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Sample records for archaeology mechanisms spectrometrie

  1. Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

  2. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed <30% error. Results with a >30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very

  3. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

  4. Analytical Approaches Based on Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to Study Organic Materials in Artworks and Archaeological Objects.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-02-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), after appropriate wet chemical sample pre-treatments or pyrolysis, is one of the most commonly adopted analytical techniques in the study of organic materials from cultural heritage objects. Organic materials in archaeological contexts, in classical art objects, or in modern and contemporary works of art may be the same or belong to the same classes, but can also vary considerably, often presenting different ageing pathways and chemical environments. This paper provides an overview of the literature published in the last 10 years on the research based on the use of GC/MS for the analysis of organic materials in artworks and archaeological objects. The latest progresses in advancing analytical approaches, characterising materials and understanding their degradation, and developing methods for monitoring their stability are discussed. Case studies from the literature are presented to examine how the choice of the working conditions and the analytical approaches is driven by the analytical and technical question to be answered, as well as the nature of the object from which the samples are collected. PMID:27572989

  5. Different Types of Peptide Detected by Mass Spectrometry among Fresh Silk and Archaeological Silk Remains for Distinguishing Modern Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Gong, Yuxuan; Yin, Hao; Gong, Decai

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological silk provides abundant information for studying ancient technologies and cultures. However, due to the spontaneous degradation and the damages from burial conditions, most ancient silk fibers which suffered the damages for thousands of years were turned into invisible molecular residues. For the obtained rare samples, extra care needs to be taken to accurately identify the genuine archaeological silk remains from modern contaminations. Although mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool for identifying and analyzing the ancient protein residues, the traditional approach could not directly determine the dating and contamination of each sample. In this paper, a series of samples with a broad range of ages were tested by MS to find an effective and innovative approach to determine whether modern contamination exists, in order to verify the authenticity and reliability of the ancient samples. The new findings highlighted that the detected peptide types of the fibroin light chain can indicate the degradation levels of silk samples and help to distinguish contamination from ancient silk remains. PMID:26186676

  6. Characterization of archaeological beeswax by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Nicolas; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Rolando, Christian; Regert, Martine

    2002-10-01

    To better detect and identify beeswax in ancient organic residues from archaeological remains, we developed a new analytical methodology consisting of the analysis of (i) the trimethylsilylated organic extract by GC/MS and (ii) the crude extract by ESI-MS. Selective scanning modes, such as SIM or MRM, permit separate quantification of each chemical family (fatty acids, monoesters, monohydroxyesters, and diesters) and allow an improvement in sensitivity and selectivity, allowing the crude extract to be treated without further purification. GC/MS (SIM) was revealed to be a powerful method for the detection of components, with a detection limit down to a total lipid extract in the range of approximately 50 ng in a complex matix, such as archaeological degraded material, whereas ESI-MS/MS is instead used for the detection of nonvolatile biomarkers. Identification by GC/MS (SIM) and ESI-MS/ MS (MRM) of more than 50 biomarkers of beeswax in an Etruscan cup at the parts-per-million level provides the first evidence for the use of this material by the Etruscans as fuel or as a waterproof coating for ceramics. PMID:12380806

  7. Study of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Semi-quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Ruiz, R.; García-Heras, M.

    2007-10-01

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its potential application to the study of archaeological ceramics in the archaeometric field. Two direct solid non-chemical sample preparation procedures have been checked: solid sedimentation and solid chemical homogenization. For sedimentation procedure, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence allows the analysis of the elemental composition with respect to the size fraction but not the average evaluation of the composition. For solid chemical homogenization procedure, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence provides precise (from 0.8% to 27% of coefficient of variation) and accurate results (from 91% to 110% of recovery) for 15 elements (Cr, Hf, Ni, Rb, Al, Ba, Ca, K, Mn, Ti, V, Cu, Ga, Y and Fe) with an easy sample preparation process of the solid clay and without previous chemical treatment. The influence of the particle sizes has been checked by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence sample angle scans and anomalous behaviors have been found for three additional detected elements: As, Sr and Zn, which can be attributed to interference effects of the mineral grain sizes of their associated chemical phases in the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence interference region. The solid chemical homogenization procedure produces data useful for archaeological interpretation, which is briefly illustrated by a case-study. Finally, the decantation procedure data can be also useful for size chemical speciation and, consequently, for alternative environmental total-reflection X-ray fluorescence applications.

  8. A provenance study of iron archaeological artefacts by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry multi-elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Mariet, Clarisse; Dillmann, Philippe; Joron, Jean Louis; Fluzin, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Raw materials and wastes (i.e. ore, slag and laitier) from ironmaking archaeological sites have been analyzed in order to understand the behavior of the trace elements in the ancient ironmaking processes and to find the significant-most elements to characterize an iron making region. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) appears to be an excellent technique for this type of studies. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Addition method and the INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses) results proved that Sc, Co, (Ni), Rb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Th, U contents in the ores, slag and laitiers, and Co and Ni contents in the cast iron can be successfully determined by ICP-MS after wet acid digestion (low detection limits, good sensitivity and precision). By using significant trace element pairs (Yb/Ce, Ce/Th, La/Sc, U/Th, Nb/Y) present in the ores, laitiers and slag, it is possible to discriminate different French ironmaking regions as the Pays de Bray, Lorraine and Pays d'Ouche. These results open the way to further studies on the provenance of iron objects. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Calibration Curves method and the INAA results shows that matrices rich in iron, affect the ICP-MS analyses by suppressing the analytes signal. Further studies are necessary to improve understanding matrix effects.

  9. Study of CPP Mechanisms by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Sandrine; Bechara, Chérine; Burlina, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms of entry of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) requires reliable methods to measure their cellular uptake efficiency, monitor their metabolic stability, and identify their intracellular localization. We describe here a protocol based on the direct detection of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which allows the absolute quantification of the intact internalized species and the analysis of their intracellular degradation. This protocol can be easily applied to the simultaneous quantification of different species, for example mixtures of CPPs. PMID:26202265

  10. Evaluation of microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of protein residues from an inorganic solid matrix: implications in archaeological research.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stanley M; Wolverton, Steve; Venables, Barney; Barker, Andrew; Seeley, Kent W; Adhikari, Prem

    2010-02-01

    A method based on microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis is presented for the identification of proteins incorporated within solid matrices using protein standards bound to experimental cooking pottery as a validation model. The implementation of microwave irradiation allowed for a significant decrease in overall analysis time in addition to select enhancement of peptide recovery as determined by label-free relative quantitation. We envision that the reported methodology will provide new avenues for scientific discovery in areas such as archaeology and forensics. Results of this series of experiments are part of an ongoing project directed at developing a comprehensive methodology for extracting proteinaceous residues from archaeological pottery. PMID:20052580

  11. Species Identification of Archaeological Skin Objects from Danish Bogs: Comparison between Mass Spectrometry-Based Peptide Sequencing and Microscopy-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

  12. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs: comparison between mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing and microscopy-based methods.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC - AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

  13. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  14. Determination of Sr isotopes in calcium phosphates using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their application to archaeological tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstwood, M. S. A.; Evans, J. A.; Montgomery, J.

    2008-12-01

    The determination of accurate Sr isotope ratios in calcium phosphate matrices by laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS is demonstrated as possible even with low Sr concentration archaeological material. Multiple on-line interference correction routines for doubly-charged REE, Ca dimers and Rb with additional calibration against TIMS-characterised materials are required to achieve this. The calibration strategy proposed uses both inorganic and biogenic apatite matrices to monitor and correct for a 40Ca- 31P- 16O polyatomic present at levels of 0.3-1% of the non-oxide peak, which interferes on 87Sr causing inaccuracies of 0.03-0.4% in the 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio. The possibility also exists for synthetic materials to be used in this calibration. After correction for interferences total combined uncertainties of 0.04-0.15% (2SD) are achieved for analyses of 13-24 μg of archaeological tooth enamel with Sr concentrations of ca. 100-500 ppm using MC-ICP-MS. In particular, for samples containing >300 ppm Sr, total uncertainties of ˜0.05% are possible utilising 7-12 ng Sr. Data quality is monitored by determination of 84Sr/ 86Sr ratios. When applied to an archaeological cattle tooth this approach shows Sr-isotope variations along the length of the tooth in agreement with independent TIMS data. The 40Ca- 31P- 16O polyatomic interference is the root cause of the bias at mass 87 during laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of inorganic and biogenic calcium phosphate (apatite) matrices. This results in inaccurate 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios even after correction of Ca dimers and doubly charged rare earth elements. This interference is essentially constant at specific ablation conditions and therefore the effect on 87Sr/ 86Sr data varies in proportion to changes in the Sr concentration of the ablated material. Complete elimination of this interference is unlikely through normal analytical mechanisms and therefore represents a limitation on the achievable accuracy of LA-(MC-)ICP-MS 87Sr/ 86Sr

  15. Chemical study of triterpenoid resinous materials in archaeological findings by means of direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2006-01-01

    A systematic study of standard triterpenes (alpha-amyrine, oleanolic acid, betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid and lupenone) and of raw resinous materials (frankincense resin, mastic resin and birch bark pitch) was performed using direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). DE-MS provides a mass spectral fingerprint of organic materials in a few minutes which highlights the compounds that are the main components in the sample. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) on DE-MS data in the mass ranges m/z 181-260 and m/z 331-500, corresponding to the fragmentation of triterpenoid molecules, enabled us to distinguish between different triterpenoid materials such as mastic resin, frankincense resin and birch bark pitch, and to graphically plot the resinous substances in three separate clusters, retaining 89% of the total variance. GC/MS analysis of the same materials has permitted us to elucidate in detail the molecular composition and to identify minor components and species that act as markers of the degradation undergone by the materials. The paper also reports the results for the organic residues contained in an Egyptian censer (5th-7th century AD) which was recovered in the excavation of the Necropolis of Antinoe (Egypt), and for the hafting material found on a Palaeolithic tool recovered at the site of Campitello (Arezzo, Tuscany), dating back to the Mid-Pleistocene period. Although DE-MS was found to be a fast analytical tool, it failed to give any information on the presence of less abundant compounds when applied to mixtures of different materials: only mastic resin was found in the residues from the Roman censer, whereas GC/MS analysis identified the presence of a vegetable oil from Brassicaceae seeds and Pinaceae resin. Birch bark pitch as a pure material was identified in the sample from the Palaeolithic flint flake using both procedures. PMID:16676320

  16. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering. PMID:12879699

  17. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  18. Laser-desorption mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and the mechanism of desorption ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zakett, D.; Schoen, A.E.; Cooks, R.G.; Hemberger, P.H.

    1981-03-11

    This paper reports sucrose mass spectra obtained by combining laser desorption with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Remarkable similarities in fragmentation behavior with secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) provide evidence for mechanistic similarities between SIMS and laser desorption (LD). Attachment of alkali metals to organic molecules (cationization) is a common feature of desorption ionization. This process also occurs during laser desorption of involatile compounds which further indicates the existence of underlying similarities between LD and SIMS. Steady ion currents (several thousand ions per laser pulse) of cationized sucrose are obtained for relatively long periods (minutes).

  19. 3M: Monocots, Mechanical wounding, and Mass spectrometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical wounding, one of the first steps in both pathogen infection and herbivore attack, activates signal transduction pathways dedicated to defense and recovery. The signaling pathways include reversible protein phosphorylation, changes in intracellular calcium levels, alarmone production, and...

  20. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  1. State Archaeological Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, William B., Ed.

    The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

  2. Digging into Archaeology Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions are offered for a classroom project of planning and conducting an archaeological dig on or near school property. Principles of archaeological practice such as making drawings of the site and using a grid frame to record locations are explained. Also suggested is a simulation activity in which students pick imbedded "findings" out of…

  3. Archaeology in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  4. Applications of AMS {sup 14}C on Climate and Archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.

    2007-10-26

    We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with {sup 14}C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  5. Art and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Jul; Schumacher, Leni

    Organized in eight chapters, this interdisciplinary resource packet highlights the relationship between art and archaeology. Chapter 1 presents the vocabulary and several introductory activities that prepare students to participate in the subsequent chapters. These chapters focus on (2) "Lascaux Cave Paintings"; (3) "Life Along the Nile" (ancient…

  6. Observing the water molecule in macromolecules using infrared spectrometry: structure of the hydrogen bond network and hydration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, Y.

    2004-08-01

    The power and precision of IR spectrometry, or IR quantitative spectroscopy, to observe water molecules embedded in macromolecules, is illustrated, taking as examples the determination of the structures of the hydrogen-bond network of a dried polysaccharide, hyaluronan, of a dried protein, bovine serum albumine, and of a dried polymer, a sulfonated polyimide. We also indicate how IR spectrometry conveys original and precise information from which their hydration mechanisms can be precisely determined in terms of chemical reactions.

  7. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  8. Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, C.

    2015-02-01

    Galactic Archeology is a coined term to describe the fact that the Milky Way's history is encoded both in the amounts of various chemical elements seen in the spectra of stellar atmospheres (abundances), and in stellar motions. One of the pillars of Galactic Archaeology is the use of stellar abundance ratios as an indirect age estimator, which although imprecise, has been proved useful in providing relative ages between the different galactic components. The lack of more precise age determination for large samples of field stars is one of the main reasons why different scenarios for the formation of our Galaxy can still be accommodated to current observational constraints, thus preventing a clear picture of the Milky Way's assembling history. Another difficulty is that most of the available information (especially on ages) has been confined to a region close to the Sun. These two main obstacles can now start to be overcome thanks to a) large spectroscopic and photometric surveys covering larger portions of the Milky Way, and b) the combination of the photometric and spectroscopic information with that coming from asteroseismology. The latter promises a breakthrough in the field of Galactic Archaeology, as it brings the opportunity to, for the first time, measure ages for large samples of distant field giant stars, which cover a large age-baseline. When combining this information with that soon available from Gaia, the field of Galactic Archaeology will be shaken and modelers will certainly have less flexibility in finding models that comply to these precious new observational constraints. The goal of these short lectures is to put Asteroseismology in the context of Galactic Archaeology.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS BY AB INITIO QUANTUM MECHANICAL COMPUTATION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrare...

  10. Remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jay K.; Haley, Bryan S.

    2003-04-01

    Cultural resource management archaeology in the United States concerns compliance with legislation set in place to protect archaeological resources from the impact of modern activities. Traditionally, surface collection, shovel testing, test excavation, and mechanical stripping are used in these projects. These methods are expensive, time consuming, and may poorly represent the features within archaeological sites. The use of remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology may provide an answer to these problems. Near-surface geophysical techniques, including magnetometry, resistivity, electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar, have proven to be particularly successful at efficiently locating archaeological features. Research has also indicated airborne and satellite remote sensing may hold some promise in the future for large-scale archaeological survey, although this is difficult in many areas of the world where ground cover reflect archaeological features in an indirect manner. A cost simulation of a hypothetical data recovery project on a large complex site in Mississippi is presented to illustrate the potential advantages of remote sensing in a cultural resource management setting. The results indicate these techniques can save a substantial amount of time and money for these projects.

  11. Classroom Archaeology: An Archaeology Activity Guide for Teachers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nancy W.

    This guide describes archaeology activities appropriate for middle school students, but some activities can be used in intermediate and primary grades or high school and college classes. The activities range in length from less than one hour to 15 hours. A sequence of activities may be used together as a unit on archaeology, or individual…

  12. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  13. Archaeology on Film. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides a comprehensive guide to archaeological films and video tapes of archaeological interest. Individual films and film series are listed alphabetically by title. Each entry includes the following information: title, series, date, length, color/black & white, format, purchase and rental prices, distributor/rental source,…

  14. Enlightening the Mechanism of Copper Mediated PhotoRDRP via High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frick, Elena; Anastasaki, Athina; Haddleton, David M; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The initiation mechanism of photochemically mediated Cu-based reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (photoRDRP) was investigated using pulsed-laser polymerization (PLP) and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The variation of the catalyst composition and ESI-MS analysis of the resulting products provided information on how initiator, ligand, copper species, and monomer are interacting upon irradiation with UV light. A discussion of the results allows for a new postulation of the mechanism of photoRDRP and-for the first time-the unambiguous identification of the initiating species and their interactions within the reaction mixture. One pathway for radical generation proceeds via UV light-induced C-Br bond scission of the initiator, giving rise to propagating radicals. The generation of copper(I) species from copper(II) can occur via several pathways, including, among others, via reduction by free amine ligand in its excited as well as from its ground state via the irradiation with UV light. The amine ligand serves as a strong reducing agent and is likely the main participant in the generation of copper(I) species. PMID:25970736

  15. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  16. Kinetic folding mechanism of an integral membrane protein examined by pulsed oxidative labeling and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Brown, Leonid; Konermann, Lars

    2011-07-01

    We report the application of pulsed oxidative labeling for deciphering the folding mechanism of a membrane protein. SDS-denatured bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was refolded by mixing with bicelles in the presence of free retinal. At various time points (20 ms to 1 day), the protein was exposed to a microsecond ·OH pulse that induces oxidative modifications at solvent-accessible methionine side chains. The extent of labeling was determined by mass spectrometry. These measurements were complemented by stopped-flow spectroscopy. Major time-dependent changes in solvent accessibility were detected for M20 (helix A) and M118 (helix D). Our kinetic data indicate a sequential folding mechanism, consistent with models previously suggested by others on the basis of optical data. Yet, ·OH labeling provides additional structural insights. An initial folding intermediate I(1) gets populated within 20 ms, concomitantly with formation of helix A. Subsequent structural consolidation leads to a transient species I(2). Noncovalent retinal binding to I(2) induces folding of helix D, thereby generating an intermediate I(R). In the absence of retinal, the latter transition does not take place. Hence, formation of helix D depends on retinal binding, whereas this is not the case for helix A. As the cofactor settles deeper into its binding pocket, a final transient species I(R) is generated. This intermediate converts into native BR within minutes by formation of the retinal-K216 Schiff base linkage. The combination of pulsed covalent labeling and optical spectroscopy employed here should also be suitable for exploring the folding mechanisms of other membrane proteins. PMID:21570983

  17. Electrospray Ionization Mechanisms for Large Polyethylene Glycol Chains Studied Through Tandem Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larriba, Carlos; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez; Clemmer, David E.

    2014-08-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) is used to investigate the abundance pattern, n z (m) of Poly-(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) electrosprayed from water/methanol as a function of mass and charge state. We examine n z (m) patterns from a diversity of solution cations, primarily dimethylammonium and triethylammonium. The ability of PEG chains to initially attach to various cations in the spraying chamber, and to retain them (or not) on entering the MS, provide valuable clues on the ionization mechanism. Single chains form in highly charged and extended shapes in most buffers. But the high initial charge they hold under atmospheric pressure is lost on transit to the vacuum system for large cations. In contrast, aggregates of two or more chains carry in all buffers at most the Rayleigh charge of a water drop of the same volume. This shows either that they form via Dole's charge residue mechanism, or that highly charged and extended aggregates are ripped apart by Coulombic repulsion. IMS-IMS experiments in He confirm these findings, and provide new mechanistic insights on the stability of aggregates. When collisionally activated, initially globular dimers are stable. However, slightly nonglobular dimers projecting out a linear appendix are segregated into two monomeric chains. The breakup of a charged dimer is therefore a multi-step process, similar to the Fenn-Consta polymer extrusion mechanism. The highest activation barrier is associated to the first step, where a short chain segment carrying a single charge escapes (ion-evaporates) from a charged drop, leading then to gradual field extrusion of the whole chain out of the drop.

  18. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  19. Analysis of diarylmethylamine compounds using electrospray mass spectrometry: formation mechanisms of radical ions and dehydro cations.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tian; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Wu, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A series of diarylmethylamine compounds were analyzed using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). [M](+)˙ and [M - H](+) were both observed, but showed different abundances. A possible mechanism for the formation of [M](+)˙ and [M - H](+) was proposed to explicate the rule for the ratio change of I([M](+)˙)/I([M-H](+)). The [M](+)˙ has two structures, which can interconvert into each other in the gas phase. The substituted groups on the benzene rings play a crucial role in the transfer between the two structures. Electron withdrawing groups can prevent the formation of carbocations, thus nitro-containing diarylmethylamines remained mainly as structure I and were detected as [M](+)˙. On the contrary, electron donating groups help to stabilize carbocations. This makes structure I transfer to structure II, and structure II prefers to further generate [M - H](+) by loss of an H radical. Nuclear magnetic resonance and D-labelled MS experiments indicate that the 1-C-H bond has strong activity. PMID:26465612

  20. Chem I Supplement: Archaeological Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph B.

    1983-01-01

    Dating, conservation, prospection, and composition (knowledge of the composition of artifacts of other materials) are four applications of chemistry to archaeology. Examples of the latter application (composition) are discussed, focusing on procedures used and types of information obtained. (JN)

  1. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  2. Mechanical Modulation of Phonon-Assisted Field Emission in a Silicon Nanomembrane Detector for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghoo; Blick, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission in a free-standing silicon nanomembrane detector for time-of-flight mass spectrometry of proteins. The impacts of ion bombardment on the silicon nanomembrane have been explored in both mechanical and electrical points of view. Locally elevated lattice temperature in the silicon nanomembrane, resulting from the transduction of ion kinetic energy into thermal energy through the ion bombardment, induces not only phonon-assisted field emission but also a mechanical vibration in the silicon nanomembrane. The coupling of these mechanical and electrical phenomenon leads to mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission. The thermal energy relaxation through mechanical vibration in addition to the lateral heat conduction and field emission in the silicon nanomembrane offers effective cooling of the nanomembrane, thereby allowing high resolution mass analysis. PMID:26861329

  3. Mechanical Modulation of Phonon-Assisted Field Emission in a Silicon Nanomembrane Detector for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonghoo; Blick, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission in a free-standing silicon nanomembrane detector for time-of-flight mass spectrometry of proteins. The impacts of ion bombardment on the silicon nanomembrane have been explored in both mechanical and electrical points of view. Locally elevated lattice temperature in the silicon nanomembrane, resulting from the transduction of ion kinetic energy into thermal energy through the ion bombardment, induces not only phonon-assisted field emission but also a mechanical vibration in the silicon nanomembrane. The coupling of these mechanical and electrical phenomenon leads to mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission. The thermal energy relaxation through mechanical vibration in addition to the lateral heat conduction and field emission in the silicon nanomembrane offers effective cooling of the nanomembrane, thereby allowing high resolution mass analysis. PMID:26861329

  4. A further insight into the biosorption mechanism of Au(III) by infrared spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The interactions of microbes with metal ions form an important basis for our study of biotechnological applications. Despite the recent progress in studying some properties of Au(III) adsorption and reduction by Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass, there is still a need for additional data on the molecular mechanisms of biosorbents responsible for their interactions with Au(III) to have a further insight and to make a better exposition. Results The biosorption mechanism of Au(III) onto the resting cell of Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass on a molecular level has been further studied here. The infrared (IR) spectroscopy on D01 biomass and that binding Au(III) demonstrates that the molecular recognition of and binding to Au(III) appear to occur mostly with oxygenous- and nitrogenous-active groups of polysaccharides and proteins in cell wall biopolymers, such as hydroxyl of saccharides, carboxylate anion of amino-acid residues (side-chains of polypeptide backbone), peptide bond (amide I and amide II bands), etc.; and that the active groups must serve as nucleation sites for Au(0) nuclei growth. A further investigation on the interactions of each of the soluble hydrolysates of D01, Bacillus licheniformis R08, Lactobacillus sp. strain A09 and waste Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomasses with Au(III) by IR spectrometry clearly reveals an essential biomacromolecule-characteristic that seems the binding of Au(III) to the oxygen of the peptide bond has caused a significant, molecular conformation-rearrangement in polypeptide backbones from β-pleated sheet to α-helices and/or β-turns of protein secondary structure; and that this changing appears to be accompanied by the occurrence, in the peptide bond, of much unbound -C=O and H-N- groups, being freed from the inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding of the β-pleated sheet and carried on the helical forms, as well as by the alternation in side chain steric positions of protein primary structure. This might be reasonably

  5. Environmental Analysis by ab Initio Quantum Mechanical Computation and Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gurka, D F; Titus, R; Robins, K; Wong, A; Wurrey, C J; Durig, J R; Shen, Z; Burkhard, L P

    1996-12-01

    Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrared spectra was performed with the Gaussian quantum chemistry software. The Hartree-Fock/6-31G* level of theory was employed, with IR frequencies scaled by a standard factor of 0.89. This approach shows great promise as a means of characterizing or confirming environmental analyte identifications when standard spectra, or pure standards required to measure standard spectra, are unavailable. PMID:21619333

  6. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  7. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  8. Evidence for covalent binding of acyl glucuronides to serum albumin via an imine mechanism as revealed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, A; Ojingwa, J C; McDonagh, A F; Burlingame, A L; Benet, L Z

    1993-01-01

    Acyl glucuronide metabolites of bilirubin and many drugs can react with serum albumin in vivo to form covalent adducts. Such adducts may be responsible for some toxic effects of carboxylic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. The mechanism of formation of the adducts and their chemical structures are unknown. In this paper we describe the use of tandem mass spectrometry to locate binding sites and elucidate the binding mechanism involved in the formation of covalent adducts from tolmetin glucuronide and albumin in vitro. Human serum albumin and excess tolmetin glucuronide were coincubated in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride to trap imine intermediates. The total protein product was reduced, carboxymethylated, and digested with trypsin. Six tolmetin-containing peptides (indicated by absorbance at 313 nm) were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and analyzed by liquid secondary-ion mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation, using a four-sector tandem mass spectrometer. All six peptides contained tolmetin linked covalently via a glucuronic acid to protein lysine groups. Major attachment sites on the protein were Lys-195, -199, and -525; minor sites were identified as Lys-137, -351, and -541. Our results show unambiguously that the glucuronic acid moiety of acyl glucuronides can be retained within the structure when these reactive metabolites bind covalently to proteins, and they suggest that acyl migration followed by Schiff base (imine) formation is a credible mechanism for the generation of covalent adducts in vivo. PMID:8483897

  9. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  10. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  11. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  12. Archaeology as a social science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  13. Archaeology as a social science

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  14. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    , No. 12, 1061-1064. Ron, H., Porat, N., Ronen, A., Tchernov, E., and Horwitz, L., 2003. Magnetostratigraphy of the Evron Member - implications for the age of the Middle Acheulian site of Evron Quarry. Journal of Human Evolution, 44, 633-639. Segal, Y., Marco, S., and Ellenblum, R., 2003. Intensity and direction of the geomagnetic field in 24 August, 1179 measured in Vadum Iacob (Ateret) Crusader Fortress, northern Israel. Israel Jour. Earth Sci., 52, 203-208. Shalem, N., 1949. Earthquakes in Jerusalem. Jerushalaim, 1, 22-54 (in Hebrew). Sternberg, R. and Lass, E. H.E., 2007. An archaeomagnetic study of two hearths from Kebara Cave, Israel. In: (O. Bar-Yosef and L. Meignen, eds.) Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel: The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology, Part I, American School of Prehistoric Research, Bull. 49, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 123-130. Sternberg, R., Lass, E., Marion, E., Katari, K., and Holbrook, M., 1999. Anomalous archaeomagnetic directions and site formation processes at archaeological sites in Israel. Geoarchaeology, 14 (5), 415-439. Tanzi, J.D., Vickers, R.S., and Burns, P.L., 1983. Application of electrical resistivity techniques to archaeological surveys. Proceed. of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1-3. Verri, G. Barkai, R., Bordeanu, C., Gopher, A., Hass, M., Kaufman, A., Kubik, P., Montanari, E., Paul, M., Ronen, A., Weiner, S., and Boaretto, E., 2004. Flint mining in prehistory recorded by in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be. Proceed. of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 101, No. 21, 7880-7884. Weinstein-Evron, M., Mart, Y., and Beck, A., 1991. Geophysical investigations in the el-Wad Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Geoarchaeology, 6, 355-365. Weiner, S., Goldberg, P., and Bar-Yosef, O., 1993. Bone preparation in Kebara cave, Israel using on-site Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20, 613-627. Weinstein-Evron, M., Beck, A., and

  15. Archaeological resource management plan of the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Archaeological Resource management Plan addresses the future cultural resource management needs of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The archaeological information contained herein is based on prehistoric and historic archaeological syntheses prepared by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) for the SRS. The syntheses also address future research directions that will facilitate better management of the cultural resources. This document is a prelude to a Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement (PMOA) which, in conjunction with this Archaeological Resource Management Plan, will assure SRS continued compliance with all applicable federal laws and regulations in concert with any DOE plans, policies and directives. 225 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Snapshots of lignin oxidation and depolymerization in archaeological wood: an EGA-MS study.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Diego; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) was used for the first time to study archaeological wood, in order to investigate its chemical degradation. The archaeological wood was from an oak pile from a stilt house found in the Neolithic 'La Marmotta' village (Lake Bracciano, Rome, Italy). The sampling was performed from the external to the internal part of the pile, following the annual growth rings in groups of five. In addition, sound oak wood and isolated wood components (holocellulose and cellulose) were also analyzed, and the results were used to highlight differences because of degradation. Our study demonstrated that EGA-MS provides information on the thermo-chemistry of archaeological wood along with in-depth compositional data thanks to the use of MS. Our investigations not only highlighted wood degradation in terms of differences between carbohydrates and lignin content, but also showed that lignin oxidation and depolymerization took place in the archaeological wood. Mass spectral data revealed differences among the archaeological samples from the internal to the external part of the pile. An increase in the formation of wood pyrolysis products bearing a carbonyl group at the benzylic position and a decrease in the amount of lignin dimers were observed. These were related to oxidation and depolymerization reactions, respectively. PMID:26456777

  17. Photogrammetric Archaeological Survey with UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouget, A.; Lucet, G.

    2014-05-01

    This document describes a way to obtain various photogrammetric products from aerial photograph using a drone. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology to obtain information for the study of the architecture of pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico combining the manoeuvrability and low cost of a drone with the accuracy of the results of the open source photogrammetric MicMac software. It presents the UAV and the camera used, explains how to manipulate it to carry out stereoscopic photographs, the flight and camera parameters chosen, the treatments performed to obtain orthophotos and 3D models with a centimetric resolution, and finally outlines the quality of the results.

  18. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  19. Archaeology Informs Our Understanding of Ancient Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mull, Kenneth V.

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the importance and utility of archaeology for understanding ancient texts and revealing how they illuminate biblical meaning and history. Presents guidelines showing classroom teachers how to incorporate archaeological knowledge into their lessons. Describes current Middle Eastern excavation sites, using Jerusalem as a case study.…

  20. Materializing Performance and Ritual: Decoding the Archaeology of Movement in Tallensi Shrines in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Within much archaeological interpretation and conceptualization in relation to ritual and religion the static is often given prominence. This is potentially due to the fact that static material residues are being considered and, in turn, this static image is transferred onto the ritual practices, beliefs, and communities that generated the archaeological material. Instead some of the material encountered archaeologically might be structured by much more dynamic, fluid, and active ritual behaviors. Considering performance, movement, and bodily understandings in relation to space and material culture offers a potential mechanism to begin to explore this, and will be considered with reference to the Golib festival and the archaeology of Tallensi shrines in the Tongo Hills of the Upper East Region in Northern Ghana. PMID:22318869

  1. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology.

    PubMed

    Cabanes, Dan; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions. PMID:25993338

  2. Understanding Fossil Phytolith Preservation: The Role of Partial Dissolution in Paleoecology and Archaeology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions. PMID:25993338

  3. A Low Mass Translation Mechanism for Planetary FTIR Spectrometry using an Ultrasonic Piezo Linear Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heverly, Matthew; Dougherty, Sean; Toon, Geoffrey; Soto, Alejandro; Blavier, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    One of the key components of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) is the linear translation stage used to vary the optical path length between the two arms of the interferometer. This translation mechanism must produce extremely constant velocity motion across its entire range of travel to allow the instrument to attain high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolving power. A new spectrometer is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under NASA s Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this project is to build upon existing spaceborne FTIR spectrometer technology to produce a new instrument prototype that has drastically superior spectral resolution and substantially lower mass, making it feasible for planetary exploration. In order to achieve these goals, Alliance Spacesystems, Inc. (ASI) has developed a linear translation mechanism using a novel ultrasonic piezo linear motor in conjunction with a fully kinematic, fault tolerant linear rail system. The piezo motor provides extremely smooth motion, is inherently redundant, and is capable of producing unlimited travel. The kinematic rail uses spherical Vespel(R). rollers and bushings, which eliminates the need for wet lubrication, while providing a fault tolerant platform for smooth linear motion that will not bind under misalignment or structural deformation. This system can produce velocities from 10 - 100 mm/s with less than 1% velocity error over the entire 100-mm length of travel for a total mechanism mass of less than 850 grams. This system has performed over half a million strokes under vacuum without excessive wear or degradation in performance. This paper covers the design, development, and testing of this linear translation mechanism as part of the Planetary Atmosphere Occultation Spectrometer (PAOS) instrument prototype development program.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry: Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, H.E.; Litherland, A.E.; Elmore, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a volume of the journal Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. This particular volume is concerned with accelerator mass spectrometry. The sections of this issue are: Advances in AMS techniques; Archaeology and ecology; Glaciology and climatology; Cosmochemistry and in situ production; Ocean and atmospheric sciences; Hydrology and geology; Astrophysics, nuclear physics and lasers.

  5. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  6. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  7. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  8. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  9. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  10. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  11. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  12. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  13. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  14. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  15. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  16. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  18. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  19. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  20. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  1. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12 Section 1104.12 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources...

  2. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  3. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13 Section 7.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public...

  4. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  5. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  6. Advancing the Documentation of Buried Archaeological Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, W.; Doneus, M.; Trinks, I.

    2012-07-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, in collaboration with its nine European partner organisations, is the advancement of the state-of-the-art. This goal will be achieved by focusing on the development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications. Main focus will be placed on novel integrated interpretation approaches combining cutting-edge near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science.

  7. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  8. Mechanisms of ablation and ion formation in infrared laser mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papantonakis, Michael Robert

    The studies described in this work take advantage of a unique infrared light source that allowed the exploration of previously uninvestigated vibrational modes and excitation densities, plus other laser systems that allowed us to compare the importance of pulse duration and electronic excitation in the ultraviolet. Results from several experiments were compared to current models of ion formation, allowing us to observe their applicability to our systems. One experiment assembled the most extensive range of excitation conditions to date to challenge the contribution of primary excitation events to the final ion yield. Despite the vastly different charged species and densities necessarily created, the results showed qualitatively similar spectra in all cases. We therefore concluded that the similarity of mass spectra alone offers a poor or incomplete picture from which to determine the operative mechanisms for ion formation, and that the observed ions are likely formed in the expanding plume. A second set of experiments utilized vibrational excitation of an intrinsic mode of a sample, eliminating the need for addition of an exogenous matrix. From a practical point of view, this represents a promising new approach to the analysis of complex mixtures. From a mechanistic point of view, the optical and thermal properties of the material, which control the degree of vibrational or electronic excitation upon irradiation, were found to determine the ablation pathways, which subsequently determines the ion formation process. This degree of excitation density, which determines whether ion formation occurs under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium or kinetic control, may or may not determine the efficiency of ion production, depending on the particular vibrational mode under consideration.

  9. The Influence of Drift Gas Composition on the Separation Mechanism in Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Insight from Electrodynamic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    May, Jody C.; McLean, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of three different drift gases (helium, nitrogen, and argon) on the separation mechanism in traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry is explored through ion trajectory simulations which include considerations for ion diffusion based on kinetic theory and the electrodynamic traveling wave potential. The model developed for this work is an accurate depiction of a second-generation commercial traveling wave instrument. Three ion systems (cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine) whose reduced mobility values have previously been measured in different drift gases are represented in the simulation model. The simulation results presented here provide a fundamental understanding of the separation mechanism in traveling wave, which is characterized by three regions of ion motion: (1) ions surfing on a single wave, (2) ions exhibiting intermittent roll-over onto subsequent waves, and (3) ions experiencing a steady state roll-over which repeats every few wave cycles. These regions of ion motion are accessed through changes in the gas pressure, wave amplitude, and wave velocity. Resolving power values extracted from simulated arrival times suggest that momentum transfer in helium gas is generally insufficient to access regions (2) and (3) where ion mobility separations occur. Ion mobility separations by traveling wave are predicted to be effectual for both nitrogen and argon, with slightly lower resolving power values observed for argon as a result of band-broadening due to collisional scattering. For the simulation conditions studied here, the resolving power in traveling wave plateaus between regions (2) and (3), with further increases in wave velocity contributing only minor improvements in separations. PMID:23888124

  10. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  11. The present state of nuclear archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, H.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear archaeology might be construed as subsuming any archaeological measurement that depends on nuclear phenomena. Thus defined, nuclear archaeology would include, for example, radiocarbon dating and potassium-argon dating as well as neutron activation analysis (NAA). In these applications, neutron activation analysis is used to characterize human skeletal and artifactual remains in order to answer questions that presumably are of concern to archaeologists. The characterization of human bone by NAA is intended to contribute to reconstructing the diets of ancient people. Unfortunately, a number of studies show that many trace elements of potential use in dietary reconstruction are dramatically altered by conditions in the burial environment. One step toward ruling out diagenetic sources of chemical variation is to analyze soil from the burial environment.The usefulness of NAA applied to archaeological specimens is briefly discussed.

  12. Tsunamis in the New Zealand archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadgen, B. G.; Goff, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Historical and geological records both indicate tsunami inundation of New Zealand in the 700 years since the first human settlement. In addition, Maori oral traditions refer to unusual waves that might have been tsunami waves, although the accounts are open to other interpretations. Tsunami evidence has rarely been proposed from archaeological sites, primarily because of a limited understanding of the requisite evidence and environmental context. We list a criteria suggesting possible tsunami inundation of archaeological sites based upon geoarchaeological data, and use them in a case study from the Archaic Maori occupation site at Wairau Bar. The list is possibly incomplete, but indicates that archaeological investigations can gain from assessments of changing environmental conditions through time at any individual site. Our intention is not to prove tsunami inundation; rather, it is to point to archaeological sites as possible sources of information. We highlight the potential of the Wairau Bar site for further investigation.

  13. Use of INAA in archaeology in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Kilikoglou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multi-element analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of archaeological problems. Elemental composition of an archaeological material, besides form and decoration style, may give supplementary information of the origin of the material. This paper is a review of provenance studies, based on minor and trace element research, of ancient books, ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble, and lead by INAA performed at the authors' radioanalytical laboratory.

  14. Atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry as a tool for the investigation of the hydrolysis reaction mechanisms of phosphite antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, M.; McMahon, A. W.; Allen, N. S.; Johnson, B. W.; Keck-Antoine, K.; Santos, L.; Neumann, M. G.

    2008-08-01

    The hydrolysis reaction mechanism of phosphite antioxidants is investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The phosphites were chosen because they differed in chemical structure and phosphorus content. Dopant assisted-atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) is chosen as the ion source for the ionization of the compounds. In our previous work, DA-APPI was shown to offer an attractive alternative to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) since it provided background-ion free mass spectra and higher sensitivity [M. Papanastasiou, et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (11) (2006) 2675-2682]. In positive ion mode, the molecules are generally detected in their protonated form. In negative ion mode, the phosphites are unstable and only fragment ions are observed; these however, are characteristic of each phosphite and may be used for the identification of the analytes in complex mixtures. The analytes under investigation are exposed to accelerated humid ageing conditions and their hydrolytic pathway and stability is investigated. Different substituents around the phosphorus atom are shown to have a significant effect on the stability of the phosphites, with phenol substituents producing very hydrolytically stable structures. Alkanox P24 and PEP-36 follow a similar hydrolytic pathway via the scission of the first and then the second POphenol bonds, eventually leading to the formation of phenol, phosphorous acid and pentaerythritol as end products. HP-10 exhibits a rather different structure and the products detected suggest scission of either the POhydrocarbon or one of the POphenol bonds. A phenomenon similar to that of autocatalysis is observed for all phosphites and is attributed to the formation of dialkyl phosphites as intermediate products.

  15. New Developments in Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Kenneth C.; HERMES/GALAH Team

    2014-01-01

    The goal of Galactic Archaeology is to unravel observationally the events that occurred during the assembly of the Milky Way. For example, how did the star formation rate and the mass spectrum of the star-forming clusters change with time since the Galaxy began to form, how much did minor mergers and accretion of satellite galaxies contribute to the stellar content of the Galactic components, and how did the chemical properties of the Galaxy evolve? The data for Galactic Archaeology include the phase space coordinates of stars (position and velocity) and the chemical space coordinates (abundances of up to about 30 chemical elements). Although we know that the distribution of individual elements contains important information about the star formation history and chemical evolution of the Galaxy, the available data for large samples of stars has so far restricted the use of chemical space data mainly to the overall metallicity and the alpha-element enhancement. We are entering an era of large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys in which the abundances of many elements from all of the major nucleosynthesis processes will be measured. It will be possible to use chemical tagging techniques to identify the debris of individual dispersed star forming aggregates. In combination with astrometry from the Gaia mission, it will be possible to derive ages for this recovered star formation debris, and build up the star formation history of the regions of the Milky Way accessible to these large surveys. The Galactic thick disk is of particular interest. Because almost all disk galaxies appear to have an old thick disk, thick disks are an important but as yet poorly understood part of the formation process for disk galaxies. Some theories of thick disk formation associate the thick disk with the large star-bursting complexes seen in proto-disk galaxies at high redshift. If the Galactic thick disk was built in this way, from a relatively small number of large aggregates, it will

  16. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  17. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  18. 14C dating of small archaeological samples: neolithic to iron age in the central alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, J.; Keller, W. A.; Erne, R.; Bonani, G.; Wölfli, W.

    1984-11-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C dating will widen enormously the range and scope of archaeological investigations. This is due mainly to 100- to 1000-fold sample size reduction over conventional dating. In order to determine the size and the quality of samples that can be accepted for AMS 14C dating, we have selected archaeological samples relating to the Neolithic to Iron Age. The basis of our AMS target preparations is the coking (pyrolysis) of organic matter after elimination of impurities by various physical and chemical treatments. The effect of the morphology as well as of the grain size distribution of the charcoal particles was determined in order to achieve optimal conditions for accelerator dating.

  19. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate. PMID:23715675

  20. UAS imaging for archaeological survey and documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Fallavollita, P.; Melis, M. G.; Balsi, M.; Jankowski, S.

    2013-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are extensively used in diverse fields, wherever inexpensive and easy-to-deploy platforms are required for close-range remote sensing. Applications proposed in archaeology to date include ortho-photography and 3-D modeling. On the other hand, use of image processing and feature detection methods, well developed in other fields is hardly used. After reviewing technologies and methods for UAS-based surveying and surface modeling, we propose feature detection methods (e.g. line detection, texture segmentation) dedicated to extraction of structures in the images that are significant for archaeological survey, planning, and documentation and show results on selected case studies.

  1. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  2. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  3. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  4. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  5. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  6. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  7. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  8. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  9. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  10. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  11. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  12. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  13. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  14. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  15. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  16. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  17. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  18. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  19. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  20. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  1. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  2. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  3. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  4. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  5. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  6. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  7. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  8. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  9. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  10. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13 Section 229.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a)...

  11. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1104.17 Section 1104.17 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information....

  12. Archaeology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This archaeology resource packet provides information on frequently asked questions of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), including the topics of: (1) career information; (2) excavation; (3) fieldwork opportunities; (4) artifact identification; and (5) preservation. The packet is divided into six sections. Section 1…

  13. Archaeology and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the importance of an introduction to archaeology before studying history. Describes two learning activities, the grid section method of excavation and stratification, in order to introduce students to the techniques, skills, and procedures employed by archaeologists in excavating sites and interpreting evidence. (Author/JK)

  14. Archaeology for the Science Teacher: Interdisciplinary Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anslinger, C. Michael; Thiel, Daniel P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an example of how archaeologists might conduct a hypothetical research program to illustrate how specific types of data are generated and then used to interpret prehistoric culture systems. A brief review of the historical development of American archaeology is also provided. (JN)

  15. The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

  16. Some archaeologic applications of accelerator radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The method of preparation of archaeologic samples for AMS radiocarbon dating, the precision of such measurements and the conversion of radiocarbon results to calendar ages are presented. The application of the technique to measurements of the ages of bones, textiles (including the Shroud of Turin), cultigens and other achaeologic artifacts is described.

  17. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  18. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  19. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  20. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  1. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  2. Archaeology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desautels, Almuth, Comp.

    This bibliography lists reference sources for research in archaeology. It is arranged in sections by type of reference source with subsections for general works and works covering specific areas. Categorized are handbooks; directories, biographies, and museums; encyclopedias; dictionaries; atlases; guides, manuals, and surveys; bibliographies; and…

  3. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J F; Hawkes, K; Lupo, K D; Blurton Jones, N G

    2002-12-01

    Archaeological data are frequently cited in support of the idea that big game hunting drove the evolution of early Homo, mainly through its role in offspring provisioning. This argument has been disputed on two grounds: (1) ethnographic observations on modern foragers show that although hunting may contribute a large fraction of the overall diet, it is an unreliable day-to-day food source, pursued more for status than subsistence; (2) archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene, coincident with the emergence of Homo can be read to reflect low-yield scavenging, not hunting. Our review of the archaeology yields results consistent with these critiques: (1) early humans acquired large-bodied ungulates primarily by aggressive scavenging, not hunting; (2) meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases, as the hunting hypothesis requires; (3) carcasses were taken at highly variable rates and in varying degrees of completeness, making meat from big game an even less reliable food source than it is among modern foragers. Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays. Even if meat were acquired more reliably than the archaeology indicates, its consumption cannot account for the significant changes in life history now seen to distinguish early humans from ancestral australopiths. The coincidence between the earliest dates for Homo ergaster and an increase in the archaeological visibility of meat eating that many find so provocative instead reflects: (1) changes in the structure of the environment that concentrated scavenging opportunities in space, making evidence of their pursuit more obvious to archaeologists; (2) H. ergaster's larger body size (itself a consequence of other factors), which improved its ability at interference competition. PMID:12473486

  4. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  5. [Study on Archaeological Lime Powders from Taosi and Yinxu Sites by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo-feng; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Guo-liang; He, Yu-ling; Gao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2015-03-01

    Archaeological lime powders samples from Taosi and Yinxu sites, natural limestone and experimentally prepared lime mortar were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to identify the raw material of lime powders from Taosi and Yinxu sites. Results show that ν2/ν4 ratio of calcite resulted from carbonation reaction of man-made lime is around 6.31, which is higher than that of calcite in natural limestone and reflects the difference in the disorder of calcite crystal structure among the natural limestone and prepared lime mortar. With additional grinding, the values of v2 and ν4 in natural limestone and prepared lime mortar decrease. Meanwhile, the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 for calcite in experimentally prepared lime mortar have a steeper slope when compared to calcite in natural limestone. These imply that ν2/ν4 ratio and the slope of the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 can be used to determine the archaeological man-made lime. Based on the experiment results, it is possible that the archaeological lime powder from Taosi and Yinxu sites was prepared using man-made lime and the ancient Chinese have mastered the calcining technology of man-made lime in the late Neolithic period about 4 300 years ago. PMID:26117865

  6. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  7. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  8. Overhill Cherokee archaeology at Chota-Tanasee

    SciTech Connect

    Schroedl, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The initial objective of the Tellico Archaeological Project was the study of Overhill Cherokee culture, emphasizing the excavation of Chota-Tanasee. In keeping with contemporary archaeological research, the project goals eventually incorporated a regional perspective of human cultural adaptation for the past 12,000 yrs. Nevertheless, Overhill Cherokee studies remained a prominent project focus, and what began at Chota-Tanasee was expanded to include Citico, Toqua, Tomotley, and Mialoquo. Other sites produced additional Cherokee materials and important excavations were made at contemporary Euro-American settlements including Fort Loudoun and the Tellico Blockhouse. There now exists comprehensive data for the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee. The Chota-Tanasee studies presented in previous chapters and the comparative synthesis presented here as a result have helped fulfill the goals of Overhill Cherokee studies in the lower Little Tennessee River valley.

  9. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts. PMID:26307911

  10. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  11. Presentation of Archaeoastronomy in Introductions to Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Victor B.

    In order to gain insights into how archaeoastronomy is presented (if at all) in introductory archaeology courses at universities, a study of introductory textbooks was undertaken in 2004 and again in 2012. In both instances the results were mixed. The quality of future coverage and the reputation of archaeoastronomy may depend upon archaeoastronomers' ability to confine themselves to good exemplars in the next editions of their books.

  12. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  13. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    , including those not identifiable by micromorphology. 4: Organic chemical analysis: Organic residues will be analysed by gas (GC) or liquid (LC) chromatography and selected fractions by mass spectrometry (MS; GC-MS and LC-MS). MALDI imaging will produce image maps of the soil sections with false color images representing lipids, proteins and peptides Relevance of the research and expected results This soil study will reveal hidden secrets that inform understanding of cultural practices of and environmental conditions experienced by past civilisations. It will deliver a comprehensive inventory of soil morphology and chemistry for a wide range of archaeological human burial environments, linking morphological and chemical characteristics both at a general level and at a level that visually and chemically resolves individual microscopic remains. Thus, excavation of archaeological human graves, for cultural reconstruction and to understand mortuary practices, archaeological burial practices and aspects of human health, will be enhanced dramatically.

  14. Isotope archaeology: reading the past in metals, minerals, and bone.

    PubMed

    Stos-Gale, Z A

    1992-01-01

    The latest edition of the Oxford Dictionary (1989) defines archaeology as '... the scientific study of the remains and monuments of the prehistoric period'. It is not surprising, therefore, that modern archaeology draws as much as possible on scientific methods of investigation developed in other fields. In the last ten years the powerful method of quantitative isotope analysis has brought a new dimension to the examination of archaeological finds. PMID:1381675

  15. Prospective of the application of ultrasounds in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a prospective analysis of non destructive testing (NDT) based on ultrasounds in the field of archaeology applications. Classical applications of ultrasounds techniques are reviewed, including ocean exploration to detect wrecks, imaging of archaeological sites, and cleaning archaeological objects. The potential of prospective applications is discussed from the perspective of signal processing, with emphasis on the area of linear time variant models. Thus, the use of ultrasound NDT is proposed for new ceramic cataloguing and restoration methods.

  16. Point cloud vs drawing on archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, E.

    2015-08-01

    Archaeology is a discipline closely related to the representation of objects that are at the center of its concerns. At different times of the archaeological method, representation approach takes different forms. It takes place on the archaeological excavation, during the exploration, or in a second time in the warehouse, object after object. It occurs also in different drawing scales. The use of topographical positioning techniques has found its place for decades in the stratigraphic process. Plans and sections are thus readjusted to each other, on the excavation site. These techniques are available to the archaeologist since a long time. The most of the time, a qualified member of the team performs himself these simple topographical operations. The two issues raised in this article are: three-dimensional acquisition techniques can they, first find their place in the same way on the excavation site, and is it conceivable that it could serve to support the representation? The drawing during the excavations is a very time-consuming phase; has it still its place on site? Currently, the drawing is part of the archaeological stratigraphy method. It helps documenting the different layers, which are gradually destroyed during the exploration. Without systematic documentation, any scientific reasoning cannot be done retrospectively and the conclusions would not be any evidence. Is it possible to imagine another way to document these phases without loss compared to the drawing? Laser scanning and photogrammetry are approved as acquisition techniques. What can they bring more to what is already done for archaeologists? Archaeological practice can be seen as divided into two parts: preventive archeology and classical archeology. The first has largely adopted the techniques that provide point clouds to save valuable time on site. Everything that is not destroyed by the archaeological approach will be destroyed by the building construction that triggered the excavations. The

  17. Mechanism of inactivation of beta-lactamases by novel 6-methylidene penems elucidated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Keiko; Feng, Xidong; Venkatesan, Aranapakam M; Abe, Takao; Hideki, Ushirogochi; Mansour, Tarek S; Siegel, Marshall M

    2004-07-01

    The reactions of 6-methylidene penems 4-7 with beta-lactamases (TEM-1, SHV-1, Amp-C) were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The kinetics of the reactions were monitored, demonstrating that only one penem molecule reacts to form an acyl-enzyme complex. For penem 5, the ESI-MS/MS spectrum of the hydrolysis product produced in the reaction was identical to the spectrum generated from a synthesized dihydro[1,4]thiazepine 10, confirming the rearrangement of the penem ring system to a seven-membered dihydro[1,4]thiazepine structure. Gas-phase ESI-MS/MS fragmentation data were rationalized due to tautomerization between imine and enamine substructures. ESI-MS/MS analysis of the T-6 trypsin-digested fragments of TEM-1 and SHV-1 demonstrated that the penems were only attached to Ser-70 of these class A beta-lactamases and that the penem ring structures were rearranged to seven-membered dihydro[1,4]thiazepines. PMID:15214794

  18. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  19. Study on the in vivo toxic mechanism of xixin based on trace elements determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yong-Rui, Bao; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Xian-Sheng, Meng; Rui-Qing, Zhu; Yue-Ming, Xia; Lin, Cai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xixin has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for headache, toothache and inflammatory diseases. Clinical investigation indicated that adverse drug reactions occurred with an overdose of xixin, but the toxic mechanism of xixin in vivo based on trace elements has not been researched yet. Objective: To explore the in vivo toxic mechanism of xixin induced by trace elements. Materials and Methods: The contents of trace elements in the serum and liver of mice were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after obtaining xixin extracts. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed between the trace elements’ content and dosage using the software GeneSpring 12.1 to analyze the main toxic elements in vivo. Results: Trace elements’ contents were obviously raised after xixin extracts were taken as a dosage of 150 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL, respectively. Na, Ca, Cu and Cd in serum and Ca and Zn in liver were the main trace elements inducing the toxic reaction of xixin. Conclusion: Xixin possesses the potential function of indirectly upregulating trace elements in vivo. This study, for the first time, elucidated the in vivo toxic mechanism of xixin based on trace elements. This method could also be utilized in the research of corresponding aspects. PMID:24914279

  20. Inference of the phase-to-mechanical property link via coupled X-ray spectrometry and indentation analysis: Application to cement-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Wilson, William; James, Simon; Musso, Simone; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2015-01-15

    A novel approach for the chemo-mechanical characterization of cement-based materials is presented, which combines the classical grid indentation technique with elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). It is illustrated through application to an oil-well cement system with siliceous filler. The characteristic X-rays of major elements (silicon, calcium and aluminum) are measured over the indentation region and mapped back on the indentation points. Measured intensities together with indentation hardness and modulus are considered in a clustering analysis within the framework of Finite Mixture Models with Gaussian component density function. The method is able to successfully isolate the calcium-silica-hydrate gel at the indentation scale from its mixtures with other products of cement hydration and anhydrous phases; thus providing a convenient means to link mechanical response to the calcium-to-silicon ratio quantified independently via X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. A discussion of uncertainty quantification of the estimated chemo-mechanical properties and phase volume fractions, as well as the effect of chemical observables on phase assessment is also included.

  1. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA, Yoshiki; MINAMI, Masayo; ONBE, Shin; SAKAMOTO, Minoru; MATSUZAKI, Hiroyuki; NAKAMURA, Toshio; IMAMURA, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 14C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis. PMID:21986315

  2. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Minami, Masayo; Onbe, Shin; Sakamoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshio; Imamura, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 (14)C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis. PMID:21986315

  3. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  4. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  5. Asteroseismology for Galactic archaeology: bridging two fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Luca; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Serenelli, Aldo; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Milone, Antonino; Asplund, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of field stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. An overview of the ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is presented, along with recent results using asteroseismology to investigate the age structure of the Milky Way disc.

  6. Correction: Acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis mechanism: acylium ion as a sharing active intermediate via a spontaneous trimolecular reaction based on density functional theory calculation and supported by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongchang; Wang, Yilei; Hua, Ruimao

    2015-12-28

    Correction for 'Acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis mechanism: acylium ion as a sharing active intermediate via a spontaneous trimolecular reaction based on density functional theory calculation and supported by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry' by Hongchang Shi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp02914g. PMID:26583937

  7. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  8. Enhancing rescue-archaeology using geomorphological approaches: Archaeological sites in Paredes (Asturias, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; González-Álvarez, I.; Requejo-Pagés, O.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.

    2011-09-01

    Palaeolithic remnants, a Necropolis (Roman villa), and another minor archaeological site were discovered in Paredes (Spain). These sites were the focus of multidisciplinary research during the construction of a large shopping centre in Asturias (NW Spain). The aims of this study are (1) to contribute to archaeological prospection in the sites and (2) to develop evolutionary models of the sites based on geomorphological inferences. Detailed archaeological prospection (103 trenches), geomorphologic mapping, stratigraphic studies (36 logs) and ground penetration radar (GPR) surveys on five profiles indicate that the location of the settlement source of the Necropolis is outside the construction perimeter, farther to the southeast. The Pre-Holocene evolution of the fluvial landscape is marked by the development of two terraces (T1 and T2) that host the Early Palaeolithic remains in the area (ca 128-71 ka). The Holocene evolution of the landscape was marked by the emplacement of the Nora River flood plain, covered by alluvial fans after ca. 9 ka BP (cal BC 8252-7787). Subsequently, Neolithic pebble pits dated ca. 5.3 ka BP (cal BC 4261-3963 and 4372-4051) were constructed on T2, at the area reoccupied as a Necropolis during the Late Roman period, 1590 ± 45 years BP (cal AD 382-576). Coeval human activity during the Late Roman period at 1670 ± 60 years BP (cal AD 320-430) is also recorded by channel infill sediments in a minor site at the margin of an alluvial fan located to the southeast. This work shows that a rescue-archaeological study can be significantly enhanced by the implementation of multidisciplinary scientific studies, in which the holistic view of geomorphologic settings provide key insights into the geometry and evolution of archaeological sites.

  9. An Illustrated Guide to Measuring Radiocarbon from Archaeological Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Alex; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been central to the construction of archaeological chronologies for over 50 years. The archaeological, scientific and (increasingly) statistical methods for interpreting radiocarbon measurements to produce these chronologies have become ever more sophisticated. The accurate measurement of the radiocarbon content of an…

  10. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  11. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  12. Application of Structure from Mortion in Japanese Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, A.; Nawabi, Y. A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, archaeological excavations carry out over fifty thousand times per year. Nowadays, archaeological data is accumulated day by day. To record these documentation about archaeological data, it is desirable to the documentation of their shape in 3-dimensional form. Structure from Motion (SfM) is the one of the cost effective method to record the 3D documentation. This paper introduces application of SfM technology to examine the validity of an archaeological documentation in Japanese archaeology in recent year. Whenever, a complicated form finding has to be recorded at an archaeological excavation. It often requires a long time to create by a traditional manual drawing. For example, a well made of reuse roof tiles, garden stones and stone chamber. By using SfM, the time spent working at the archaeological site was greatly reduced. And many platforms to take an image at the variety of archaeological site's condition, like a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) are tested using for wider area recording. These methods are used in disaster stricken areas in East Japan.

  13. Site Simulation in Teaching Archaeology: A Hands On Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    An indoor simulated archaeology site for use in a college level introductory archaeology course is described. Housed in the basement of a building on campus, the site simulates an eight-layered French rock shelter. Layers contain "remains" of a microband of Neanderthals, a Lower and Upper Aurignacian group, an Upper Perigordian group, Magdalenian…

  14. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  15. ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The entire range of geophysical methods, perhaps excluding only borehole techniques, has found application in the search for archaeological sites unseen or partially known. Pressures by developers, and the public's growing sensitivity toward the preservation of historic and prehistoric cultural artifacts and sites, has led to an accelerating use of high-resolution geophysical methods in the archaeological sciences.

  16. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  17. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  18. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  19. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  20. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available to the public,...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  2. Using Archaeology To Explore Cultures of North America through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for introducing archaeology into the elementary classroom focusing on the cultures of North America. Offers wild maize, or corn, as one area of investigation into North American cultures providing books and Internet sites. Lists resources for archaeology education and lesson plans for exploring North American cultures though…

  3. Digging Deep: Teaching Social Studies through the Study of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Dennie Palmer, Ed.; Balick, Dana, Ed.; Craven, Julie, Ed.

    This book outlines how to combine the skills of archaeology with the exploration of social studies in the classroom and illustrates how a network of teachers transformed their social studies courses into dynamic, multicultural inquiries using the tools and questions of archaeology. It explains how middle school social studies teachers tamed their…

  4. The accumulation mechanism of the hypoxia imaging probe “FMISO” by imaging mass spectrometry: possible involvement of low-molecular metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yukari; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Shingo; Numata, Yoshito; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) has been widely used as a hypoxia imaging probe for diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET). FMISO is believed to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules after reduction of its nitro group. However, its detailed accumulation mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the chemical forms of FMISO and their distributions in tumours using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which visualises spatial distribution of chemical compositions based on molecular masses in tissue sections. Our radiochemical analysis revealed that most of the radioactivity in tumours existed as low-molecular-weight compounds with unknown chemical formulas, unlike observations made with conventional views, suggesting that the radioactivity distribution primarily reflected that of these unknown substances. The IMS analysis indicated that FMISO and its reductive metabolites were nonspecifically distributed in the tumour in patterns not corresponding to the radioactivity distribution. Our IMS search found an unknown low-molecular-weight metabolite whose distribution pattern corresponded to that of both the radioactivity and the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. This metabolite was identified as the glutathione conjugate of amino-FMISO. We showed that the glutathione conjugate of amino-FMISO is involved in FMISO accumulation in hypoxic tumour tissues, in addition to the conventional mechanism of FMISO covalent binding to macromolecules. PMID:26582591

  5. Raman Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Derek J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews mainly quantitative analytical applications in the field of Raman spectrometry. Includes references to other reviews, new and analytically untested techniques, and novel sampling and instrument designs. Cites 184 references. (CS)

  6. Earliest archaeological evidence of persistent hominin carnivory.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Plummer, Thomas W; Pobiner, Briana L; Oliver, James S; Bishop, Laura C; Braun, David R; Ditchfield, Peter W; Seaman, John W; Binetti, Katie M; Seaman, John W; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ≈ 2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ≈ 1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to 2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence - spanning hundreds to thousands of years - and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  7. Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ∼2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ∼1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ∼2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  8. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, P.B. ); Druzik, J. ); Wheeler, G.S. )

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it.

  9. Native American Archaeological Sites: An Annotated Bibliography Relating to Indian Archaeological Sites in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

    Thirty-six American Indian archaeological sites located in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee are cited. Included are some of the very early sites, some of the larger and better known sites, and some that are being developed as state-owned archaeological parks in Tennessee. Information…

  10. Uncovering the Early Assembly Mechanism for Amyloidogenic β2-Microglobulin Using Cross-linking and Native Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Zoe; Schmidt, Carla; Politis, Argyris

    2016-01-01

    β2-Microglobulin (β2m), a key component of the major histocompatibility class I complex, can aggregate into fibrils with severe clinical consequences. As such, investigating the structural aspects of the formation of oligomeric intermediates of β2m and their subsequent progression toward fibrillar aggregates is of great importance. However, β2m aggregates are challenging targets in structural biology, primarily due to their inherent transient and heterogeneous nature. Here we study the oligomeric distributions and structures of the early intermediates of amyloidogenic β2m and its truncated variant ΔN6-β2m. We established compact oligomers for both variants by integrating advanced mass spectrometric techniques with available electron microscopy maps and atomic level structures from NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Our results revealed a stepwise assembly mechanism by monomer addition and domain swapping for the oligomeric species of ΔN6-β2m. The observed structural similarity and common oligomerization pathway between the two variants is likely to enable ΔN6-β2m to cross-seed β2m fibrillation and allow the formation of mixed fibrils. We further determined the key subunit interactions in ΔN6-β2m tetramer, revealing the importance of a domain-swapped hinge region for formation of higher order oligomers. Overall, we deliver new mechanistic insights into β2m aggregation, paving the way for future studies on the mechanisms and cause of amyloid fibrillation. PMID:26655720

  11. Resolvin D1, Protectin D1, and Related Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Products: Analysis via Electrospray/Low Energy Tandem Mass Spectrometry based on Spectra and Fragmentation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Song; Lu, Yan; Yang, Rong; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Petasis, Nicos P.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2009-01-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and Protectin D1 (Neuroprotectin D1, PD1/NPD1) are newly identified anti-inflammatory lipid mediators biosynthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this report, the spectra-structure correlations and fragmentation mechanisms were studied using electrospray low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for biogenic RvD1 and PD1, as well as mono-hydroxy-DHA and related hydroperoxy-DHA. The loss of H2O and CO2 in the spectra indicates the number of functional group(s). Chain-cut ions are the signature of the positions and numbers of functional groups and double-bonds. The observed chain-cut ion is equivalent to a hypothetical homolytic-segment (cc, cm, mc, or mm) with addition or extraction of up to 2 protons (H). The α-cleavage ions are equivalent to: [cc + H], with H from the hydroxyl through a β-ene or γ-ene rearrangement; [cm - 2H], with 2H from hydroxyls of PD1 through a γ-ene rearrangement, or one H from the hydroxyl and the other H from the α-carbon of mono-HDHA through an α-H-β-ene rearrangement; [mc – H], with H from hydroxyl through a β-ene or γ-ene rearrangement, or from the α-carbon through an α-H-β-ene rearrangement; or [mm] through charge-direct fragmentations. The β-ene or γ-ene facilitates the H shift to γ position and α-cleavage. Deuterium labeling confirmed the assignment of MS/MS ions and the fragmentation mechanisms. Based on the MS/MS spectra and fragmentation mechanisms, we identified RvD1, PD1, and mono-hydroxy-DHA products in human neutrophils and blood, trout head-kidney, and stroke-injury murine brain-tissues. PMID:17055291

  12. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  13. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms: from Research to Routine Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chudáčková, Eva; Walková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied as an identification procedure in clinical microbiology and has been widely used in routine laboratory practice because of its economical and diagnostic benefits. The range of applications of MALDI-TOF MS has been growing constantly, from rapid species identification to labor-intensive proteomic studies of bacterial physiology. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of the studies already performed with MALDI-TOF MS concerning antibiotic resistance and to analyze future perspectives in this field. We believe that current research should continue in four main directions, including the detection of antibiotic modifications by degrading enzymes, the detection of resistance mechanism determinants through proteomic studies of multiresistant bacteria, and the analysis of modifications of target sites, such as ribosomal methylation. The quantification of antibiotics is suggested as a new approach to study influx and efflux in bacterial cells. The results of the presented studies demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS is a relevant tool for the detection of antibiotic resistance and opens new avenues for both clinical and experimental microbiology. PMID:23297261

  14. Starry Messages - Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, R. A., Jr.

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artefacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the originating civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology . The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  15. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  16. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  17. Negative Ion MALDI Mass Spectrometry of Polyoxometalates (POMs): Mechanism of Singly Charged Anion Formation and Chemical Properties Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulicault, Jean E.; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    MALDI-MS has been developed for the negative ion mode analysis of polyoxometalates (POMs). Matrix optimization was performed using a variety of matrix compounds. A first group of matrixes offers MALDI mass spectra containing abundant intact singly charged anionic adduct ions, as well as abundant in-source fragmentations at elevated laser powers. A relative ranking of the ability to induce POM fragmentation is found to be: DAN > CHCA > CNA > DIT> HABA > DCTB > IAA. Matrixes of a second group provide poorer quality MALDI mass spectra without observable fragments. Sample preparation, including the testing of salt additives, was performed to optimize signals for a model POM, POMc12, the core structure of which bears four negative charges. The matrix 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) provided the best signals corresponding to singly charged intact POMc12 anions. Decompositions of these intact anionic species were examined in detail, and it was concluded that hydrogen radical-induced mechanisms were not prevalent, but rather that the observed prompt fragments originate from transferred energy derived from initial electronic excitation of the CNA matrix. Moreover, in obtained MALDI mass spectra, clear evidence of electron transfer to analyte POM species was found: a manifestation of the POMs ability to readily capture electrons. The affinity of polyanionic POMc12 toward a variety of cations was evaluated and the following affinity ranking was established: Fe3+ > Al3+ > Li+ > Ga3+ > Co2+ > Cr3+ > Cu2+ > [Mn2+, Mg2+] > [Na+, K+]. Thus, from the available cationic species, specific adducts are preferentially formed, and evidence is given that these higher affinity POM complexes are formed in the gas phase during the early stages of plume expansion.

  18. Negative Ion MALDI Mass Spectrometry of Polyoxometalates (POMs): Mechanism of Singly Charged Anion Formation and Chemical Properties Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boulicault, Jean E; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B

    2016-08-01

    MALDI-MS has been developed for the negative ion mode analysis of polyoxometalates (POMs). Matrix optimization was performed using a variety of matrix compounds. A first group of matrixes offers MALDI mass spectra containing abundant intact singly charged anionic adduct ions, as well as abundant in-source fragmentations at elevated laser powers. A relative ranking of the ability to induce POM fragmentation is found to be: DAN > CHCA > CNA > DIT> HABA > DCTB > IAA. Matrixes of a second group provide poorer quality MALDI mass spectra without observable fragments. Sample preparation, including the testing of salt additives, was performed to optimize signals for a model POM, POMc12, the core structure of which bears four negative charges. The matrix 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) provided the best signals corresponding to singly charged intact POMc12 anions. Decompositions of these intact anionic species were examined in detail, and it was concluded that hydrogen radical-induced mechanisms were not prevalent, but rather that the observed prompt fragments originate from transferred energy derived from initial electronic excitation of the CNA matrix. Moreover, in obtained MALDI mass spectra, clear evidence of electron transfer to analyte POM species was found: a manifestation of the POMs ability to readily capture electrons. The affinity of polyanionic POMc12 toward a variety of cations was evaluated and the following affinity ranking was established: Fe(3+) > Al(3+) > Li(+) > Ga(3+) > Co(2+) > Cr(3+) > Cu(2+) > [Mn(2+), Mg(2+)] > [Na(+), K(+)]. Thus, from the available cationic species, specific adducts are preferentially formed, and evidence is given that these higher affinity POM complexes are formed in the gas phase during the early stages of plume expansion. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27142457

  19. Negative Ion MALDI Mass Spectrometry of Polyoxometalates (POMs): Mechanism of Singly Charged Anion Formation and Chemical Properties Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulicault, Jean E.; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.

    2016-05-01

    MALDI-MS has been developed for the negative ion mode analysis of polyoxometalates (POMs). Matrix optimization was performed using a variety of matrix compounds. A first group of matrixes offers MALDI mass spectra containing abundant intact singly charged anionic adduct ions, as well as abundant in-source fragmentations at elevated laser powers. A relative ranking of the ability to induce POM fragmentation is found to be: DAN > CHCA > CNA > DIT> HABA > DCTB > IAA. Matrixes of a second group provide poorer quality MALDI mass spectra without observable fragments. Sample preparation, including the testing of salt additives, was performed to optimize signals for a model POM, POMc12, the core structure of which bears four negative charges. The matrix 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) provided the best signals corresponding to singly charged intact POMc12 anions. Decompositions of these intact anionic species were examined in detail, and it was concluded that hydrogen radical-induced mechanisms were not prevalent, but rather that the observed prompt fragments originate from transferred energy derived from initial electronic excitation of the CNA matrix. Moreover, in obtained MALDI mass spectra, clear evidence of electron transfer to analyte POM species was found: a manifestation of the POMs ability to readily capture electrons. The affinity of polyanionic POMc12 toward a variety of cations was evaluated and the following affinity ranking was established: Fe3+ > Al3+ > Li+ > Ga3+ > Co2+ > Cr3+ > Cu2+ > [Mn2+, Mg2+] > [Na+, K+]. Thus, from the available cationic species, specific adducts are preferentially formed, and evidence is given that these higher affinity POM complexes are formed in the gas phase during the early stages of plume expansion.

  20. Investigations of the Mechanism of the "Proline Effect" in Tandem Mass Spectrometry Experiments: The "Pipecolic Acid Effect"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulfs, Mary Disa M.; Breci, Linda; Bernier, Matthew; Hamdy, Omar M.; Janiga, Ashley; Wysocki, Vicki; Poutsma, John C.

    2014-10-01

    The fragmentation behavior of a set of model peptides containing proline, its four-membered ring analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze), its six-membered ring analog pipecolic acid (Pip), an acyclic secondary amine residue N-methyl-alanine (NMeA), and the D stereoisomers of Pro and Pip has been determined using collision-induced dissociation in ESI-tandem mass spectrometers. Experimental results for AAXAA, AVXLG, AAAXA, AGXGA, and AXPAA peptides are presented, where X represents Pro, Aze, Pip, or NMeA. Aze- and Pro-containing peptides fragment according to the well-established "proline effect" through selective cleavage of the amide bond N-terminal to the Aze/Pro residue to give yn + ions. In contrast, Pip- and NMA-fragment through a different mechanism, the "pipecolic acid effect," selectively at the amide bond C-terminal to the Pip/NMA residue to give bn + ions. Calculations of the relative basicities of various sites in model peptide molecules containing Aze, Pro, Pip, or NMeA indicate that whereas the "proline effect' can in part be rationalized by the increased basicity of the prolyl-amide site, the "pipecolic acid effect" cannot be justified through the basicity of the residue. Rather, the increased flexibility of the Pip and NMeA residues allow for conformations of the peptide for which transfer of the mobile proton to the amide site C-terminal to the Pip/NMeA becomes energetically favorable. This argument is supported by the differing results obtained for AAPAA versus AA(D-Pro)AA, a result that can best be explained by steric effects. Fragmentation of pentapeptides containing both Pro and Pip indicate that the "pipecolic acid effect" is stronger than the "proline effect."

  1. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria.

    PubMed

    Abboud, R; Issa, H; Abed-Allah, Y D; Bakraji, E H

    2015-11-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. PMID:26248083

  2. Chronometric dating in archaeology: a review.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Henry P

    2002-08-01

    Most archaeological dating methods are based on decay of a naturally occurring radioisotope. (14)C activity of fossil bones and charcoal decreases with age, but must be calibrated for past changes in atmospheric activity. Uranium absorbed by shells and stalagmites is used to date on a 10(5)-year scale by observing the decay of (234)U to (230) Th. Thermoluminescence, optical luminescence, and electron spin resonance detect trapped electronic charges generated by natural radioactivity in burned flint, beach sands, shells, and tooth enamel. Rate of racemization of amino acids in fossil shells is constant at constant T, and age can be tracked from an increase in the D/L ratio. PMID:12186568

  3. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  4. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  5. Laser spectroscopies for elemental and molecular analysis in art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Austin; Spoto, Giuseppe; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Spectroscopic methods using laser sources have significantly improved our capacity to unravel the chemical composition of works of art and archaeological remains. Lasers enhance the performance of spectroscopic techniques which require intense light sources and specific analytical protocols assuring a microanalytical approach for analysis has been established. This review focuses on laser spectroscopic methods used in the field of cultural heritage diagnostics. Emphasis in this work is given to the analytical capabilities of laser-based techniques for elemental and/or molecular analysis and in-situ use, spatial resolution and microanalysis. Analytical methods are classified according to the elemental (LIBS, LA-ICP-MS) and molecular (LIF/LIDAR, time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) information they yield. For non-destructive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF/LIDAR) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, imaging applications are described. The advantages provided by combined complementary techniques including but not limited to LIBS-LIF-Raman and LIBS-XRF are presented, as are recent improvements in terms of chemical imaging. Advances and applications of THz spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and imaging are outlined. Finally, laser spectroscopies are described for investigations of different materials and works of art which include Bronze Age ceramics, Minoan archaeological remains, Ancient Roman buildings, Renaissance wall paintings and sculptures, and manuscripts containing iron gall inks and colorants.

  6. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  7. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Oudbashi, Omid; Davami, Parviz

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  8. Chemical vapor generation for atomic spectrometry. A contribution to the comprehension of reaction mechanisms in the generation of volatile hydrides using borane complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Baiocchi, Cristiano; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Onor, Massimo; Zamboni, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    A systematic study has been developed in order to clarify the mechanism of hydride generation using different borane complexes [sodium tetrahydroborate(III), NaBH 4 (THB); borane-ammonia complex, H 3B-NH 3 (AB); borane- tert-Butylamine complex, H 3B-NH 2C(CH 3) 3 (TBAB)], as derivatizing reagents. Stannane, stibine and bismuthine were generated in a continuous flow reaction system at different acidities in the pH range of 1.38-12.7. The pH of sample solution was pre-equilibrated on-line in a mixing loop by the addition of appropriate solution before the reaction with the derivatizing reagent in a reaction loop. The generated hydrides were delivered to a miniature argon hydrogen flame atomizer and free atoms detected by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The effect of pH on the relative sensitivity has been investigated by varying both the mixing loop volume (4, 15 and 50 μl) and reaction loop volume (100 and 500 μl). The mixing rates of the solutions have been also tested to avoid any undesired effect arising from the incomplete mixing of the solution in the flow reaction system. The generation of hydrides using on-line pre-equilibration of pH can be observed also in alkaline or neutral conditions, while the generation of the same hydrides is observed only in acidic solution if the equilibration of pH was performed off-line. Stannane generation using amineboranes has never been reported before. Kinetic calculations were performed in order to estimate the concentration of nascent hydrogen arising from the decomposition of the derivatizing agents in the flow reaction system. It has been found that in many cases, the mechanism of nascent hydrogen failed to explain the generation of the hydrides. The direct action of BH 4- and H 3B-X species (X=ammonia or amino group) on the analyte element, present in solution in a suitable chemical form, is the only possible mechanism of hydride formation in a wide range of solution acidities, from pH 4.5 up to pH 12.7. The

  9. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  10. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  11. General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing the steps leading down into the eighteenth-century burial vault - Harry Buck House, North of Main Street (14800 Governor Oden Bowie Drive), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  12. 23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Incorporating a Product Archaeology Paradigm across the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Cormier, Phillip; Lewis, Kemper; Devendorf, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the teaching of design theory in an engineering curriculum has been relegated to a senior capstone design experience. Presently, however, engineering design concepts and courses can be found through the entirety of most engineering programs. Educators have recognized that engineering design provides a foundational platform that can…

  14. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  15. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  16. Archaeological geophysics in Israel: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2010-04-01

    In Israel occur a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. Different kinds of noise complicate geophysical methods employment at archaeological sites. Geodynamical active, multi-layered, and geologically variable surrounding media in many cases damages ancient objects and disturbs their physical properties. This calls to application of different geophysical methods armed by the modern interpretation technology. The main attention is focused on the geophysical methods most frequently applying in Israeli archaeological sites: GPR and high-precise magnetic survey. Other methods (paleomagnetic, resistivity, near-surface seismics, piezoelectric, etc.) are briefly described and reviewed. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing, and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. Several examples illustrate effective application of geophysical methods over some typical archaeological remains. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past (1990), (2) present (1990-2009), and (3) future (2010). The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques. It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases, employment of all possible indicators for 4-D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction, as well as application of combined geophysical multilevel surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes.

  17. Application of 3D GPR attribute technology in archaeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen-Ke; Tian, Gang; Wang, Bang-Bing; Shi, Zhan-Jie; Lin, Jin-Xin

    2012-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) attribute technology has been applied to many aspects in recent years but there are very few examples in the field of archaeology. Especially how can we extract effective attributes from the two- or three-dimensional radar data so that we can map and describe numerous archaeological targets in a large cultural site? In this paper, we applied GPR attribute technology to investigate the ancient Nanzhao castle-site in Tengchong, Yunnan Province. In order to get better archaeological target (the ancient wall, the ancient kiln site, and the ancient tomb) analysis and description, we collated the GPR data by collected standardization and then put them to the seismic data processing and interpretation workstation. The data was processed, including a variety of GPR attribute extraction, analysis, and optimization and combined with the archaeological drilling data. We choose the RMS Amplitude, Average Peak Amplitude, Instantaneous Phase, and Maximum Peak Time to interpret three archaeological targets. By comparative analysis, we have clarified that we should use different attributes to interpret different archaeological targets and the results of attribute analysis after horizon tracking is much better than the results based on a time slice.

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  19. Metallographic approach to the investigation of metallic archaeological objects.

    PubMed

    Pinasco, Maria Rosa; Ienco, Maria Giuseppina; Piccardo, Paolo; Pellati, Gabriella; Stagno, Enrica

    2007-07-01

    Metallic objects are considered among the most significant findings in Cultural Heritage and represent the 'culture of Materials' and the habits of an historical period and of a population. They also preserve traces of time: from the transformation of the ores in metal (by smelting) to the degradation from metal to oxidised compounds (by corrosion processes). Metallography, historically devoted to connect the microstructural features to production processes and to chemical-physical-mechanical properties is a powerful and relatively easy approach to characterise metallic findings. All analytical tools and methods in the hands of a metallographer are improved through experience and practice and provide a large number of information (elemental composition, primary and secondary microstructures, surface treatments, corrosion rate, original ores traces) by the preparation of a fairly small microdestructive sample. A wise and careful use of the metallography allows the balance "object sacrifice/knowledge improvement" to lean on the right side contributing to the hard work of rebuilding humankind history. Beside a description of a research protocol some practical examples concerning archaeological findings are presented in this paper. PMID:17867539

  20. Decay assessment through thermographic analysis in architectural and archaeological heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Martinez-Perez, Laura; Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica

    2010-05-01

    Any exposed stone-built structure is subject to thermal variations due to daily, seasonal and secular environmental temperature changes. Surface temperature is a function of air temperature (due to convective heat transfer) and of infrared radiation received through insolation. While convective heat transfer homogenizes surface temperature, stone response to insolation is much more complex and the temporal and spatial temperature differences across structures are enhanced. Surface temperature in stone-built structures will be affected by orientation, sunlight inclination and the complex patterns of light and shadows generated by the often intricate morphology of historical artefacts and structures. Surface temperature will also be affected by different material properties, such as albedo, thermal conductivity, transparency and absorbance to infrared radiation of minerals and rocks. Moisture and the occurrence of salts will also be a factor affecting surface temperatures. Surface temperatures may as well be affected by physical disruptions of rocks due to differences in thermal inertia generated by cracks and other discontinuities. Thermography is a non-invasive, non-destructive technique that measures temperature variations on the surface of a material. With this technique, surface temperature rates of change and their spatial variations can be analysed. This analysis may be used not only to evaluate the incidence of thermal decay as a factor that generates or enhances stone decay, but also to detect and evaluate other factors that affect the state of conservation of architectural and archaeological heritage, as for example moisture, salts or mechanical disruptions.

  1. Archaeological investigations of stone tool heat treatment technology in southeastern Missouri: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutcheon, Patrick T.

    Nearly sixty years of research demonstrate that stone tool heat treatment was practiced in prehistory and has a discontinuous, global distribution. Yet, the ability to positively identify heat treatment in the archaeological record or explain exactly how it works remains out of reach. A review of heat-treatment literature reveals that researchers attempting to identify the heat-treatment mechanism have used multiple experimental protocols. Reliance on replicative knapping to assess thermally induced mechanical alterations in heat-treated chert has introduced uncontrolled variation. Absence of explicit theory to guide such research has generated differing descriptions of results when rock is heated. A research design sets out three questions: (1) What is the heat-treatment mechanism? (2) Is this mechanism reversible? (3) How can we identify heat treatment in the archaeological record? A series of experiments are performed to test some of the hypotheses from the heat-treatment literature. Once these are tested and found false, an hypothesis from fracture mechanics theory is forwarded and tested with additional experiments. The results of these experiments substantiate (do not reject) the hypothesis that water loss occurring between 250sp°C and 375sp°C makes chert a more homogeneous material which breaks more easily and predictably. Another series of experiments tests the reversibility of thermally induced water loss (the basis of the heat-treatment mechanism). These results reveal that the flatter, more specular fracture surfaces present on post-heating flake scars are not reversible. In the absence of physical post-depositional alteration of the archaeological record, lustrous flake scars can be used to identify heat treatment. An archaeological application is based in evolutionary theory and a model for the use of heat-treatment technology is constructed to identify crucial variables necessary when considering the use and change in frequency of heat treatment

  2. The IRIDICA PCR/Electrospray Ionization–Mass Spectrometry Assay on Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Bacterial Etiology in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Suspected Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Fredrik; Giske, Christian G.; Ullberg, Måns; Hedlund, Jonas; Petersson, Johan; Spindler, Carl; Özenci, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic performance of the IRIDICA PCR/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay applied on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples, from 51 mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia, in a prospective study. In 32 patients with X-ray verified pneumonia, PCR/ESI-MS was positive in 66% and BAL culture was positive in 38% (p = 0.045), and either of the methods was positive in 69%. The following BAL result combinations were noted: PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+, 34%; PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-, 31%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture+, 3.1%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture-, 31%; kappa 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10–0.63). In pneumonia patients without prior antibiotic treatment, optimal agreement was noted with 88% PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+ and 12% PCR/ESI-MS-/culture- (kappa 1.0). However, in patients with prior antibiotic treatment, the test agreement was poor (kappa 0.16; 95% CI, -0.10–0.44), as 10 patients were PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-. In 8/10 patients the pathogens detected by PCR/ESI-MS could be detected by other conventional tests or PCR tests on BAL. Compared with BAL culture, PCR/ESI-MS showed specificities and negative predictive values of ≥87% for all individual pathogens, an overall sensitivity of 77% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 42%. When other conventional tests and PCR tests were added to the reference standard, the overall PPV increased to 87%. The PCR/ESI-MS semi-quantitative level tended to be higher for PCR/ESI-MS positive cases with pneumonia compared with cases without pneumonia (p = 0.074). In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS applied on BAL showed a promising performance and has potential to be clinically useful in mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia. The usefulness of the method for establishment of pneumonia etiology and selection of antibiotic therapy should be further studied. PMID:27463099

  3. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric detection of dihydroxy fatty acids preserved in the 'bound' phase of organic residues of archaeological pottery vessels.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Fabricio A; Bull, Ian D; Evershed, Richard P

    2011-07-15

    A methodology is presented for the determination of dihydroxy fatty acids preserved in the 'bound' phase of organic residues preserved in archaeological potsherds. The method comprises saponification, esterification, silica gel column chromatographic fractionation, and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The electron ionisation mass spectra of the trimethylsilyl ether methyl ester derivatives are characterised by fragment ions arising from cleavage of the bond between the two vicinal trimethylsiloxy groups. Other significant fragment ions are [M-15](+.), [M-31](+.), m/z 147 and ions characteristic of vicinal disubstituted (trimethylsiloxy) TMSO- groups (Δ(7,8), Δ(9,10), Δ(11,12) and Δ(13,14): m/z 304, 332, 360 and 388, respectively). The dihydroxy fatty acids identified in archaeological extracts exhibited carbon numbers ranging from C(16) to C(22) and concentrations varying from 0.05 to 14.05 µg g(-1) . The wide range of dihydroxy fatty acids observed indicates that this approach may be applied confidently in screening archaeological potsherds for the degradation products of monounsaturated fatty acids derived from commodities processed in archaeological pottery vessels. PMID:21638365

  4. Descent with modification and the archaeological record

    PubMed Central

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in our understanding of the way in which cultural transmission takes place and the factors that affect it. The theoretical foundations of those advances have been built by postulating the existence of a variety of different processes and deriving their consequences mathematically or by simulation. The operation of these processes in the real world can be studied through experiment and naturalistic observation. In contrast, archaeologists have an ‘inverse problem’. For them the object of study is the residues of different behaviours represented by the archaeological record and the problem is to infer the microscale processes that produced them, a vital task for cultural evolution since this is the only direct record of past cultural patterns. The situation is analogous to that faced by population geneticists scanning large number of genes and looking for evidence of selection as opposed to drift, but more complicated for many reasons, not least the enormous variety of different forces that affect cultural transmission. This paper reviews the progress that has been made in inferring processes from patterns and the role of demography in those processes, together with the problems that have arisen. PMID:21357229

  5. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Mokina, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nikolaiko, A. S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kostezh, A. B.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Voronov, S. A.

    2007-03-28

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with {approx}0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial {alpha}-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes.

  6. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian H.; Fletcher, Roland J.; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  7. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  8. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach.

    PubMed

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-09-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  9. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  10. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  11. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  12. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  13. Close out report for archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP), South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina conducted archaeological investigations under contract AC09-81SR10749 entitled Archaeological Investigations at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant from July 1981 through September 1987. The major emphasis was upon the completion of a 40% stratified sample of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to identify and preserve archaeological resources. The investigations were conducted to bring the Savannah River Operations Office into compliance with specific laws and regulations pertaining to the identification and preservation of archaeological and historical resources on federally owned and controlled properties. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  15. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  16. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  17. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.; Carloganu, C.; Niess, V.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  18. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  19. Identifying climate change threats to the arctic archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Maribeth; Jensen, Anne; Friesen, Max

    2011-05-01

    Global Climate Change and the Polar Archaeological Record; Tromsø, Norway, 15-16 February 2011 ; A workshop was held at the Institute of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Tromsø, in Norway, to catalyze growing concern among polar archaeologists about global climate change and attendant threats to the polar archaeological and paleoecological records. Arctic archaeological sites contain an irreplaceable record of the histories of the many societies that have lived in the region over past millennia. Associated paleoecological deposits provide powerful proxy evidence for paleoclimate and ecosystem structure and function and direct evidence of species diversity, distributions, and genetic variability. Archaeological records can span most of the Holocene (the past ∼12,000 years), depending upon location, and paleoecological records extend even further. Most are largely unstudied, and, although extremely vulnerable to destruction, they are poorly monitored and not well protected. Yet these records are key to understanding how the Arctic has functioned as a system, how humans were integrated into it, and how humans may have shaped it. Such records provide a wide range of data that are not obtainable from sources such as ice and ocean cores; these data are needed for understanding the past, assessing current and projecting future conditions, and adapting to ongoing change.

  20. Hyperspectral MIVIS data to investigate the Lilybaeum (Marsala) Archaeological Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Bajocco, S.

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 years air photograph and remote sensing, both from airplane and satellite, allowed to gain, from the analysis of the superficial land unit characteristics, useful information for the location of buried archaeological structures. For this kind of investigation, hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data revealed to be very useful, for example, since 1994, for the purpose CNR-LARA research project, many archaeological studies have been supported by MIVIS data on several italian archaeological sites: Selinunte, Arpi (Foggia), Villa Adriana (Tivoli) and Marsala. Marsala town, the ancient Lilybaeum, lies on the western coastline of Sicily, at about 30 km south of Trapani. Founded by the Phoenicians, it intensely lived during the Punic, Roman, Arab and Norman periods, whose dominations left many important remains. This archaeological area was investigated by means of several techniques, such as excavations, topographic studies based on airborne campaigns, etc. On this site the main archaeological information were provided by the analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral bands and by Thermal Capacity image.

  1. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  2. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history. PMID:26879234

  3. Mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burlingame, A.L.; Baillie, T.A.; Derrick, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It is the intention of the review to bring together in one source the direction of major developments in mass spectrometry and to illustrate these by citing key contributions from both fundamental and applied research. The Review is intended to provide the reader with a sense of the main currents, their breadth and depth, and probable future directions. It is also intended to provide the reader with a glimpse of the diverse discoveries and results that underpin the eventual development of new methods and instruments - the keys to obtaining new insights in all the physical, chemical, and biological sciences which depend on mass spectrometry at various levels of sophistication. Focal points for future interdisciplinary synergism might be selective quantitative derivatization of large peptides, which would convey properties that direct fragmentation providing specific sequence information, or optimization of LCMS for biooligomer sequencing and mixture analysis, or the perfect way to control or enhance the internal energy of ions of any size, or many others. 1669 references.

  4. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  5. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  6. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  7. Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Annual report, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.T.

    1988-08-30

    The past year has witnessed the continuation of the SRARP tradition of scholarly research through contract, grant and volunteer support. Archaeological opportunities have been provided to the professional, student and avocational communities through a range of projects and programs. With the implementation of a new cooperative grant, the scope of SRARP research and public service activities will continue to examine the prehistoric and historic archaeological records of the region and to present objectively these results to professional and avocational audiences. During the forthcoming year (FY 1989) the SRARP will continue to conduct and facilitate archaeological research within the Savannah River valley for the purpose of better understanding the early history and prehistory of the region.

  8. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  9. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  10. Large Scale Archaeological Satellite Classification and Data Mining Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canham, Kelly

    Archaeological applications routinely use many different forms of remote sensing imagery, the exception being hyperspectral imagery (HSI). HSI tends to be utilized in a similar fashion as multispectral imagery (MSI) or processed to the point that it can be utilized similarly to MSI, thus reducing the benefits of HSI. However, for large scale archaeological surveys, HSI data can be used to differentiate materials more accurately than MSI because of HSI's larger number of spectral bands. HSI also has the ability to identify multiple materials found within a single pixel (sub-pixel material mixing), which is traditionally not possible with MSI. The Zapotec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, lived in an environment that isolates the individual settlements by rugged mountain ranges and dramatically different ecosystems. The rugged mountains of Oaxaca make large scale ground based archaeological surveys expensive in terms of both time and money. The diverse ecosystems of Oaxaca make multispectral satellite imagery inadequate for local material identification. For these reasons hyperspectral imagery was collected over Oaxaca, Mexico. Using HSI, investigations were conducted into how the Zapotec statehood was impacted by the environment, and conversely, how the environment impacted the statehood. Emphasis in this research is placed on identifying the number of pure materials present in the imagery, what these materials are, and identifying archaeological regions of interest using image processing techniques. The HSI processing techniques applied include a new spatially adaptive spectral unmixing approach (LoGlo) to identify pure materials across broad regions of Oaxaca, vegetation indices analysis, and spectral change detection algorithms. Verification of identified archaeological sites is completed using Geospatial Information System (GIS) tools, ground truth data, and high-resolution satellite MSI. GIS tools are also used to analyze spatial trends in lost archaeological sites due