. Characterization of plasma chemistry and ion energy in cathodic arc plasma from Ti-Si cathodes of different compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, A. O.; Zhirkov, I.; Dahlqvist, M.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Rosen, J.

    2013-04-28

    Arc plasma from Ti-Si compound cathodes with up to 25 at. % Si was characterized in a DC arc system with respect to chemistry and charge-state-resolved ion energy. The plasma ion composition showed a lower Si content, diverging up to 12 at. % compared to the cathode composition, yet concurrently deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. Significant contribution to film growth from neutrals is inferred besides ions, since the contribution from macroparticles, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, cannot alone account for the compositional difference between cathode, plasma, and film. The average ion charge states for Ti and Si were higher than reference data for elemental cathodes. This result is likely related to TiSi{sub x} phases of higher cohesive energies in the compound cathodes and higher effective electron temperature in plasma formation. The ion energy distributions extended up to {approx}200 and {approx}130 eV for Ti and Si, respectively, with corresponding average energies of {approx}60 and {approx}30 eV. These averages were, however, not dependent on Si content in the cathode, except for 25 at. % Si where the average energies were increased up to 72 eV for Ti and 47 eV for Si.

  13. Angular ion emission characteristics of a laser triggered tin vacuum arc as light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraak, Harald; Küpper, Felix; Jonkers, Jeroen; Bergmann, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    The angular resolved emission of tin ions from a laser triggered vacuum arc to be used as light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography is presented. Ion energies of more than 200 keV for emission angles up to 50° with respect to the optical axis are observed. The angular emission characteristic is strongly anisotropic with a pronounced peak for fast ions into a cone with an opening angle of roughly 10° at an angle of 35° with respect to the optical axis. These ions also exhibit a distinct energy distribution function compared to the more isotropic emitted bulk of ions, which can be referred to different mechanisms of production. Looking at the discharge current parameters, the production of the directed fast ions can be connected with a peaked increase in the impedance, which gives hint to a plasma instability as origin of those ions. The emission of isotropic emitted ions is in agreement with a model of plasma expansion into vacuum. The emission characteristic is also strongly dependent on the parameter of the trigger laser. It is shown that using a double trigger laser pulse the fast ion production can be suppressed by more than one order of magnitude.

  14. Polycrystalline InN thin films prepared by ion-beam-assisted filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, X. H.; Lau, S. P.

    2005-09-01

    We report on the fabrication of indium nitride (InN) thin films on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by radio frequency ion-beam-assisted filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique at low temperature. The effects of nitrogen ion energy on the structural properties of InN films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The InN films exhibit polycrystalline wurtzite structure. At nitrogen ion energy of 100 eV, the film shows preferred (0 0 0 2) orientation. The preferred orientation is changed to ( 1 0 1¯ 1) when the nitrogen ion energy is more than 100 eV. Three Raman-active optical phonons have been clearly identified and assigned to A 1(LO) at ˜588 cm -1, E22 at ˜490 cm -1 and A 1(TO) at ˜449 cm -1 of InN films, which confirmed the hexagonal structure of InN.

  15. Tribological characteristics of gold films deposited on metals by ion plating and vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The graded interface between an ion-plated film and a substrate is discussed as well as the friction and wear properties of ion-plated gold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and microhardness depth profiling were used to investigate the interface. The friction and wear properties of ion-plated and vapor-deposited gold films were studied both in an ultra high vacuum system to maximize adhesion and in oil to minimize adhesion. The results indicate that the solubility of gold on the substrate material controls the depth of the graded interface. Thermal diffusion and chemical diffusion mechanisms are thought to be involved in the formation of the gold-nickel interface. In iron-gold graded interfaces the gold was primarily dispersed in the iron and thus formed a physically bonded interface. The hardness of the gold film was influenced by its depth and was also related to the composition gradient between the gold and the substrate. The graded nickel-gold interface exhibited the highest hardness because of an alloy hardening effect. The effects of film thickness on adhesion and friction were established.

  16. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  17. Research of ion feedback-induced noise of micro-channel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Ni; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Taimin; Li, Shilong; Liu, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhaolu

    2014-09-01

    Rb+, Cs+ and other alkali metal ions in the Micro-channel Plate (MCP) channel, under the action of an electric field, leave out of the channel wall of MCP, and accelerate to input surface of channel along the opposite direction of the electric field to form ion feedback-induced noise. The feedback ions will cause great harms, it will bombard the cathode surface, resulting in decreased cathode sensitivity, reducing tube life, so you must take measures to reduce ion feedback-induced noise. This paper analyzes how to reduce ion feedback-induced noise from five aspects of the MCP materials, etching, annealing in hydrogen, high-temperature baking and electron scrubbing. Through the utilization of mixed alkali effect of suppressing mutual diffusion and decreasing internal network cavity to improve structure of MCP glass wall, the diffusion coefficient of each ion is reduced; the content of Al2O3 is reduced to reduce the Na+, K+ diffusion losses; etching process is optimized, except for the acid corrosion, the alkali corrosion, special acid etching and vacuum baking process are used; annealing in hydrogen technology is also optimized, the time of annealing in hydrogen was chosen on 270 ~ 350 minutes; and the vacuum baking and electron scrubbing are handled before manufacturing. By the above methods the ion feedback-induced noise is reduced.

  18. Voltage relaxation and impedance spectroscopy as in-operando methods for the detection of lithium plating on graphitic anodes in commercial lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Stefan; Bauer, Marius; Petzl, Mathias; Danzer, Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, voltage relaxation and impedance spectroscopy are introduced as in-operando methods for detecting lithium plating in commercial lithium-ion cells with graphitic anodes. Voltage relaxation is monitored subsequent to defined charge steps of variable amplitudes, charge throughputs, termination criteria and at different ambient temperatures yielding dependencies over a wide experimental parameter range. An adapted differential voltage analysis is presented to resolve the characteristic mixed potential evolving in case of plating. Impedance spectroscopy is applied in parallel to the relaxation phase to trace a possible alteration of the cell's impedance due to the concurrent depletion of reversibly deposited lithium. The introduced voltage differentials are shown to resolve the mixed potential with restrictions only for little charge throughputs. The comparison of voltage relaxation and already established stripping discharge reveals similarities of the underlying physicochemical processes and allows an estimate of the amount of deposited lithium in case of relaxation. In the evolution of the cell's impedance, a reversible shrinkage of the high frequency intersection resistance and the arc representing the anodic charge transfer process are identified as indicators towards plating. The presented methods solely rely on non-destructive measurement quantities and thus are fully suitable for the application in battery management systems.

  19. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, Johanna; Anders, André; Mráz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-06-01

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range of 0.5-8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  20. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. PMID:26886342

  1. Heteroepitaxial growth of LiNbO 3 single crystal films by ion plating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, H.; Ohno, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Nakajima, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) thin films were deposited on several different substrates such as glass (Corning 7059), α-Al 2O 3 (R- and Z-plate), MgO(111) and ZnO(001) by an ion plating method. The crystallinity and compositional fluctuation of the deposited films have been examined by X-ray diffraction, RHEED and SIMS. Consequently, it has been confirmed that the heteroepitaxial growth of LiNbO 3 occurs on the above crystalline substrates, despite large lattice mismatches (≈8.2%). The orientation relationships between the epitaxial layers and the substrates are as follows: (1) (012)LiNbO 3⌈(012)α-Al 2O 3(R-plate), [100]LiNbO 3⌈[100]α-Al 2O 3; (2) (001)LiNbO 3⌈(001)α-Al 2O 3(Z-plate), [100]LiNbO 3⌈[100]α-Al 2O 3; (3) (001)LiNbO 3⌈(111)MgO,[110]LiNbO 3⌈[ overline211]MgO; (4) (001)LiNbO 3⌈(001)ZnO, [110]LiNbO 3⌈[210]ZnO, respectively.

  2. A Study on the Application of Submerged Arc Welding for Thin Plate of A-Grade 3.2 Thickness Steel in Ship Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Soo; Yun, Jin-Oh; Lim, Dong-Yong; Jang, Yong-Won; Kim, Bong-Joon; Oh, Chong-In

    2010-06-01

    This paper is focused on application submerged arc welding process, which offers many advantages compared to conventional CO2 welding process, for thin plate in ship structure. For this purpose, optimized welding conditions are determined according to combination of wire & flux, relationship between welding parameters, bead shapes and mechanical tests such as tensile, bend and hardness. Also finite element(FE) based numerical simulation of thermal history and welding residual stress in welded joint of A-grade 3.2 thickness steel has been checked to qualitative tendency in this paper. In conclusion our company applied to this method in work piece and it was no problem. From the result of this study, it makes substantial saving of time and manufacturing cost and raises the welding quality of product.

  3. The Neogene Alert Bay Volcanic Belt of northern Vancouver Island, Canada: Descending-plate-edge volcanism in the arc-trench gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Muller, J. E.; Harakal, J. E.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1985-10-01

    The Alert Bay Volcanic Belt trends northeasterly across northern Vancouver Island, coincident with the trace of the subducted Juan de Fuca—Explorer plate edge. Volcanism began in the west, at Brooks Peninsula, about 8 Ma ago, but occurred in most centers 3.5 ± 1 Ma ago. There is a suggestion of eastward migration of activity and shift from basalt to dacite or rhyolite with time. Most of the volcanism was coincident with a time of rapid changes in the geometry of subduction, as inferred from offshore magnetic patterns, and with a hiatus in mainland, Cascade volcanic arc activity. Geometry and chronometry suggest this is a descending-plate-edge volcanic belt, where disruption of steady-state plate-consumption patterns triggered magma genesis. Chemically the rocks are quite variable, with divergent fractionation trends. One trend resembles that of Mull (Hebrides), with a plagiophyric basalt of transitional alkaline-subalkaline, mildly tholeiitic, and aluminous character which differentiated to clinopyroxene andesite, and eventually to tholeiitic rhyolite and mildly tholeiitic calc-alkaline dacite, both of K-poor magma type. The other trend is like the Cascades, with aluminous, aphyric, calc-alkaline basalt, hornblende and/or hypersthene andesite, and K-poor dacite. This divergent character is also evident in Ba, Rb, Nb, and Zr fractionation trends. Major- and trace-element discriminant diagrams generally identify the basalts as within-plate types. The 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio is relatively low, averaging 0.70325, and shows no trend with rock type or differentiation series. Oxygen in the entire suite is relatively heavy, δ 18O averaging 7.1%. Even the basalts are 18O enriched. Oxygen shows no trend with degree of hydration, rock type, or series. These isotopic and chemical data are compatible with minor crustal contamination of mafic primary magmas, followed by fractional crystallization under different oxidation and hydration conditions.

  4. Frictional behavior and adhesion of Ag and Au films applied to aluminum oxide by oxygen-ion assisted Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.

    1994-01-01

    A modified dc-diode ion plating system, by utilizing a metallic screen cage as a cathode, is introduced for coating nonconductors such as ceramics. Screen cage ion plating (SCIP) is used to apply Ag and Au lubricating films on aluminum oxide surfaces. This process has excellent ability to coat around corners to produce three-dimensional coverage of the substrate. A dramatic increase in adhesion is achieved when plating is performed in a reactive 50 percent O2 - 50 percent Ar glow discharge compared to the adhesion when plating is performed in 100 percent Ar. The presence of oxygen ion assistance contributes to the excellent adhesion as measured in a pull-type adhesion tester. The Ag and Au film adhesion is significantly increased (less than 70MPa) and generally exceeds the cohesion of the substrate such that portions of the alumina are pulled out.

  5. Ion sputter textured graphite. [anode collector plates in electron tube devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Forman, R.; Curren, A. N.; Wintucky, E. G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A specially textured surface of pyrolytic graphite exhibits extremely low yields of secondary electrons and reduced numbers of reflected primary electrons after impingement of high energy primary electrons. An ion flux having an energy between 500 eV and 1000 eV and a current density between 1.0 mA/sq cm and 6.0 mA/sq cm produces surface roughening or texturing which is in the form of needles or spines. Such textured surfaces are especially useful as anode collector plates in high efficiency electron tube devices.

  6. Characterization of defect growth structures in ion plated films by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Gold and copper films (0.2-2 micron thick) are ion plated on very smooth stainless steel 304 and mica surfaces. The deposited films are examined by SEM to identify the morphological growth of defects. Three types of coating defects are distinguished: nodular growth, abnormal or runaway growth, and spits. The potential nucleation sites for defect growth are analyzed to determine the cause of defect formation. It is found that nuclear growth is due to inherent surface microdefects, abnormal or runaway growth is due to external surface inclusions, and spits are due to nonuniform evaporation and ejection of droplets. All these defects have adverse effects on the coatings.

  7. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  8. Influence and analysis on ion barrier film to the noise factor of micro-channel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-feng; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ni; Nie, Jing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Tai-min; Wang, Shu-fei; Liu, Xiao-jian; Liu, Zhao-lu

    2015-03-01

    The noise factor, which is the main factor affecting the noise performance of image intensifier and can accurately reflect the noise characteristics of the micro-channel plate(MCP), is the ratio of the input signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the output SNR. According to definition of noise factor of micro channel plate, noise mechanism and test principle, noise factor of filmed MCP test system is established in order to study the technical way to reduce noise factor of MCP. Because the input surface of the MCP is covered with ion barrier film to block the feedback ions, which have a great impact on the noise factor of the MCP. Hence, noise factor of filmed MCP and un-filmed MCP is measured respectively, and noise factors with different materials and different filmed thickness are measured too. Relationships between noise factor and filmed thickness, noise factor and output SNR of image intensifier have been obtained. That is valuable to reduce the noise of filmed MCP.

  9. Study of gas tungsten arc welding procedures for tantalum alloy T-111 (Ta-8 W-2Hf) plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, R. E.; Kesterson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Methods of eliminating or reducing underbread cracking in multipass GTA welds in thick T-111 plate were studied. Single V butt welds prepared using experimental filler metal compositions and standard weld procedures resulted in only moderate success in reducing underbread cracking. Subsequent procedural changes incorporating manual welding, slower weld speeds, and three or fewer fill passes resulted in crack-free single V welds only when the filler metal was free of hafnium. The double V joint design with successive fill passes on opposite sides of the joint produced excellent welds. The quality of each weld was determined metallographically since the cracking, when present, was very slight and undetectable using standard NDT techniques. Tensile and bend tests were performed on selected weldments. The inherent filler metal strength and the joint geometry determined the strength of the weldment. Hardness and electron beam microprobe traverses were made on selected specimens with the result that significant filler metal-base metal dilution as well as hafnium segregation was detected. A tentative explanation of T-111 plate underbread cracking is presented based on the intrinsic effects of hafnium in the weldment.

  10. Abnormal distribution of microhardness in tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Nan; Shen Jun; Xie Weidong; Wang Linzhi; Wang Dan; Min Dong

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the effects of heat input on the distribution of microhardness of tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welded hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were investigated. The results show that with an increase of heat input, the distributions of microhardness at the top and bottom of the welded joints are different because they are determined by both the effect of grain coarsening and the effect of dispersion strengthening. With an increase of the heat input, the microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the top and bottom of welded joints and the fusion zone (FZ) at the bottom of welded joints decreased gradually, while the microhardness of the FZ at the top of welded joints decreased initially and then increased sharply. The reason for the abnormal distribution of microhardness of the FZ at the top of the welded joints is that this area is close to the heat source during welding and then large numbers of hard {beta}-Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12} particles are precipitated. Hence, in this case, the effect of dispersion strengthening dominated the microhardness.

  11. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Doria, D; Kar, S; Ahmed, H; Alejo, A; Fernandez, J; Cerchez, M; Gray, R J; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Romagnani, L; Ruiz, J A; Sarri, G; Scullion, C; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states. PMID:26724017

  12. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I(FC) by the mobile plate tuner. The I(FC) is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I(FC) and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I(FC) when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner. PMID:22380157

  13. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I{sub FC} by the mobile plate tuner. The I{sub FC} is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I{sub FC} and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I{sub FC} when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  14. Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of triggered vacuum arc behavior under TMF/RMF-AMF contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Qin, Kang; Zhang, Xiao; Jia, Shenli

    2016-06-01

    A series of triggering experiments was carried out to investigate the characteristics of vacuum arc controlled by TMF/RMF-AMF contacts. During all the experiments, the current ranged from 5–20 kA (rms) and both the arc appearance and behavior of cathode spots were captured by high-speed camera with corresponding arc current and arc voltage. A 3D steady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model was built to simulate and analyze the vacuum arc behavior under TMF/RMF-AMF contacts, and arc plasma parameters were calculated based on the above model. The experimental results showed that arc deflection was visible under both low and high current. Under high current, arc core formed, which meant the arc contracted significantly. In addition, the anode became much more active under high current. The behavior of the cathode spots showed that they split themselves into other new cathode spots. Under high current, the bulk of the spots rotated along a clockwise direction on a transverse magnetic field (TMF) plate, which caused much noise and oscillation in the arc voltage. The simulation results show that ions are likely to gather on the branches of the TMF plate on the anode plane, as a result of the effects between the electromagnetic force and pressure gradient of the arc plasma. The current contracts in the center of the TMF plate on the cathode which was due to the thin connecting rod there. The anode contraction of the current is caused by the Hall effect. Ions move along a clockwise direction on the TMF plate, which is driven by Ampere force. The current contraction resulted in significant melting in the center of the cathode surface while the other region suffered from uniform melting. The melting caused by the anode contraction is more significant than that of the cathode.

  15. Subduction in Central Kermadec: Crustal Structures from the Incoming Plate and the Arc- Backarc Region From Wide-Angle Seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherwath, M.; Kopp, H.; Flueh, E. R.; Henrys, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    The central part of the 2500-km long Tonga-Kermadec Trench is characterized by the subduction of the Louisville Ridge and unusually large seismicity approximately 200-300 km to the south of this ridge subduction. From this region we show preliminary results which have been derived from the recently acquired interpretation of seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction data. The data were collected along an almost 500-km long transect carried out in April 2007 using the R/V Sonne in order to determine the upper lithospheric structures of the incoming Pacific Plate and the overriding Australian Plate across the Colville and Kermadec Ridges. This transect lies immediately north of Raoul Island, the largest of the Kermadec Islands and which is presently a highly active volcano. This study is part of the MANGO project (Marine Geoscientific Inverstigations on the Input and Output of the Kermadec Subduction Zone) which comprises a 1000-km long working area north of New Zealand's North Island. It covers the transition from subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau in the south to erosive subduction of normal Pacific oceanic crust in the centre and thence accretionary subduction further north. Overall the subduction is accompanied by northward increasing seismicity. The aim of this project is to understand the transition throughout the different regimes, the variation of the structures to explain the accompanying seismicty, and the role and evolution of the stratovolcanoes. This will be achieved by analysing the structures of the sediment, crust and upper mantle and also material transfers from its input and output through subduction zone processes.

  16. Compilation of seismic structural models of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, paleo-island arc in the Philippine Sea plate, at 13-30 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, A.; Kaneda, K.; Oikawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a 2600 km long bathymetric high extending north-south at the center of the Philippine Sea plate. The origin of the KPR is regarded as a remnant of the proto Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana (IBM) Island arc that was separated by backarc spreading of the Shikoku and Parece Vela Basins in the late Eocene. The extensive seismic explorations were implemented to grasp the spatial distribution of the arc crust of the KPR in 2004-2008 under the Japanese Continental Shelf Survey Project. We carried out 27 seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the ridge between 13 and 30 N and one along the ridge in the northernmost part. We deployed ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) as a receiver at an average interval of 5 km along each line. A tuned airgun array with a volume of 8,040 cubic inches (132 liters) or a non-tuned airgun array with a volume of 6,000 cubic inches (98 liters) was shot at an interval of 200 m (90 sec) for the wide-angle seismic profiles. Multichannel reflection data using 480 ch. or 240 ch. hydrophone streamer were also collected on the coincident lines. We obtained P-wave velocity models using tomographic inversion, forward modeling with two-dimensional ray tracing and comparison with synthetic seismograms. The maximum crustal thickness for each profile across the KPR varies from 8 to 23 km among the seismic lines. The KPR crusts are roughly thicker in the north than those in the south and are always thicker than the neighboring backarc basin oceanic crusts of the West Philippine Basin to the west and of the Shikoku and Parece Vela Basins to the east. The thick crust is mainly attributed to the lower crust with P-wave velocity of 6.8-7.2 km/s. Pn velocities just beneath the KPR are less than 8 km/s, often accompanying with rather high Vp of 7.2 km/s at the base of the crust. Reflection signals observed in far offsets along several lines suggest some reflectors exist at the depths 23-40 km beneath the KPR. The crustal

  17. Three-thrust fault system at the plate suture of arc-continent collision in the southernmost Longitudinal Valley, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chen, H.; Hsu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Active faults developed into a rather complex three-thrust fault system at the southern end of the narrow Longitudinal Valley in eastern Taiwan, a present-day on-land plate suture between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia. Based on more than ten years long geodetic data (including GPS and levelling), field geological investigation, seismological data, and regional tomography, this paper aims at elucidating the architecture of this three-thrust system and the associated surface deformation, as well as providing insights on fault kinematics, slip behaviors and implications of regional tectonics. Combining the results of interseismic (secular) horizontal and vertical velocities, we are able to map the surface traces of the three active faults in the Taitung area. The west-verging Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF), along which the Coastal Range of the northern Luzon arc is thrusting over the Central Range of the Chinese continental margin, braches into two active strands bounding both sides of an uplifted, folded Quaternary fluvial deposits (Peinanshan massif) within the valley: the Lichi fault to the east and the Luyeh fault to the west. Both faults are creeping, to some extent, in the shallow surface level. However, while the Luyeh fault shows nearly pure thrust type, the Lichi fault reveals transpression regime in the north and transtension in the south end of the LVF in the Taitung plain. The results suggest that the deformation in the southern end of the Longitudinal Valley corresponds to a transition zone from present arc-collision to pre-collision zone in the offshore SE Taiwan. Concerning the Central Range, the third major fault in the area, the secular velocities indicate that the fault is mostly locked during the interseismic period and the accumulated strain would be able to produce a moderate earthquake, such as the example of the 2006 M6.1 Peinan earthquake, expressed by an oblique thrust (verging toward east) with significant left-lateral strike slip

  18. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings. PMID:26120236

  19. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2016-06-01

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (< 1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  20. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 μH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A×140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 μs×25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H- ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 μs and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  1. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament.

    PubMed

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Tokuchi, A

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 microH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A x 140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 micros x 25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 micros and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS. PMID:20192388

  2. Microstructure and hardness of hollow cathode discharge ion-plated titanium nitride film

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.T.; Song, Y.C.; Yu, G.P.; Huang, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) ion-plating technique. The preferred orientation and microstructure were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Microhardness of the TiN film was measured and correlated to the microstructure and preferred orientation. The results of TEM study showed that the microstructure of TiN film contains grains with nanometer scale. As the film thickness increases, the grain size of TiN increases. The x-ray results show that TiN(111) is the major preferred orientation of the film. The hardness of TiN film is primarily contributed from TiN(111) preferred orientation.

  3. Friction and hardness of gold films deposited by ion plating and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with ion-plated and vapor-deposited gold films on various substrates in contact with a 0.025-mm-radius spherical silicon carbide rider in mineral oil. Hardness measurements were also made to examine the hardness depth profile of the coated gold on the substrate. The results indicate that the hardness is influenced by the depth of the gold coating from the surface. The hardness increases with an increase in the depth. The hardness is also related to the composition gradient in the graded interface between the gold coating and the substrate. The graded interface exhibited the highest hardness resulting from an alloy hardening effect. The coefficient of friction is inversely related to the hardness, namely, the load carrying capacity of the surface. The greater the hardness that the metal surface possesses, the lower is the coefficient of friction. The graded interface exhibited the lowest coefficient of friction.

  4. Characterization of defect growth structure in ion plated films by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Copper and gold films (0.2 to 2 microns) were ion plated onto polished 304-stainless-steel surfaces. These coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy for coating growth defects. Three types of defects were distinguished: nodular growth, abnormal or runaway growth, and spits. The cause and origin for each type of defect was traced. Nodular growth is primarily due to inherent substrate microdefects, abnormal or runaway growth is due to external surface inclusions, and spits are due to nonuniform evaporation. All these defects have adverse effects on the coatings. They induce stresses and produce porosity in the coatings and thus weaken their mechanical properties. Friction and wear characteristics are affected by coating defects, since the large nodules are pulled out and additional wear debris is generated.

  5. Ion channel pharmacology under flow: automation via well-plate microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C Ian; Li, Nianzhen; Chen, Qin; Johnson, Juliette; Nevill, Tanner; Kammonen, Juha; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian

    2012-08-01

    Automated patch clamping addresses the need for high-throughput screening of chemical entities that alter ion channel function. As a result, there is considerable utility in the pharmaceutical screening arena for novel platforms that can produce relevant data both rapidly and consistently. Here we present results that were obtained with an innovative microfluidic automated patch clamp system utilizing a well-plate that eliminates the necessity of internal robotic liquid handling. Continuous recording from cell ensembles, rapid solution switching, and a bench-top footprint enable a number of assay formats previously inaccessible to automated systems. An electro-pneumatic interface was employed to drive the laminar flow of solutions in a microfluidic network that delivered cells in suspension to ensemble recording sites. Whole-cell voltage clamp was applied to linear arrays of 20 cells in parallel utilizing a 64-channel voltage clamp amplifier. A number of unique assays requiring sequential compound applications separated by a second or less, such as rapid determination of the agonist EC(50) for a ligand-gated ion channel or the kinetics of desensitization recovery, are enabled by the system. In addition, the system was validated via electrophysiological characterizations of both voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel targets: hK(V)2.1 and human Ether-à-go-go-related gene potassium channels, hNa(V)1.7 and 1.8 sodium channels, and (α1) hGABA(A) and (α1) human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor receptors. Our results show that the voltage dependence, kinetics, and interactions of these channels with pharmacological agents were matched to reference data. The results from these IonFlux™ experiments demonstrate that the system provides high-throughput automated electrophysiology with enhanced reliability and consistency, in a user-friendly format. PMID:22574656

  6. Effect of B2O3 containing fluxes on the microstructure and mechanical properties in submerged arc welded mild steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Roy, J.; Rai, R. N.; Prasada Rao, A. K.; Saha, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper represents a study on the effect of B2O3 additions in fluxes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal formed during Submerged Arc Welding of Mild Steel plates. Five fluxes with about 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% B2O3 were used with a low carbon electrode. Welding process parameters were kept constant for all the conditions. The microstructure of weld metal for each flux consisted mainly of acicular ferrite, polygonal ferrite, grain boundary ferrites and equiaxed pearlite. It was noted that the Vicker's hardness value was a function of boron content and shows a mixed trend. Impact Energy and Tensile Strength were increased with the increase in boron content in welds this can be attributed to relation with the higher acicular ferrite percentage. However an optimum level of toughness and tensile strength was available with 7.5% and 5% of B2O3 respectively. A qualitative comparison has also be done with fresh flux by means of full metallography and mechanically.

  7. Preparation of cubic boron nitride films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and radio frequency ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, S.; Scherer, J.; Schwan, J.; Barzen, I.; Jung, K.; Scheib, M.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1996-02-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films have been deposited by unbalanced rf (13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering of a hexagonal boron nitride target in a pure argon discharge. Deposition parameters have been 300 W rf target power, 8×10-4 mbar argon pressure, 3.5 cm target substrate distance, and 800 K substrate temperature. Under these conditions the ion current density is 2.25 mA/cm2 and the growth rate is ˜1.1 Å/s. By applying a rf substrate bias the ion plating energy is varied from plasma potential of 37 eV up to 127 eV. The films have been characterized by infrared (IR) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray reflectivity, elastic recoil detection (ERD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), nuclear resonance analysis (NRA), and stress measurements. The subplantation model proposed by Lifshitz and Robertson can be applied to the c-BN formation. An energy of about 85±5 eV is found where the stress (25 GPa, 200 nm film thickness) and the c-BN content (≳90%) have a maximum. The grain size of the crystalline c-BN phase was estimated to be in the range of 5 nm. Below an energy of 67±5 eV no c-BN could be detected. An excellent adhesion has been obtained by a special interface treatment.

  8. Multi-Component Ion Modifiers and Arcing Suppressants to Enhance Differential Mobility Spectrometry for Separation of Peptides and Drug Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojevic, Voislav; Koyanagi, Gregory K.; Bohme, Diethard K.

    2014-03-01

    The optimization of ion/molecule chemistry in a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is shown to result in improved peak capacity, separation, and sensitivity. We have experimented with a modifier composed of multiple components, where each component accomplishes a specific task on mixtures of peptides and small drug molecules. Use of a higher proton affinity modifier (hexanol) provides increased peak capacity and separation. Analyte ion/modifier proton transfer is suppressed by adding a large excess of low proton affinity modifier (water or methanol), significantly increasing signal intensity and sensitivity for low proton affinity analytes. Finally, addition of an electrical arcing suppressant (chloroform) allows the device to operate reliably at higher separation fields, improving peak capacity and separation. We demonstrate a 20 % increase in the device peak capacity without any loss of sensitivity and estimate that further optimization of the modifier composition can increase this to 50 %. Use of 3-, 4-, or even 5-component modifiers offers the opportunity for the user to fine-tune the modifier performance to maximize the device performance, something not possible with a single component modifier.

  9. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  10. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  11. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  12. Paleomagnetic rotation pattern of the southern Chile fore-arc sliver (38°S-42°S): A new tool to evaluate plate locking along subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Speranza, Fabio; Di Chiara, Anita

    2016-02-01

    The Chile fore arc at 37°S-47°S represents the coseismic deformation zone of the 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake. Here we report on the paleomagnetism of 43 Oligocene-Pleistocene volcanic sites from the fore-arc sliver between 38°S and 42°S. Sites were gathered west of the 1000 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui dextral fault zone (LOFZ) that represents the eastern fore-arc sliver boundary. Nineteen reliable sites reveal that the fore arc is characterized by counterclockwise (CCW) rotations of variable magnitude, except at 40°S-41°S, where ultrafast (>50°/Myr) clockwise (CW) rotations occur within a 30 km wide zone adjacent to the LOFZ. CCW rotation variability (even at close sites) and rapidity (>10°/Myr) suggest that the observed block rotation pattern is related to NW-SE seismically active sinistral faults crosscutting the whole fore arc. According to previously published data, CW rotations up to 170° also occur east of the LOFZ and have been related to ongoing LOFZ shear. We suggest that the occurrence and width of the eastern fore-arc sliver undergoing CW rotations is a function of plate coupling along the subduction zone interface. Zones of high coupling enhance stress normal to the LOFZ, induce high LOFZ strength, and yield a wide deformation zone characterized by CW rotations. Conversely, low coupling imply a weak LOFZ, a lack of CW rotations, and a fore arc entirely dominated by CCW rotations related to sinistral fault kinematics. Our locking inferences are in good agreement with those recently derived by GPS analysis and indicate that seismotectonic segment coupling has remained virtually unchanged during the last 5 Ma.

  13. Observations of an intense field-aligned thermal ion flow and associated intense narrow band electric field oscillations. [at auroral arc edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bering, E. A.; Kelley, M. C.; Mozer, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the conditions encountered during a Javelin sounding rocket experiment conducted on Apr. 3, 1970 at Fort Churchill, Canada. Evidence is presented that near the equatorward edge of the auroral arc an intense beam of cold plasma ions was flowing parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The beam was associated with intense narrow band electric field oscillations near the local ion gyrofrequency. The data support the hypothesis that intense electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were driven unstable by field-aligned currents.

  14. Purification of Cu by hydrogen plasma-arc zone melting and characterization of trace impurities by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lalev, G.M.; Lim, J.-W. Munirathnam, N.R. Choi, G.-S.; Uchikoshi, M.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2009-01-15

    Purification of 4N (99.99%) and 6N (99.9999%) purity Cu rods by hydrogen plasma-arc zone melting was carried out. Weight loss in the 4N and 6N Cu rods as a function of number of zone refined passes revealed a higher rate of impurity removal by vaporization in 4N Cu when compared to 6N Cu. Purification effect was studied by analyzing major impurities like Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni and Fe by O{sub 2}{sup +} ions and C, O, As, Cl, P and S by Cs{sup +} ion sources using secondary ion mass spectrometry. A remarkable decrease of Si, Ti and Fe impurity concentrations in Cu at x/L = 0.03 after 10 zone passes was observed, but no similar purification effect along the remaining length of the zone refined copper rod was observed. Mg, Se and Ca in the Cu rods were reduced faster by a high evaporation effect due to P{sub i}/P{sub Cu} > 10{sup 2}. On the other hand, removal of O, C, S and Se was expectedly dominated by vaporization in the form of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4,} H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}Se through thermodynamically favored reactions. The overall segregation rate of the individual impurity elements was decreased with an increase in the purity from 4N to 6N of Cu rods. SIMS analysis of trace impurities was successfully carried out on HPZM Cu for quantitative estimation.

  15. Subduction initiation at relic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Wei; Gurnis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how a new subduction zone initiates remains controversial. Based on plate reconstruction and recent ocean drilling within the Izu-Bonin-Mariana, we advance a new geodynamic model of subduction initiation (SI). We argue that the close juxtaposition of the nascent plate boundary with relic oceanic arcs is a key factor localizing initiation of this new subduction zone. The combination of thermal and compositional density contrasts between the overriding relic arc, and the adjacent old Pacific oceanic plate promoted spontaneous SI. We suggest that thermal rejuvenation of the overriding plate just before 50 Ma caused a reduction in overriding plate strength and an increase in the age contrast (hence buoyancy) between the two plates, leading to SI. The computational models map out a framework in which rejuvenated relic arcs are a favorable tectonic environment for promoting subduction initiation, while transform faults and passive margins are not.

  16. A simple method for classification of antibiotics using ion exchange resins added to agar plates.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Kondo, F

    1994-01-01

    Using two different ion-exchange resins (Dowex 50W-X4 as cation and Dowex 1-X4 as anion) added directly to assay plates seeded with Bacillus subtilis or Micrococcus luteus, the size of the inhibitory zone produced by 36 antimicrobial agents around a disc or cup was characterized into various types, such as acidic, basic or amphoteric. An increase of the inhibition zone following addition of 15% Dowex 50W-X4 was evident in penicillins except for ampicillin and penicillin-G, and polyethers. Aminoglycosides, macrolides and colistin, lincomycin, and sulphonamides on assay medium treated with Dowex 1-X4 showed a similar effect on the inhibition zone. Tetracyclines, virginiamycin, oxolinic acid and furazoridone revealed no effects on the inhibition zone with either of the resins. These antibiotics could be divided into various groups on the basis of their chemical structure. This simple and rapid method may be useful for routine laboratory testing of residual antibiotics in meat. PMID:8152391

  17. Testing of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers for Electron Ion Collider Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Hannah; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Despite decades of research on the subject, some details of the spin structure of the nucleon continues to be unknown. To improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure, the construction of a new collider is needed. This is one of the primary goals of the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Planned EIC spectrometers will require good particle identification. This can be provided by time of flight (TOF) detectors with excellent timing resolutions of 10 ps. A potential TOF detector that could meet this requirement is a glass multigap resistive plate chamber (mRPC). These mRPCs can provide excellent timing resolution at a low cost. The current glass mRPC prototypes have a total of twenty 0.1 mm thick gas gaps. In order to test the feasibility of this design, a cosmic test stand was assembled. This stand used the coincidence of scintillators as a trigger, and contains fast electronics. The construction, the method of testing, and the test results of the mRPCs will be presented.

  18. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plates for energetic protons, deuterons, and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Charles; Canfield, Michael; Graeper, Gavin; Lombardo, Andrew; Stillman, Collin; Fiksel, Gennady; Stoeckl, Christian; Sinenian, Nareg

    2010-11-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer (TPIS) has been designed and built to study energetic ions accelerated from the rear surface of targets irradiated by ultra-intense laser light from the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The device uses a permanent magnet and a pair of electrostatic deflector plates to produce parallel magnetic and electric fields, which cause ions of a given charge-to-mass ratio to be deflected onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. The position of the ion along the parabola can be used to determine its energy. Fujifilm imaging plates (IP) are placed in the rear of the device and are used to detect the incident ions. The energy dispersion of the spectrometer has been calibrated using monoenergetic ion beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV pelletron accelerator. The IP sensitivity has been measured for protons and deuterons with energies between 0.6 MeV and 3.4 MeV, and for alpha particles with energies between 1.5 MeV and 5.1 MeV.

  19. The Cascaded Arc: High Flows of Rovibrationally Excited H{sub 2} and its Impact on H{sup -} Ion Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, O.; Harskamp, W. E. N. van; Schram, D. C.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Engeln, R.

    2009-03-12

    The cascaded arc is a plasma source providing high fluxes of excited and reactive species such as ions, radicals and rovibrationally excited molecules. The plasma is produced under pressures of some kPa in a direct current arc with electrical powers up to 10 kW. The plasma leaves the arc channel through a nozzle and expands with supersonic velocity into a vacuum-chamber kept by pumps at low pressures. We investigated the case of a pure hydrogen plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field that confines ions and electrons in the jet. Highly excited molecules and atoms were detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence and optical emission spectroscopy. In case of an applied magnetic field the atomic state distribution of hydrogen atoms shows an overpopulation between the electronic states p = 5, 4 and 3. The influence of the highly excited hydrogen molecules on H{sup -} ion formation and a possible mechanism involving this negative ion and producing atomic hydrogen in state p = 3 will be discussed.

  20. Timing of igneous accretion, composition, and temporal relation of the Kassandra-Sithonia rift-spreading center within the eastern Vardar suture zone, Northern Greece: insights into Jurassic arc/back-arc systems evolution at the Eurasian plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Nikolay; Marchev, Peter; Moritz, Robert; Filipov, Petyo

    2015-10-01

    In the Hellenides of northern Greece, the Kassandra-Sithonia and Central Chalkidiki ophiolites constitute the Vardar suture zone against the Serbo-Macedonian margin of Eurasia. The mafic-intermediate to acid members in the crustal section of the Kassandra-Sithonia ophiolites have N- and E-MORB signatures compatible with an origin in a back-arc spreading center. The MORB mantle source has received subduction zone input from the nearby Paikon arc system as revealed by LILE and LREE enrichments. A diorite from the Gerakini complex presumably belonging to the Central Chalkidiki ophiolites shows more enriched HFSE and REE patterns relative to MORB and Na-rich character compared to the Kassandra-Sithonia ophiolites. The Sithonia ophiolite crystallization spans from 159 to 149 Ma, and the Gerakini complex diorite crystallized at 173 Ma as derived from new U-Pb zircon geochronology. The main cluster of Permo-Carboniferous, a small cluster of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian and few Proterozoic, Ordovician, Devonian, Triassic and Middle Jurassic inherited zircons derive from the Serbo-Macedonian margin units. Thus, a Late Jurassic ca. 10 Ma lasting igneous accretion of the Kassandra-Sithonia back-arc crust within the eastern Vardar zone is now well constrained and corroborated by Berriasian-Early Valanginian supra-ophiolite cover limestones. Instead of an affinity to the Central Chalkidiki ophiolites, the Gerakini diorite exhibits chemical similarity to the Chortiatis arc magmatic suite of the Circum-Rhodope belt within the eastern Vardar zone. The Gerakini diorite predates the Sithonia ophiolite in which the Chortiatis arc suite supplied Middle Jurassic inherited zircons. The Chortiatis arc compared with arc-related Evros ophiolites of the Circum-Rhodope belt in Thrace region shows the same 173-160 Ma life span and tectonic setting, implying the extension of the arc systems across the north Aegean Sea. Based on these new temporal constraints, a tectonic scenario of Jurassic

  1. Space-charge effects of positive ions on the development of pulses in parallel-plate avalanche counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Baba, M.

    2015-02-01

    The effects of the space-charge of positive ions on the development of α-particle induced pulses in a parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) were studied by using pulse-shape analysis techniques. The analyses were separately carried out on the electron and the positive ion components of the pulses, reflecting the space-charge effects during and after the multiplication of charges in an external uniform electric field. Some calculations of the space-charge electric field and the first Townsend coefficient were carried out to explain the experimental waveforms. The dependence of the shape of the pulses to the amount of primary ionization is particularly discussed.

  2. Numerical analysis of atomic density distribution in arc driven negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T. Shibata, T.; Hatayama, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hanada, M.; Sawada, K.

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to calculate atomic (H{sup 0}) density distribution in JAEA 10 ampere negative ion source. A collisional radiative model is developed for the calculation of the H{sup 0} density distribution. The non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), which mainly determines the H{sup 0} production rate, is included by substituting the EEDF calculated from 3D electron transport analysis. In this paper, the H{sup 0} production rate, the ionization rate, and the density distribution in the source chamber are calculated. In the region where high energy electrons exist, the H{sup 0} production and the ionization are enhanced. The calculated H{sup 0} density distribution without the effect of the H{sup 0} transport is relatively small in the upper region. In the next step, the effect should be taken into account to obtain more realistic H{sup 0} distribution.

  3. X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of Boron-Nitride Clusters Deposited by Ion-Plating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohzuki, H.; Motoyama, M.; Kaneyoshi, T.; Kowada, Y.; Kawai, J.; Adachi, H.

    Cubic boron-nitride (c-BN) films were deposited on a silicon substrate by varying the deposition time, using a reactive ion-plating method. In order to investigate the growth mechanism of c-BN films, these c-BN films were characterized by x-ray emission spectra of boron (B K x-ray emission spectra), infrared absorption spectra, selected area diffraction patterns, and TEM microstructures. It was found that the BN film with sp2 bonding formed initially on the substrate and subsequently c-BN film formed. The c-BN film was composed of fine crystallites with a size of about 10 nm and with random orientation. In the case of the B K x-ray emission spectrum from the BN film with sp2 bonding, the intensity of the satellite peak at the short-wavelength side was extremely stronger than that of sp2-bonded BN-like turbostratic or hexagonal BN. As a result of calculation of the B K x-ray emission spectrum of BN using the discrete variational Hartree-Fock-Slater (DV-Xα) method, it was found that the satellite peak intensity increased with formation of the fine BN cluster having two-coordinated boron (which has a dangling bond) and with decreasing size of the cluster. Therefore, it is considered that the BN film with sp2 bonding was composed of the very fine BN cluster having two-coordinated borons, and became the precursor of c-BN film at the interface between the substrate and c-BN film.

  4. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  5. Low-distortion resistive anodes for two-dimensional position-sensitive MCP systems. [Microchannel Plates for ion, electron and photon image sensing and conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Carlson, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are frequently used with resistive anodes to detect charged particles or photons and yield analog signals from which event positions can be decoded. The paper discusses a four-corner concave circular arc terminated resistive anode that permits theoretically distortionless encoding of Cartesian event positions into pulse charge ratios. The theory of the circular arc terminated anode is discussed along with anode design and performance. Electron beam images obtained by using such an anode are presented to confirm the usefulness of the approach.

  6. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  7. Early Cretaceous arc volcanic suite in Cebu Island, Central Philippines and its implications on paleo-Pacific plate subduction: Constraints from geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Santosh, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Philippine island arc system is a collage of amalgamated terranes of oceanic, continental and island arc affinities. Here we investigate a volcanic suite in Cebu Island of central Philippines, including basalt, diabase dike, basaltic pyroclastic rock and porphyritic andesite. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of zircon grains from the porphyritic andesite and pyroclastic rock yielded ages of 126 ± 3 Ma and 119 ± 2 Ma, respectively, indicating an Early Cretaceous age. The age distribution of the detrital zircons from river sand in the area displays a peak at ca. 118 Ma, close to the age of the pyroclastic rock. The early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central Philippines were previously regarded as parts of ophiolite complexes by most investigators, whereas the Cebu volcanics are distinct from these, and display calc-alkaline affinity and island arc setting, characterized by high LREE/HREE ratios and low HFSE contents. These features are similar to the Early Cretaceous arc basalts in the Amami Plateau and east Halmahera in the northernmost and southernmost West Philippine Basin respectively. Zircon Hf isotopes of the pyroclastic rocks show depleted nature similar to those of the Amami Plateau basalts, implying the subducted Pacific-type MORB as probable source. Zircon Hf isotopes of the porphyritic andesite show slight enrichment relative to that of the pyroclastic rocks and MORB, indicating subducted sediments as a minor end-member in the source. The Hf isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks are also reflected in the detrital zircons from the river sands. We propose that the volcanic rocks of Cebu Island were derived from partial melting of sub-arc mantle wedge which was metasomatized by dehydration of subducted oceanic crust together with minor pelagic sediments. Within the tectonic environment of Southeast Asia during Early Cretaceous, the volcanic rocks in Cebu Island can be correlated to the subduction of paleo-Pacific plate. The Early Cretaceous

  8. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  9. A simulation study of a dual-plate in-room PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ze; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Chen, Jin-Da; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Guo, Zhong-Yan; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Xue; Wang, Jian-Song

    2014-08-01

    During carbon ion therapy, lots of positron emitters such as 11C, 15O, 10C are generated in irradiated tissues by nuclear reactions, and can be used to track the carbon beam in the tissue by a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. In this study, an dual-plate in-room PET scanner has been designed and evaluated based on the GATE simulation platform to monitor patient dose in carbon ion therapy. The dual-plate PET is designed to avoid interference with the carbon beamline and with patient positioning. Its performance was compared with that of four-head and full-ring PET scanners. The dual-plate, four-head and full-ring PET scanners consisted of 30, 60, 60 detector modules, respectively, with a 36 cm distance between directly opposite detector modules for dose deposition measurements. Each detector module consisted of a 24×24 array of 2 mm×2 mm×18 mm LYSO pixels coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 PMT. To estimate the production yield of positron emitters, a 10 cm×15 cm×15 cm cuboid PMMA phantom was irradiated with 172, 200, 250 MeV/u 12C beams. 3D images of the activity distribution measured by the three types of scanner are produced by an iterative reconstruction algorithm. By comparing the longitudinal profile of positron emitters along the carbon beam path, it is indicated that use of the dual-plate PET scanner is feasible for monitoring the dose distribution in carbon ion therapy.

  10. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on the influence of electron and ion temperature on the sheath expansion process in the post-arc stage of vacuum circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Wang, Lijun

    2015-02-15

    The inter-contact region of vacuum circuit breakers is filled with residual plasma at the moment when the current is zero after the burning of metal vapor arc. The residual plasma forms an ion sheath in front of the post-arc cathode. The sheath then expands towards the post-arc anode under the influence of a transient recovery voltage. In this study, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model is developed to investigate the post-arc sheath expansion. The influence of ion and electron temperatures on the decrease in local plasma density at the post-arc cathode side and post-arc anode side is discussed. When the decay in the local plasma density develops from the cathode and anode sides into the high-density region and merges, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region begins to decrease. Meanwhile, the ion sheath begins to expand faster. Furthermore, the theory of ion rarefaction wave only explains quantitatively the decrease in the overall plasma density at relatively low ion temperatures. With the increase of ion temperature to certain extent, another possible reason for the decrease in the overall plasma density is proposed and results from the more active thermal diffusion of plasma.

  11. North American Tropospheric Ozone Sources During Summer 2008 ARCTAS/ARC-IONS Derived from Laminar Identification with Tracers and Fire Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Luzik, A. M.; Gallager, S. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fromm, M.; Forbes, G.; Witte, J. C.; Soja, A.

    2009-05-01

    The ARC-IONS (ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study;, coordinated ozonesonde network, following the model of IONS-04 and IONS-06 [Thompson et al., 2007; 2008], operated over 17 Canadian and US sites in 2008, with daily launches (1-20 April; 26 June-12 July) during A-Train satellite overpasses, ~1300 local. The summer phase of ARC-IONS supported ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere with Aircraft and Satellites); sampling of ozone, CO and other tracers from ground bases and aircraft operating from Yellowknife (NT) and Cold Lake (AB) in Canada. The laminar identification (LID; Thompson et al., 2008; Yorks et al., 2009) method is applied to ozone and P-T-U profiles to determine ozone sources in the free troposphere. In addition to stratospheric ozone and a mixture of regional pollution-convection-lightning, about half of free tropospheric ozone is made up of recently advected ozone and background, aged ozone. Ensembles of back- trajectories are combined with LID results and satellite maps to extract fire contributions to column ozone over each ARC-IONS site. In addition, each sonde budget is disaggregated with respect to regional fire sources, eg California, western Canada, eastern US. An upper limit of 25% pyrogenic ozone, on average, is obtained from trajectory-fire coincidences over central and western Canada, with the "cleanest" site at Whitehorse (YK) and the most fire-perturbed at Kelowna (BC) and Stonyplain (Edmonton). The fire fraction declines when likely altitude of fire impacts is considered. Western North American sounding sites in 2008 were heavily affected by US west coast and Siberian fires. Eastern Canadian and southern US fires were important sources of ozone over Goose Bay, Egbert and maritime Canada.

  12. Thomson spectrometer-microchannel plate assembly calibration for MeV-range positive and negative ions, and neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R.; Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Nickles, P. V.

    2013-05-15

    We report on the absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, used in conjunction with a Thomson parabola spectrometer. The calibration delivers the relation between a registered count numbers in the CCD camera (on which the MCP phosphor screen is imaged) and the number of ions incident on MCP. The particle response of the MCP is evaluated for positive, negative, and neutral particles at energies below 1 MeV. As the response of MCP depends on the energy and the species of the ions, the calibration is fundamental for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. The calibration method and arrangement exploits the unique emission symmetry of a specific source of fast ions and atoms driven by a high power laser.

  13. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence. PMID:17799689

  14. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  15. Optical waveguiding properties and refractive index analysis of boron nitride (BN) thin films prepared by reactive ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudiombo, J.; Boudrioua, A.; Loulergue, J. C.; Malhouitre, S.; Machet, J.

    1998-05-01

    Thin films of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have been prepared using a reactive ion plating process. Investigations of guiding and optical properties of films have been performed using m-line spectroscopy. Both ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices are, respectively, determined from TE and TM mode excitation. Furthermore, refractive index profile analysis using an improved inverse WKB method reveals a gradient-like behavior indicating an optical inhomogeneity of the deposited films along the thickness. An optical anisotropy study confirms the films uniaxial nature with a birefringence, Δ n, of about 0.11.

  16. Sputter-ion plating of coatings for protection of gas-turbine blades against high-temperature oxidation and corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coad, J. P.; Restall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Considerable effort is being devoted to the development of overlay coatings for protecting critical components such as turbine blades against high-temperature oxidation, corrosion, and erosion damage in service. The most commercially advanced methods for depositing coatings are electron-beam evaporation and plasma spraying. Sputter-ion plating (SIP) offers a potentially cheaper and simpler alternative method for depositing overlays. Experimental work on SIP of Co-Cr-Al-Y and Ni-Cr-Al-Ti alloy coatings is described. Results are presented of metallographic assessment of these coatings, and of the results obtained from high-velocity testing using a gas-turbine simulator rig.

  17. Maximum Alpha to Minimum Fission Pulse Amplitude for a Parallel-Plate and Hemispherical Cf-252 Ion-Chamber Instrumented Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.

    2000-12-07

    In an instrumented Cf-252 neutron source, it is desirable to distinguish fission events which produce neutrons from alpha decay events. A comparison of the maximum amplitude of a pulse from an alpha decay with the minimum amplitude of a fission pulse shows that the hemispherical configuration of the ion chamber is superior to the parallel-plate ion chamber.

  18. Effect of metal ion concentration in Ni-W plating solution on surface roughness of Ni-W film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Manabu; Kaneko, Satoru; Kurouchi, Masahito; Ito, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Takeshi; Arai, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since nanopatterns are used for various purposes including solar cells, super-hydrophilicity, and biosensors, it is necessary to miniaturize the patterns on glass devices from micro- to nano-order. We have studied glass imprinting as an excellent microfabrication technology for glass devices. Uniformity of the nanopattern height is required for a mold, since a nodular structure on the Ni-W surface is recognized as a problem in Ni-W nanopattern formation. We confirmed that the Ni-W plating bath increasing metal ion concentration is effective for inhibition of the nodular structure on the Ni-W film, and succeeded in Ni-W nano pattern formation with uniform height. However, the W content rate of plated Ni-W film was reduced in exchange for enhancing the flatness of the Ni-W film. It is necessary to examine the Ni-W plating condition for obtaining planarization of the Ni-W surface and a high content rate of W in the Ni-W film.

  19. Metamorphic record of the NW Himalayan orogeny between the Indian plate-Kohistan Ladakh Arc and Asia: Revelations from foliation intersection axis (FIA) controlled P-T-t-d paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayab, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Z.; Aerden, Domingo

    2016-03-01

    Our recent Foliation Intersection Axes (FIAs) data from porphyroblasts in a metapelitic sequence, exposed south of the Indus suture of the NW Himalaya, revealed a fascinating relationship between the trends of three FIA sets versus the plate motion of India since its collision with the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc. The established FIA trend sequence, ESE-WNW (set 1), E-W (set 2) and NNE-SSW (set 3), matches successive vectors of relative India-Asia plate movement between magnetic anomalies 25-22 (55-50 Ma), 21-20 (48-44 Ma) and 13-8 (36-29 Ma), on the premise that FIAs develop normal to the direction of bulk crustal shortening. The correlation allows us to precisely model the pressure (P)-temperature (T) path followed by this portion of the NW Himalayan orogen from 55 to 29 Ma. Representative samples preserving FIA sets in garnet porphyroblasts are modeled in the chemical system MnNCKFMASH using THERMOCALC. A steep continuous P-T path is obtained from garnet porphyroblasts for sample preserving FIA set 1 that brackets metamorphic conditions during early NNE-SSW shortening (anomalies 25-22) between 0.4-0.87 GPa and 495-535 °C (M1 metamorphism). Garnets preserving FIA set 2 revealed 0.46-0.8 GPa and 507-565 °C (M2 metamorphism) during N-S (anomalies 21-20) shortening. Subsequent ESE-WNW shortening parallel to the orogenic arc (anomalies 13-8) peaked at 0.9 to 1 GPa and 595 ± 19 to 618 ± 28 °C (M3 metamorphism) and was followed by high-temperature/low-pressure conditions of 0.8 ± 0.2 GPa at 747 ± 32 °C that accompanied north-side-down decompression (M4 metamorphism) after 29 Ma. The M3 and M4 P-T estimates are based on average P-T conditions of garnet inner rim with the matrix mineral phases, which we suspect may not be in equilibrium due to later reactivation of the matrix foliation. The orthogonal orientation of FIA 1 and the NNE movement of India between anomalies 25 and 22 (55-50 Ma) suggest that the Indian plate collided with the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc around this

  20. MeV-ion beam analysis of the interface between filtered cathodic arc-deposited a-carbon and single crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kamwanna, T.; Pasaja, N.; Yu, L.D.; Vilaithong, T.; Anders, A.; Singkarat, S.

    2008-08-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were deposited on Si(100) wafers by a filtered cathodicvacuum arc (FCVA) plasma source. A negative electrical bias was applied tothe silicon substrate in order to control the incident energy of carbon ions. Effects ofthe electrical bias on the a-C/Si interface characteristics were investigated by usingstandard Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channeling modewith 2.1-MeV He2+ ions. The shape of the Si surface peaks of the RBS/channelingspectra reflects the degree of interface disorder due to atomic displacement fromthe bulk position of the Si crystal. Details of the analysis method developed aredescribed. It was found that the width of the a-C/Si interface increases linearlywith the substrate bias voltage but not the thickness of the a-C film.

  1. Erosion due to ion sputtering in absence of Debye Sheath at Divertor plates: PIC simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, K. S.; Adhikari, S.

    2014-10-01

    A 2D-3V Particle-in-Cell code with Monte Carlo Collision and a Plasma Surface Interaction Code written in Matlab is used to study the effect of grazing angle (α) on solid surface (divertor) erosion due to ion sputtering in magnetic fusion devices, where α is the angle between the magnetic field and the surface tangent. The ion distribution in front of an absorbing wall is computed using a kinetic model. Important factors like ion energy and impact angle for wall erosion and sputtering are highlighted. The dependence of these two parameters on grazing angle is investigated in detail. Physical Sputtering for ion bombardment is strongly dependent on incident ion energy and this energy is mainly gained by the ions when they travel through the potential drop across the combined Chodura Sheath and Debye Sheath. The present work contains the study of two scenario. In the first one we have studied the usual case to compare our result to the other similar work i.e. in presence of both Chodura Sheath and Debye Sheath. In the second one with the idea of previous work we have created the scenario where Debye Sheath cease to appear. The second scenario provides us the result that was never expected that the incident energy profile got reversed. The study is focused on the effect of grazing angle and its relation with the material erosion. Our study covers different materials (e.g. Be, Fe, W etc.) which are used as plasma facing components.

  2. Physical characterization of the charging process of a Li-ion battery and prediction of Li plating by electrochemical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, N.; Knosp, B.; Desprez, P.; Lapicque, F.; Raël, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with occurrence of lithium plating on the negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries, a significant ageing phenomenon known to damage lithium-ion battery performances. Charge transfer process, one of the two different steps of the process of Li insertion in the negative active material being the cause of this ageing, was considered here to be the limiting process. This transfer occurs at short-time scales. The second process, the diffusion of lithium in the solid insertion compound, occurring at relatively long-time scales, has not been fully examined here. The aim of this paper was to develop a new method to evaluate the maximal rate of a charge pulse solicitation to prevent this ageing phenomenon. The approach relies on the use of a fundamental model of lithium ion battery with coupled mass and charge transfer. To validate the method, 2 s microcycles have been performed on a commercial VL41M SAFT cell. Theoretical and experimental works led to the maximum current density to be applied without undesired Li deposition, depending on the state of charge (SOC). The abacus established for the cell of interest can orient further specifications for suitable use of the battery.

  3. The 3D lithospheric structure and plate tectonics of the on-going Taiwan arc-continent collision and delamination: a context for understanding patterns of geomorphic uplift and contemporary stress and geodetic displacement fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.; Carena, S.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    3D mapping of local and global tomographic data have considerably clarified the underlying architecture and long-term kinematics of ongoing arc-continent collision and subduction reversal in Taiwan, including the role of delamination of the continental mantle lithosphere and lowermost crust as an integral part of the ongoing collision. This subduction by continental delamination produces a new delamination Moho in northernmost Taiwan and is accompanied by extensional deformation and oroclinal bending of the overlying crust and now dead compressional mountain belt in northernmost Taiwan, even though subduction of Eurasian lithosphere continues at depth, with the Eurasian slab extending vertically to the mantle transtion zone. This subducting Eurasian continental lithosphere is continuous as a single intact slab across the Eurasian ocean-continent boundary, with the South China Sea Eurasian lithosphere to the south undergoing classic oceanic subduction. In this presentation we show that a 3D understanding of the geometry and long-term plate kinematics of this arc-continent collision informs and illuminates our understanding of [1] patterns of geomorphic uplift on a 100Ka timescale, [2] contemporary horizontal geodetic displacement fields, and [3] contemporary stress fields in the upper 100km determined from focal-mechanism inversions and borehole breakouts. Patterns of uplift and magmatism are closely linked to the locus of current delamination at depth. The contemporary horizontal displacement field shows on-going oroclinal bending. The very large changes in stress orientation are immediately clarified by their locations relative to fundamental structures, including the delamination Moho and the deep slabs of the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates.

  4. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Solar Air Heater with Roughened Duct Having Arc-Shaped Elements as Roughness Element on the Absorber Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil Prakash; Goel, Varun; Vashishtha, Siddhartha; Kumar, Amit

    2016-07-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for the heat transfer and friction characteristics for arc shaped roughness element used in solar air heaters. Duct has an aspect ratio (W/H) of 11, relative roughness pitch (p/e) range of 4-16, relative roughness height (e/D) range of 0.027-0.045, Reynolds number ( Re) range of 2200-22,000 and arc angle (α) was kept constant at 60°. The effects of Re, relative roughness pitch (p/e) and relative roughness height (e/D) on heat transfer and friction factor have been discussed. The results obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor has been compared with smooth solar air heater to see the enhancement in heat transfer and friction factor and it is found out that considerable enhancement takes place in case of heat transfer as well as in friction factor. Correlations were also developed for Nusselt number and friction factor. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is also calculated for the same.

  5. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Solar Air Heater with Roughened Duct Having Arc-Shaped Elements as Roughness Element on the Absorber Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil Prakash; Goel, Varun; Vashishtha, Siddhartha; Kumar, Amit

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for the heat transfer and friction characteristics for arc shaped roughness element used in solar air heaters. Duct has an aspect ratio (W/H) of 11, relative roughness pitch (p/e) range of 4-16, relative roughness height (e/D) range of 0.027-0.045, Reynolds number (Re) range of 2200-22,000 and arc angle (α) was kept constant at 60°. The effects of Re, relative roughness pitch (p/e) and relative roughness height (e/D) on heat transfer and friction factor have been discussed. The results obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor has been compared with smooth solar air heater to see the enhancement in heat transfer and friction factor and it is found out that considerable enhancement takes place in case of heat transfer as well as in friction factor. Correlations were also developed for Nusselt number and friction factor. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is also calculated for the same.

  6. Orientational relationship between cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride in a thin film synthesized by ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Lie; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    1995-12-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films synthesized by the ion-plating method were examined by high-resolution electron microscopy. It was found that the {0002} planes of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) at the boundaries of c-BN grains preferred to nucleate almost parallel to {111} planes of c-BN. Cross-sectional observation in the initial stage of growth showed that the c-BN can grow on top of the prismatic planes and the {0001} basal planes of h-BN, keeping the parallelism of the (111)c-BN to (0001)h-BN. A few degrees deviation (˜4°) between h-BN {0002} planes and c-BN {111} planes was frequently found in the film. The nucleation mechanism of c-BN was discussed analogous to that of diamond on graphite.

  7. Galvanic couples of 316L steel with Ti and ion plated Ti and TiN coatings in Ringer's solutions.

    PubMed

    Gluszek, J; Jedrkowiak, J; Markowski, J; Masalski, J

    1990-07-01

    Steel 316L was coated with titanium or titanium nitride by ion plating. The tightness of the coatings was examined electro-chemically. The galvanic effects for the galvanic couples steel-titanium, steel-titanium-coated steel and steel-titanium nitride-coated steel were studied. It was found that both titanium and titanium nitride coatings were non-porous in Ringer's solution; titanium served as an anode in the couple steel-titanium; it was oxidized according to the logarithmic law. For the other two couples, the coatings were the cathodes. The rate of dissolution of steel in these couples, was however, smaller than expected, owing to a strong polarization of the coatings. The potential of the couple was similar to that of steel. PMID:2400799

  8. Facile solvothermal synthesis of NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous plates as electrode materials for high-performance sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Liu, Li; Yi, Lingguang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Min; Zhou, Qian; Guo, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoying; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2016-09-01

    NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous plates have been successfully synthesized via solvothermal approach with ammonia as inductive agent combined in-situ carbon coating. It reveals that the inductive agent plays a critical role in morphology-controllable fabrication. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of NaTi2(PO4)3/C composites with multilayered plates, single-layered plate, porous multilayered plates all have been investigated, which are prepared by using urea, triethylamine, and ammonia, respectively. Among these samples, NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates with ammonia addition exhibit the best electrochemical properties due to their unique mesoporous structure. NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates deliver an initial specific capacity of 125 and 110 mAh g-1 at 0.1 and 1 C, respectively. Furthermore, NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates show a good rate capability, whose capacity and corresponding capacity retention reach 85 mAh g-1 and 82.4%, respectively, after 120 cycles under the high rate of 10 C. The excellent results indicate that the NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates are a promising electrode candidate for sodium ion battery.

  9. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  10. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C G; Fiksel, G; Stoeckl, C; Sinenian, N; Canfield, M J; Graeper, G B; Lombardo, A T; Stillman, C R; Padalino, S J; Mileham, C; Sangster, T C; Frenje, J A

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW. PMID:21806176

  11. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C. G.; Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Sinenian, N.; Canfield, M. J.; Graeper, G. B.; Lombardo, A. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Padalino, S. J.; Mileham, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Frenje, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  12. The use of accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) for the study of the thermal reactions of Li-ion battery electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanaraj, J. S.; Zinigrad, E.; Asraf, L.; Gottlieb, H. E.; Sprecher, M.; Aurbach, D.; Schmidt, M.

    The thermal stability of 1M LiPF 6, LiClO 4, LiN(SO 2CF 2CF 3) 2 (LiBETI) and LiPF 3(CF 2CF 3) 3 (LiFAP) solutions in mixtures of ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate in the temperature range 40-350 °C was studied by ARC and DSC. NMR was used to analyze the reaction products at different reaction stages. The least thermally stable are LiClO 4 solutions. LiPF 3(CF 2CF 3) 3 solutions showed higher thermal stability than LiPF 6 solutions. The highest thermal stability was found for LiN(SO 2CF 2CF 3) 2 solutions. Studies by DSC and pressure measurements during ARC experiments with LiPF 6 and LiFAP solutions detected an endothermic reaction, which occurs before a number of exothermic reactions as the temperature increases. Fluoride ions are formed and react with the alkyl carbonate molecules both as bases and as nucleophiles.

  13. Ionospheric composition in SAR-arcs. [Stable Auroral Red Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Banks, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical ion and electron density profiles in the SAR-arc region are calculated using a model of the ionosphere based on the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations for O(+), NO(+), and O2(+). It is found that an increase in the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N, which results from enhanced N2 vibrational excitation due to the high electron temperatures found in SAR arcs, can cause a reduction in F-region electron densities by up to a factor of two. The increase in the O(+) + N2 reaction rate is shown to result in a marked change in the ion composition in SAR arcs, with NO(+) being an important ion up to altitudes of about 350 km at night. Since observed electron-density depressions in SAR arcs generally vary between factors of two and seven, it is concluded that the increase in the O(+) + N2 reaction rate cannot account for these depressions by itself.

  14. Effects of near-Earth stochastic acceleration and reflections of magnetotail ions on the formation of auroral arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Zelenyi, L. M.; Bosqued, Jean-Michael; Peroomian, V.; Wang, Z.; Schriver, D.; Richard, R.

    1992-01-01

    Findings obtained from global kinetic simulations of magnetotail plasma are discussed. A region of strongly nonadiabatic ion acceleration (known as the 'wall' region) exists in the near earth tail and demarcates two very different regimes of ion motion: adiabatic and quasi-adiabatic. After convection through the wall, ion distributions rapidly become isotropized and thermalized. A strong enhancement of the cross tail current occurs on the tailward side of the wall. Comparison of numerical and adiabatic pressure profiles indicates that nonadiabatic processes operating in this region may contribute significantly to a pressure balance relief in the course of quasi-steady magnetospheric convection.

  15. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission.

  16. High-current vacuum-arc ion and plasma source ``Raduga-5'' application to intermetallic phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Kozlov, Eduard V.; Sharkeev, Yurii P.; Shulepov, Ivan A.; Kurzina, Irina A.; Sivin, Denis O.

    2006-03-01

    Phase composition, structural state, and mechanical properties of the ion-doped surface layers of Ni, Ti, and Fe targets with Al and Ti ions implanted into using the metal ion beam and plasma source Raduga 5 have been investigated. The high-intensity mode of implantation allowed us to obtain the ion-doped layers with the thickness exceeding the ion projected range by several orders of magnitude. By the transmission electron microscopy, it has been found that the fine-dispersed equilibrium intermetallic phases (Me3Al, MeAl) and the solid solution of aluminum were formed in the doped Ni, Ti, and Fe surface layers at the depth of up to 2600nm. The maximum dopant concentration reached 75%. It has been shown that the average size of the formed phases was of 70nm. The microhardness of the different target surface layers increased by 1.5-3 times. The wear resistance of the samples did not change within the temperature range of 300-700K.

  17. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    PubMed Central

    Watts, David; Borghi, Giacomo; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistive plate chambers (RPC) for an ibPET application because of their excellent timing properties and low cost. In this paper we present a novel compact multi-gap RPC (MRPC) module design and construction method, which considering the large number of modules that would be needed to practically implement a high-sensitivity RPC-PET scanner, could be advantageous. Moreover, we give an overview of the efficiency and timing measurements that have been obtained in the laboratory using such single-gap and multi-gap RPC modules. PMID:23824118

  18. Effect of strontium ions on calcification of preosteoblasts cultured on porous calcium- and phosphate-containing titanium oxide layers formed by micro-arc oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mizuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Shiota, Makoto; Hanawa, Takao; Kasugai, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) ions were added to calcium- and phosphate-containing porous titanium oxide layers formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of titanium (Ti) substrates to improve their osseointegration. An MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast was used to evaluate the effect of the incorporated Sr species on cell calcification. Similar surface microporous morphologies of the oxide layers were observed for all specimens produced by MAO, while the contents of the incorporated Sr ions increased with increasing Sr concentrations in MAO electrolytes. The calcium- and phosphate-containing porous layers promoted the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, while cell calcification was promoted by the Sr addition. In particular, the ALP activity significantly increased after 10 days of culture, and larger areas of calcified deposits were observed for the specimens treated with MAO electrolytes containing 0.15 mol L(-1) of Sr species. The effect of Sr addition on the calcification of the MAO-treated Ti oxide layers was established in this study. PMID:27477229

  19. The effect of ion plated silver and sliding friction on tensile stress-induced cracking in aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1991-01-01

    A Hertzian analysis of the effect of sliding friction on contact stresses in alumina is used to predict the critical load for crack generation. The results for uncoated alumina and alumina coated with ion plated silver are compared. Friction coefficient inputs to the analysis are determined experimentally with a scratch test instrument employing an 0.2 mm radius diamond stylus. A series of scratches were made at constant load increments on coated and uncoated flat alumina surfaces. Critical loads for cracking are detected by microscopic examination of cross sections of scratches made at various loads and friction coefficients. Acoustic emission (AE) and friction trends were also evaluated as experimental techniques for determining critical loads for cracking. Analytical predictions correlate well with micrographic evidence and with the lowest load at which AE is detected in multiple scratch tests. Friction/load trends are not good indicators of early crack formation. Lubrication with silver films reduced friction and thereby increased the critical load for crack initiation in agreement with analytical predictions.

  20. The effect of ion-plated silver and sliding friction on tensile stress-induced cracking in aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1993-01-01

    A Hertzian analysis of the effect of sliding friction on contact stresses in alumina is used to predict the critical load for crack generation. The results for uncoated alumina and alumina coated with ion plated silver are compared. Friction coefficient inputs to the analysis are determined experimentally with a scratch test instrument employing an 0.2 mm radius diamond stylus. A series of scratches were made at constant load increments on coated and uncoated flat alumina surfaces. Critical loads for cracking are detected by microscopic examination of cross sections of scratches made at various loads and friction coefficients. Acoustic emission (AE) and friction trends were also evaluated as experimental techniques for determining critical loads for cracking. Analytical predictions correlate well with micrographic evidence and with the lowest load at which AE is detected in multiple scratch tests. Friction/load trends are not good indicators of early crack formation. Lubrication with silver films reduced friction and thereby increased the critical load for crack initiation in agreement with analytical predictions.

  1. Silicon- and aluminum-nitride films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating and reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, G. W.; Monz, K. H.; Nguyen, Quang D.; Huter, Michael; Rille, Eduard P.; Pulker, Hans K.

    1994-11-01

    In this work the properties of Si3N4 and AIN thin films deposited onto unheated substrates by Reactive Low Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) and Reactive DC-Magnetron Sputtering (RDCMS) were investigated. In both experimental setups pure silicon and aluminum were used as starting materials. Working and reactive gas were argon and nitrogen respectively. All Si3N4 films showed amorphous structure in X-ray and electron diffraction whereas AIN films were found to be polycrystalline and could be indexed to the bulk hexagonal AIN lattice. The values of the film refractive index at 550 nm are 2.08 for RLVIP Si3N4, 2.12 for RLVIP AIN, 2.02 for RDCMS Si3N4, and 1.98 or 2.12 for AIN depending on the total pressure in the range of 8 E - 1 Pa and 1 E - 1 Pa during the process. The high optical transmission region for the Si3N4 films lies between 0.23 and 9.5 micrometers , and for AIN films between 0.2 and 12.5 micrometers . Purity and composition were measured by electron microprobe, infrared transmission, nuclear reactions, elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Transmission electron micrographs of Pt-C replicas of fracture cross sections of the films show their different microstructure and surface topography. Environmental tests proved the RLVIP Si3N4 films to be very hard, of high density and of strong adherence to glass.

  2. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N.

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  3. The radiolarian evidence for the accretion of the Fu-saki Formation with the inferred oceanic plate stratigraphy: A case of weakly-metamorphosed accretionary complex in Ishigaki Jima, southern Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    The island of Ishigaki Jima, located in the western part of the southern Ryukyu Arc, Japan, is underlain by a basement comprising the Tumuru and Fu-saki formations. The former is a pelitic glaucophane schist with a metamorphic age of 220-190 Ma, and the latter is a weakly metamorphosed accretionary complex, composed mainly of chert, mudstone and sandstone with minor amounts of limestone and mafic rocks. The Fu-saki Formation was weakly metamorphosed at ∼140 Ma. Latest Carboniferous-Early Jurassic microfossils have been obtained from the limestones, cherts and siliceous mudstones of this formation, but no fossils have been collected from the phyllitic mudstones. The radiolarian fauna of the phyllitic mudstones described herein indicates a late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) age. This result, when combined with existing data, enables the reconstruction of an oceanic plate stratigraphy, showing a succession of (in ascending order) Upper Carboniferous-Triassic cherts, Sinemurian-lower Pliensbachian siliceous mudstones and upper Pliensbachian-lower Toarcian phyllitic mudstones and sandstones. The radiolarians from the phyllitic mudstones are important in constraining the timing of the accretion of the Fu-saki Formation to the base of the Tumuru Formation.

  4. Design and synthesis of two-dimensional porous Fe-doped LiCoPO4 nano-plates as improved cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ling; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) Fe-doped LiCoPO4 nano-plates with porous structure have been successfully fabricated using NH4CoPO4·H2O nanosheets as templates followed by Fe doping and high temperature annealing. The obtained Fe-doped LiCoPO4 nano-plates exhibit several merits in morphology and crystal structure, including well-crystallized feature, porous structure, numerous interconnected pathway, improved electric conductivity and good structural stabilization. All the advantages endow the nano-plates with enhanced electrochemical performance when they are used as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this research, high specific capacity, excellent cyclability and outstanding rate capability in electrochemical energy storage are presented. This synthetic strategy is simple, effective, and could be broadly applied in designed synthesis of other electrode materials for LIBs.

  5. Ion Slip Effect on Viscoelastic Fluid Flow past an Impulsively Started Infinite Vertical Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Rita; Dhar, Paban

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the study of convective heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible MHD viscoelastic fluid past an infinite vertical plate immersed in a porous medium with chemical reaction and ion slip effects. Highly nondimensional governing equations are solved analytically by perturbation scheme. The analytical expressions for velocity, shearing stress, temperature, concentration, rate of heat transfer, and mass transfer are obtained. Also, graphical representations have been carried out for velocity field and shearing stress to investigate the effects of viscoelasticity and the effects of ion slip on the fluid flow in combination with other physical parameters involved in the solution. PMID:27379282

  6. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface. PMID:20355462

  7. Using a superconducting tunnel junction detector to measure the secondary electron emission efficiency for a microchannel plate detector bombarded by large molecular ions

    PubMed

    Westmacott; Frank; Labov; Benner

    2000-01-01

    An energy-sensitive superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector was used to measure the secondary electron emission efficiency, epsilon(e), for a microchannel plate (MCP) detector bombarded by large (up to 66 kDa), slow moving (<40 km/s) molecular ions. The method used is new and provides a more direct procedure for measuring the efficiency of secondary electron emission from a surface. Both detectors were exposed simultaneously to nearly identical ion fluxes. By exposing only a small area of the MCP detector to ions, such that the area exposed was effectively the same as the size of the STJ detector, the number of ions detected with each detector were directly comparable. The STJ detector is 100% efficient for detecting ions in the energy regime investigated and therefore it can be used to measure the detection efficiency and secondary electron emission efficiency of the MCP. The results are consistent with measurements made by other groups and provide further characterization of the loss in sensitivity noted previously when MCP detectors have been used to detect high-mass ions. Individual molecular ions of mass 66 kDa with 30 keV kinetic energy were measured to have about a 5% probability of producing one or more electrons when impacting the MCP. When ion energy was reduced to 10 keV, the detection probability decreased to 1 %. The secondary electron yield was calculated from the secondary electron emission efficiency and found to scale linearly with the mass of the impinging molecular ion and to about the fourth power of ion velocity. Secondary electrons were observed for primary ion impacts >5 km/s, regardless of mass, and no evidence of a velocity (detection) threshold was observed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:11006596

  8. An assessment of the mantle and slab components in the magmas of an oceanic arc volcano: Raoul Volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ian E. M.; Price, Richard C.; Stewart, Robert B.; Worthington, T. J.

    2009-07-01

    Raoul Volcano occupies a simple oceanic subduction setting in the northern part of the Kermadec arc on the Pacific-Australian convergent plate boundary. The primary inputs to the magmatic system that feeds the volcano are a subduction component derived from the subducting old Pacific oceanic lithosphere and its veneer of pelagic sediment, and the overlying peridotitic mantle wedge. Conservative trace elements that are very incompatible during mantle melting are relatively depleted in Raoul lavas indicating a source that has been depleted during an earlier melting event. Major element co-variations indicate magma genesis by 25% near fractional melting of a mantle source that is weakly depleted (2% melt extraction) relative to a fertile MORB source. An important influence on the composition of the mantle component is progressive melt extraction coupled with minimal advection of fresh material into the sub-arc zone followed by melt extraction from a melting column beneath the spreading centre of an adjacent back arc basin. High field strength element and rare earth element systematics indicate involvement of a subduction-related component of constant composition. Two fluid components can be distinguished, one enriched in large ion lithophile elements inferred to be an aqueous fluid that is continuously added to the ascending melt column and the other a less mobile fluid that transfers Th. A homogeneous subduction-related component of constant composition and magnitude arises if the slab-derived flux migrates from the slab-mantle interface to the sub-arc melting column by repeated episodes of amphibole formation and decomposition its composition is then governed by the distribution coefficients of pyroxene and its magnitude by the degree of amphibole saturation of mantle peridotite. The results from Raoul Volcano are comparable to those from other oceanic subduction-related arcs such as South Sandwich and Marianas suggesting that this is a general model for oceanic

  9. Cloud Arcs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and ... is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly - possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus ...

  10. 3D Numerical simulation of high current vacuum arc in realistic magnetic fields considering anode evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Jia, Shenli; Deng, Jie; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian; Schellenkens, H.; Godechot, X.

    2015-06-01

    A time-dependent 3D numerical model considering anode evaporation is developed for the high current vacuum arc (VA) under a realistic spatial magnetic field. The simulation work contains steady state 3D numerical simulation of high current VA considering anode evaporation at nine discrete moments of first half wave of 50 Hz AC current, transient numerical simulation of anode activity, and realistic spatial magnetic field calculation of commercial cup-shaped electrodes. In the simulation, contact opening and arc diffusion processes are also considered. Due to the effect of electrode slots, the simulation results of magnetic field and temperature of anode plate exhibit six leaves shape (SLS). During 6-8 ms, the strong evaporation of anode surface seriously influence the parameter distributions of VA. Ions emitted from anode penetrate into arc column and the axial velocity distribution on the anode side exhibits SLS. The ions emitted from anode surface have the same temperature with anode surface, which cool the arc plasma and lead to a relative low temperature area formed. The seriously evaporation of anode leads to the accumulation of ions near the anode, and then the current density is more uniform.

  11. Development and calibration of a Thomson parabola with microchannel plate for the detection of laser-accelerated MeV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harres, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P.; Blažević, A.; Flippo, K.; Gautier, D. C.; Geißel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Nürnberg, F.; Schreiber, J.; Wahl, H.; Roth, M.

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the development and application of a Thomson parabola (TP) equipped with a (90×70) mm2 microchannel-plate (MCP) for the analysis of laser-accelerated ions, produced by a high-energy, high-intensity laser system. The MCP allows an online measurement of the produced ions in every single laser shot. An electromagnet instead of permanent magnets is used that allows the tuning of the magnetic field to adapt the field strength to the analyzed ion species and energy. We describe recent experiments at the 100 TW laser facility at the Laboratoire d'Utilization des Lasers Intenses (LULI) in Palaiseau, France, where we have observed multiple ion species and charge states with ions accelerated up to 5 MeV/u (O+6), emitted from the rear surface of a laser-irradiated 50 μm Au foil. Within the experiment the TP was calibrated for protons and for the first time conversion efficiencies of MeV protons (2-13 MeV) to primary electrons (electrons immediately generated by an ion impact onto a surface) in the MCP are presented.

  12. Development and calibration of a Thomson parabola with microchannel plate for the detection of laser-accelerated MeV ions.

    PubMed

    Harres, K; Schollmeier, M; Brambrink, E; Audebert, P; Blazević, A; Flippo, K; Gautier, D C; Geissel, M; Hegelich, B M; Nürnberg, F; Schreiber, J; Wahl, H; Roth, M

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the development and application of a Thomson parabola (TP) equipped with a (90x70) mm(2) microchannel-plate (MCP) for the analysis of laser-accelerated ions, produced by a high-energy, high-intensity laser system. The MCP allows an online measurement of the produced ions in every single laser shot. An electromagnet instead of permanent magnets is used that allows the tuning of the magnetic field to adapt the field strength to the analyzed ion species and energy. We describe recent experiments at the 100 TW laser facility at the Laboratoire d'Utilization des Lasers Intenses (LULI) in Palaiseau, France, where we have observed multiple ion species and charge states with ions accelerated up to 5 MeV/u (O(+6)), emitted from the rear surface of a laser-irradiated 50 microm Au foil. Within the experiment the TP was calibrated for protons and for the first time conversion efficiencies of MeV protons (2-13 MeV) to primary electrons (electrons immediately generated by an ion impact onto a surface) in the MCP are presented. PMID:19044406

  13. Development and calibration of a Thomson parabola with microchannel plate for the detection of laser-accelerated MeV ions

    SciTech Connect

    Harres, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Roth, M.; Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P.; Blazevic, A.; Wahl, H.; Flippo, K.; Gautier, D. C.; Hegelich, B. M.; Geissel, M.; Schreiber, J.

    2008-09-15

    This article reports on the development and application of a Thomson parabola (TP) equipped with a (90x70) mm{sup 2} microchannel-plate (MCP) for the analysis of laser-accelerated ions, produced by a high-energy, high-intensity laser system. The MCP allows an online measurement of the produced ions in every single laser shot. An electromagnet instead of permanent magnets is used that allows the tuning of the magnetic field to adapt the field strength to the analyzed ion species and energy. We describe recent experiments at the 100 TW laser facility at the Laboratoire d'Utilization des Lasers Intenses (LULI) in Palaiseau, France, where we have observed multiple ion species and charge states with ions accelerated up to 5 MeV/u (O{sup +6}), emitted from the rear surface of a laser-irradiated 50 {mu}m Au foil. Within the experiment the TP was calibrated for protons and for the first time conversion efficiencies of MeV protons (2-13 MeV) to primary electrons (electrons immediately generated by an ion impact onto a surface) in the MCP are presented.

  14. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

  15. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in thismore » review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.« less

  16. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  17. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries at sub-ambient temperatures investigated by in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinth, Veronika; von Lüders, Christian; Hofmann, Michael; Hattendorff, Johannes; Buchberger, Irmgard; Erhard, Simon; Rebelo-Kornmeier, Joana; Jossen, Andreas; Gilles, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Lithium plating in commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite cells at sub-ambient temperatures is studied by neutron diffraction at Stress-Spec, MLZ. Li plating uses part of the active lithium in the cell and competes with the intercalation of lithium into graphite. As a result, the degree of graphite lithiation during and after charge is lower. Comparison of graphite lithiation after a C/5 charging cycle fast enough to expect a considerable amount of Li plating with a much slower C/30 reference cycle reveals a lower degree of graphite lithiation in the first case; neutron diffraction shows less LiC6 and more LiC12 is present. If the cell is subjected to a 20 h rest period after charge, a gradual transformation of remaining LiC12 to LiC6 can be observed, indicating Li diffusion into the graphite. During the rest period after the C/5 charging cycle, the degree of graphite lithiation can be estimated to increase by 17%, indicating at least 17% of the active lithium is plated. Data collected during discharge immediately after C/5 charging give further evidence of the presence and amount of metallic lithium: in this case 19% of discharge capacity originates from the oxidation of metallic lithium. Also, lithium oxidation can be directly related to the high voltage plateau observed during discharge in case of lithium plating.

  18. Propagation of back-arc extension into the arc lithosphere in the southern New Hebrides volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriat, M.; Collot, J.; Danyushevsky, L.; Fabre, M.; Meffre, S.; Falloon, T.; Rouillard, P.; Pelletier, B.; Roach, M.; Fournier, M.

    2015-09-01

    New geophysical data acquired during three expeditions of the R/V Southern Surveyor in the southern part of the North Fiji Basin allow us to characterize the deformation of the upper plate at the southern termination of the New Hebrides subduction zone, where it bends eastward along the Hunter Ridge. Unlike the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, on the other side of the North Fiji Basin, the 90° bend does not correspond to the transition from a subduction zone to a transform fault, but it is due to the progressive retreat of the New Hebrides trench. The subduction trench retreat is accommodated in the upper plate by the migration toward the southwest of the New Hebrides arc and toward the south of the Hunter Ridge, so that the direction of convergence remains everywhere orthogonal to the trench. In the back-arc domain, the active deformation is characterized by propagation of the back-arc spreading ridge into the Hunter volcanic arc. The N-S spreading axis propagates southward and penetrates in the arc, where it connects to a sinistral strike-slip zone via an oblique rift. The collision of the Loyalty Ridge with the New Hebrides arc, less than two million years ago, likely initiated this deformation pattern and the fragmentation of the upper plate. In this particular geodynamic setting, with an oceanic lithosphere subducting beneath a highly sheared volcanic arc, a wide range of primitive subduction-related magmas has been produced including adakites, island arc tholeiites, back-arc basin basalts, and medium-K subduction-related lavas.

  19. Linear volcanic segments in the Sunda Arc, Indonesia: Implications for arc lithosphere control upon volcano distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, C. G.; Pacey, A.; McCaffrey, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The overall curvature of many subduction zones is immediately apparent and the term island arc betrays the common assumption that subduction zone magmatism occurs in curved zones. This assumption can be expressed by approximating island arcs as segments of small circles on the surface of a sphere. Such treatments predict that the location of arc volcanoes is related to their vertical separation from the slab (in fact, the depth to seismicity in the slab) and require that the primary control on the locus of magmatism lies either within the subducted slab or the mantle wedge that separates the subducted and overriding lithospheric plates. The concept of curved arcs ignores longstanding observations that magmatism in many subduction systems occurs as segments of linearly arranged volcanic centres. Further evidence for this distribution comes from the close relationship between magmatism and large scale, arc-parallel fabrics in some arcs. Similarly, exposures of deep arc crust or mantle often reveal elongation of magmatic intrusions sub-parallel to the inferred trend of the arc. The Sunda Arc forms the Indonesian islands from Sumatra to Alor and provides an important test for models of volcano distribution for several reasons. First, Sunda has hosted abundant historic volcanic activity. Second, with the notable exception of Krakatau, every volcano in the arc is subaerial from base to cone and, therefore, can be readily identified where there is a suitable extent of local mapping that can be used to ground-truth satellite imagery. Third, there are significant changes in the stress regime along the length of the arc, allowing the influence of the upper plate to be evaluated by comparison of different arc segments. Finally, much of the Sunda Arc has proved difficult to accommodate in models that try to relate volcano distribution to the depth to the subducted slab. We apply an objective line-fitting protocol; the Hough Transform, to explore the distribution of volcanoes

  20. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  1. WET EFFLUENT PARALLEL PLATE DIFFUSION DENUDER COUPLED CAPILLARY ION CHROMATOGRAPH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRACE GASES. (R825344)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe an inexpensive, compact parallel plate diffusion denuder coupled capillary IC system for the determination of soluble ionogenic atmospheric trace gases. The active sampling area (0.6×10 cm) of the denuder is formed in a novel manner by thermally bonding silica ge...

  2. The Improvement of Ion Plated Ag and Au Film Adherence to Si3N4 and SiC Surfaces for Increased Tribological Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1998-01-01

    A modified dc-diode plating system, utilizing a metallic screen cage as a cathode and referred as SCREEN CAGE ION PLATING (SCIP), is used to deposit Ag and Au lubricating films on Si3N4 and SiC surfaces. When deposition is performed in Ar or N2, glow discharge, the surface displays poor adhesive strength (less than 5 MPa). A dramatic increase in adhesive strength (less than 80 MPa) is achieved when plating is performed in a reactive 50% 02 + 50% Ar glow discharge. The excited/ionized oxygen species (O2(+)/O(+) in the glow discharge contribute to the oxidation of the Si3N4 or SiC surfaces as determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XTS) depth profiling. The reactively sputter-oxidized S3N4 or SiC surfaces and the activated-oxidized-metastable Ag or Au species formed in the plasma cooperatively contribute to the increased adherence. As a result, the linear thermal expansion coefficient mismatch at the interface is reduced. These lubricating Ag and Au films under sliding conditions reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of 2-1/2 to 4.

  3. Partial Arc Curvilinear Direct Drive Servomotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A partial arc servomotor assembly having a curvilinear U-channel with two parallel rare earth permanent magnet plates facing each other and a pivoted ironless three phase coil armature winding moves between the plates. An encoder read head is fixed to a mounting plate above the coil armature winding and a curvilinear encoder scale is curved to be co-axis with the curvilinear U-channel permanent magnet track formed by the permanent magnet plates. Driven by a set of miniaturized power electronics devices closely looped with a positioning feedback encoder, the angular position and velocity of the pivoted payload is programmable and precisely controlled.

  4. Preparation and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and thin film solar cells produced by ion plating techniques. Final report, 1 January 1979-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Ion plating techniques for the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films have been successfully developed. The technique involves essentially the evaporation of elemental silicon through a d.c. produced hydrogen plasma. In this way hydrogen has been successfully incorporated into amorphous silicon films in concentrations as high as 30 atomic percent. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the usual SiH/sub x/ stretching mode at approximately 2000 cm/sup -1/. Further evidence for the bonding of hydrogen was obtained from ESR measurement of hydrogenated and unhydrogenated samples. The measured unpaired spin density was a factor of 25 less in the hydrogenated sample. The optical absorption edges of the hydrogenated films fell in the usual range between 1.7 and 1.9 eV. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated a substantial reduction in the density of defect states in the gap as expected. It was also shown that hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by ion-plating could be doped by co-evaporation of the dopant element during film deposition. Both co-evaporated phosphorous and co-evaporated bismuth have been found to substantially increase the dark conductivity of a-Si:H while shifting the Fermi level towards the conduction band edge. An x-ray method for estimating the density and hydrogen content of a-Si:H has been developed. The measurement of strain in a-Si:H thin films is discussed. (WHK)

  5. High thrust-to-power ratio micro-cathode arc thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Joseph; Teel, George; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Keidar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (μCAT) is an electric propulsion device that ablates solid cathode material, through an electrical vacuum arc discharge, to create plasma and ultimately produce thrust in the μN to mN range. About 90% of the arc discharge current is conducted by electrons, which go toward heating the anode and contribute very little to thrust, with only the remaining 10% going toward thrust in the form of ion current. A preliminary set of experiments were conducted to show that, at the same power level, thrust may increase by utilizing an ablative anode. It was shown that ablative anode particles were found on a collection plate, compared to no particles from a non-ablative anode, while another experiment showed an increase in ion-to-arc current by approximately 40% at low frequencies compared to the non-ablative anode. Utilizing anode ablation leads to an increase in thrust-to-power ratio in the case of the μCAT.

  6. DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH INTENSITY ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-01-01

    A device is described for producing an energetic d-c carbon arc discharge between widely spaced electrodes with arc currents in excess of 100 amperes in a magnetic field of about 3000 gauss and witnin an evacuated enclo sure at a pressure of about 10/sup -5/ mm Hg. No defining electrodes are used in the device, thus essentially eliminating the problems of shorting which heretofore limited the amount of current that could be produced in an arc discharge. The energetic carbon arc discharge is sustained by the potential across the electrodes and by carbon ions and electrons released from the electrodes during arc operation. A large part of the potential drop of the arc occurs along the arc and many energetic electrons reach the anode because the arc pressure is relatively low, and few collisions occur. The carbon discharge is also an efficient ion pump.

  7. CALUTRON FACE PLATE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-08-25

    The construction of a removable cover plate for a calutron tank is described. The plate is fabricated of a rectangular frame member to which is welded a bowed or dished plate of thin steel, reinforced with transverse stiffening ribs. When the tank is placed between the poles of a magnet, the plate may be pivoted away from the tank and magnet and is adapted to support the ion separation mechanism secured to its inner side as well as the vacuum load within the tank.

  8. Ion detection with a cryogenic detector compared to a microchannel plate detector in MALDI TOF-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, W H; Frank, M; Labov, S; Westmacott, G; Zhong, F

    1999-06-29

    Detection of molecular ions in mass spectrometry is typically accomplished by an ion colliding with a surface and then amplifying the emitted secondary electrons. It is well established that the secondary electron yield decreases as the mass of the primary ion increases [1-3], thus limiting the detection efficiency of large molecular ions. One way around this limitation is to use secondary ion detectors because the emission efficiency of secondary ions does not seem to decrease for increasing primary ion mass [1]. However this technique has limitations in timing resolution because of the mass spread of the emitted secondary ions. To find other ways around high mass detection limitations it is important to understand existing mechanisms of detection and to explore alternative detector types. To this end, a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector was used in measuring the secondary electron emission efficiency, se, for a MCP detector. STJ detectors are energy sensitive and do not rely on secondary emission to produce a signal. Using a linear MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, a STJ detector is mounted directly behind the hole in an annular MCP detector. This mounting arrangement allows ions to be detected simultaneously by each detector. The STJ detector sits in a liquid helium cryostat and is operated at 1.3 K to minimize thermal noise (see [4,5] for more details). Primary ions passing through the center hole of the MCP detector collide with the 0.04 mm{sup 2} STJ surface and generate a detector-pulse that is approximately proportional to the ion's total energy. A mask with a small hole in it was placed in front of the MCP detector so that the MCP and STJ detectors have approximately the same effective active areas. The ion beam diameter near the MCP is over 2.5 cm (measured with a MCP-phosphorus screen detector) and the axial separation of the two detectors is about 4 mm. Both detectors were operated in pulse-counting mode and set to have the same effective

  9. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  10. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P K; Scullion, C; Ahmed, H; Kakolee, K F; Hadjisolomou, P; Alejo, A; Kar, S; Borghesi, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range. PMID:27587107

  11. Steady rotation of the Cascade arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; McCaffrey, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Displacement of the Miocene Cascade volcanic arc (northwestern North America) from the active arc is in the same sense and at nearly the same rate as the present clockwise block motions calculated from GPS velocities in a North American reference frame. Migration of the ancestral arc over the past 16 m.y. can be explained by clockwise rotation of upper-plate blocks at 1.0°/m.y. over a linear melting source moving westward 1–4.5 km/m.y. due to slab rollback. Block motion and slab rollback are in opposite directions in the northern arc, but both are westerly in the southern extensional arc, where rollback may be enhanced by proximity to the edge of the Juan de Fuca slab. Similarities between post–16 Ma arc migration, paleomagnetic rotation, and modern GPS block motions indicate that the secular block motions from decadal GPS can be used to calculate long-term strain rates and earthquake hazards. Northwest-directed Basin and Range extension of 140 km is predicted behind the southern arc since 16 Ma, and 70 km of shortening is predicted in the northern arc. The GPS rotation poles overlie a high-velocity slab of the Siletzia terrane dangling into the mantle beneath Idaho (United States), which may provide an anchor for the rotations.

  12. Simulative method for determining the optimal operating conditions for a cooling plate for lithium-ion battery cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Hable, Peter; Koehler, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    Extended battery system lifetime and reduced costs are essential to the success of electric vehicles. An effective thermal management strategy is one method of enhancing system lifetime increasing vehicle range. Vehicle-typical space restrictions favor the minimization of battery thermal management system (BTMS) size and weight, making their production and subsequent vehicle integration extremely difficult and complex. Due to these space requirements, a cooling plate as part of a water-glycerol cooling circuit is commonly implemented. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and multi-objective analysis technique for determining the thermal effect of coolant flow rate and inlet temperature in a cooling plate-at a range of vehicle operating conditions-on a battery system, thereby providing a dynamic input for one-dimensional models. Traditionally, one-dimensional vehicular thermal management system models assume a static heat input from components such as a battery system: as a result, the components are designed for a set coolant input (flow rate and inlet temperature). Such a design method is insufficient for dynamic thermal management models and control strategies, thereby compromising system efficiency. The presented approach allows for optimal BMTS design and integration in the vehicular coolant circuit.

  13. Gamma-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate installed as an ion detector in the low energy particle instrument onboard the GEOTAIL satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.; Terasawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Mukai, T.

    2007-03-15

    A microchannel plate (MCP) assembly has been used as an ion detector in the low energy particle (LEP) instrument onboard the magnetospheric satellite GEOTAIL. Recently the MCP assembly has detected gamma rays emitted from an astronomical object and has been shown to provide unique information of gamma rays if they are intense enough. However, the detection efficiency for gamma rays was not measured before launch, and therefore we could not analyze the LEP data quantitatively. In this article, we report the gamma-ray detection efficiency of the MCP assembly. The measured efficiencies are 1.29%{+-}0.71% and 0.21%{+-}0.14% for normal incidence 60 and 662 keV gamma rays, respectively. The incident angle dependence is also presented. Our calibration is crucial to study high energy astrophysical phenomena by using the LEP.

  14. Weld arc simulator

    DOEpatents

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  15. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  16. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  17. Origin of Small Tectonic Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, C.; Coltice, N.; Seton, M.; Müller, D.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    The plate tectonic theory allowed to split the Earth surface into 6 (Le Pichon 1968) to 52 tectonic plates (Bird 2003). These plates are separated into two groups: the first of 7 large plates and the second of numerous smaller plates (Morra et al 2013). Previous studies using the reconstruction of the past 200 My, suggest that the size of large plates is driven by mantle flow. But the tools employed are descriptive (Morra et al 2013, Sornette and Pisarenko 2003), hence ignoring forces and physical principles within the lithosphere and the mantle. The processes at the origin of small plates remain unknown. We developed a new approach to explain the plate sizes. We demonstrate that the physics of convection drives it. We applied plate tectonics theory on 3D spherical convection models generating plate-like motions, which give access to a complete survey of data: velocities, viscosity and heat flow. Our data show that (1) the large plates depend on the dominating scale of the convective flow due to the initiation or the shutdown of subductions; (2) the smaller plates are generated thanks to large variability of regional stresses along subduction zone by slab pull and suction influenced by the geometry of trenches. Our results are consistent with the quick reorganizations of back-arc basins occuring synchronously with the modification of subduction zones geometry around the Pacific plate (Sdrolias et al 2004). Hence, we conclude that (1) the decreasing number of small plates in the plate reconstructions back in time is an artifact induced by their short lifetime, that is why they are artificially ignored; (2) the geometry of past trenches is simplified leading to an underestimation of the length of subduction zones.

  18. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  19. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, F.F.

    1959-06-01

    A calutron ion source is described which masks the ends of the arc to provide a more stable beam from the middle portion. The masking is effected by milling the arc slit in a single sheet of material which is secured to the open face of the arc block. (T.R.H.)

  20. Linear volcanic segments in the central Sunda Arc, Indonesia, identified using Hough Transform analysis: Implications for arc lithosphere control upon volcano distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacey, Adam; Macpherson, Colin G.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2013-05-01

    Hough Transform analysis is used as an objective means to constrain volcano distribution in the central Sunda Arc, Indonesia. Most volcanoes in the arc define four en echelon, linear segments, each of 500-700 km length. Javan volcanoes that do not lie on these segments either (i) formed at an early stage in the history of the arc and erupted products that are petrologically and geochemically distinct from typical arc magma, or (ii) lie along other mapped structures. The en echelon distribution of volcanoes in the central Sunda Arc is best explained as originating from two possible sources. First, interaction with the subducting Indo-Australian Plate may induce stress in the arc lithosphere generating pathways for magma to exploit. Second, downward flexure of the arc lithosphere, as a result of mantle flow or loading by the arc, would also establish arc-normal tension towards the base of the lithosphere, where magma is supplied to volcanic systems. To the west and east of the central Sunda Arc deviations from the distribution of long, en echelon, linear segments can be understood as responses to specific stress fields in the arc lithosphere of Sumatra and eastern Nusa Tenggara, respectively. Control of volcano distribution by arc lithosphere explains why there are large variations in the depth from volcanoes to the zone of slab seismicity in the central Sunda Arc, where there is little variation in slab geometry or the rate of plate convergence.

  1. Ion-plasma gun for ion-milling machine

    DOEpatents

    Kaminsky, Manfred S.; Campana, Jr., Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    An ion gun includes an elongated electrode with a hollow end portion closed by a perforated end plate. The end plate is positioned parallel to a perforated flat electrode of opposite electrical polarity. An insulated sleeve encompasses the elongated electrode and extends outwardly from the perforated end towards the flat electrode. The sleeve length is separated into two portions of different materials. The first is formed of a high-temperature material that extends over the hollow portion of the elongated electrode where the arc is initiated by a point source electrode. The second sleeve portion extending over the remainder of the elongated electrode is of a resilient material for enhanced seal-forming ability and retention of plasma gas. Perforations are arranged in the flat electrode in a mutually opposing triangular pattern to project a plasma beam having a generally flat current profile towards a target requiring precision milling.

  2. Efficient focusing of 8 keV X-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcel; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Grévent, Corinne; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Weigand, Markus; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Schütz, Gisela

    2013-05-01

    Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) recently showed significant improvement by focusing soft X-rays down to ~10 nm. In contrast to soft X-rays, generally a very high aspect ratio FZP is needed for efficient focusing of hard X-rays. Therefore, FZPs had limited success in the hard X-ray range owing to difficulties of manufacturing high-aspect-ratio zone plates using conventional techniques. Here, employing a method of fabrication based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling, FZPs with very high aspect ratios were prepared. Such multilayer FZPs with outermost zone widths of 10 and 35 nm and aspect ratios of up to 243 were tested for their focusing properties at 8 keV and shown to focus hard X-rays efficiently. This success was enabled by the outstanding layer quality thanks to ALD. Via the use of FIB for slicing the multilayer structures, desired aspect ratios could be obtained by precisely controlling the thickness. Experimental diffraction efficiencies of multilayer FZPs fabricated via this combination reached up to 15.58% at 8 keV. In addition, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy experiments at 1.5 keV were carried out using one of the multilayer FZPs and resolved a 60 nm feature size. Finally, the prospective of different material combinations with various outermost zone widths at 8 and 17 keV is discussed in the light of the coupled wave theory and the thin-grating approximation. Al2O3/Ir is outlined as a promising future material candidate for extremely high resolution with a theoretical efficiency of more than 20% for as small an outermost zone width as 10 nm at 17 keV. PMID:23592622

  3. Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Arc Motion Characteristics in Air Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Fan, Xingyu; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, to simulate the arc motion in an air circuit breaker (ACB), a three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model is developed, considering the influence of thermal radiation, the change of physical parameters of arc plasma and the nonlinear characteristic of ferromagnetic material. The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of arc plasma in the arc region are calculated. The simulation results show some phenomena which discourage arc interruption, such as back commutation and arc burning at the back of the splitter plate. To verify the simulation model, the arc motion is studied experimentally. The influences of the material and position of the innermost barrier plate are analyzed mainly. It proved that the model developed in this paper can efficiently simulate the arc motion. The results indicate that the insulation barrier plate close to the top of the splitter plate is conducive to the arc splitting, which leads to the significant increase of the arc voltage, so it is better for arc interruption. The research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China

  4. A mechanism that triggers double arcing during plasma arc cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian

    2009-10-01

    Double arcing (DA) is a phenomenon when a transferred arc, flowing inside an electrically insulated nozzle, breaks into two separate arcs: one that connects the cathode and the nozzle and another that connects the nozzle and a work-piece. It is a commonly accepted opinion that the reason for DA is high voltage drop in the plasma inside the nozzle. However, the specific mechanism that triggers the DA development is not clear. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism. Dielectric films deposited inside the nozzle's orifice play the key role in this mechanism. These films are charged by ion current from plasma. A strong electric field is created inside the film and at the boundary of the film and clean metal of the nozzle. This gives rise to a thermo-field electron emission from the clean metal that borders the film. Emitted electrons are accelerated at the voltage drop between the nozzle and plasma. These electrons produce extra ions, which in turn move back to the film and additionally charge it. This sequence of events leads to explosive instability if the voltage drop inside the nozzle is high enough. Experiments to check the proposed mechanism are suggested.

  5. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, εNd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon εHf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  6. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  7. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  8. [Arc welder's lung].

    PubMed

    Molinari, Luciana; Alvarez, Clarisa; Semeniuk, Guillermo B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis of electric arc welder or siderotic pneumoconiosis was described by Doig and McLaughlin in 1936 as a lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of iron fumes in electric arc welders. We present a case report of electric arc welder siderosis associated with high levels of ferritin, without findings of iron deposit in any other organ. PMID:21163741

  9. Vacuum arc behavior and its voltage characteristics in drawing process controlled by composite magnetic fields along axial and transverse directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Wang, Haijing; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2015-10-01

    In this research, drawing vacuum arc (VA) experiments were conducted using composite contacts under currents ranging from 5 kA to 20 kA root mean square (rms). The new type of contact comprised an axial magnetic field (AMF) configuration and a transverse magnetic field (TMF) configuration. The TMF plate was in the center, surrounded by the AMF plate. The contact generated both AMFs and TMFs simultaneously. VA appearances and arc voltages were recorded, and the VA was modeled as a conductor for electromagnetic force analysis in ANSYS software. The results showed that the coaxiality of operating mechanisms significantly influenced arc behavior just as the arc was ignited. When arc brightness did not increase after ignition, there was a voltage drop accompanied with diffusion of the VA. As to VA development, when an arc was ignited on an AMF plate, it spread on the plate and rotated. Over time the arc current increased, the constricting arc forms, and the arc column rotated on the TMF plate under the action of Ampere's force. With regard to the influence of a magnetic field on a VA at different stages, in the initial drawing arc stage the TMF was dominant, and the arc started to rotate under the action of Ampere's force. Afterwards, the AMF was dominant, with a steadily burning arc. As for contact melting, in the initial arcing period, a contracted short arc caused severe melting and erosion of the contact plate. When the ignition spot or root was close to the slot of plate, the electromagnetic force pushed the arc toward slot and contact edge, resulting in local erosion of the slot region.

  10. Vacuum arc behavior and its voltage characteristics in drawing process controlled by composite magnetic fields along axial and transverse directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijun Deng, Jie; Wang, Haijing; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2015-10-15

    In this research, drawing vacuum arc (VA) experiments were conducted using composite contacts under currents ranging from 5 kA to 20 kA root mean square (rms). The new type of contact comprised an axial magnetic field (AMF) configuration and a transverse magnetic field (TMF) configuration. The TMF plate was in the center, surrounded by the AMF plate. The contact generated both AMFs and TMFs simultaneously. VA appearances and arc voltages were recorded, and the VA was modeled as a conductor for electromagnetic force analysis in ANSYS software. The results showed that the coaxiality of operating mechanisms significantly influenced arc behavior just as the arc was ignited. When arc brightness did not increase after ignition, there was a voltage drop accompanied with diffusion of the VA. As to VA development, when an arc was ignited on an AMF plate, it spread on the plate and rotated. Over time the arc current increased, the constricting arc forms, and the arc column rotated on the TMF plate under the action of Ampere's force. With regard to the influence of a magnetic field on a VA at different stages, in the initial drawing arc stage the TMF was dominant, and the arc started to rotate under the action of Ampere's force. Afterwards, the AMF was dominant, with a steadily burning arc. As for contact melting, in the initial arcing period, a contracted short arc caused severe melting and erosion of the contact plate. When the ignition spot or root was close to the slot of plate, the electromagnetic force pushed the arc toward slot and contact edge, resulting in local erosion of the slot region.

  11. Analysis of plate spin motion and its implications for strength of plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the driving forces of plate motion, especially those of plate spin motion, that are related to the toroidal components of the global plate velocity field. In previous works, numerical simulations of mantle convection have been used to examine the extent to which toroidal velocity components are naturally generated on the surface, by varying key parameters, notably the rheological properties of plates and plate boundaries. Here, we take the reverse approach and perform analyses of observed plate motions, which show an increase in the toroidal/poloidal ratio at high degrees of spherical harmonic expansion, as well as a rapid change in the plate spin rate and the estimated driving stress around a critical plate size of approximately 1000 km. This quantitative relationship constrains the strength at plate boundaries to 3-75 MPa, which is consistent with several seismological observations, including those from the NE Japan arc associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

  12. Multilayered TiAlN films on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating process.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Huang, Jiaqiang

    2016-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used as a suitable material for surgical implants such as artificial hip joints. In this study, a series of multilayered gradient TiAlN coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) process. Taguchi design of experiment approach was used to reveal the influence of depositing parameters to the film composition and performance of TiAlN coatings. The phase structure and chemical composition of the TiAlN films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties, including hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient, wear rate and adhesion strength were systematically evaluated. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples in Ringer's solution at 37°C to simulate human body environment. Comprehensive performance of TiAlN films was evaluated by assigning different weight according to the application environment. S8, deposited by Ti target current of 8A, Al target current of 6A, bias voltage of -60V and nitrogen content with OEM (optical emission monitor) value of 45%, was found to achieve best performance in orthogonal experiments. Depositing parameters of S8 might be practically applied for commercialization of surgical implants. PMID:26652421

  13. Structural and tribological properties of CrTiAlN coatings on Mg alloy by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongjing; Long, Siyuan; Yang, Shicai; Pan, Fusheng

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, a series of multi-layer hard coating system of CrTiAlN has been prepared by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique in a gas mixture of Ar + N 2. The coatings were deposited onto AZ31 Mg alloy substrates. During deposition step, technological temperature and metallic atom concentration of coatings were controlled by adjusting the currents of different metal magnetron targets. The nitrogen level was varied by using the feedback control of plasma optical emission monitor (OEM). The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), micro-hardness tester, and scratch and ball-on-disc tester. The experimental results show that the N atomic concentration increases and the oxide on the top of coatings decreases; furthermore the modulation period and the friction coefficient decrease with the N 2 level increasing. The outstanding mechanical property can be acquired at medium N 2 level, and the CrTiAlN coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates outperform the uncoated M42 high speed steel (HSS) and the uncoated 316 stainless steel (SS).

  14. Total Marrow Irradiation With RapidArc Volumetric Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, Bulent; Yeginer, Mete; Kavak, Gulbin O.; Fan, John; Radosevich, James A.; Gwe-Ya, Kim

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-total marrow irradiation (TMI) technique for patients with hematologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: VMAT planning was performed for 6 patients using RapidArc technology. The planning target volume consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, excluding the extremities, except for the humerus, plus a 3.0-mm margin. The organs at risk included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, bowels, brain, eyes, and oral cavity. The VMAT-TMI technique consisted of three plans: the head and neck, the chest, and the pelvis, each with three 330{sup o} arcs. The plans were prescribed to ensure, at a minimum, 95% planning target volume dose coverage with the prescription dose (percentage of volume receiving dose of {>=}12 Gy was 95%). The treatments were delivered and verified using MapCheck and ion chamber measurements. Results: The VMAT-TMI technique reported in the present study provided comparable dose distributions with respect to the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. RapidArc planning was less subjective and easier, and, most importantly, the delivery was more efficient. RapidArc reduced the treatment delivery time to approximately 18 min from 45 min with the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. When the prescription dose coverage was reduced to 85% from 95% and the mandible and maxillary structures were not included in the planning target volume as reported in a tomotherapy study, a considerable organ at risk dose reduction of 4.2-51% was observed. The average median dose for the lungs and lenses was reduced to 5.6 Gy from 7.2 Gy and 2.4 Gy from 4.5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The RapidArc VMAT technique improved the treatment planning, dose conformality, and, most importantly, treatment delivery efficiency. The results from our study suggest that the RapidArc VMAT technology can be expected to facilitate the clinical transition of TMI.

  15. The volcanoes of an oceanic arc from origin to destruction: A case from the northern Luzon Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yu-Ming; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Volcanoes were created, grew, uplifted, became dormant or extinct, and were accreted as part of continents during continuous arc-continent collision. Volcanic rocks in Eastern Taiwan's Coastal Range (CR) are part of the northern Luzon Arc, an oceanic island arc produced by the subduction of the South China Sea Plate beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. Igneous rocks are characterized by intrusive bodies, lava and pyroclastic flows, and volcaniclastic rocks with minor tephra deposits. Based on volcanic facies associations, Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry, and the geography of the region, four volcanoes were identified in the CR: Yuemei, Chimei, Chengkuangao, and Tuluanshan. Near-vent facies associations show different degrees of erosion in the volcanic edifices for Chimei, Chengkuangao, and Tuluanshan. Yuemei lacks near-vent rocks, implying that Yuemei's main volcanic body may have been subducted at the Ryukyu Trench with the northward motion of the Philippine Sea Plate. These data suggest a hypothesis for the evolution of volcanism and geomorphology during arc growth and ensuing arc-continent collision in the northern Luzon Arc, which suggests that these volcanoes were formed from the seafloor, emerging as islands during arc volcanism. They then became dormant or extinct during collision, and finally, were uplifted and accreted by additional collision. The oldest volcano, Yuemei, may have already been subducted into the Ryukyu Trench.

  16. The geochemistry of the Neogene Halmahera Arc, eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Emily Jane

    The Halmahera arc is a north-south linear intraoceanic arc cutting across the islands of Halmahera and Bacan in NE Indonesia. The arc is the result of the eastward subduction of the Molucca Sea Plate, accommodating the westward movement of the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates (PSP) against the Eurasian margin. To the south of the Halmahera arc is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault system: the Sorong Fault Zone (SFZ), which separates the northward movement of Australia from the westward movement of the PSP. This plate boundary has been stable throughout the Neogene to the present day, and has been responsible for the transfer of continental fragments from the Australian margin into the southern Molucca Sea region. K/Ar dating has revealed the migration of volcanism along the length of the Halmahera arc from south to north. The oldest volcanics (ca. 11 Ma) are from Obi, the southernmost island in the region, where volcanism is now extinct. Moving north into Bacan, ages range from 7 Ma to the Quaternary, whereas in central Halmahera they range from 6 - 2 Ma. The present-day arc currently lies to the west of central Halmahera and stretches up the north-west arm of the island. On the basis of spatial, temporal and geochemical variations a possible seven Neogene volcanic centres can be distinguished along the length of the arc. Major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic analyses reveal a wide diversity in geochemical characteristics between the centres. This is due to heterogeneity within the arc mantle wedge, the type of arc crust through which the volcanics were erupted and variations in contribution to the mantle wedge from a subducted component. Volcanic rocks from Obi, central Halmahera and north Bacan display geochemical characteristics typical of intraoceanic arc lavas. The lack of a continental component within these centres enables a greater understanding of the variety of processes and source components affecting arc magmatism in this region

  17. Numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch

    SciTech Connect

    Mancinelli, B. R.; Minotti, F. O.; Kelly, H.; Prevosto, L.

    2014-07-14

    A numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch is reported. The dynamics of the double-arcing were simulated by using a two-dimensional model of the gas breakdown development in the space-charge layer contiguous to the nozzle of a cutting arc torch operated with oxygen. The kinetic scheme includes ionization of heavy particles by electron impact, electron attachment, electron detachment, electron–ion recombination, and ion–ion recombination. Complementary measurements during double-arcing phenomena were also conducted. A marked rise of the nozzle voltage was found. The numerical results showed that the dynamics of a cathode spot at the exit of the nozzle inner surface play a key role in the raising of the nozzle voltage, which in turn allows more electrons to return to the wall at the nozzle inlet. The return flow of electrons thus closes the current loop of the double-arcing. The increase in the (floating) nozzle voltage is due to the fact that the increased electron emission at the spot is mainly compensated by the displacement current (the ions do not play a relevant role due to its low-mobility) until that the stationary state is achieved and the electron return flow fully-compensates the electron emission at the spot. A fairly good agreement was found between the model and the experiment for a spot emission current growth rate of the order of 7 × 10{sup 4} A/s.

  18. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  19. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  20. Arc-parallel extrusion of the Timor sector of the Banda arc-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Brendan; Quigley, Mark; Harris, Ron; Ring, Uwe

    2013-06-01

    studies of synorogenic basins in Timor using field and remote sensing techniques provide new structural and geomorphic evidence for syn-collisional extension in the converging plate boundary zone between the Australian Plate and Banda Arc. Fault mapping and kinematic analysis at scales ranging from outcrop (<1 m2) to the dimensions of the active orogen in East Timor (~100 km2) identify a predominance of NW-SE oriented dextral-normal faults and NE-SW oriented sinistral-normal faults that collectively bound large (5-20 km2) bedrock massifs throughout the island. These fault systems intersect at non-Andersonian conjugate angles of approximately 120° and accommodate an estimated 20 km of NE-directed extension across the Timor orogen based on reconstructions of fault-dismembered massifs. Major orogen-parallel ENE-oriented faults on the northern and southern sides of Timor exhibit normal-sinistral and normal-dextral kinematics, respectively. The overall pattern of deformation is one of lateral crustal extrusion sub-parallel to the Banda Arc. Stratigraphic relationships suggest that extrusion began prior to 5.5 Ma, before pronounced rapid uplift of the orogen. We link this to progressive coupling of the fore-arc to an underthrust plateau on the Australian Plate and subduction of its ocean crust. Our results enable us to track the structural evolution of the upper crust during dramatic plate-boundary reorganizations accompanying the transition from subduction to collision. The deformation structures that we document suggest that both upper and lower plate deformation during incipient island arc-continent collision was largely controlled by the geometry and topography of the lower plate.

  1. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results

  2. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  3. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  4. This-layer chromatography/electrospray ionization triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry system: analysis of rhodamine dyes separated on reversed-phase C8 plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    The direct analysis of separated rhodamine dyes on reversed-phase C{sub 8} thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling/electrospray emitter probe coupled with a triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer is presented. This report represents continuing work to advance the performance metrics and utility of this basic surface sampling electrospray mass spectrometry system for the analysis of thin-layer chromatography plates. Experimental results examining the role of sampling probe spray end configuration on liquid aspiration rate and gas-phase ion signal generated are discussed. The detection figures-of-merit afforded by full-scan, automated product ion and selected reaction monitoring modes of operation were examined. The effect of different eluting solvents on mass spectrum signal levels with the reversed-phase C{sub 8} plate was investigated. The combined effect of eluting solvent flow-rate and development lane surface scan rate on preservation of chromatographic resolution was also studied. Analysis of chromatographically separated red pen ink extracts from eight different pens using selected reaction monitoring demonstrated the potential of this surface sampling electrospray mass spectrometry system for targeted compound analysis with real samples.

  5. Seismicity and plate tectonics in south central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wormer, J. D.; Davies, J.; Gedney, L.

    1974-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution shows that the Benioff zone associated with the Aleutian arc terminates in interior Alaska some 75 km north of the Denali fault. There appears to be a break in the subducting Pacific plate in the Yentna River-Prince William Sound area which separates two seismically independent blocks, similar to the segmented structure reported for the central Aleutian arc.

  6. Surface analysis and osteoblasts response of a titanium oxi-carbide film deposited on titanium by ion plating plasma assisted (IPPA).

    PubMed

    Mazzola, L; Bemporad, E; Misiano, C; Pepe, F; Santini, P; Scandurra, R

    2011-10-01

    Titanium is the most widely used material in orthopaedic and dental implantoprosthesis due to its superior physical properties and enhanced biocompatibility due to the spontaneous formation of a passivating layer of titanium oxides which, however, does not form good chemical bonds with bone and tends to brake exposing bulk titanium to harsh body fluids releasing titanium particles which may prime an inflammation response and a fibrotic tissue production. In order to avoid these possible problems and to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium implants, modifications of titanium surfaces by many different materials as hydroxyapatite, titanium nitride, titanium oxide and titanium carbide have been proposed. The latter is shown to be an efficient protection for the titanium implant in the harsh conditions of biological tissues and, compared to untreated titanium, acting like an osteoblast stimulation factor increasing in vitro production of proteins involved in osteogenesis. These results were confirmed by in vivo experiments in rabbits: implants covered by the titanium carbide (TiC) layer were faster and better osseointegrated than untreated titanium implants. The TiC layer was deposited by a Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) device which allowed only one deposition per cycle, shown to be unsuitable for industrial applications. Therefore the main objective of the present work was to replace PLD process with an Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) deposition process, which is suitable for industrial upgrading. By this technique, nanostructured TiOx-TiCy-C has been deposited on titanium after sandblasting with 120 micron zirconia spheres. XPS analyses revealed the presence of about 33% carbon (50% of which is present as free carbon), 39% oxygen and 28% titanium (37% of which is bound to carbon to form TiC and 63% is bound to oxygen to form non stoichiometric oxides). Surface mechanical response of as-deposited coatings has been performed by nanoindentation techniques

  7. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  8. Inert-Gas Diffuser For Plasma Or Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Spencer, Carl N.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    Inert-gas diffuser provides protective gas cover for weld bead as it cools. Follows welding torch, maintaining continuous flow of argon over newly formed joint and prevents it from oxidizing. Helps to ensure welds of consistently high quality. Devised for plasma arc keyhole welding of plates of 0.25-in. or greater thickness, also used in tungsten/inert-gas and other plasma or arc welding processes.

  9. Structural levels of deformation and failure of heat-resistant 12Cr1MoV steel modified by vacuum arc treatment by Zr{sup +} ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasov, I. V. E-mail: svp@ispms.tsc.ru; Panin, S. V. E-mail: svp@ispms.tsc.ru; Ovechkin, B. B.; Sergeev, V. P.

    2014-11-14

    Study of structural changes occurring in the surface layer modified by ion-beam irradiation was carried out by means of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that irradiation induces the structure modification not only in the surface layer, but along the entire cross section of 1 mm thick specimens. It was elucidated that the complex pattern of structural changes is responsible for the pronounced variation of mechanical properties taking place under static tension and cyclic alternating bending.

  10. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  11. Arcing in LEO - Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  12. Arcing in LEO: Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts of the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  13. Investigations on the radially free full circle arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, W.

    1981-07-01

    The hypothesis that the steady state of a magnetically deflected arc is determined by the equilibrium of the thermodynamic and the magnetohydrodynamic forces is experimentally investigated. An argon arc, burning between two horizontal plane-parallel, insulating plates, bent circularly by its own and an external magnetic field, provided the well-defined conditions by giving a stationary, radially free, full circle arc for the experimental investigation. The local temperature distributions in the arc cross-section were detected spectroscopically as functions of the arc current and the arc radius or curvature. The mass flow field in the arc was determined using basic equations of conservation of energy, mass, and charge, and the known transport parameters of argon at atmospheric pressure. The results represented as a stream line graph, show a symmetric quadruple whirl instead of the expected double whirl, suggested to be due to experimental conditions. The equilibrium of heating and cooling mechanisms inside a curved arc and the relative motion of mass and arc were demonstrated. Experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement.

  14. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    PubMed

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used. PMID:17355086

  15. Geologic implications of great interplate earthquakes along the Aleutian arc

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.F.; Scholl, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    We present new marine geophysical observations and synthesize previous geologic interpretations of the Aleutian arc to show that the epicenters of these great thrust-type earthquakes coincide with upper plate segments of the arc characterized by a coherent forearc structural fabric. We propose that variations in upper plate structural strength and mobility affect the mechanical properties of the interplate thrust zone and need to be considered in localizing interplate asperities. Forearc tectonic segmentaion associated with the partitioning of strike-slip and thrust motions may exert long-term controls on the rates of seismic moment release.

  16. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  17. Oceanic, island arc, and back-arc remnants into eastern Kamchatka accretionary complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorchuk, A.V.; Vishnevskaya, V.S.; Izvekov, I.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The Kamchatsky Mts. accretionary complex in the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt was studied for identification of the oceanic and suprasubduction components into accretionary wedges. That complex is divided into two tectonic units. The Lower unit is formed sedimentary and tectonic melanges containing arc-related components (Late Senonian volcaniclastics and boninitic gabbro) and oceanic fragments (Fe-Ti-tholeiites, ocean island basalts, and pelagic sediments of Valanginian to Turonian age). The Upper unit consists of ductile deformed oceanic cumulates from troctolites to Fe-Ti-gabbro, 151 to 172 Ma, which are intruded MORB-like diabases with suprasubduction characteristics, 122 to 141 Ma, and are overlain by basalts similar to latter. The Lower and Upper units are separated by a SW-dipping thrust, which is related by an ophiolitoclastic olistostrome of Late Campanian to Early Maestrichtian age. Both units are covered by Paleocene authoclastic deposits. They are all thrusted over the early Neogene island arc complex, 16 to 20 Ma. The Lower unit of the Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was originated in a shear zone between a Late Cretaceous island arc and an Early Cretaceous oceanic plate. The Upper unit represents a Jurassic oceanic remnant that formed a basement of Early Cretaceous back-arc or fore-arc basin. Both units were superposed in the latest Cretaceous. The Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was emplaced into the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt during late Neogene by collision of the early Neogene island arc.

  18. Tertiary volcanic activity at Sonora Pass, CA: arc and non-arc magmatism in the central Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, A.; Glazner, A. F.; Farmer, G. L.

    2004-12-01

    The volume and composition of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Sierra Nevada of California changes dramatically near Sonora Pass (latitude 38° N). North of Sonora Pass is a large volume of volcanic rocks petrographically and chemically linked to subduction in the Cascade arc. South of Sonora Pass these calc-alkaline rocks are lacking and the only preserved volcanic rocks are small-volume mafic to intermediate potassic lavas that may have been generated by Pliocene lithospheric delamination (e.g. Farmer et al 2002). We have undertaken geologic mapping and geochemical and isotopic analysis of rocks near Sonora Pass at the boundary between these two magmatic provinces. At Sonora Pass, the 16-10 m.y.-old Relief Peak Formation and its hypabyssal equivalents are dominated by hornblende-phyric andesite lava flows and mudflow breccias (a stratovolcano assemblage) with marked high field-strength element (HFSE) depletions relative to large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), high Sri ( ˜ 0.7056), and low ɛ Nd (-1.4 > ɛ Nd > -2.5). The overlying Stanislaus Group ( ˜10-8 my old) has elevated HFSE and LILE relative to the Relief Peak Formation, anhydrous mineralogy, and similar isotope ratios (Sri ˜ 0.7056, -1.9 > ɛ Nd > -3.4). The overlying Disaster Peak Formation is petrographically similar to the Relief Peak Formation. Lavas of the Relief Peak Formation may have been derived from the hydrated, LILE-rich and HFSE-poor mantle wedge above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate as part of the ancestral Cascade arc. The eruption of the dry, HFSE- and LILE-richer Stanislaus Group from vents near those of the Relief Peak Formation and to the east during an apparent pause in Relief Peak-type activity may represent a temporary shift to a dry, more fertile, isotopically enriched source in the mantle. The shift coincides with the arrival of the subducted Mendocino Fracture Zone (MFZ) beneath Sonora Pass, and the change in plate stress as the MFZ traversed the region may have influenced

  19. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Tortorelli, Peter F; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Vitek, John Michael; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Wilson, Mahlon; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Connors, Dan; Rakowski, Jim; Gervasio, Don

    2008-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  20. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  1. Seismic velocity variation along the Izu-Bonin arc estaimated from traveltime tomography using OBS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, K.; Tamura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Kodaira, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc is an intra-oceanic island arc along the convergent plate boundary between the subducting Pacific and overriding Philippine Sea plates. Recent active seismic studies in the Izu-Bonin arc reveal significant along-arc variations in crustal structure [Kodaira et al., 2007]. The thickness of the arc crust shows a remarkable change between thicker Izu (~30 km) and thinner Bonin (~10 km) arcs. In addition to this, several geological and geophysical contrasts, such as seafloor topography and chemical composition of volcanic rocks, between Izu and Bonin arc have been reported [e.g., Yuasa 1992]. We have conducted earthquake observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to reveal seismic velocity structure of the crust and mantle wedge in the Izu-Bonin arc and to investigate origin of the along-arc structure variations. We deployed 40 short-period OBSs in Izu and Bonin area in 2006 and 2009, respectively. The OBS data were processed with seismic data recorded at routine seismic stations on Hachijo-jima, Aoga-shima, and Chichi-jima operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). More than 5000 earthquakes were observed during about three-months observation period in each experiment. We conducted three-dimensional seismic tomography using manually picked P- and S-wave arrival time data. The obtained image shows a different seismic velocity structures in the mantle beneath the volcanic front between Izu and Bonin arcs. Low P-wave velocity anomalies in the mantle beneath the volcanic front in the Izu arc are limited at depths deeper than those in the Bonin arc. On the other hand, P-wave velocity in the low velocity anomalies beneath volcanic front in the Bonin arc is slower than that in the Izu arc. These large-scale along-arc structure variations in the mantle could relate to the geological and geophysical contrasts between Izu and Bonin arcs.

  2. Mantle Melting as a Function of Water Content in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Plank, T.; Newman, S.; Stolper, E.; Grove, T. L.; Parman, S.; Hauri, E.

    2003-12-01

    Subduction zone magmas are characterized by high concentrations of dissolved H2O, presumably derived from the subducted plate and ultimately responsible for melt generation in this tectonic setting. Almost ten years ago, Stolper and Newman (EPSL, 1994) illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of water (H2Oo) and the fraction of melting (F) in the mantle beneath the Mariana back-arc. Here we report new major element and volatile data for olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mariana Islands to test this relationship for melting beneath an arc. Basaltic melt inclusions from the Mariana arc have water contents (2.3-6.1 wt% H2O) significantly higher than all basaltic glasses or melt inclusions from the Mariana back-arc (0.2-2.2 wt% H2O). We use TiO2 as a proxy for F, after correcting for crystal fractionation, and evaluate the Ti source composition with a model based on Ti/Y variations in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). Each calculated F thus represents the amount of mantle melting for a single melting episode. Even after accounting for mantle depletion, the TiO2 concentrations in Mariana arc magmas record higher extents of mantle melting (F = 10-30%) than recorded in back-arc magmas (F = 5-24%). As a whole, the Mariana arc broadly extends the linear H2Oo-F array defined by the back-arc, although in detail the islands show important differences. Two islands from the Mariana arc (Guguan and Pagan) define a H2Oo-F slope similar to the Mariana back-arc, suggesting similar mantle potential temperature beneath the arc and back-arc ( ˜1360 +/- 20° C). Melts from Agrigan island, however, indicate a steeper slope suggestive both of cooler mantle beneath Agrigan and of along-strike thermal variations beneath the Mariana Islands. Both the arc and back-arc arrays project to finite F at zero water in the mantle, providing evidence for decompression melting in both settings. These relationships may be extended globally to other back-arc and arc systems

  3. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  4. Peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babecki, A. J. (Inventor); Haehner, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    A process for metal plating which comprises spraying a mixture of metallic powder and small peening particles at high velocity against a surface is described. The velocity must be sufficient to impact and bond metallic powder onto the surface. In the case of metal surfaces, the process has as one of its advantages providing mechanical working (hardening) of the surface simultaneously with the metal plating.

  5. Arc Inception Mechanism on a Solar Array Immersed in a Low-Density Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, B.; Galofaro, J.; Ferguson, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, results are presented of an experimental and theoretical study of arc phenomena and snapover for two samples of solar arrays immersed in argon plasma. The effects of arcing and snapover are investigated. I-V curves are measured, and arc and snapover inception voltages and arc rates are determined within the wide range of plasma parameters. A considerable increase in arc rate due to absorption of molecules from atmospheric air has been confirmed. It is shown that increasing gas pressure causes increasing ion current collection and, consequently, arc rate even though the effect of conditioning also takes place. Arc sites have been determined by employing a video-camera. It is confirmed that keeping sample under high vacuum for a long time results in shifting arc threshold voltage well below -300 V. The results obtained seem to be important for the understanding of arc inception mechanism.

  6. Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc-continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc-continent collision geometry. 'Forward-facing' collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a 'backward-facing' collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry and tectonic

  7. Modeling of Thermal Arcs in Molded Case Circuit Breakers in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breden, Doug; Mahadevan, Shankar; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2015-09-01

    A general-purpose thermal plasma simulation tool (VizArc) was utilized to model a circuit breaker in atmospheric pressure air. The molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) circuit breaker works by separating two metal contacts when the breaking current is exceeded generating an arc. The self-consistent Lorentz force generated by the current pushes the arc into an array of splitter plates which quench the arc and break the circuit. The arc channel is modeled by coupling the electromagnetic equations with flow governing equations to model a multi-species, single-temperature quasi neutral arc plasma. Conjugate heat transfer to the metal splitter plates and vapor ablation into the gas are included in the model. The opening action of the moving contact armature is simulated dynamically in the simulation. The set of all governing equations and their implementation in the model will be discussed, and then the simulations of the MCCB circuit breaker using the model will be presented.

  8. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous mafic intrusive rocks in the Fosdick Mountains, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: melting of metasomatized sub-continental arc mantle along the active plate margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Brown, M.; Korhonen, F. J.; Mcfadden, R. R.; Siddoway, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    A diorite pluton and widely distributed mafic dykes occur in the Fosdick migmatite-granite complex, which is interpreted to represent middle-to-lower crustal rocks of the paleo-Pacific active continental margin of Gondwana. The mafic dykes exhibit a variety of relationships with host rocks in the field ranging from undeformed dykes with sharp contacts with host gneisses to dismembered dykes with comingled textures and numerous back-veins of leucosome intruded from host migmatitic gneisses suggestive of significant interaction with crustal rocks. U-Pb ages for magmatic zircon in these rocks yields Cretaceous crystallization ages ranging from ca. 113 Ma to ca. 98 Ma for the mafic dykes and ca. 100 Ma for the diorite pluton. These mafic intrusive rocks, which contain abundant hydrous minerals, are medium- to high-K-series calc-alkaline rocks with basic-intermediate compositions (47-59 wt % SiO2 for mafic dykes and 52-56 wt % SiO2 for the diorite pluton). They have trace element patterns characterized by LILE enrichments and negative Nb anomalies indicating an origin from a hydrous mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived components. The samples without evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, which are likely to better reflect the mantle source composition, have positive ɛSr(100Ma) values (+8.1 to +14.5) and negative to slightly positive ɛNd(100Ma) values (-1.6 to +2.5) consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source. These samples may be divided into two groups either characterized by higher LILE/HFSE ratios, less radiogenic ɛSr(100Ma) values and more radiogenic ɛNd(100Ma) values, or characterized by relatively lower LILE/ HFSE ratios, more radiogenic ɛSr(100Ma) values and less radiogenic ɛNd(100Ma) values suggesting differences in the mantle source. The results of this study are consistent with melting of a variably metasomatized sub-arc mantle source during a transition from a wrench to a transtensional tectonic setting, but are inconsistent

  9. Geodynamics of the Eastern Pacific Region, Caribbean and Scotia Arcs. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Cabre, R.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyze the geodynamic phenomena related to the interaction of the eastern Pacific with the Americas between Canada and the Antarctic peninsula. Studies include the Cordilleran arcs and Juan de Fuca plate.

  10. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Kuril-Kamchatka Arc and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    This map shows details of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc not visible in an earlier publication, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064. The arc extends about 2,100 km from Hokkaido, Japan, along the Kuril Islands and the pacific coast of the Kamchatka, Russia, peninsula to its intersection with the Aleutian arc near the Commander Islands, Russia. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the Okhotsk microplate, a part of the larger North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Kuril Islands chain and the deep offshore Kuril-Kamchatka trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that decreases from 83 mm per year at the arc's southern end to 75 mm per year near its northern edge.

  11. EDITORIAL Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2010-11-01

    low-voltage circuit breakers, metal vapour is formed by evaporation of the electrodes (runners) and the splitter plates, and can have a major influence on the dynamics of arc motion. While the influence of metal vapour on arcs is now understood in general terms, there are many unresolved questions. Areas in which improvements and new insights are required include: diagnostic techniques for measurements of arc properties in the presence of metal vapour, and understanding of the possible deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium and their influence on such measurements; measurements of the influence of metal vapour in circuit breakers, in which the arc occurs within a solid enclosure, and in gas-metal arc welding, in which the formation of metal droplets and arc instabilities can disrupt standard techniques; determination of the concentration of metal vapour species in different types of arcs; understanding of the relative importance of the different effects of metal vapour (such as increased radiation and electrical conductivity, and the rapid influx of relatively cold gas) on the arc for different configurations; the influence of metal vapour on the electrode boundary and sheath regions; the treatment of radiative and mass transport in computational models; understanding and treatment of the vaporization, condensation and nucleation of metal species, and methods of incorporation of these processes in computational models. In this cluster issue, many of these and related issues are addressed. The twelve contributions cover gas-metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding and low-voltage circuit breakers, and include both experimental and computational studies, in some cases with striking results. A review of the influence of metal vapour in welding arcs is followed by three accounts of spectroscopic measurements of gas-metal arc welding, which are difficult to perform and until recently have rarely been attempted. The application of spectroscopic techniques to

  12. Time-convoluted hotspot temperature field on a metal skin due to sustained arc stroke heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. S.; Su, W. Y.

    A previously developed time-convoluted heat-conduction theory is applied to the case of a metal plate whose heat source is sustained over time. Integral formulas are formally derived, and their utilization in practical arc-heating work is examined. The results are compared with experimental ones from titanium and aluminum plates subjected to sustained heating due to step switch-on dc arc sources, and reasonable agreement is found.

  13. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  14. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  15. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  16. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  17. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  18. On the causes of back-arc spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, A.; Mott, J.

    1985-06-01

    Addition of the spreading rates in the back-arc basins of the Lau Basin Havre Trough and the Mariana Trough to the absolute motions of the Indian and Philippine plates, respectively, provides an estimate of the absolute motion of the Tonga-Kermadec and Mariana trenches. The trenches are moving toward the Pacific Basin for all absolute-motion models. Back-arc spreading is considered an unlikely cause for the trench motion, given the seismic evidence for poor coupling at the trenches. Thus, the cause of spreading at these arcs must rest at least partly with motion of the lower plate. Rollback due to negative buoyancy is rejected as a cause for this motion because it fails to explain the recent onset of the spreading. No-net-torque reference frames for 5 and 10 Ma indicate that the rate of subduction of the Pacific plate at each of these arcs may have increased by 2 3 cm/yr between 5 and 10 Ma, providing support for the model of Furlong et al., in which back-arc spreading is initiated by adjustment of the slab profile to a change in subduction rate.

  19. Etching Enhancement Followed by Nitridation on Low-k SiOCH Film in Ar/C5F10O Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Yudai; Shibata, Emi; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Hidekazu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    The etching rates of low-dielectric-constant (low-k), porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films were increased by nitrogen-added Ar/C5F10O plasma etching in dual-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz)-excited parallel plate capacitively coupled plasma. Previously, perfluoropropyl vinyl ether [C5F10O] provided a very high density of CF3+ ions [Nagai et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 7100]. Surface nitridation on the p-SiOCH surface exposed to Ar/N2 plasma led to the etching of larger amounts of p-SiOCH in Ar/C5F10O plasma, which depended on the formation of bonds such as =C(sp2)=N(sp2)- and -C(sp)≡N(sp).

  20. The global relevance of the Scotia Arc: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Andrés; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Leat, Philip T.

    2015-02-01

    The Scotia Arc, situated between South America and Antarctica, is one of the Earth's most important ocean gateways and former land bridges. Understanding its structure and development is critical for the knowledge of tectonic, paleoenvironmental and biological processes in the southern oceans and Antarctica. It extends from the Drake Passage in the west, where the Shackleton Fracture Zone forms a prominent, but discontinuous, bathymetric ridge between the southern South American continent and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to the active intra-oceanic volcanic arc forming the South Sandwich Island in the east. The tectonic arc comprises the NSR to the north and to the south the South Scotia Ridge, both transcurrent plate margins that respectively include the South Georgia and South Orkney microcontinents. The Scotia and Sandwich tectonic plates form the major basin within these margins. As the basins opened, formation of first shallow sea ways and then deep ocean connections controlled the initiation and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which is widely thought to have been important in providing the climatic conditions for formation of the polar ice-sheets. The evolution of the Scotia Arc is therefore of global palaeoclimatic significance. The Scotia Arc has been the focus of increasing international research interest. Many recent studies have stressed the links and interactions between the solid Earth, oceanographic, paleoenvironmental and biological processes in the area. This special issue presents new works that summarize significant recent research results and synthesize the current state of knowledge for the Scotia Arc.

  1. Signal Analysis of Gas Tungsten Arc Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagar, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding is a process in which the input parameters such as current, voltage and travel speed, can be easily controlled and/or monitored. However, weld quality is not solely a function of these parameters. An adaptive method of observing weld quality is desired to improve weld quality assurance. The use of dynamic electrical properties of the welding arc as a weld quality monitor was studied. The electrical properties of the arc are characterized by the current voltage transfer function. The hardware and software necessary to collect the data at a maximum rate of 45 kHz and to allow the off-line processing of this data are tested. The optimum input current waveform is determined. Bead-on-plate welds to observe such characteristics of the weld as the fundamental frequency of the puddle are studied. Future work is planned to observe changes of the arc response with changes in joint geometry, base metal chemistry, and shielding gas composition are discussed.

  2. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  3. Review of crustal seismicity in the Aleutian Arc and implications for arc deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Natalia A.; Kozyreva, Natalia P.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2012-02-01

    Central and eastern Aleutian Arc is characterized by oblique convergence between the subducting Pacific and overriding Bering Plates. This results in westward arc translation and formation of rotating crustal blocks in the forearc. In 2006-2010 several moderate, shallow crustal earthquakes (up to magnitude 6.7) occurred in the region. These events are located about 150 km away from the trench, on the volcanic axis, and have either strike-slip (west of 174°W) or normal (east of 174°W) faulting mechanisms. We improve aftershock locations by applying precise relocation methods to aid in identifying preferred fault planes. We also review similar earthquakes that occurred prior to 2006. For the central Aleutian Arc we conclude that, while some of these events occurred along the boundaries of the rotating blocks, the majority are left-lateral strike-slip events on NW- to N-oriented fault planes in the unrotated Bering massif. These manifest Riedel shearing in response slip partitioning due to the oblique convergence. Normal faulting events in eastern Aleutian Arc reflect along-arc extension.

  4. Wet melting along the Tonga Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. B.; Plank, T.; Arculus, R. J.; Hauri, E. H.; Hall, P.

    2010-12-01

    Center (ELSC) reflect more depleted compositions. This variation coincides with a change in primary melt composition from basaltic to boninitic in the middle portion of the ELSC. The depletion trend appears to be related to the relative duration and location of backarc spreading, where the arc in the north entrains mantle that already melted under the backarc. (H2O)o also varies along-strike, peaking at the center of the arc at ~21°S, and may be related to variations in slab fluid composition. This trend is surprising given that the flux of water from the down-going plate must increase to the north, due to the factor of 3 increase in convergence rate along the Tonga Trench. Lastly, (H2O)o and Farc appear to be unrelated in the Tonga Arc, likely due to the impact of other parameters that vary along-strike (e.g., source depletion and mantle T). Only when these other parameters are relatively constant will Farc and (H2O)o vary together. We conclude that the primary driver of the systematic variations observed along the strike of the Tonga Arc is the history of prior melting in the Lau Backarc Basin, which affects source depletion, the melting T, and the magma type erupted.

  5. Volcanism in response to plate flexure.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Naoto; Takahashi, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Abe, Natsue; Ingle, Stephanie P; Kaneoka, Ichiro; Hirata, Takafumi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ishii, Teruaki; Ogawa, Yujiro; Machida, Shiki; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Volcanism on Earth is known to occur in three tectonic settings: divergent plate boundaries (such as mid-ocean ridges), convergent plate boundaries (such as island arcs), and hot spots. We report volcanism on the 135 million-year-old Pacific Plate not belonging to any of these categories. Small alkalic volcanoes form from small percent melts and originate in the asthenosphere, as implied by their trace element geochemistry and noble gas isotopic compositions. We propose that these small volcanoes erupt along lithospheric fractures in response to plate flexure during subduction. Minor extents of asthenospheric melting and the volcanoes' tectonic alignment and age progression in the direction opposite to that of plate motion provide evidence for the presence of a small percent melt in the asthenosphere. PMID:16873612

  6. Lifetime Assessment of the NEXT Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Ion thrusters are low thrust, high specific impulse devices with required operational lifetimes on the order of 10,000 to 100,000 hr. The NEXT ion thruster is the latest generation of ion thrusters under development. The NEXT ion thruster currently has a qualification level propellant throughput requirement of 450 kg of xenon, which corresponds to roughly 22,000 hr of operation at the highest throttling point. Currently, a NEXT engineering model ion thruster with prototype model ion optics is undergoing a long duration test to determine wear characteristics and establish propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster includes many improvements over previous generations of ion thrusters, but two of its component improvements have a larger effect on thruster lifetime. These include the ion optics with tighter tolerances, a masked region and better gap control, and the discharge cathode keeper material change to graphite. Data from the NEXT 2000 hr wear test, the NEXT long duration test, and further analysis is used to determine the expected lifetime of the NEXT ion thruster. This paper will review the predictions for all of the anticipated failure mechanisms. The mechanisms will include wear of the ion optics and cathode s orifice plate and keeper from the plasma, depletion of low work function material in each cathode s insert, and spalling of material in the discharge chamber leading to arcing. Based on the analysis of the NEXT ion thruster, the first failure mode for operation above a specific impulse of 2000 sec is expected to be the structural failure of the ion optics at 750 kg of propellant throughput, 1.7 times the qualification requirement. An assessment based on mission analyses for operation below a specific impulse of 2000 sec indicates that the NEXT thruster is capable of double the propellant throughput required by these missions.

  7. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  8. The 2013 Crete (Hellenic Arc) Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakostas, V. G.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Vallianatos, F.

    2014-12-01

    The western Hellenic Arc is a well known place of active interplate deformation, where the convergence motion vector is perpendicular to the subduction front. On 12 October 2013 this area was hit by a strong (Mw=6.7) earthquake, occurred on a thrust fault onto the coupled part of the overriding and descending plates, with the compression axis being oriented in the direction of plate convergence. This was the first strong (M>6.0) event to have occurred onto this segment of the descending slab, which has accommodated the largest (M8.3) known earthquake in the Mediterranean area, and to be recorded by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) that has been considerably improved in the last five years. The first 2-days relocated seismicity shows activation of the upper part of the descending slab, downdip of the plate interface and forming a relatively narrow aftershock area on map view. The less densely visited by aftershocks area, where the main shock is also encompassed, is considered as the high-slip area along the downdip portion of the subducting plane. Dense concentration of the intraslab aftershocks are probably due to the increase of static stress generated by the main shock. A spectacular feature of the aftershock activity concerns the lateral extension of the slipped area, which appears very sharply defined. This provides evidence on localized coupling and aseismically creeping areas, explaining the low coupling ratio in the Hellenic Arc, as it derives from comparison between relative plate motion and seismic energy release. Elucidating the issue of how far the associated large-slip zone might be extended along the plate interface during the main rupture is crucial in assessing future earthquake hazards from subduction events in the study area. This research has been co-funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project.

  9. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-04-15

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  10. Synthesis method for ultrananocrystalline diamond in powder employing a coaxial arc plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Aki; Hanada, Kenji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    A new method that enables us to synthesize ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) in powder is proposed. Highly energetic carbon species ejected from a graphite cathode of a coaxial arc plasma gun were provided on a quartz plate at a high density by repeated arc discharge in a compact vacuum chamber, and resultant films automatically peeled from the plate were aggregated and powdered. The grain size was easily controlled from 2.4 to 15.0 nm by changing the arc discharge energy. It was experimentally demonstrated that the proposed method is a new and promising method that enables us to synthesize UNCD in powder easily and controllably.

  11. The statistical difference between bending arcs and regular polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, A.; Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Karlsson, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the Polar UVI data set by Kullen et al. (2002) of 74 polar arcs is reinvestigated, focusing on bending arcs. Bending arcs are typically faint and form (depending on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By direction) on the dawnside or duskside oval with the tip of the arc splitting off the dayside oval. The tip subsequently moves into the polar cap in the antisunward direction, while the arc's nightside end remains attached to the oval, eventually becoming hook-shaped. Our investigation shows that bending arcs appear on the opposite oval side from and farther sunward than most regular polar arcs. They form during By-dominated IMF conditions: typically, the IMF clock angle increases from 60 to 90° about 20 min before the arc forms. Antisunward plasma flows from the oval into the polar cap just poleward of bending arcs are seen in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data, indicating dayside reconnection. For regular polar arcs, recently reported characteristics are confirmed in contrast to bending arcs. This includes plasma flows along the nightside oval that originate close to the initial arc location and a significant delay in the correlation between IMF By and initial arc location. In our data set, the highest correlations are found with IMF By appearing at least 1-2 h before arc formation. In summary, bending arcs are distinctly different from regular arcs and cannot be explained by existing polar arc models. Instead, these results are consistent with the formation mechanism described in Carter et al. (2015), suggesting that bending arcs are caused by dayside reconnection.

  12. Vacuum arc plasma mass separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Lebedev, N. V.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Chernikch, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The propagation of a metal plasma flow in a transport system with a curvilinear magnetic field was studied experimentally. The flow was generated by a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a composite (W+Fe) cathode. The ion energy measurements at the transport system output showed that all ion components were accelerated up to equal energies per charge unit, about 150 eV and 320 eV in the outer and inner areas of the curved plasma flow, respectively. The spatial separation of the atoms of the cathode material was measured at the system output by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ions of the lighter element (Fe) were concentrated in the inner part of the cathodic plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (W) was substantially shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The maximum mass separation efficiency reached 45, the effective value being 7.7. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for the separation of the heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

  13. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING IONS OF VAPORIZABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Starr, C.

    1957-11-19

    This patent relates to electronic discharge devices used as ion sources, and in particular describes an ion source for application in a calutron. The source utilizes two cathodes disposed at opposite ends of a longitudinal opening in an arc block fed with vaporized material. A magnetic field is provided parallel to the length of the arc block opening. The electrons from the cathodes are directed through slits in collimating electrodes into the arc block parallel to the magnetic field and cause an arc discharge to occur between the cathodes, as the arc block and collimating electrodes are at a positive potential with respect to the cathode. The ions are withdrawn by suitable electrodes disposed opposite the arc block opening. When such an ion source is used in a calutron, an arc discharge of increased length may be utilized, thereby increasing the efficiency and economy of operation.

  14. Active Subduction Beneath The Gibraltar Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M.-A.; Malod, J.; Rehault, J.-P.; Contrucci, I.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Spakman, W.; Sismar Scientific Team

    The Gibraltar region features the arcuate Betic - Rif mountain belt with outward di- rected thrusting, surrounding a zone of strong Neogene subsidence and crustal thin- ning in the Western Alboran Sea. Until now its geodynamic interpretation has re- mained controversial. The Gibraltar Arc is located at the eastern end of the Azores- Gibraltar transform, a diffuse transpressional plate boundary between the Iberian and African Plates. Attention has recently been focussed on this plate boundary, while seeking the likely source of the destructive Lisbon great earthquake (M 8.5 - 9) and tsunami of 1755. The SISMAR marine seismic survey conducted in April 2001 ac- quired over 3000 km of 360-channel seismic data with a 4.5 km long streamer and 1000 km of wide-angle data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), com- pletely spanning the actively deforming region between the margins of Portugal and northwest Morocco. Results from this seismic survey reveal a thick chaotic sedimen- tary mass west of Gibraltar to be an actively deforming accretionary wedge, with east dipping thrust faults disrupting the seafloor and soleing out to an east dipping decolle- ment. New travel-time tomographic results image a continuous east dipping body with high seismic velocities (i.e. a cold slab of oceanic lithosphere) descending from the Atlantic domain of the Gulf of Cadiz, passing through intermediate depth (60 - 120 km) seismicity beneath the Gibraltar Arc and Western Alboran Sea, and merging with a region of deep focus earthquakes 600 - 660 km below Granada Spain. Together these provide compelling evidence for an active east dipping subduction zone. Slab rollback towards the west provides a plausible mechanism for extension and subsidence in the Alboran Sea, while the associated westward advance of the Gibraltar Arc drives com- pressional deformation in the accretionary wedge where active mud volcanoes have recently been discovered.

  15. Seismic Activity in Northern Izu-Bonin arc by Ocean Bottom Seismograph Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, K.; Kamiya, S.; Kodaira, S.; Suetsugu, D.; Takahashi, N.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin Island arc is an oceanic island arc, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Suyehiro et al. (1996) found a thick andesitic middle crust with velocity of 6 km/s in northern Izu arc. Recent active seismic experiments in the Izu-Bonin arc show significant variations of the thickness of the middle crust along the volcanic front (Kodaira et al, 2005). The thickness of the middle crust shows an inverse correlation with the average P-wave crustal velocity and the SiO2 composition of the Quaternary volcanoes along the arc. Crustal evolution in the oceanic island arc is a process including magma evolution in the mantle wedge. To understand the nature of the crustal evolution in the oceanic island arc, we have to clarify structures in the mantle wedge along the arc in addition to the oceanic island arc crust. We conducted seismicity observations by a temporal ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) network in northern Izu-Bonin arc between Tori-shima and Hachijo-jima (30° to 34°N) to investigate structures of the oceanic island arc crust and the mantle wedge in northern Izu-Bonin arc by seismic tomography. The OBS network consists of 40 pop-up type OBSs with a three-component short-period seismometer. The OBSs were deployed in April 2006 and retrieved in July after about 80-day observations. The OBS data were processed with seismic data recorded at island stations on Hachijo-jima and Aoga-shima. These island stations are operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. From the preliminary results of the hypocenters, many earthquakes were located along the subducting Pacific plate. Along the volcanic front, shallow earthquake clusters were observed around Tori-shima and Sumisu-Jima islands. Another shallow earthquake cluster was observed near a seamount of echelon chains in the back-arc region of the Izu-Bonin arc. Earthquakes in the fore-arc region show strong attenuation at OBSs in the back-arc region

  16. Plasma drifts associated with a system of sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap

    SciTech Connect

    Mende, S.B.; Doolittle, J.H.; Robinson, R.M.; Vondrak, R.R.; Rich, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of four sun-aligned arcs passed over Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, on the night of the 17th and 18th of February, 1985. Observations of these arcs were made using the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and an intensified all-sky imaging TV system that was operated at the radar site. The first of the four arcs crossed the Sondre Stromfjord meridian just before local midnight moving westward, and the other three arcs followed at approximately half-hour intervals. When we account for the earth's rotation, the arc drift in an inertial frame was eastward, or dusk to dawn. The half-hour interval between meridian crossings of the arcs implies that the mean spacing between the arcs was 180 km. A Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F6 satellite pass at 0110 UT revealed the presence of highly structured electron and ion precipitation throughout the polar cap. The DMSP visible imager detected a single, sun-aligned arc associated with the largest peak in precipitating electron flux. This arc was also observed at Thule, Greenland, with an intensified film camera. These observations suggest that at least one of the arcs that were observed at Sondre Stromfjord extended across a large part of the polar cap. The radar at Sondre Stromfjord measured electron density and ion drift velocities associated with the four arcs. The radar drift measurements were superimposed on the all-sky video images to determine the location of the measurements relative to the arcs. Plasma drifts outside the arcs were found to be both sunward and antisunward, while within the arcs the drifts were predominantly antisunward. The variability of the drifts in the direction parallel to the arcs indicates that the electric fields were highly structured even though the configuration and motion of the arcs were well behaved.

  17. Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-12-01

    The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)

  18. Factors Controlling Slab Retreat and the Formation of Back-Arcs: Insights from Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huismans, R. S.; Grool, A.

    2014-12-01

    Although subduction is a first order plate tectonic process, the factors controlling the dynamics of slab roll-back and back-arc formation are still not very well understood. We present self-consistent thermo-mechanical models to study oceanic subduction, slab retreat, and back arc formation. We focus on two aspects of the subduction process: 1) factors that control retreat of the subduction zone, and 2) those that control the opening of the back arc. The model evolution is calculated using 2D plane strain thermo-mechanical finite element techniques for the finite element solution of incompressible viscous-plastic creeping flows (Fullsack, 1995). The models extend from the surface to 660 km depth. The upper surface of the model is free to move. We investigate interaction of the subducting slab with the overlying plate and focus on factors that may control the opening of a back-arc basin. The down going plate is driven by a kinematic boundary condition, far from the subduction zone. After an initial stage of far-field driven contraction, negative buoyant down welling of the oceanic lithosphere may drive continued subduction zone leading to mature subduction and the formation of an extensional back arc. The models suggest that two primary factors are required for slab retreat and the formation of an extensional back-arc system: 1) Convective destabilization and weakening of the overlying continental back arc region, and 2) sufficient negative buoyancy of the subducting plate.

  19. Feedback between neutral winds and auroral arc electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The feedback between neutral atmospheric winds and the electrodynamics of a stable, discrete auroral arc is analyzed. The ionospheric current continuity equation and the equation for neutral gas acceleration by ion drag are solved simultaneously, as a function of time. The results show that, in general, the electric field in the ionosphere adjusts to neutral wind acceleration so as to keep auroral field-aligned currents and electron acceleration approximately independent of time. It is thus concluded that the neutral winds that develop as a result of the electrodynamical forcing associated with an arc do not significantly affect the intensity of the arc.

  20. ALICE—ARC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlik, C.; Gregersen, A. R.; Kleist, J.; Peters, A.; Saiz, P.

    2008-07-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites.

  1. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  2. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  3. Pulsed Long Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a method and an appliance for pulsed arc welding. The method supports dosage of energy required for melting each bead of electrode metal starting from the detachment of a bead. The appliance including a sensor to register bead detachment shows this moment due to the voltage burst in the arc space. Transferred beads of electrode metal are of similar size because of the dosage of energy used for melting each bead, as the consequence, the process is more stable and starting conditions to transfer electrode metal are similar, as the result, a produced weld is improved.

  4. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  5. Intraoceanic Arc Tectonic and Sedimentary Processes: Translation from Modern Activity to Ancient Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Clift, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are used to reconstruct paleogeography, plate motion, collision and accretion events, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records after arc-continent collision is complicated by preservation of evidence for some processes and loss of evidence for others. We examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of oceanic subduction zones. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc-continent collision geometry. ';Forward-facing' collision can accrete an oceanic arc onto either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In ';backward-facing' collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern oceanic subduction zones implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before collision with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest. Collision geometry and tectonic erosion vs. accretion are important controls on the ultimate survival of

  6. Across-arc variation of Magma Composition in Central Sunda Arc, Indonesia: A test of slab influence to mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H.; Hasenaka, T.; Handini, E.; Harijoko, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sunda arc, a part of Pacific ring of fire, extends from West Java to Flores. The arc developed since Tertiary period at a convergent tectonic plate margin, where India-Australian plate is subducted northward beneath Eurasian plate. Central Sunda Arc (CSA) is represented by a series of Quartenary volcanoes from the fore arc toward the back arc including Merapi, Merbabu, Telomoyo, Ungaran and Muria. Estimated depth of Wadati-Benioff zone beneath CSA ranges from 190 km for Merapi to 350 km for Muria. Field works have been conducted for brief geologic observation and rock sample collection from Merbabu, Telomoyo, Muria, including Genuk on the north and Patiayam on the south of Muria. Data from Merapi is compiled from previous studies. X-Ray Fluorescence, Prompt Gamma Ray and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses were used to obtain whole rock compositions. Previously reported trace element of Altered Oceanic Crust (AOC) and Indian Ocean sediment are employed to estimate the derived fluid composition, by considering mobility of the elements and assuming 1.5% weight fraction of hydrous fluid extracted from them. By applying subduction component elements, we tried to estimate the slab influence to mantle source in magma genesis of CSA. High Al2O3 (~18 wt%), low Cr (~29 ppm) and Ni (~27 ppm) of the volcanic rocks characterize CSA. K2O content increases gradually with the depth of Benioff zone from each volcano. Most samples from Merapi, Merbabu, Telomoyo and Ungaran are classified as subalkaline, whereas Muria samples fall on both alkaline and subalkaline fields. In detail, Merapi samples could be divided into medium-K and high-K, Merbabu medium-K, Telomoyo and Ungaran high-K, and Muria samples range from high-K to shosonitic. We only selected unfractionated lavas to avoid assimilation, including basalt, basaltic andesite, basanite, and trachy basaltic andesite. We also exclude samples with hornblende, micas, and K-feldspar to avoid boron fractionation and assimilation

  7. Monochromatic imaging of cathodic arc plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinrot, U.; Goldsmith, S.; Boxman, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    Vacuum arc deposition (VAD) is an increasingly studied and applied technology that offers potential advantages such as high deposition rates, low deposition temperatures, and good adhesion. In the cathodic vacuum arc, minute hot areas on the cathode surface (``cathode spots``) emit highly ionized metallic plasma jets. Deposition of the cathode material is formed by placing a substrate in the plasma stream. Ceramic thin films such as TiN, SnO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} can be deposited using VAD in the presence of a reactive gas. Plasma parameters such as the density of the various ionic components, ionic kinetic energy, electron temperature, and ion-excited state population densities, all have an important role in the film growth mechanism in VAD and largely affect the film characteristics (structure, morphology, stoichiometry, adhesion, uniformity, thickness, etc.). In the case of ceramic films, the interaction between the expanding plasma and the ambient gas is very important, but poorly understood. Here, monochromatic imaging is presented as a powerful tool for plasma diagnostics, and specifically for the investigation of cathodic vacuum arc plasma. Two-dimensional (2-D) monochromatic images in the visible region of an aluminum cathodic arc burning in helium background gas are presented. Inversion of Abel`s integral enables a reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the plasma emission coefficient. The qualitative and sometimes quantitative nature of the interaction between the expanding plasma and the ambient gas can be visualized with this technique.

  8. Tribological characterization of chromium nitride coating deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, J. L.; Zhu, M. H.

    2009-06-01

    CrN coatings were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The influence of the deposition parameters (nitrogen partial pressure P, substrate bias voltage Vs and preheating of the substrate) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the FCVA CrN coatings was investigated. Further, the FCVA CrN coating was compared in dry reciprocating sliding with commercial multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) CrN coating as to friction and wear properties. Profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to evaluate the wear scars and the wear mechanisms were discussed. The results showed that the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the FCVA CrN coatings were significantly dependent on the deposition parameters. The FCVA CrN coating deposited with P of 0.1 Pa, Vs of -100 V and without preheating exhibited the optimal mechanical and tribological properties. The FCVA CrN coating exhibited much better anti-abrasive and anti-spalling properties than the MAIP CrN coating, which was resulted from significant reduction of macroparticles and pitting defects by the FCVA technique. The MAIP CrN coating suffered severe concentrated wear by a combination wear mechanisms of delamination, abrasive and oxidative wear when high normal load was applied, while for the FCVA CrN coating the wear mechanisms were ultra-mild abrasive and oxidative wear.

  9. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  10. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  11. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  12. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  13. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  14. Measurement of ion density in an atmospheric pressure argon with pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge by resonance of plasma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Bing Pan, Lizhu; Zhou, Qiujiao; Huang, Jianjun; Liu, Ying

    2014-12-15

    The measurements of the ion densities in the atmospheric AC barrier corona argon discharge are carried out by receiving and analyzing the frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the plasma. An auxiliary excitation source composed of a pin-to-pin discharge system is introduced to excite the oscillations of the main discharge. To analyze the resonance mechanism, a complemented model based on a one-dimensional description of forced vibrations is given. Calculations indicate that Ar{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion (∼89% in number density). By analyzing resonance frequencies, the ion densities of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} are in the order of 10{sup 19}∼10{sup 20}m{sup −3} and increase slowly as the applied voltage increases.

  15. Subduction of the oceanic Hikurangi Plateau and its impact on the Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Christian; Davy, Bryan; Haase, Karsten; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Graham, Ian J.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Woodhead, Jon; Bassett, Dan; Hauff, Folkmar; Mortimer, Nick; Seebeck, Hannu C.; Wysoczanski, Richard J.; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Gamble, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Large igneous province subduction is a rare process on Earth. A modern example is the subduction of the oceanic Hikurangi Plateau beneath the southern Kermadec arc, offshore New Zealand. This segment of the arc has the largest total lava volume erupted and the highest volcano density of the entire Kermadec arc. Here we show that Kermadec arc lavas south of ~32°S have elevated Pb and Sr and low Nd isotope ratios, which argues, together with increasing seafloor depth, forearc retreat and crustal thinning, for initial Hikurangi Plateau—Kermadec arc collision ~250 km north of its present position. The combined data set indicates that a much larger portion of the Hikurangi Plateau (the missing Ontong Java Nui piece) than previously believed has already been subducted. Oblique plate convergence caused southward migration of the thickened and buoyant oceanic plateau crust, creating a buoyant ‘Hikurangi’ mélange beneath the Moho that interacts with ascending arc melts.

  16. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  17. Evolution of magnetically rotating arc into large area arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wan-Wan; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Zha, Jun; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2015-06-01

    An arc channel tends to shrink due to its conductivity increasing with the increase of temperature. In this study, to generate large area arc plasma, we construct a magnetically rotating arc plasma generator, which mainly consists of a lanthanide tungsten cathode (13 mm in diameter), a concentric cylindrical graphite anode chamber (60 mm in diameter) and a solenoid coil for producing an axial magnet field. By controlling the cold gas flow, the magnetically rotating arc evolves from constricted mode to diffuse mode, which almost fills the whole arc chamber cross section. Results show that the diffuse arc plasma has better uniformity and stability. The formation mechanism of large area arc plasma is discussed in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11035005, 11475174, and 50876101) and the Science Instrument Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y201162).

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  19. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  20. Signal analysis of voltage noise in welding arcs. [gas tungsten arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elis, E.; Eagar, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welds were made on low alloy steel plates to which intentional defects (discontinuities) were imposed. Disruption of shielding gas, welding over surface films, and tack welds produce changes in what is otherwise a relatively uniform voltage signal. The arc voltage was 15 volts + or - 2 volts with 300 mV ripple noise from the power supply. Changes in this steady noise voltage varied from 50 mV to less than one millivolt depending on the severity and the type of change experienced. In some instances the changes were easily detected by analysis of the signal in real time, while in other cases the signal had to transformed to the frequency domain in order to detect the changes. Discontinuities as small as 1.5 mm in length were detected. The ultimate sensitivity and reproducibility of the technique is still being investigated.

  1. The Architecture, Chemistry, and Evolution of Continental Magmatic Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducea, Mihai N.; Saleeby, Jason B.; Bergantz, George

    2015-05-01

    Continental magmatic arcs form above subduction zones where the upper plate is continental lithosphere and/or accreted transitional lithosphere. The best-studied examples are found along the western margin of the Americas. They are Earth's largest sites of intermediate magmatism. They are long lived (tens to hundreds of millions of years) and spatially complex; their location migrates laterally due to a host of tectonic causes. Episodes of crustal and lithospheric thickening alternating with periods of root foundering produce cyclic vertical changes in arcs. The average plutonic and volcanic rocks in these arcs straddle the compositional boundary between an andesite and a dacite, very similar to that of continental crust; about half of that comes from newly added mafic material from the mantle. Arc products of the upper crust differentiated from deep crustal (>40 km) residual materials, which are unstable in the lithosphere. Continental arcs evolve into stable continental masses over time; trace elemental budgets, however, present challenges to the concept that Phanerozoic arcs are the main factories of continental crust.

  2. Systematic variation in the depths of slabs beneath arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, P.; Engdahl, R.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    The depths to the tops of the zones of intermediate-depth seismicity beneath arc volcanoes are determined using the hypocentral locations of Engdahl et al. These depths are constant, to within a few kilometres, within individual arc segments, but differ by tens of kilometres from one arc segment to another. The range in depths is from 65 km to 130 km, inconsistent with the common belief that the volcanoes directly overlie the places where the slabs reach a critical depth that is roughly constant for all arcs. The depth to the top of the intermediate-depth seismicity beneath volcanoes correlates neither with age of the descending ocean floor nor with the thermal parameter of the slab. This depth does, however, exhibit an inverse correlation with the descent speed of the subducting plate, which is the controlling factor both for the thermal structure of the wedge of mantle above the slab and for the temperature at the top of the slab. We interpret this result as indicating that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a process that depends critically upon the temperature at the top of the slab, or in the wedge of mantle, immediately below the volcanic arc.

  3. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  4. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  5. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  6. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  7. Update on plasma arc centrifugal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.E.; Paulson, W.S.; Eschenbach, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last eight years, Retech has developed a plasma-powered system for destroying organics and stabilizing metal oxides in a non-leaching slag. The system, termed Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT), can handle a variety of waste streams such as contaminated soils, sludges, ion-exchange resins, incinerator bottom and fly-ash and drummed waste among others. This paper will review recent commercial applications of the technology. Three Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment systems having an eight-foot diameter centrifuge (PACT-8) are in the construction phase. One will be used in the Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (LESAT) system for remediating Pit 9 at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL). A second unit will be located at the Retech plant in Ukiah, California. The third unit will be located at a site in Munster, Germany.

  8. Back-arc strain in subduction zones: Statistical observations versus numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcay, D.; Lallemand, S.; Doin, M.-P.

    2008-05-01

    Recent statistical analysis by Lallemand et al. (2008) of subduction zone parameters revealed that the back-arc deformation mode depends on the combination between the subducting (vsub) and upper (vup) plate velocities. No significant strain is recorded in the arc area if plate kinematics verifies vup = 0.5 vsub - 2.3 (cm/a) in the HS3 reference frame. Arc spreading (shortening) occurs if vup is greater (lower) than the preceding relationship. We test this statistical law with numerical models of subduction, by applying constant plate velocities far away from the subduction zone. The subducting lithosphere is free to deform at all depths. We quantify the force applied on the two converging plates to sustain constant surface velocities. The simulated rheology combined viscous (non-Newtonian) and brittle behaviors, and depends on water content. The influence of subduction rate vs is first studied for a fixed upper plate. After 950 km of convergence (steady state slab pull), the transition from extensional to compressive stresses in the upper plate occurs for vs ˜ 1.4 cm/a. The effect of upper plate velocity is then tested at constant subduction rate. Upper plate retreat (advance) with respect to the trench increases extension (compression) in the arc lithosphere and increases (decreases) the subducting plate dip. Our modeling confirms the statistical kinematic relationship between vsub and vup that describes the transition from extensional to compressive stresses in the arc lithosphere, even if the modeled law is shifted toward higher rates of upper plate retreat, using our set of physical parameters (e.g., 100 km thick subducting oceanic plate) and short-term simulations. Our results make valid the choice of the HS3 reference frame for assessing plate velocity influence on arc tectonic regime. The subduction model suggests that friction along the interplate contact and the mantle Stokes reaction could be the two main forces competing against slab pull for upper

  9. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 Aleutian arc and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This map shows details of the Aleutian arc not visible in an earlier publication. The Aleutian arc extends about 3,000 km from the Gulf of Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Aleutian Islands and the deep offshore Aleutian Trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that increases from about 55 mm per year at the arc's eastern edge to 75 mm per year near its western terminus. In the east, the convergence of the plates is nearly perpendicular to the plate boundary. However, because of the boundary's curvature, as one travels westward along the arc, the subduction becomes more and more oblique to the boundary until the relative plate motion becomes parallel to the arc at the Near Islands near its western edge. Subduction zones such as the Aleutian arc are geologically complex and produce numerous earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding North America plate generates shallow crustal earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Aleutian arc earthquakes occur within the subducting Pacific plate and can reach depths of 300 km. Since 1900, six great earthquakes have occurred along the Aleutian Trench, Alaska Peninsula, and Gulf of Alaska: M8.4 1906 Rat Islands; M8.6 1938 Shumagin Islands; M8.6 1946 Unimak Island; M8.6 1957 Andreanof Islands; M9.2 1964 Prince William Sound; and M8.7 1965 Rat Islands. Several relevant tectonic elements (plate boundaries and active volcanoes) provide a context for the seismicity presented on the main map panel. The plate boundaries are most accurate along the axis of the Aleutian Trench and more diffuse or speculative in extreme northeastern Russia. The active volcanoes parallel

  10. ARC and Melting Efficiency of Plasma ARC Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. C.; Nunes, A. C.; Evans, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of partial penetration Variable Polarity Plasma Arc welds were made at equal power but various combinations of current and voltage on 2219 Aluminum. Arc efficiency was measured calorimetrically and ranged between 48% and 66% for the conditions of the welds. Arc efficiency depends in different ways on voltage and current. The voltage effect dominates. Raising voltage while reducing current increases arc efficiency. Longer, higher voltage arcs are thought to transfer a greater portion of arc power to the workpiece through shield gas convection. Melting efficiency depends upon weld pool shape as well as arc efficiency. Increased current increases the melting efficiency as it increases the depth to width ratio of the weld pool. Increased plasma gas flow does the same thing. Higher currents are thought to raise arc pressure and depress liquid at the bottom of the weld pool. More arc power then transfers to the workpiece through increasing plasma gas convection. If the power is held constant, the reduced voltage lowers the arc efficiency, while the pool shape change increases the melting efficiency,

  11. Quartenary Gede Salak volcanic complex, Banten area, at the junction between Sumatra arc and Java arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, I.; Hasenaka, T.; Suparka, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pleistocene Gede Salak volcanic complex is located at Banten, northwestern edge of Java island (NWJ), forming a part of Sunda arc. The volcanism is associated with the subduction of the India-Australia plate beneath Eurasian plate at the rate of 7 cm/y. This volcanic complex consists of Gede, Salak, Batur and Wadas volcanoes. To southeast is located Pinang volcano, and to south is volcanic complex of Rawa Dano. These volcanoes are located near Sunda Strait, a transitional zone between Java arc and Sumatera arc where oblique subduction is observed. The distance of all these volcanoes from Java trench varies from 250 km to 300 km. This study is the first geochemical study of volcanic rocks characterizing across-arc variation of Java-Sumatra junction. Gede Salak volcanic complex consists of pyroclastic flow deposits in the western part and lava flows in the eastern part. The later development of dome Wadas formation is probably associated with fault structures trending northwest to southeast. Pinang volcano mainly consists of basaltic lavas. Rawa Dano volcanic complex consists of two caldera, Anyer caldera and Dano caldera, which produced large amount of volcanic tuff called Tufa Banten. Samples from this volcanic complex include basaltic to trachytic rocks, in the range of medium-K to high-K. MgO content is less than 3 %. Elements of Rb, Zr, Ce, and La increase with increasing SiO2. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are similar to those of island arc basalts. When compared to volcanic samples from western Java volcanoes (WJ), REE pattern is similar to those from back-arc volcanoes. Gede Salak volcano is slightly enriched in the subduction component, as illustrated by the low Nb/Zr and elevated Ba/Zr ratios. B/Nb and B/Zr ratios are in the range of 1.5 - 5.4 and 0.03 - 0.10 respectively, which are higher than those of the back arc volcano in central Java (CJ), but lower than those of the frontal volcanoes there. Across arc variation of NWJ including GSVC, Pinang and

  12. Constraints on the Origins of Along-Arc and Cross-Arc Chemical Variations in Arc Volcanic systems Derived from Global Systematics of Fluid-Mobile Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    The fluid-mobile element (FME) "clan" (B, Cs, As, Sb; conditionally Pb, Rb, Ba, Li, N, I: Leeman 1996; Noll et al 1996; Bebout et al 1999; Savov et al 2005) comprises a chemically disparate suite of trace elements that have in common evidence for low T°/low P mobility from subducting materials in H2O-dominated fluid species. The FME are highly variable in volcanic arc lavas, showing marked along-arc and across arc changes in nearly all of the arc volcanic systems that have been examined. Globally, along-arc variability of the FME can be explained as source mixing, with most arcs defining arrays between two predominant sources: the first a strongly FME-enriched endmember, showing enrichment patterns consistent with those observed in subduction-related serpentinites (Savov et al 2005; Hattori and Guillot 2007), and the second an FME-poor source with signatures for other large-ion lithophile elements (LIL) consistent with subducted slab (predominantly subducted sediment) derivation. The mantle is a negligible contributor to FME systematics in those arcs where the inferred thermal structures are cool at relatively shallow (30-40 km) depths (e.g., Syracuse, et al 2011). However, in the relatively few arcs that show hotter thermal structures at shallow depths, the FME-enriched component is absent, and the mixing components are the mantle and the FME-poor, LIL enriched component observed in all arcs. Regular across-arc declines in enrichments of boron and other FME are a diagnostic feature in volcanic arcs globally. B abundance and isotope systematics for across-arc transects point to a) anomalously high B and B isotope signals near the volcanic front, often some of the highest signatures in the arc, suggesting locally higher inputs of the FME-enriched endmember to mantle sources at that point along the volcanic front. These enrichments, as well as the positioning of the widest volcanic cross-chains, are often linked to physical phenomena (seamount or fracture zone

  13. Arc jet diagnostics tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Two objectives were addressed during a 10 week 1988 NASA/ASEE summer faculty fellowship at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF). These objectives were the evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species in an arc jet environment, and the determination of atomic recombination coefficients for reaction cured glass (RCG) coated high temperature surface insulation (HRSI) materials subjected to simulated reentry conditions. Evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species provided some of the first measurements of point compositions in arc jet tunnel environments. A major objective of this project centered around the sampling residence time. A three staged vacuum sampling system pulled the molecules and atoms from the arc jet to a quadrupole ionization mass spectrometer in 400 milliseconds. Conditions investigated included a composition survey across the nozzle exit at 3 cm z-distance from the nozzle exit for 3 different currents. Also, a point composition survey was taken around a shock created by the presence of a blunt body.

  14. Postarc phenomena in a diffuse self-commutating dc vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, N. . Dept. of Engineering Science)

    1989-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the postarc chopping current of a self-commutating dc vacuum arc. Cathode current, anode current, and arc voltage, as well as ion current, to a grounded shield are monitored. A qualitative description of conditions in the gap is proposed, explaining the apparent current reversal observed.

  15. The nature and location of the plate boundary between the Anatolian and African plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deǧer Özbakır, Ali; Wortel, Rinus; Govers, Rob

    2010-05-01

    Overall convergence of the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates, and the westward escape of Anatolia has resulted in an evolving plate boundary zone since the Miocene. In the Eastern Mediterranean, the current location and nature of the plate boundary between the Anatolian and the African plates is difficult to trace due to the scattered crustal earthquakes, and the absence of deeper earthquakes. In this study we aim to better constrain the nature and the location of the plate boundary. GPS-derived velocity field and stresses from earthquake mechanism solutions comprise the datasets which short time scale (elastic) models can be compared to. We model the stresses and deformation on the overriding plate by incorporating convergence of Africa and Arabia towards stable Eurasia, and rollback of the Hellenic trench. Investigation of the plate boundary consists of constraining the directions of motions over the segments which make up the boundary. We assume various types and locations for the plate boundary within the observational limits. We use a spherical plane stress finite element model to test these possibilities. We find that stresses and displacements are sensitive to both the location and the nature of the plate boundary. We obtain the minimum misfit with the data in a model where we assume the following: (1) the segment between Hellenic and the Cyprus arcs have both down-dip and fault parallel motions, (2) the connection between the Cyprus arc and Arabia--Eurasia collision zone is pure strike-slip. In all our models, an extra pull force on Anatolia is required to explain the high velocities in southwest Anatolia. This force may be related to return flow around the lateral edge of the Aegean slab.

  16. Slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc: implications for seismic and volcanic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, N.; Leclerc, F.; Deplus, C.; Tapponnier, P.; Beauducel, F.; Jacques, E.; Beck, C.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; LeBrun, J.; Bazin, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is a region of high seismic and volcanic hazards exposed to large megathrust earthquakes along the subduction zone, to more local events within the arc and to destructive eruptions as in 1902 at Mount Pelee or in 1995 at Soufriere Hills of Montserrat. On November 21, 2004, the Guadeloupe archipelago was struck by a magnitude 6.3 superficial and very damaging earthquake. To better constrain the mechanisms of the recent deformation within the arc and its link with volcanic activity, several marine cruises were conducted since 1998 (AGUADOMAR, GWADASEIS and BATHYSAINTES). A lot of high-resolution data were acquired: Bathymetry, back-scatter images, Küllenberg cores, seismic reflection and chirp profiles. By combining them with onshore data, observations and measurements in the field, we have documented at several scales the active faulting between St Lucia and Saba, the northernmost emerged volcano of the arc. We have shown that the Lesser Antilles arc is crosscut by two main fault sets: arc perpendicular graben in the outer arc and a large en echelon system along the inner active arc. Volcanic complexes are crosscut by or emplaced within fault systems implying that faulting controls the emission of volcanic products. The Nevis volcano is growing on the hanging-wall of a large NE-dipping offshore normal fault probably responsible for the M6+ 1961 earthquake. Montserrat volcanic domes are aligned along a fissure set, parallel to large normal faults and Soufriere of Guadeloupe lies at the western tip of the Marie-Galante graben. At plate scale, the arc perpendicular fore arc graben and inner arc en echelon system are connected, forming a sinistral horsetail, east of the tip of the left lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench parallel component of convergence between the North American and Caribbean plates, west of the Anegada passage. Considering the newly published Caribbean North American Euler vector, the trench parallel

  17. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  18. Paleomagnetic Evidence for Significant Rotations Within the Aleutian Island Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. B.; Krutikov, L.

    2006-12-01

    Present-day motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate changes along the Aleutian arc from normal convergence in the east to transform motion in the west. It was postulated by Geist et al. (Tectonics 7, 327-341, 1988) that strain partitioning could result in tectonic segmentation of the lithosphere, caused by increasing obliquity of plate convergence and characterized by clockwise rotation and westward translation of discrete blocks. Their analysis of the present day morphology and tectonic setting of the western half of the arc suggests the presence of rotated blocks, and implies that the rotation is ongoing. Published high-quality paleomagnetic data from the far western end of the arc show rotations that are compatible with this model. This result is based on rocks of Eocene (Bering and Medny Islands) and Miocene (Shemya Island) age, thus the magnetically observed rotations could have occurred at any time since their origin. New paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from Miocene age volcanic rocks on Amchitka Island also indicate clockwise rotation at some time since the rocks were formed (13.8+/-0.2 Ma). However, two other high-quality paleomagnetic data sets from Eocene/Oligocene aged sediments from the eastern part of the arc (Atka and Umnak Islands) are significantly rotated in the same clockwise sense as the western end. Since plate convergence at these two eastern sites has been roughly normal since mid-Eocene time, strain partitioning related to oblique convergence is unlikely to be the cause of the rotation. Models involving rotation of the entire island arc to explain the similarity in magnitude and sense of the rotations seen in the paleomagnetic data require large relative latitude changes between the two ends of the arc. Though possible, such a model would put serious constraints on scenarios for the tectonic development of the Bering Sea Plate required to accommodate the degree of rotation suggested by the data. The answer may

  19. Properties of vacuum arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Raoux, S.

    1995-04-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films formed by vacuum arc deposition are hydrogen-free, dense, and very hard. The properties of amorphous hard carbon films depend strongly on the energy of the incident ions. A technique which is called Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation can be applied to vacuum arc deposition of amorphous hard carbon films to influence the ion energy. The authors have studied the influence of the ion energy on the elastic modulus determined by an ultrasonic method, and have measured the optical gap for films with the highest sp{sup 3} content they have obtained so far with this deposition technique. The results show an elastic modulus close to that of diamond, and an optical gap of 2.1 eV which is much greater than for amorphous hard carbon films deposited by other techniques.

  20. Effects of helium ion implantation on the surface morphology of tungsten at high temperature for the first wall armor and divertor plates of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenobia, Samuel J.

    Three devices at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (UW IEC) laboratory were used to implant W and W alloys with helium ions at high temperatures. These devices were HOMER, HELIOS, and the Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E). The research presented in this thesis will focus on the experiments carried out utilizing the MITE-E. Early UW work in HOMER and HELIOS on silicon carbide, carbon velvet, W-coated carbon velvet, fine-grain W, nano-grain W, W needles, and single- and polycrystalline W showed that these materials were not resistant to He+ implantation above ˜800 °C. Unalloyed W developed a "coral-like" surface morphology after He+ implantation, but appeared to be the most robust material investigated. The MITE-E used an ion gun technology to implant tungsten with 30 keV He+. Tungsten specimens were implanted at 900 °C to total average fluences of 6x1016 -- 6x1018 He +/cm2. Other specimens were implanted to a total average fluence of 5x1018 He+/cm2 at temperatures between 500 and 900 °C. Micrographs of the implanted W specimens revealed the development of three distinct surface morphologies. These morphologies are classified as "blistering", "pitting", and "orientated ridges". Preferential sputtering of the W by the energetic He+ appears to be responsible for pitting and orientated ridges which developed at high fluences (1019 He+/cm2) in the MITE-E. While the orientated ridges were the dominant morphology on the W surface above 700 °C, the pitting was prevalent below 700 °C. The blister morphology was observed at all of the examined temperatures at fluences ≥5x1017 He+/cm2 but disappeared above fluences of 1019 He+/cm 2. The "coral-like" surface morphology on W inherent to He + implantation experiments in HOMER and HELIOS developed from a combination of sources: multiangular ion incidence, ion energy spread (softening), and electron field emission from nano-scale surface features induced by He + implantation. The

  1. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  2. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  3. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  4. Synthesis of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with secondary plate morphology as cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risthaus, Tim; Wang, Jun; Friesen, Alex; Wilken, Andrea; Berghus, Debbie; Winter, Martin; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material has been synthesized by a spray drying process and subsequent solid state reaction. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is given as additive to the spray drying precursor solution and its effects on structural and electrochemical properties are evaluated. By using PVP in the synthesis process, the obtained sample displays a secondary plate morphology which is consisting of densely arranged primary octahedrally shaped particles. The new cathode material has a lesser degree of impurity phases, a higher discharge capacity, a superior rate capability, and a slightly better cycling performance than the sample synthesized without PVP. In more detail, by the use of PVP the ratio of Mn3+ to Mn4+ in the final product decreases from 20.8 to 9.2%. The initial discharge capacity at 0.1 C exhibits an increase of about 14%. The normalized capacity at 20 C is 84.1% instead of 67.0%. A slightly improved cycling performance with the capacity retention increase from 93.8 to 97.9% could be observed as well.

  5. 4-D Subduction Models Incorporating an Upper Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D.; Capitanio, F. A.; Moresi, L.; Mueller, D.; Clark, S.

    2007-12-01

    Thus far, relatively simplistic models of free subduction have been employed in which the trench and plate kinematics are emergent features completely driven by the negative buoyancy of the slab. This has allowed us to build a fundamental understanding of subduction processes such as the kinematics of subduction zones, the strength of slabs, and mantle flow-plate coupling. Additionaly, these efforts have helped to develop appreciable insight into subduction processes when considering the energetics of subduction, in particular how energy is dissipated in various parts of the system such as generating mantle flow and bending the plate. We are now in a position to build upon this knowledge and shift our focus towards the dynamic controls of deformation in the upper plate (vertical motions, extension, shortening, and dynamic topography). Here, the state of stress in the overriding plate is the product of the delicate balance of large tectonic forces in a highly-coupled system, and must therefore include all components of the system: the subducting plate, the overriding plate, and the underlying mantle flow which couples everything together. We will present some initial results of the fully dynamic 3-D models of free subduction which incorporate an overriding plate and systematically investigate how variations in the style and strength of subduction are expressed by the tectonics of the overriding plate. Deformation is driven in the overriding plate by the forces generated from the subducting plate and the type of boundary condition on the non-subducting side of the overriding plate (either fixed or free). Ultimately, these new models will help to address a range of issues: how the overriding plate influences the plate and trench kinematics; the formation and evolution of back-arc basins; the variation of tractions on the base of the overriding plate; the nature of forces which drive plates; and the dynamics controls on seismic coupling at the plate boundary.

  6. Plate Tectonics: From Initiation of Subduction to Global Plate Motions (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Plates are driven by buoyancy forces distributed in the mantle, within cooling oceanic plates (ridge push) and within subducted slabs. Although the case is often made that subducted slabs provide the principle driving force on plate motion, consensus has not been achieved. This is at least partially due to the great difficulty in realistically capturing the role of slabs in observationally-constrained models as slabs act to drive and resist plate motions through their high effective viscosity. Slab buoyancy acts directly on the edge of the plate (slab pull), while inducing mantle flow that tends to drag both subducting and overriding plates toward the trench. While plates bend during subduction they undergo a form of 'plastic failure' (as evident through faulting, seismicity and reduction of flexural parameters at the outer trench wall). The birth of a new subduction zone, subduction initiation, provides important insight into plate motions and subduction dynamics. About half of all subduction zones initiated over the Cenozoic and the geophysical and geological observations of them provide first order constraints on the mechanics of how these margins evolved from their preexisting tectonic state to self-sustaining subduction. We have examples of subduction initiation at different phases of the initiation process (e.g. early versus late) as well as how margins have responded to different tectonic forcings. The consequences of subduction initiation are variable: intense trench roll back and extensive boninitic volcanism followed initiation of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc while both were absent during Aleutian arc initiation. Such differences may be related to the character of the preexisting plates, the size of and forces on the plates, and how the lithosphere was initially bending during initiation. I will address issues associated with the forces driving plate tectonics and initiating new subduction zones from two perspectives. A common thread is the origin and

  7. Wave interaction with dual circular porous plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Arpita; Gayen, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green's integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method using the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.

  8. Seismological, Geological and Geomorphic Aspects of Arc Segmentation and Their Relation to Subducting Bathymetric Features in the Solomon Island Arc, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Frohlich, C.; Taylor, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    Arc segmentation partitions forearcs into multiple blocks so that the forearc behaves like a "keyboard on a piano" as each segment potentially interacts with the downgoing plate in a different tectonic style. For example, parts of the forearc of the Solomon Islands arc has undergone hundreds of meters of rapid subsidence and uplift during late Quaternary time. Other parts have undergone only minor late Quaternary movements. We use seismology, geology, and geomorphology to identify arc segments in order to evaluate how bathymetric features on the subducting plate influence seismicity and active tectonics and cause overriding plate segmentation. Seismic rupture areas for large earthquakes, seismicity patterns, seismicity cross sections, focal mechanisms, and seismic moment calculations all reveal that the central arc being underthrust by the Woodlark Basin system of active sea-floor spreading is very different from the northwest and southeast parts of the arc. Woodlark subduction is characterized by sparse seismicity, gentle subduction angle, and thrust faulting with some normal and strike-slip components. Observations from geologic maps, coastal geomorphology, and emerged coral reefs show that the arc segments are undergoing varying amounts and rates of uplift and submergence. Larger islands such as Guadalcanal and San Cristobal have both drowning and emerging coastlines. This information indicates the individual segments have dramatically different histories of vertical tectonics. We identify three supersegments: Bougainville, New Georgia, and Guadalcanal-San Cristobal. Smaller segments subdivide each supersegment. Thus we identify nine major boundaries, seven minor boundaries, and six possible boundaries. The classification of each boundary depends on the strength of evidence supporting its existence and the amount of change in tectonic behavior across the boundary. We speculate that subduction of the young Woodlark Spreading Center with seamounts and ridges on

  9. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, F.

    1958-08-19

    The construction of an ion source is descrtbed wherein a uniform and elongated arc is established for employment in a calutron. The novel features of the . source include the positioning of a cathode at one end of an elongated extt slit of an arc chamber. and anode electrodes defintng the longitudinal margins of the exit opening. When the exit slit is orientated in a parallel relation to a magnetic field, the arc extends in the direction of the magnetic field along and between the anode electrodes, which are held at a positsve potential with respect to the cathode.

  10. Progressive enrichment of arc magmas caused by the subduction of seamounts under Nishinoshima volcano, Izu-Bonin Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Takashi; Shirao, Motomaro; Tani, Kenichiro; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Fujii, Toshitsugu

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of intraplate seamounts is distinct from normal seafloor material, meaning that the subduction of seamounts at a convergent margin can cause a change in the chemistry of the mantle wedge and associated arc magmas. Nishinoshima, a volcanic island in the Izu-Bonin Arc of Japan, has been erupting continuously over the past 2 years, providing an ideal opportunity to examine the effect of seamount subduction on the chemistry of arc magmas. Our research is based on the whole-rock geochemistry and the chemistry of minerals within lavas and air-fall scoria from Nishinoshima that were erupted before 1702, in 1973-1974, and in 2014. The mineral phases within the analyzed samples crystallized under hydrous conditions (H2O = 3-4 wt.%) at temperatures of 970 °C-990 °C in a shallow (3-6 km depth) magma chamber. Trace element data indicate that the recently erupted Nishinoshima volcanics are much less depleted in the high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) than other volcanics within the Izu-Bonin Arc. In addition, the level of enrichment in the Nishinoshima magmas has increased in recent years, probably due to the addition of material from HIMU-enriched (i.e., high Nb/Zr and Ta/Hf) seamounts on the Pacific Plate, which is being subducted westwards beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. This suggests that the chemistry of scoria from Nishinoshima volcano records the progressive addition of components derived from subducted seamounts.

  11. APPARATUS FOR ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Lingafelter, J.W.

    1960-04-01

    An apparatus is described in which a welding arc created between an annular electrode and a workpiece moves under the influence of an electromagnetic field about the electrode in a closed or annular path. This mode of welding is specially suited to the enclosing of nuclear-fuel slugs in a protective casing. For example, a uranium slug is placed in an aluminum can, and an aluminum closure is welded to the open end of the can along a closed or annular path conforming to the periphery of the end closure.

  12. The tectonics of Cyprus Arc: a model of complex continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, Y.; Ryan, W.

    2003-04-01

    Cyprus Arc is an arcuate depression that wraps the southern reaches of Cyprus in the easternmost Mediterranean Sea. The tectonic regime that constrains Cyprus Arc is generally considered to be that of collision between northward moving Africa and southward moving Eurasia, and the Arc is the site where a Tethyan lithospheric toe off NE Africa is being subducted northward under the Anatolian sub-plate. Evidence to this process is the subduction of Eratosthenes Seamount, located 100 km south of Cyprus, the northern section of which is down-faulted as it subsides toward the Arc. Since Eratosthenes Seamount is rooted in continental lithosphere, and the Troodos ophiolite in southern Cyprus is an oceanic crust, the convergence of Africa and Anatolia along Cyprus Arc was considered a prime example of ongoing obduction. However, abundant GPS evidence shows that Anatolia is moving not southwards but westwards, and the rate of displacement exceeds 20 mm/yr, which is approximately 20 times faster than the rate of the northwards motion of Africa. Earthquakes reflect that composite dynamic model along Cyprus Arc, and compressional, extensional and strike-slip crustal motion co-occur along Cyprus Arc. Seismic reflection profiles show that the structural layout of the eastern segment of Cyprus Arc, from Hecataeus Plateau to Hatay region, is transtensional, emphasizing the prominence of the westwards motion of Anatolia. This composite pattern of the motion of the tectonic plates in the easternmost Mediterranean suggests that the slow northward motion of Africa leads indeed to subduction along Cyprus Arc, but this subduction is not counteracted, because Anatolia is moving much faster westwards. This dynamic setup of plate motion accounts for the composite pattern of earthquake distribution, and is compatible with large lateral displacements along strike of subduction zones and collisional fronts.

  13. Deformation and instability of underthrusting lithospheric plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the underthrusting lithosphere are constructed for the calculation of displacement and deflection. First, a mathematical theory is developed that rigorously demonstrates the elastic instability in the decending lithosphere. The theory states that lithospheric thrust beneath island arcs becomes unstable and suffers deflection as the compression increases. Thus, in the neighborhood of the edges where the lithospheric plate plunges into the asthenosphere and mesosphere its shape will be contorted. Next, the lateral displacement is calculated, and it is shown that, before contortion, the plate will thicken and contract at different positions with the variation in thickness following a parabolic profile. Finally, the depth distribution of the intermediate and deep focus earthquakes is explained in terms of plate buckling and contortion.

  14. Repeated arc-continent collision as a key mechanism for continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitchison, J.; Buckman, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prevailing 'consensus' models for the Phanerozoic development of eastern Australia invoke a retreating accretionary orogen model in which slab retreat results in development of offshore island arcs in front of marginal basins. Periodically these basins close and the arcs are retro-thrust back onto the continental margin. Implicit in this model is the notion that all elements develop in an upper plate location upon the accretionary margin and that west-dipping subduction beneath eastern Gondwana was a long-lived phenomenon. We suggest this concept is flawed and instead propose a new testable hypothesis that eastern Australia grew through a series of arc-continent collisions in which east-directed subduction beneath intra-oceanic island arcs led to their collision with eastern Australia. At least four such arc-continent collisions are posited in mid-Cambrian (Mt Stavely arc), Late Ordovician (Macquarie arc), mid-Devonian (Gamilaroi arc) and Late Permian (Gympie arc) times. This process effectively transferred new material to the continental crust resulting in net growth. When collisions were followed by subduction flip episodes of west-directed subduction beneath the continental margin ensued giving rise to the S- and I-type granites for which eastern Australia is famous.

  15. Ultra-deep drilling to the middle crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    This proposal is for the ultra-deep drilling site of a series of IODP proposals in the Izu-Bonin Mariana (IBM) arc that aim at comprehensive understanding of arc evolution and continental crust formation. We propose to drill a deep hole that penetrates through a complete sequence of intra-oceanic arc upper crust and into the in situ arc middle crust, which may be the birthplace of continental crust. The bulk composition of continental crust is andesitic (60 wt.% SiO2), which raises the question of how intra-oceanic arcs produce continental crust if the dominant product of mantle wedge melting and a major proportion of intra-oceanic arc lava is basaltic (50 wt.% SiO2). There is no pre-existing continental crust in the IBM arc, yet recent seismic studies of this arc reveal a thick layer in the middle crust (Vp=6.0-6.5 km/s) that is hypothesized to be intermediate/felsic in composition. The primary goals of sampling the in situ arc crust through drilling are: (1) to identify the structure and lithologies present in the upper and middle arc crust, (2) to constrain the petrologic and chronological relationship of mid-crustal rocks to the overlying upper crust, (3) to establish the temporal evolution of arc crust by relating this site with other regional drill sites and exposed sections of arc and continental crust, and (4) to test competing hypotheses of how the upper and middle crust forms and evolves in an intra-oceanic arc setting. These objectives address questions of global significance, but we have specifically identified the IBM arc system as an ideal locale to conduct this experiment. The composition of the pre-subduction upper plate was normal oceanic crust, and the tectonic and temporal evolution of this arc system is well-constrained. Moreover, the IBM system is perhaps the best-studied intra-oceanic arc on Earth, thanks to extensive sampling of the slab inputs and arc outputs through field studies and drilling, and to a series of recent, focused geophysical

  16. Electric arc heater is self starting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1966-01-01

    Remote method initiates an electric arc over a large range of gaps between two water-cooled electrodes of an arc-heated wind tunnel without disassembling the arc unit. This type of starting system can be used on both three-phase ac arc heaters and dc arc heaters.

  17. Convergent Plate Boundary Processes in the Archean: Evidence from Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.

    2014-12-01

    The structural, magmatic and metamorphic characteristics of Archean greenstone belts and associated TTG (tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite) gneisses in southern West Greenland are comparable to those of Phanerozoic convergent plate margins, suggesting that Archean continents grew mainly at subduction zones. These greenstone belts are composed mainly of tectonically juxtaposed fragments of oceanic crust including mafic to ultramafic rocks, with minor sedimentary rocks. Volcanic rocks in the greenstone belts are characterized mainly by island arc tholeiitic basalts, picrites, and boninites. The style of deformation and geometry of folds in 10 cm to 5 m wide shear zones are comparable to those occur on 1 to 50 km scale in the greenstone belts and TTG gneisses, suggesting that compressional tectonic processes operating at convergent plate boundaries were the driving force of Archean crustal accretion and growth. Field observations and trace element data suggest that Archean continental crust grew through accretion of mainly island arcs and melting of metamorphosed mafic rocks (amphibolites) in thickened arcs during multiple tectonothermal events. Fold patterns on cm to km scale are consistent with at least three phases of deformation and multiple melting events generating TTG melts that intruded mainly along shear zones in accretionary prism and magmatic arcs. It is suggested that Archean TTGs were produced by three main processes: (1) melting of thickened oceanic island arcs; (2) melting of subducted oceanic crust; and (3) differentiation of basaltic melts originating from metasomatized sub-arc mantle wedge peridotites.

  18. Arc Evolution in Response to the Subduction of Buoyant Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Luke; Fourel, Loic; Goes, Saskia; Morra, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The subduction of buoyant features such as aseismic ridges or oceanic plateaux has been invoked to explain arc deformation, flat subduction and increase in seismic coupling. Other studies have challenged these ideas, attributing a larger role to the overriding plate. However, many open questions remain about the dynamics of the relative simple case of a single freely subducting plate. How big does a plateau need to be to change the arc shape? What is the control of plate's strength on the impact of buoyant features? How do the velocities adapt to the subduction of less dense material? In the present study, we propose a systematic approach in order to tackle these questions. We use a new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where the interaction between the slab and the isoviscous mantle is only calculated on the slab surface, significantly increasing computational efficiency. The oceanic plate rheology is visco-elasto-plastic and its top surface is free. We find that arc shape is significantly altered by the subduction of buoyant plateaux. Along the subduction plane through the plateau and depending on its size, the dip angle and the retreat velocity significantly decrease. Flat subduction is obtained in the case of large and strongly buoyant plateau/ridge. An interesting feature is that retreat velocity increases right after the plateau or ridge has finished subducting in order to catch up with the rest of the plate. The gradient in retreat velocity obtained along the trench may cause the slab to have a heterogeneous response to ridge push, eventually leading to slab advance where buoyant material is present. We apply our models to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) trench and propose that subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  19. Simulation of Arc Motion in Air Switching Devices Taking Ferromagnetic Material into Accout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; Tusongjiang, Kari; Chen, Degui; Sun, Haitao; Xie, Ensheng

    2009-04-01

    FLUENT and ANSYS codes are used to solve the magnethydrodynamics (MHD) equations and electromagnetic field equations, respectively. An interface code is developed to implement the bi-direction transfer of calculation data between FLUENT and ANSYS. Then a 2-D MHD arc model is built up with the consideration of the nonlinear ferromagnetic material. The arc shape, gas flow velocity and magnetic field distribution are presented at a current of 200 A. The influence of the number of splitter plates on arc motion is also analyzed.

  20. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  1. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  2. Arc segmentation and seismicity in the Solomon Islands arc, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Chu; Frohlich, Cliff; Taylor, Frederick W.; Burr, George; van Ufford, Andrew Quarles

    2011-07-01

    surface trace of the interplate thrust zone defines it adequately. The New Georgia supersegment has smaller arc segments, and more islands due to general late Quaternary forearc uplift very close to the trench where vertical displacement rates tend to be faster; prior to the 2007 earthquake it had much lower rates of seismic activity than the neighboring supersegments. Generally the mean along-arc lateral extent of Solomon arc segments is about 75 km, somewhat smaller than the segments reported in some other island arcs such as Japan (~ 100-260 km), but larger than those of the Tonga (30-80 km) and Central New Hebrides arcs (30-110 km). These differences may be real but it may occur simply because the coral-friendly tropical environment of the South Pacific arcs, numerous emerged forearc islands, and high seismicity rates provide an unusually favorable situation for observing variations in vertical tectonic activity and thus for identifying segment boundaries. Over the past century seismic slip in the Solomons, as indicated by seismic moment release, has corresponded to about half the plate convergence rate; however, there are notable variations along the arc. Even with the 2007 earthquake, the long-term moment release rate in the New Georgia supersegment is relatively low, and this may indicate that large earthquakes are imminent.

  3. Along-arc geochemical and isotopic variations in Javanese volcanic rocks: 'crustal' versus 'source' contamination at the Sunda arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, H.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Turner, S.; Macpherson, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the genesis of volcanic rocks in subduction zone settings is complicated by the multitude of differentiation processes and source components that exert control on lava geochemistry. Magma genesis and evolution at the Sunda arc is controlled and influenced by 1) along arc changes in the composition and thickness of the overriding Eurasian plate, 2) the variable age of the subducting oceanic crust and, 3) changes in the type and amount of sediment deposited on the subducting plate. Along-arc changes in geochemistry have long been recognised in the Sunda arc (Whitford, 1975), but debate still prevails over the cause of such variations and the relative importance of shallow (crustal) versus deep (subduction) contamination at the Sunda arc, Indonesia. Detailed study of individual Sunda arc volcanic centres is, therefore, a prerequisite in order to establish the relative importance and contributions of various potential source components and composition modifying differentiation processes at individual volcanoes, prior to an along arc comparative petrogenetic investigation. We present new radiogenic isotope data for Javanese volcanoes, which is combined with our recently published (Handley et al., 2007; Handley et al., 2008, Handley et al., 2010; Handley et al., 2011) geochemical and isotopic data of Javanese volcanic rocks along with data from other detailed geochemical studies to establish whether variable contributions from the subducting slab, or a change in crustal architecture of the overriding plate, best explain along-arc variations in isotope ratios and trace element characteristics. In West and Central Java Sr isotope ratios of the volcanic rocks broadly correlate with inferred lithospheric thickness implicating a shallow level control on isotopic composition. However, key trace element ratios combined with Hf isotope data indicate that the subducted slab and slab thermal regime also exert major control on the composition of the erupted Javanese

  4. ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-04-14

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

  5. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  6. TAMA. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H.

    1994-06-03

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  7. Tertiary geothermal events around the Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuto

    1991-11-01

    The thermal history through the late Tertiary around the Japan Arc is described by analyzing a number of geological data obtained from boreholes. Based on an empirical model of time-temperature-coalification, the burial history and coal ranks in a deep offshore borehole (MITI Tottori-Oki) reveal that the western part of the Sea of Japan was subjected to remarkable thermal events around middle Miocene and Quaternary times, during which voluminous igneous rocks erupted within Southwest Japan. Considering the tectonic context around the Japan Arc, it is most probable that the thermal event in the middle Miocene was brought about by the extensive continental rifting and formation of the Sea of Japan. The area of higher Quaternary temperatures in the upper mantle, which has been delineated through heat-flow measurements, coincides with the distribution of the contemporaneous alkaline volcanics, suggesting that the characteristic intra-plate volcanism and the latest thermal event can be related to the regional influx of hot asthenosphere beneath Southwest Japan.

  8. Of Eggs and Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

    2012-10-01

    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are < 0.5 m/s, smaller than the 2 m/s that dynamically characterize the resonant well. We investigate the gentle transfer of particles back and forth between the ring-arcs and any embedded bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  9. Physical aspects of electron-beam arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, F M; Fullerton, G D; Lee, J M; Moore, V C; Levitt, S H

    1977-08-01

    The effect of different parameters on dose distribution in electron-beam arc therapy was studied in order to develop a technique for routine clinical use. A special diaphragm was designed to facilitate telecentric rotation. Dosimetry was performed with an ion chamber, film, and LiF powder in cylindrical polystyrene phantoms and an Alderson Rando phantom. Dose distributions were evaluated with regard to dose homogeneity, and a method of sharpening the dose fall-off near the ends of the arc was proposed. Criteria for selection of isocenter depth and field size were developed. Methods of dose calculation, calibration, and treatment planning are discussed. PMID:406643

  10. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1957-12-24

    This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

  11. Laser Assisted Plasma Arc Welding

    SciTech Connect

    FUERSCHBACH,PHILLIP W.

    1999-10-05

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effecter to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (< 1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  12. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  13. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L.; Martin, Frank S.

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  14. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-08-19

    A novel ion source is described for use in a calutron which has the prime adwantage of reducing the nunnber of unwanted ions in the ion generating mechamism.An important feature of the invention resides In an arc chamber having a lining of the polyisotopic material to be treated In the calutron and bombardment of the linirg with positive ions of a light gas to induce sputtering and ionization of the lining. With the reduction of unwanted ions in the source beam provided by the described source, the calutron operation may be more accurately controlled.

  15. An algorithm to calculate a collapsed arc dose matrix in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing Aitang; Jameson, Michael; Holloway, Lois

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The delivery of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is more complex than other conformal radiotherapy techniques. In this work, the authors present the feasibility of performing routine verification of VMAT delivery using a dose matrix measured by a gantry mounted 2D ion chamber array and corresponding dose matrix calculated by an inhouse developed algorithm.Methods: Pinnacle, v9.0, treatment planning system (TPS) was used in this study to generate VMAT plans for a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta-Synergy linear accelerator. An algorithm was developed and implemented with inhouse computer code to calculate the dose matrix resulting from a VMAT arc in a plane perpendicular to the beam at isocenter. The algorithm was validated using measurement of standard patterns and clinical VMAT plans with a 2D ion chamber array. The clinical VMAT plans were also validated using ArcCHECK measurements. The measured and calculated dose matrices were compared using gamma ({gamma}) analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria and {gamma} tolerance of 1.Results: The dose matrix comparison of standard patterns has shown excellent agreement with the mean {gamma} pass rate 97.7 ({sigma}= 0.4)%. The validation of clinical VMAT plans using the dose matrix predicted by the algorithm and the corresponding measured dose matrices also showed good agreement with the mean {gamma} pass rate of 97.6 ({sigma}= 1.6)%. The validation of clinical VMAT plans using ArcCHECK measurements showed a mean pass rate of 95.6 ({sigma}= 1.8)%.Conclusions: The developed algorithm was shown to accurately predict the dose matrix, in a plane perpendicular to the beam, by considering all possible leaf trajectories in a VMAT delivery. This enables the verification of VMAT delivery using a 2D array detector mounted on a treatment head.

  16. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  17. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  18. Origin of the Palau and Yap trench-arc systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    This paper attempts to account for several unique morphological and geological characteristics of the Palau and Yap trench-arc systems in the northwestern Pacific Ocean using a new hydrodynamic model postulated herein. The model is a simple mathematical treatment of a stationary viscous flow pattern in the asthenosphere that causes an appreciable amount of mechanical resistance against a vertically subducted rigid slab moving horizontally together with the flat plate. A couple of thrusting forces comprising uplifting pressure generated in the frontal edge of the overriding lid and a new type of tectonic erosion along the surface of the vertical slab seem to reasonably explain apparently contradictory features of the Palau and Yap trench arcs. Long-term GPS measurements show that the Palau and Yap trench arcs are moving over the viscous asthenosphere toward the NWW with velocities as great as 10 cm yr-1. Stresses along the trench arcs predicted by the model would be sufficiently large to maintain their present morphology: (1) water depths greater than 8000 m in spite of the extremely small plate convergence rates and relatively young ages of subducted plate; (2) V-shaped cross-section of the axial bottom of these trenches, implying little cover of slumped deposits in spite of very steep landward slopes; (3) serpentinized peridotites, gabbros, basalts and limestones are exposed on the landward slope with neither sediment cover nor ferromanganese hydro-oxide coatings; (4) abnormally close proximity of the Palau and Yap islands to the trench axis; (5) predominant distribution of barrier reefs in their western periphery apparently opposite to the easterly to northeasterly prevailing wind.

  19. An arc-sequencing algorithm for intensity modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, D. M.; Cao, D.; Afghan, M. K. N.; Earl, M. A.

    2007-02-15

    Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is an intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery technique originally proposed as an alternative to tomotherapy. IMAT uses a series of overlapping arcs to deliver optimized intensity patterns from each beam direction. The full potential of IMAT has gone largely unrealized due in part to a lack of robust and commercially available inverse planning tools. To address this, we have implemented an IMAT arc-sequencing algorithm that translates optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT plans. The sequencing algorithm uses simulated annealing to simultaneously optimize the aperture shapes and weights throughout each arc. The sequencer enforces the delivery constraints while minimizing the discrepancies between the optimized and sequenced intensity maps. The performance of the algorithm has been tested for ten patient cases (3 prostate, 3 brain, 2 head-and-neck, 1 lung, and 1 pancreas). Seven coplanar IMAT plans were created using an average of 4.6 arcs and 685 monitor units. Additionally, three noncoplanar plans were created using an average of 16 arcs and 498 monitor units. The results demonstrate that the arc sequencer can provide efficient and highly conformal IMAT plans. An average sequencing time of approximately 20 min was observed.

  20. Growth and characterisation of NiAl and N-doped NiAl films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating using elemental ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Abuain, T; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) has been used to deposit undoped and nitrogen doped NiAI thin films onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates. These films have potential applications in tribological, electronic media and thermal barrier coatings. The surface characteristics, composition, mechanical and structural properties have been investigated using stylus profilometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 microm. The X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the presence of the beta NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the undoped and nitrogen doped NiAl thin films exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl composition with the best results being achieved using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. AFM results of both types of films deposited on glass samples exhibited a surface roughness of less than 100 nm. The nanoindenter results for coatings on glass substrates displayed hardness and elastic modulus of 7.7 GPa and 100 GPa respectively. The hardest coatings obtained were obtained at 10% of nitrogen. PMID:20355470

  1. Nature of the plate contact and subduction zones diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Franco, Roberta; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2008-07-01

    In recent studies we showed that the nature of the plate contact in subduction zones is an important physical feature in both oceanic lithospheric subduction and continental collision. We investigated two fundamental states of the plate contact: one based on a fault and the other based on a subduction channel. Using geodynamic modeling, we determined the specific signatures of both states of the subduction contact. We established that the nature of the plate contact influences the dynamic response of the overriding and subducting plate, and is one of the controlling factors whether back-arc extension develops or not. In the present study, we combine results of our previous numerical experiments with a re-analysis of published observations. Overall, our synthesis connects seismic moment release with back-arc deformation and tectonic processes at the margin. It leads us to identify four classes of subduction zones. The first two classes result directly from our numerical experiments. In class 1, subduction zones are characterized by a plate contact that is largely fault-like with an accretionary margin. In class 2, the plate contacts are largely channel-type and have an erosive margin. Class 3, where the plate contact is entirely channel-like, consists of accretionary margins with a high sediment supply. Subduction zones of class 4, mostly characterized by an erosive convergent margin (northern Chile, Peru, Honshu and Kuril), are more complicated. They can be explained by incorporating regional observations.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  3. Plasma Heating and Flow in an Auroral Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Pollock, C. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Austin, B.; Kintner, P. M.; Bonnell, J.

    1996-01-01

    We report direct observations of the three-dimensional velocity distribution of selected topside ionospheric ion species in an auroral context between 500 and 550 km altitude. We find heating transverse to the local magnetic field in the core plasma, with significant heating of 0(+), He(+), and H(+), as well as tail heating events that occur independently of the core heating. The 0(+) velocity distribution departs from bi-Maxwellian, at one point exhibiting an apparent ring-like shape. However, these observations are shown to be aliased within the auroral arc by temporal variations that arc not well-resolved by the core plasma instrument. The dc electric field measurements reveal superthermal plasma drifts that are consistent with passage of the payload through a series of vortex structures or a larger scale circularly polarized hydromagnetic wave structure within the auroral arc. The dc electric field also shows that impulsive solitary structures, with a frequency spectrum in the ion cyclotron frequency range, occur in close correlation with the tail heating events. The drift and core heating observations lend support to the idea that core ion heating is driven at low altitudes by rapid convective motions imposed by the magnetosphere. Plasma wave emissions at ion frequencies and parallel heating of the low-energy electron plasma are observed in conjunction with this auroral form; however, the conditions are much more complex than those typically invoked in previous theoretical treatments of superthermal frictional heating. The observed ion heating within the arc clearly exceeds that expected from frictional heating for the light ion species H(+) and He(+), and the core distributions also contain hot transverse tails, indicating an anomalous transverse heat source.

  4. Temperature field acquisition during gas metal arc welding using thermocouples, thermography and fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P. M. G. P.; Frazão, O.; Tavares, S. M. O.; de Figueiredo, M. A. V.; Restivo, M. T.; Santos, J. L.; de Castro, P. M. S. T.

    2007-03-01

    The paper presents the application of temperature acquisition systems integrating thermocouples, a thermographic camera and fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, MIG (metal inert gas) welding type. Efficient procedures to use FBG sensors and thermocouples were developed. The paper presents and compares measurements made in welded plates of aluminium alloy 6082-T6. Tests were performed in both plate surfaces and good agreement between the three techniques was found.

  5. Ultraviolet imaging of the anode attachment in transferred-arc plasma cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Bemis, B.L.; Settles, G.S.

    1999-02-01

    The anode phenomena occurring at the location of current transfer from the plasma jet to the plate affects cut quality in plasma cutting of mild steel plate. To understand these phenomena, an ultraviolet imaging technique was used to visualize the anode attachment spot under various cutting conditions. This technique has provided a unique view and fostered a better understanding of the plasma-arc cutting process.

  6. Petrochemistry and genesis of olivine basalts from small monogenetic parasitic cones of Bazman stratovolcano, Makran arc, southeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Saeed; Stern, Charles R.

    2011-07-01

    Small monogenetic Quaternary parasitic cones around Bazman stratovolcano, located at the western edge of the Makran arc, southeastern Iran, erupted low-Ti subalkaline olivine basalts with MgO (3.8-8.6 wt.%) and Al2O3 (16.5-18.6 wt.%). Positive correlation of decreasing MgO, Ni and Cr indicates that formation of low MgO basalts involved limited crystal-liquid fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene, the common phenocrysts. The basalts have variable 87Sr/86Sr (0.704177-0.705139) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512689-0.512830) ratios, within the range of OIB-like intra-plate alkaline basalts erupted in eastern Iran north of the Makran arc. This, and the lack of correlation between Sr content and Sr-isotopic ratio, suggest that upper crustal contamination was not significant in their formation, consistent with the relatively thin crust (≤ 40 km) in the area. Enrichment of large-ion-lithophile elements (LILE) relative to light rare-earth-elements (LREE; Ba/La = 9-25), and depletions in Nb relatively to LILE (Ba/Nb = 12-35; La/Nb = 0.8-2.1), are similar in most cases to other convergent plate boundary arc basalts, suggesting that the Bazman basalts formed by melting of subcontinental mantle modified by dehydration of subducted Oman Sea oceanic lithosphere. Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts define a linear trend above the Northern Hemisphere Line, consistent with their derivation from mantle contaminated by Pb derived from subducted sediment. Trace element contents and ratios (LaN = 10-25; YbN = 3-6; (La/Yb)N = 3-8) suggest that these basalts formed as a result of low (~ 10%) degrees of partial melting of subarc mantle modified only moderately by subducted components. Relatively low Ba/Nb < 15, La/Nb < 1.5 and Ba/La < 15 ratios for some basalts confirm only limited contamination of the source of these samples, consistent with observations in other arcs that parasitic cones tap sources less affected by slab-derived fluids than the larger stratovolcanoes they surround. Comparison

  7. Inverse methods-based estimation of plate coupling in a plate motion model governed by mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Plate motion is primarily controlled by buoyancy (slab pull) which occurs at convergent plate margins where oceanic plates undergo deformation near the seismogenic zone. Yielding within subducting plates, lateral variations in viscosity, and the strength of seismic coupling between plate margins likely have an important control on plate motion. Here, we wish to infer the inter-plate coupling for different subduction zones, and develop a method for inferring it as a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the cost functional is the misfit in plate velocities and is constrained by the nonlinear Stokes equation. The inverse models have well resolved slabs, plates, and plate margins in addition to a power law rheology with yielding in the upper mantle. Additionally, a Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear Stokes equation with viscosity bounds. We infer plate boundary strength using an inexact Gauss-Newton method with line search for backtracking. Each inverse model is applied to two simple 2-D scenarios (each with three subduction zones), one with back-arc spreading and one without. For each case we examine the sensitivity of the inversion to the amount of surface velocity used: 1) full surface velocity data and 2) surface velocity data simplified using a single scalar average (2-D equivalent to an Euler pole) for each plate. We can recover plate boundary strength in each case, even in the presence of highly nonlinear flow with extreme variations in viscosity. Additionally, we ascribe an uncertainty in each plate's velocity and perform an uncertainty quantification (UQ) through the Hessian of the misfit in plate velocities. We find that as plate boundaries become strongly coupled, the uncertainty in the inferred plate boundary strength decreases. For very weak, uncoupled subduction zones, the uncertainty of inferred plate margin strength increases since there is little sensitivity between plate margin strength and plate velocity. This result is significant

  8. The preliminary results of new submarine caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc volcanoes, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial volcano in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc volcanoes. Therefore, the existence of volcanoes and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new submarine volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where located the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new submarine caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera volcano. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc

  9. Chemical and isotopic compositions of volcanic gases from the east Sunda and Banda arcs, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Poorter, R.P.E.; Bergen, M.J. van; Kreulen, R. ); Varekamp, J.C. ); Poreda, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    The easternmost Sunda Arc and the Banda Arc represent a continent-arc collision zone where magma genesis is influenced by subducted continent-derived material. Chemical and isotopic studies of volcanic gas samples from this environment provide information on the sources of volatiles in arc magmas. These volcanic gases, some of which last equilibrated at magmatic temperatures, are characterized by anomalous low {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He values, but by common arc values of C/S {approx} 2-4, {delta}{sup 13}C {approx} {minus}3{per thousand}, and {delta}{sup 34}S{sub tot} {approx} +5{per thousand}. Abundant helium and high He/Ar ratios are consistent with the subduction of terrigenous components in local sediments (or slivers of continental crust). Although individual concentration and isotope ratios of volatile components may be explicable by complex fractionation in the recycling process, the combined data are in agreement with an important role of subducted sedimentary source components. Comparison of the authors results with volcanic gas data from other arcs indicates that the carbon and sulfur signals in arc gases are relatively insensitive to the amount and nature of sediment on the subsiding plate. Hence, a contribution to arc volcanic gases from subducted altered oceanic crust cannot be excluded.

  10. Down-bucklng of a corner of a descending plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, B. E.

    1973-01-01

    A model of the earth's crust is presented as a set of rigid crustal blocks in which the crust is consumed, compressed, or created only at the boundaries of the blocks. As such the trench boundary moves with respect to the colliding plates because of down-buckling at the corner of the descending plate. It is further shown that this mechanism requires plate consumption of the descending plate at a rate faster than the relative plate motion, which in turn causes infilling of the basin behind the arc to compensate for the increased destruction. It is demonstrated that earthquake, heat flow, paleomagnetic, gravity anomaly, and geologic data derived from Japan and the Sea of Japan support the model.

  11. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  12. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  13. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental margin. With continued subduction, a continental arc was born and a progressively more compressional environment developed as the age of subducting slab continued to young. Refinement into a felsic crust occurred after accretion, that is, during the continental arc stage, wherein a thickened crustal and lithospheric column permitted a longer differentiation column. New basaltic arc magmas underplate and intrude the accreted terrane, suture, and former continental margin. Interaction of these basaltic magmas with pre-existing crust and lithospheric mantle created garnet pyroxenitic mafic cumulates by fractional crystallization at depth as well as gabbroic and garnet pyroxenitic restites at shallower levels by melting of pre-existing lower crust. The complementary felsic plutons formed by these deep-seated differentiation processes rose into the upper crust, stitching together the accreted terrane, suture and former

  14. The ALMA Regional Centers (ARC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, P.; Hibbard, J.; Okumura, S. K.; Braatz, J.

    2011-04-01

    ALMA is an international facility, a partnership between Europe, East Asia, and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. As such, ALMA will serve a worldwide community of astronomers. To interface with the geographically distributed user community, the partners have established three ALMA Regional Centers, or ARCs. The ARCs provide the primary gateway to ALMA for the user community. The ARCs are staffed by scientists with expertise in radio astronomy and interferometry, and their purpose is to work with the community of astronomers to maximize the scientific productivity of the telescope.

  15. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  16. Crustal structure of the Caribbean-northeastern South America arc-continent collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, Gail L.; Mann, Paul; Escalona, Alejandro; Aitken, Trevor J.

    2008-08-01

    We present the results of a 568-km-long regional wide-angle seismic profile conducted in the southeastern Caribbean that crosses an active island arc, a remnant arc, two basins possibly floored by oceanic crust, an allochthonous terrane of forearc affinity, and the passive margin of northern South America. The velocity structures of the Late Cretaceous Aves Ridge remnant arc and Miocene and younger Lesser Antilles arc are remarkably similar, which implies that magmatic processes have remained moderately steady over time. Crustal thickness is ˜26 km at the Aves Ridge and ˜24 km at the Lesser Antilles arc. In comparison to the Izu-Bonin and Aleutian arcs, the Lesser Antilles arc is thinner and has no evidence for a lower crustal cumulate layer, which is consistent with the estimated low magma production rates of the Lesser Antilles arc. Crustal thickness beneath the Grenada and Tobago basins is 4-10 km, and the velocity structure suggests that these basins could be floored by oceanic crust. A decrease of ˜1 km/s in average seismic velocity of the upper crust is observed from NW to SE across the North Coast fault zone; we argue that this marks the suture between the far-traveled Caribbean arc and the passive margin of the South American continent. Current strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates is located ˜30 km to the south, and thus material originally deposited on the South American passive margin has now been transferred to the Caribbean plate.

  17. Magmatically Greedy Reararc Volcanoes of the N. Tofua Segment of the Tonga Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Arculus, R. J.; Lupton, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanism along the northernmost Tofua Arc is enigmatic because edifices of the arc's volcanic front are mostly, magmatically relatively anemic, despite the very high convergence rate of the Pacific Plate with this section of Tonga Arc. However, just westward of the arc front, in terrain generally thought of as part of the adjacent NE Lau Backarc Basin, lie a series of very active volcanoes and volcanic features, including the large submarine caldera Niuatahi (aka volcano 'O'), a large composite dacite lava flow terrain not obviously associated with any particular volcanic edifice, and the Mata volcano group, a series of 9 small elongate volcanoes in an extensional basin at the extreme NE corner of the Lau Basin. These three volcanic terrains do not sit on arc-perpendicular cross chains. Collectively, these volcanic features appear to be receiving a large proportion of the magma flux from the sub-Tonga/Lau mantle wedge, in effect 'stealing' this magma flux from the arc front. A second occurrence of such magma 'capture' from the arc front occurs in an area just to the south, on southernmost portion of the Fonualei Spreading Center. Erupted compositions at these 'magmatically greedy' volcanoes are consistent with high slab-derived fluid input into the wedge (particularly trace element abundances and volatile contents, e.g., see Lupton abstract this session). It is unclear how long-lived a feature this is, but the very presence of such hyperactive and areally-dispersed volcanism behind the arc front implies these volcanoes are not in fact part of any focused spreading/rifting in the Lau Backarc Basin, and should be thought of as 'reararc volcanoes'. Possible tectonic factors contributing to this unusually productive reararc environment are the high rate of convergence, the cold slab, the highly disorganized extension in the adjacent backarc, and the tear in the subducting plate just north of the Tofua Arc.

  18. SU-E-T-448: On the Perturbation Factor P-cav of the Markus Parallel Plate Ion Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams, Monte Carlo Based Reintegration of An Historical Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Voigts-Rhetz, P von; Zink, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: All present dosimetry protocols recommend well-guarded parallel-plate ion chambers for electron dosimetry. For the guard-less Markus chamber an energy dependent fluence perturbation correction pcav is given. This perturbation correction was experimentally determined by van der Plaetsen by comparison of the read-out of a Markus and a NACP chamber, which was assumed to be “perturbation-free”. Aim of the present study is a Monte Carlo based reiteration of this experiment. Methods: Detailed models of four parallel-plate chambers (Roos, Markus, NACP and Advanced Markus) were designed using the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc and placed in a water phantom. For all chambers the dose to the active volume filled with low density water was calculated for 13 clinical electron spectra (E{sub 0}=6-21 MeV) at the depth of maximum and at the reference depth under reference conditions. In all cases the chamber's reference point was positioned at the depth of measurement. Moreover, the dose to water DW was calculated in a small water voxel positioned at the same depth. Results: The calculated dose ratio D{sub NACP}/D{sub Markus}, which according to van der Plaetsen reflects the fluence perturbation correction of the Markus chamber, deviates less from unity than the values given by van der Plaetsen's but exhibits a similar energy dependence. The same holds for the dose ratios of the other well guarded chambers. But, in comparison to water, the Markus chamber reveals the smallest overall perturbation correction which is nearly energy independent at both investigated depths. Conclusion: The simulations principally confirm the energy dependence of the dose ratio D{sub NACP}/D{sub Markus} as published by van der Plaetsen. But, as shown by our simulations of the ratio D{sub W}/D{sub Markus}, the conclusion drawn in all dosimetry protocols is questionable: in contrast to all well-guarded chambers the guard-less Markus chamber reveals the smallest overall perturbation correction and

  19. Complex surfaces plated by thin-film deposition in one operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Spalvins, T.

    1967-01-01

    Ion plating deposits thin film on complex surface in one operation. The ionized materials follow electric lines of force to all points on the objects, uniformly plating the surface from all sides simultaneously.

  20. Intensive hydration of the wedge mantle at the Kuril arc - NE Japan arc junction: implications from mafic lavas from Usu Volcano, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuritani, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Matsumoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southwestern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan, is located at the junction of the NE Japan arc and the Kuril arc. The subducting Pacific plate under this region shows a hinge-like shape due to the dip change of the subducting plate along the trench. Because of the interest in this unique tectonic setting, this arc-arc junction has been the focus of extensive geophysical studies (e.g. Kita et al., 2010, Morishige and van Keken, 2014; Wada et al., 2015). This region is also known as an area in which magmatism has been intense; there are many active volcanoes such as Usu, Tarumae, and Komagatake, and large calderas including Toya, Shikotsu, and Kuttara. In this region, the temporal and spatial evolution of the volcanism and the chemical compositions of the volcanic rocks are well characterized (e.g. Nakagawa, 1992). However, the generation conditions of magmas have not been estimated for these volcanoes, probably because of the scarcity of basaltic products. Therefore, a possible link between the tectonic setting and the intense magmatism is still unclear. In this study, we carried out a petrological and geochemical study on mafic lavas (49.6-51.3 wt.% SiO2) from Usu Volcano, and estimated the conditions under which the magmas were generated. By application of a plagioclase-melt hygrometer to the plagioclase and the host magma, the water content of ~6.5 wt.% was obtained for the basaltic magma. Using this information, as well as the olivine maximum fractionation model (Tatsumi et al., 1983), the composition of the primary magma is estimated to be 47.9 wt.% SiO2, 15.1 wt.% MgO, and 4.1 wt.% H2O. Analyses using the multi-component thermodynamics suggest that the primary magma was generated in the source mantle with 0.9 wt.% H2O at 1310ºC and at 1.6 GPa. The water content of 0.9 wt.% of the source mantle is significantly higher than the estimates for the source mantle in the main NE Japan arc (<0.7 wt.% H2O); this implies that the flux of slab-derived fluids is