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Sample records for archangel karelia 1917-1944

  1. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James

    2011-07-01

    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determinationframe cleaningellipse fittingprofile fittingtotal and isophotal magnitudes The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  2. Volatile components in forest stands of Karelia

    SciTech Connect

    Fuksman, I.L.

    1995-09-01

    Study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile organic compounds in forests stands of Karelia is made. A decrease in temperature and an increase in the relative air humidity adversely affect their emission. To study the relationship between the processes of the synthesis of essential oils in woody plants and the release of their components into the environment, a qualitative and quantitative determination of essential oils in pine branches was carried out. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Tobacco Control: From North Karelia to the National Level.

    PubMed

    Heloma, Antero; Puska, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    After World War II, smoking among men was very common in Finland, and especially in North Karelia, contributing to the high rates of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, the North Karelia Project, from its very start in 1972, took reduction in smoking as one of its main targets. After 1977, the project actively contributed to national tobacco control work, including comprehensive legislation and many other activities. Smoking in North Karelia declined initially much more than in the rest of Finland, but thereafter there has been a steady national decline, resulting in a prevalence of daily smoking among adults of approximately 15% and contributing to the big reduction in the rates of heart disease and tobacco-related cancers, especially among men. PMID:27242085

  4. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  5. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  6. Theory and action for health promotion illustrations from the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A; Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Tuomilehto, J; Koskela, K

    1982-01-01

    The North Karelia Project in Finland illustrates the fundamental goals of health promotion. Specific activities of the project serve as examples of how concepts from the social and behavioral sciences can be applied to achieve estimated reductions in predicted risk of disease. The results in North Karelia are not conclusive, but they are encouraging, and the investigations conducted there is an essential reference for future research in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:7053618

  7. Decline in cardiovascular mortality in North Karelia and other parts of Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Tuomilehto, J; Geboers, J; Salonen, J T; Nissinen, A; Kuulasmaa, K; Puska, P

    1986-01-01

    The trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular stroke, and all cardiovascular diseases were analysed for the province of North Karelia and for the rest of Finland. Linear trends in mortality were computed for the population aged 35 to 64 for the period from 1969 to 1982, and changes in mortality between the three year means of 1969-71 and 1980-2 were calculated. In North Karelia, where a community based preventive programme has been carried out since 1972, the annual decline in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in men was on average 2.9%, whereas in the rest of Finland it was 2.0%. For women the respective average annual declines in mortality were 4.9% and 3.0%. The net decline from 1969-71 to 1980-2 in North Karelia was 100 deaths/100,000 men. The annual mortality from all cardiovascular disease in men decreased by 2.9% in North Karelia and by 2.6% in the rest of Finland; in women the decreases were 6.0% and 5.0% a year, respectively. The net decline in North Karelia was 71 deaths/100,000 men. The decline in mortality from all causes was also appreciable in both sexes in North Karelia, but it did not differ significantly from national trends. PMID:3094777

  8. Background, Principles, Implementation, and General Experiences of the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed

    Puska, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Nissinen, Aulikki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    The extremely high mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the 1960s in Finland, particularly in the Eastern Province of North Karelia and especially that of coronary heart disease in men, caused great concern among the local population. Action to reduce the problem was demanded in a petition signed in 1971 by the representatives of the population. In response, the North Karelia Project was launched in 1972 to carry out a comprehensive preventive project, first only in North Karelia as a national pilot (1972 to 1977), and thereafter continuing in North Karelia but at the same time transferring the experiences to a national level. The intervention was based on the at-that-time relatively new scientific information on the main causal risk factors. A comprehensive population-based intervention was carried out, aiming especially at the reduction of the high levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and tobacco use, emphasizing general dietary changes and smoking reduction. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation program was designed and implemented to learn from the experience in preparation for national and international use. Presented here are the background, principles, and general experiences of this project, which has made major contributions both to the contemporary public health work for the prevention and control of heart disease and noncommunicable diseases and for research in the area. PMID:27242083

  9. Blood Pressure, Sodium Intake, and Hypertension Control: Lessons From the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed

    Laatikainen, Tiina; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kastarinen, Mika; Jula, Antti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-06-01

    From the very beginning of the North Karelia Project, prevention, detection, and control of hypertension were included as key aims in the project. An intensive hypertension prevention and control program was established in North Karelia in 1972 that included community-based activities to reduce blood pressure levels in the entire population, detect people with hypertension, improve their treatment, establish standard diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and to monitor blood pressure levels, control of hypertension, and the performance of the health care. After the first 5 years of the project, most of these activities were also implemented on the national level. In late 1970s, work to reduce the salt intake was started, and substantial reductions have taken place in salt intake in the Finnish population. Remarkable improvements have been seen both in blood pressure levels and in treatment and control of hypertension in North Karelia and in the whole of Finland. Between 1972 and 2012 in North Karelia, the mean systolic blood pressure among 30- to 59-year-old men has decreased from 149 mm Hg to 135 mm Hg and among women from 153 mm Hg to 129 mm Hg. The decreases in mean diastolic blood pressure have been from 92 mm Hg to 84 mm Hg among men and from 92 mm Hg to 79 mm Hg among women. PMID:27242086

  10. Changes in Serum Cholesterol and Diet in North Karelia and All Finland.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tapanainen, Heli; Puska, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Finland in the 1960s, and especially North Karelia in the eastern part of the country, had the highest cardiovascular mortality in the world. The classical cardiovascular risk factors were all common, but serum cholesterol level was extremely high because of the very high intake of saturated fats, mainly from dairy products. The North Karelia Project was started as a comprehensive preventive program to reduce serum cholesterol levels by reducing the intake of saturated fats and increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats in the whole population. Cross-sectional population surveys were done in North Karelia and nearby Kuopio province every 5 years starting in 1972. After 1982, surveys were started in 2 other areas. Blood cholesterol was measured from serum samples, and diet was assessed by a questionnaire in all surveys-since 1982 by 3-day food record, since 1997 by 24-hour recall, and since 2002 by 48-hour recall. Between 1972 and 2012, the population in North Karelia reduced serum cholesterol from 6.92 mmol/l to 5.46 mmol/l (21%) in men and from 6.81 mmol/l to 5.37 mmol/l (21%) in women. In men, serum cholesterol level reduced more in North Karelia than in the reference province of Kuopio during the first 5 years from 1972 to 1977. Since that time, changes in serum cholesterol level have been very similar in different parts of the country. Saturated fats were reduced from 20% of energy intake to 12% in 2007 but increased from 2007 to 2012 to 14%. In conclusion, serum cholesterol reduction by dietary changes is feasible on the population level but requires active work and large-scale cooperation between all the meaningful sectors in the society. PMID:27242084

  11. Hunt for the origin of allergy - comparing the Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Laatikainen, T; Alenius, H; Auvinen, P; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; von Hertzen, L; Jousilahti, P; Kosunen, T U; Markelova, O; Mäkelä, M J; Pantelejev, V; Uhanov, M; Zilber, E; Vartiainen, E

    2015-05-01

    The Finnish and Russian Karelia are adjacent areas in northern Europe, socio-economically distinct but geoclimatically similar. The Karelia Allergy Study was commenced in 1998 to characterize the allergy profiles in the two areas. Allergy prevalence had increased in Finland since the early 1960s, but the situation in Russia was unknown. The key finding was that allergic symptoms and diseases were systematically more common in Finnish children and adults than in their Russian counterparts. For example, in the early 2000s, hay fever in school children was almost non-existent in Russian Karelia, and only 2% were sensitized to birch pollen compared with 27% in Finnish Karelia. Adult birth cohorts showed that among those born in the 1940s, the sensitization to pollens and pets was at the same low level in both countries, but among younger generation born in the late 1970s, the difference was already manifold. Seropositivity to some pathogens, microbial content in house dust and drinking water seemed to confer allergy protection in Russia. In subsequent studies, it became apparent that on the Finnish side, healthy children had a more biodiverse living environment as well as greater diversity of certain bacterial classes on their skin than atopic children. Abundance of skin commensals, especially Acinetobacter (gammaproteobacteria), associated with anti-inflammatory gene expression in blood leucocytes. In vivo experiments with the mouse model demonstrated that intradermally applied Acinetobacter protected against atopic sensitization and lung inflammation. These observations support the notion that the epidemic of allergy and asthma results from reduced exposure to natural environments with rich microbiota, changed diet and sedentary lifestyle. Genetic studies have confirmed strong influence of lifestyle and environment. With our results from the Karelia study, a 10-year National Allergy Programme was started in 2008 to combat the epidemic in Finland. PMID:25772429

  12. Comparison of trends in ischaemic heart disease between North Karelia, Finland, and Kaunas, Lithuania, from 1971 to 1987

    PubMed Central

    Rastenyte, Daiva; Salomaa, Veikko; Mustaniemi, Harri; Rasteniene, Dalia; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cepaitis, Zygimantas; Kankaanpää, Jari; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Torppa, Jorma; Bluzhas, Juozas; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To compare the long-term trends in mortality and attack rate of ischaemic heart disease in North Karelia, Finland, and in Kaunas, Lithuania, from 1971 to 1987. Design—Data on routine mortality statistics were obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Finland and from the Central City Archives of Kaunas. In addition, data from the community based myocardial infarction registers were used. The registers used similar diagnostic criteria and had operated in both areas during the entire study period. Setting—The province of North Karelia in Finland and the city of Kaunas in Lithuania. Subjects—The target populations were the people of North Karelia and Kaunas aged 35–64 years. Main outcome measures—Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and the attack rate of acute myocardial infarction. Results—In North Karelia mortality from ischaemic heart disease and the attack rate of acute myocardial infarction declined steeply both in men and women. This decline was accompanied by a decrease in total mortality. In Kaunas, both mortality and the attack rate increased in men but remained unchanged in women. In 1985 to 1987, age standardised total mortality per 100 000 inhabitants was similar in the two populations in men (1081 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1013 to 1149), in North Karelia; 1082 (95% CI 1032 to 1132), in Kaunas). The proportional mortality from ischaemic heart disease was considerably higher in North Karelia (40%) than in Kaunas (28%). In women, age standardised total mortality was lower in North Karelia (350 (95% CI 312–388)) than in Kaunas (440 (95% CI 413 to 467)). The proportional mortality from ischaemic heart disease in women was also higher in North Karelia (28%) than in Kaunas (13%). Conclusions—Despite the remarkable decline in the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease, it still remains the most important cause of premature mortality in North Karelia. In Kaunas ischaemic heart disease mortality and attack rate increased in

  13. The temporal variation of Mesoarchaean volcanism in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, E.; Heilimo, E.; Halkoaho, T.; Hölttä, P.; Huhma, H.

    2016-04-01

    This study concentrates in the Kiannanniemi area, situated in the Archaean Suomussalmi greenstone belt, the Karelia Province, Fennoscandian Shield. A zircon U-Pb geochronological study from this area shows that ages of the volcanic rocks are between ca. 2.94 and 2.82 Ga. The results indicate multiphase felsic and intermediate volcanism in three episodes at ca. 2.94, 2.84 and 2.82 Ga, of which the 2.84 Ga event has not been reported earlier from the Suomussalmi greenstone belt. The youngest zircon population in a sedimentary rock sample suggests a depositional age of ≤2.82-2.81 Ga, and the sample contains also ≥2.96 Ga old zircon grains. Based on both new and previously published geochronological data from the volcanic rocks, we propose a chronostratigraphic model for the whole Suomussalmi greenstone belt, dividing it into four units based on their age: Luoma, Tormua, Ahvenlahti, and Mesa-aho. The youngest volcanic rocks in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt are contemporaneous with some of the volcanic rocks recorded from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts of the Karelia Province, Finland. The age group ca. 2.94 Ga, however, has not been so far recorded elsewhere. Conversely, in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, volcanic rocks with an age of ca. 2.80 Ga and sedimentary rocks with depositional ages of <2.75 Ga, frequently found from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts, are unknown.

  14. Identification of Missing Norwegian World War II Soldiers, in Karelia Russia.

    PubMed

    Morild, Inge; Hamre, Stian S; Huel, Rene; Parsons, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    This article presents the multidisciplinary effort in trying to identify the skeletal remains of 100 Norwegian soldiers serving in the German army, killed in Karelia Russia in 1944, from the recovery of the remains through the final identification using DNA. Of the 150 bone samples sent for DNA testing, 93 DNA profiles were obtained relating to 57 unique individuals. The relatives could not be directly contacted as the soldiers were considered as traitors to Norway; therefore, only 45 reference samples, relating to 42 cases of the missing, were donated. DNA matches for 14 soldiers and 12 additional body part re-associations for these individuals were found. Another 24 bone samples were re-associated with 16 individuals, but no familial match was found. More than six decades after the end of WWII, DNA analysis can significantly contribute to the identification of the remains. PMID:25808977

  15. From Heart Health to Brain Health: Legacy of the North Karelia Project for Dementia Research.

    PubMed

    Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is very common in advanced age, with dementia representing the main cause of disability in older adults. Over the past 20 years, several modifiable risk factors have been identified for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are shared with cardiovascular diseases. Given that the pathologic changes leading to dementia may start decades before dementia is diagnosed, it is crucial to adopt a life course approach when investigating risk factors for dementia. The CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) study is one of the first and still very few existing observational studies to have investigated the role of midlife risk factors for the subsequent development of dementia and AD in late life. The CAIDE study is built on the North Karelia Project, enabling risk factor assessment 20 to 30 years before the dementia diagnosis. The CAIDE study has revealed that late-life dementia and AD are heterogeneous and multifactorial disorders, suggesting that multidomain interventions targeting several risk factors simultaneously may be needed for optimal preventive effects. The FINGER (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability) study is the first large long-term multidomain lifestyle intervention showing effect on prevention of cognitive impairment in at-risk elderly people. The study is conducted within the existing framework and builds on multidisciplinary prevention expertise following the North Karelia Project and CAIDE study. The FINGER study will, together with the ongoing multinational preventive initiatives, pave the way for pragmatic prevention programs and integrated interventions to facilitate healthy brain aging. This paper summarizes major findings on risk and protective factors for dementia and AD, and reviews key aspects and future directions in preventative strategies. PMID:27242093

  16. Contribution of the North Karelia Project to International Work in CVD and NCD Prevention and Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Puska, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Korpelainen, Vesa; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    During the decades after the start of the North Karelia Project in 1971, cardiovascular diseases and related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as the greatest global public health burden. The prevention and control of these diseases have thus become a major challenge and target for global public health, as emphasized by the Political Declaration of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in 2011. The experiences and results of the North Karelia Project have accordingly received much international attention and have in many ways contributed to the international work in the area, including the strategies and programs of the World Health Organization. The experience of the Project shows the great potential of population-based prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other noncommunicable diseases and that influencing lifestyles related to heart health with comprehensive health promotion and national policies is the cost-effective and sustainable way to improve contemporary public health. PMID:27242094

  17. [SPECIFICITY OF CONTENT AND MORPHOLOGY OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THREE BAT SPECIES OF KARELIA DURING HIBERNATION].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Belkin, V V; Ilyukha, V A; Kizhina, A G; Yakimova, A E

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced leukopenia during hibernation was found in bats (Chiroptera) of Karelia - brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) and northern bat (Eptesicus nilssoni). A higher content of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils was revealed in the northern bat featuring an increased resistance to cold as compared to the Brandt's bat and the brown long-eared bat. The differences in ratio of particular lymphocyte types may be related to biological, ecological and physiological peculiarities of the species studied. PMID:26547955

  18. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

  19. Secular variation of the geomagnetic field: data from the varved clays of Soviet Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir G.; Zagniy, Grigori F.

    1990-10-01

    In the territory of Soviet Karelia (62°N, 34°E) a paleomagnetic study of varved clays at six sections, situated in the north of Lake Ladoga and in the west and east of Lake Onega, has been carried out. The sections are located in different zones of deglaciation and overlap in age. They cover the time interval from 16 000 to 10 200 years BP. The sediment age has been defined from varvometric data, palynological and radiocarbon analyses as well as from the information about geological and geomorphological development of the region. The laboratory study reveals that considerable paleomagnetic information can be obtained from the varved clays. Geochronological and paleomagnetic studies have been carried out for each section. The geomagnetic origin for the variations of magnetic properties (declination, inclination) has been demonstrated. The result of these studies is presented in a magnetochronological plot of declination and inclination variations for the northwest territory of European U.S.S.R. in the time interval 16 000-10 200 years BP. Maximum amplitude of the declination variation reached 70° (˜ 12 000 years BP); inclination variation is 50% smaller. The characteristic periods for declination are 800, 1750, 2100-2200 and 2500 years, and for inclination 900, 1750-1850, 2600-2700 years, respectively, as obtained by spectral analysis. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) moves both clockwise and counter-clockwise: the latter is generally predominant. VGP does not reach values lower than 60°N. The detailed curves of declination and inclination can be used for regional magnetostratigraphic studies and for correlation of sediments in adjacent regions such as Finland and Sweden.

  20. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study: acute health effects of malodorous sulfur air pollutants released by a pulp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Haahtela, T.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaeppinen, P.J.; Jaakkola, J.J. )

    1992-04-01

    We evaluated the acute health effects of a strong emission of malodorous sulfur compounds released from a pulp mill in South Karelia, Finland. The 24-hour ambient air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide for the two emission days were 35 and 43 micrograms/m3 (maximum 4-hour 135 micrograms/m3). A questionnaire was distributed after the high exposure and later after a low exposure period to 29 households with 75 subjects living in the nearby community. During the high exposure, 63% of the respondents reported experience of at least one symptom compared to 26% during the reference period. Every third participant reported difficulties in breathing. In the 45 subjects responding to both questionnaires more eye, respiratory and neuropsychological symptoms occurred during the exposure compared to the reference period. The strong malodorous emission from a pulp mill caused an alarming amount of adverse effects in the exposed population.

  1. Change in risk factors for coronary heart disease during 10 years of a community intervention programme (North Karelia project).

    PubMed Central

    Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Nissinen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Vartiainen, E; Korhonen, H; Tanskanen, A; Rönnqvist, P; Koskela, K; Huttunen, J

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive community based programme to control cardiovascular diseases was started in North Karelia, Finland, in 1972. Reductions in smoking, serum cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure were among the central intermediate objectives. The effect of the programme during the 10 year period 1972-82 was evaluated by examining independent random population samples at the outset (1972) and five (1977) and 10 (1982) years later both in the programme and in a matched reference area. Over 10 000 subjects were studied in 1972 and 1977 (participation rate about 90%) and roughly 8000 subjects in 1982 (participation rate about 80%). Analyses were conducted of the estimated effect of the programme on the risk factor population means by comparing the baseline and five year and 10 year follow up results in the age range 30-59 years. The effect of the programme (net reduction in North Karelia) at 10 years among the middle aged male population was estimated to be a 28% reduction in smoking (p less than 0.001), a 3% reduction in mean serum cholesterol concentration (p less than 0.001), a 3% fall in mean systolic blood pressure (p less than 0.001), and a 1% fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (p less than 0.05). Among the female population the reductions were respectively, 14% (NS), 1% (NS), 5% (p less than 0.001), and 2% (p less than 0.05). During the first five years of the project (1972-7) the programme effectively reduced the population mean values of the major coronary risk factors. At 10 years the effects had persisted for serum cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure and were increased for smoking. PMID:6423038

  2. Volcanic Glasses as Habitat for Microfossils: Evidence from the Early Paleoproterozoic Pillow Lavas of Karelia and their Modern Analogues in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adtafieva, M. M.; Rozanov, A. Yu; Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Bogina, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial complexes were identified in the volcanic glasses from the ancient (2.4-Ga-old basaltic pillow-lavas of Karelia) and modern (pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge) volcanic rocks. It was shown that that their microbial colonization is likely to occur by the same mechanism. Thus, well preserved pillow lavas, which occupy a spacious fields in the Archean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, are promising object for search of the earliest traces of life on Earth.

  3. Late Archean intermediate-felsic magmatism of the South Vygozersky and Kamennozersky greenstone structures of Central Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myskova, T. A.; Zhitnikova, I. A.; L'vov, P. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geochemistry and zircon geochronology (U-Pb, SHRIMP-II) of Late Archean intermediate-felsic dikes and plagiogranites of the Shilossky massif of the South Vygozersky and Kamennozersky greenstone belts of Central Karelia were studied. Subvolcanic rocks of the dike complex vary in composition from andesitobasalts to rhyolites, in structural-textural peculiarities, and in the formation age, from 2862 ± 8 to 2785 ± 15 Ma. Compositionally and geochronologically (2853 ± 11 Ma), plagiogranites of the Shilossky massif of the South Vygozersky greenstone belts are close to the most ancient dacite and granodiorite porphyry dikes. Dikes intruded synchronously with intrusion of plagiogranites over a period of at least 70 m.y. Geochronologically, subvolcanic rocks of the dike complex and plagiogranites of the Shilossky massif are similar to granitoids of the TTG assemblages of I- and M-type granites. The Sm-Nd model age of some dikes (2970-2880 Ma) is close to the age of rock crystallization, which is evidence in favor of juvenile origin of magma. Dikes with more ancient model age (3050 Ma) are presumed to contain crustal material. Variations in age and ɛNd (from -2.7 to +2.9) indicate the absence of a unified magmatic source.

  4. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  5. Svecofennian post-collisional shoshonitic lamprophyres at the margin of the Karelia Craton: Implications for mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Jeremy; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Eklund, Olav

    2014-09-01

    Petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data from shoshonitic lamprophyres from the North Savo region, eastern Finland, and the NW Ladoga region, northwest Russia are presented. The two areas are found ~ 250 km apart along a roughly 450 km long palaeosuture between the Archaean Karelia Craton and the Proterozoic Svecofennian Domain. Two of the samples from North Savo are kersantites, while the remaining ten samples (from both North Savo and NW Ladoga) are minettes. Two morphologically different populations of zircon were identified from these lamprophyres and analysed by secondary ionisation mass spectrometry. Concordant analyses of inherited crustal zircon xenocrysts gave both Archaean and Proterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages. In the NW Ladoga region, these are the first reported Archaean ages from south of the Meijeri Thrust zone. Large, homogeneous and relatively U- and Th-depleted zircons are interpreted as xenocrysts from the metasomatised mantle. U-(Th)-Pb analyses of these zircons resulted in ages of 1790 ± 3 Ma, 1784 ± 4 Ma, 1785 ± 5 Ma and 1781 ± 20 Ma, representative of the timing of dyke emplacement. Geochemical characteristics of the dykes indicate that the source mantle experienced at least two types of metasomatic enrichment. The first of these was caused by a hydrous alkaline silicate melt, resulting in enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, K2O, LILE and LREE. The second was caused by a carbonatitic melt that further enriched the source area in Ba, Th, U, Sr, P and LREE. Infiltration of melt along fractures in the mantle wedge probably resulted in a vein assemblage of biotite - (potassic) amphibole - apatite ± carbonate within unreacted mantle peridotite. The most likely source of the metasomatising melts was from partial melting of subducted carbonate-rich pelitic sediment.

  6. Late pleistocene and holocene history of the lakes in the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and the North-Western part of the East European plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, N.; Servant-Vildary, S.

    The paper reviews the work on paleolimnology in parts of the FSU over the last 40 years. It presents a short review of The History of the Lakes of the East European Plain, one of the books of the series The History of Lakes published by the Institute of Lake Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It describes the Late Pleistocene and Holocene history of these lakes based mainly on the study of lacustrine sediments. Amongst the samples Lake Nero near Moscow which is located near the marginal zone of the last glaciation, and includes records that go back as early as 190,000 BP. The main elements of lake evolution are shown in different territories: Byelorussia; Baltic countries; Karelia; and the Kola Peninsula. Special attention is given to palaeolimnological data because its use for Holocene and Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions.

  7. [The relationship between the parameters of mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in women residing in the Republic of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I G; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Aleksina, L A; Kornev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive anthropometric and densitometric study using the dual x-ray absorptiometry was conducted to determine the relationship between the mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in 360 women aged 20 to 87 years, permanently residing in the Republic of Karelia. Significant direct correlation was detected between the somatotype and the amount of mineral substances in the vertebrae, bone mineral density and the area of the lumbar vertebrae. Bone mineral density level of the lumbar vertebrae was higher in women with europlastic and athletic somatotypes, which were characterized by high values of body mass and length, body muscle and fat mass. Low values of bone mineral density of vertebrae were identified in women belonging to subathletic, mesoplastic and stenoplastic somatotypes. The risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is increased in women with low body muscle mass. PMID:25823293

  8. 40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

    PubMed

    Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Pietilä, Arto; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared. PMID:27242088

  9. A small Archaean belt - diverse age ensemble: A U-Pb study of the Tipasjärvi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, central Fennoscandian Shield, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Elina; Käpyaho, Asko

    2016-03-01

    The Archaean Tipasjärvi greenstone belt is a small area (ca. 5 × 25 km) located within the Karelia Province in Central Fennoscandian Shield, Finland. The belt forms the southernmost part of the larger Archaean Suomussalmi-Kuhmo-Tipasjärvi greenstone complex. The present study results for this site are based on zircon grains of 12 metavolcanic and metasedimentary rock samples that were studied with the single-grain secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb method. Our data indicate that the volcanism in the belt took place over three separate episodes: ca. 2.84 Ga, 2.82 Ga and 2.80 Ga. The oldest volcanic rocks are older than the oldest dated tonalitic pluton adjacent to the belt. The main geochemical characteristics of the samples reveal that the felsic volcanic rocks of the different age groups resembled each other. However, contrasting trace element geochemical characteristics between the different age groups are also distinguishable. The detrital zircon record agrees with previous observations indicating that the sediments accumulated at least 50 Myr after the formation of the youngest volcanic rocks. During sediment deposition, older crustal material (> 3.0 Ga) was exposed within the source area. The geochronological results in this study enable us to update the chronostratigraphic interpretation of the Tipasjärvi greenstone belt and to compare these results to those from other parts of the Archaean Suomussalmi-Kuhmo-Tipasjärvi greenstone complex and adjacent tonalitic plutons.

  10. [Abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick Ixodes persuicatus (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Bespiatova, L A; Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P

    2009-01-01

    Data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia (62 degrees 04'S; 33 degrees 55'W) are presented. The investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; Betula-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; Salix-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 3) "old" cut-over land; age of cut-over 25 years; Alnus incana-Rubus idaeus-grass. The number of ticks was estimated by using common parasitological indices: prevalence, abundance, and index of feeding intensity (the tick abundance multiply by the number of small mammals per hundred traps-nights). In the beginning of investigation the "young" cut-over land was a typical meadow association. The lowest tick abundance was recorded here. That was a result of unfavorable abiotic conditions and low number of small mammals in the beginning of summer. "Middle" cut-over land is characterized by the highest number of the tick larvae, which is the evidence for high number of the hosts of tick imago. "Old" cut-over land has the optimum conditions for development of taiga ticks. High abundance of the ticks (larvae and nymphs) was recorded during the whole period of investigations. The number of preimaginal ticks is shown to be much higher in cut-over lands as compared with that in mixed and coniferous forests, due to the higher number of small mammals. PMID:19807045

  11. Utility of the Arg/Gln polymorphism of the factor VII (FVII) gene, serum lipid levels and body mass index in the prediction of the FVII:C and FVII:Ag in North Karelia; a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stengård, J H; Salomaa, V; Rasi, V; Vahtera, E; Ehnholm, C; Krusius, T; Perola, M; Vartiainen, E

    2001-09-01

    The arginine/glutamine (Arg/Gln) polymorphism of the factor VII (FVII) gene is associated with variation in coagulation activity (FVII:C) and antigen concentration (FVII:Ag) of the FVII protein. We estimated frequency distributions of the Arg and Gln alleles and respective genotypes in North Karelia, and evaluated the utility of this polymorphism, serum lipids, and body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of the distributions of FVII:C and FVII:Ag in a cross-sectional study and in a prospective cohort study. The sample comprised 203 males and 262 females (aged 45-64 years) who were seen twice, in 1992 and 1995. The Arg/Arg genotype and the Arg allele frequencies were among the highest reported so far (86 and 93% respectively, in men; and 89 and 94% respectively, in women). Intragenotypic means of both FVII:C and FVII:Ag were significantly higher in the Arg/Arg genotype than in the Arg/Gln genotype in both genders. Also, intragenotypic variances were different in different genotypes in females. Regression relationships between the FVII:C and FVII:Ag and serum triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels and BMI were positive in both genotypes in both genders, which has not been found in other populations. In prospective analyses, average changes in the FVII:C and FVII:Ag were genotype specific in both genders, as were also regression relationships between these changes and changes in triglyceride level in females (P = 0.065 for FVII:C and P = 0.061 for FVII:Ag). A consequence of these complex genetic architectures is that predictive utility of the Arg/Gln genotypes depends on population, gender, serum lipid levels, and BMI, and changes in these factors over time. PMID:11555697

  12. Mineralogy of the Precambrian southern Kostomuksha gold prospect in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshevich, L. V.; Gor'kovets, V. Ya.

    2008-12-01

    The southern Kostomuksha gold-sulfide prospect with a grade of 0.2-30 g/t Au belongs to the gold-pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite mineral type and is localized in the metasomatically altered shear zone at the southern flank of the Kostomuksha iron deposit. The Au-bearing pyrite ore is commonly characterized by a low grade (0.02-1.0 g/t Au). The grade of Au-bearing mineralization composed of arsenopyrite, loellingite, and electrum (4.28-15.31 wt % Ag and up to 0.99-2.16 wt % Hg) is higher; pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, maldonite, aurostibite, and native bismuth are additional components of this mineral assemblage. The ore mineralization is hosted in the near-latitudinal shear zone close to the contact between the folded and metamorphosed banded iron formation (BIF) and hälleflinta. The early stage of collision-related HP-HT metamorphism resulted in the formation of a garnet-amphibole-biotite assemblage ( T = 680-750°C) and microcline. After an abrupt drop m pressure, metasomatic alteration and ore mineralization took place. The ore-forming process started at 510-440°C with deposition of arsenopyrite. Galena and electrum were formed at a lower temperature. The temperature continued to decline down to the stage of ore oxidation and deposition of colloform marcasite. Ore minerals precipitated from acid chloride aqueous solutions admixed with methane at the initial stage and from diluted aqueous solutions at the final stage. The character of wall-rock alteration and the gain of K, Rb, and B show that the ore-forming process postdated the emplacement of potassium granite. The occurrence of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Ni and other heterogeneous elements indicates a complex metamorphic-metasomatic source and an additional supply of Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te under conditions of sulfur deficiency. The gold mineralization at the southern Kostomuksha prospect is classified as gold-sulfide (arsenopyrite) ore type related to shear zones in the BIF.

  13. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the eight-hour working day. These grounds relate to quality of life, occupational safety and health and productivity of work. It is worth asking if the nature of work has changed in a way that the truths of an industrialized society do not hold true or has the development of working time in health care sector become uncontrolled in some new way? PMID:15718567

  14. Two types of noble metal mineralization in the Kaalamo massif (Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Ruchyev, A. M.; Golubev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Noble metal mineralization of the syngenetic (Southern Kaalamo) and epigenetic (Surisuo) types are defined in the Kaalamo massif. The ƩPt, Pd, Au content is as high as 0.9-1.1 g/t. Syngenetic mineralization started at the late magmatic stage (at around 800°C) gradually evolving to cease during the hydrothermal-metasomatic stage (<271°C). Epigenetic mineralization was formed at temperatures ranging from 500 to <230°C in zones of intense shear deformations and low-temperature metasomatosis during the collisional stage of the Svecofennian tectono-magmatic cycle (approximately 1.85 Ga ago). Taking into consideration the geological position of the Kaalamo massif in the Raakhe-Ladoga metallogenic zone with widely developed intense shear dislocations, the epigenetic mineralization type seems to be more promising with respect to noble metals.

  15. Tracing edges of Baltic Shield and Karelia craton by means of seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena; Babuska, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    Several passive seismic experiments as well new stations of permanent networks provided data for detail studies of upper mantle anisotropy, particularly anisotropy of the mantle lithosphere. Joint interpretation of lateral variations of teleseismic P-sphere patterns and shear-wave splitting detected domains of mantle lithosphere with differently oriented fossil fabrics (Babuska and Plomerova, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 2006) and delimited their extent in the mantle (e.g., Plomerova et al., Tectonophysics 2001; Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007; Plomerova et al., Solid Earth, 2011). The south-western edge of the Baltic Shield, adjacent to the Sorgenfrei - Tornquist Zone separating the Precambrian and Phanerozoic parts of Europe, is characterised by a sharp change of the lithosphere thickness as well as of the anisotropy pattern. Change of the lithosphere thickness around the contact of the Proterozoic and Archean parts of the Shield is insignificant and the contact appears as a broad transition in the south-central Fennoscandia, which can be modelled as the Archean wedge penetrating into the Proterozoic mantle (Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007). Further northward the Archean-Proterozoic boundary looks narrow in the mantle and follows the surface trace of the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear Zone. It can be interpreted as a steep contact of two mantle lithosphere domains retaining their own fossil fabric.

  16. Agate mineralization in basaltoids of the northeastern Ladoga region, South Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2008-12-01

    In the northeastern Ladoga region, the Riphean agate-bearing volcanic rocks of the Priozersk Formation are composed of basaltic lavas and lava breccias. Agates occur in the upper lava flow and in overlying conglomerate of the Salmi Formation. By their patterns, the agate amygdules correspond to concentrically zoned varieties, while agate veinlets have a vague pattern. Microstructures of agates are diverse, We backspace we including quite peculiar ones. Agates with enveloping zoning (the main structural type) were formed in closed cavities, whereas agate veinlets usually occurred in open connecting fissures and were replaced by calcite at the late stage of mineral formation. The unusual absence of quartzine suggests a low SiO2 concentration in the agate-forming solutions and/or a low pH value.

  17. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  18. Geochemical features and age of baddeleyite from carbonatites of the Proterozoic Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic pluton, North Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, N. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Simakin, S. G.; Sergeev, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the local composition, baddeleyite grains that were less altered due to interaction with an alkaline melt and corresponded to the primary stage of crystallization of the intrusion were selected from the carbonatite intrusion of the Proterozoic polyphase Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic complex. The single age of carbonatite crystallization characterized of the bulk volume of the intrusion was estimated for the first time on the basis of 40 local U-Th-Pb (SHRIMP II) analyses of these grains. The overall concordant age of baddeleyite is 1994.8 ± 9.4 Ma, and the lower age limit of the polyphase complex formation is less than 1998.4 ± 3.5 Ma.

  19. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  20. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both…

  1. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  2. Eight-Year Follow-Up Results of an Adolescent Smoking Prevention Program: The North Karelia Youth Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Erkki; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses an 8-year follow-up study to a smoking prevention program for 13- to 15- year-old students, who were taught the skills to resist pressures to start smoking. Consistent evidence of preventive effects was found among those students who had been non-smokers when the program began. (Author/JS)

  3. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Se and Te mineralization in albitites and prospects of the metasomatites for Au, Salla-Kuolajarvi belt, Northern Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A. A.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Selivanova, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    On the basis of the complex of geological features, the eastern flank of the Salla-Pana-Kuolajarvi belt is a prospect structure for gold mineralization in the U-bearing albitites and related acid and mafic metasomatites. Visible tellurides and selenides, which are typical of gold deposits of the Fe-Co-Au-U group in the adjacent territory of Finland within the Salla-Pana-Kuolajarvi belt, were found in the Ozerny occurrence as a result of studies. Native gold is found in association with tellurides. Molybdenite from the occurrence has a high Re content up to 0.3%.

  5. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  6. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant.

  7. Coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero complex (North Karelia, Russia): Evidence for the existence of an immiscible high-Fe melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Chistyakov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that most subsolidus coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero intrusive complex result from crystallization of drops of immiscible interstitial high-Fe melt scattered among cumulates and containing SiO2, Ti, Al, Ca, Na, K, Ba, and volatiles (water, F, and Cl) as well. Fe-Ti oxides were the first crystal phases, whereas other components were incorporated in the surrounding concentrically zoned rims composed of olivine, phlogopite, and kaersutite-pargasite. Reactional rims at the boundaries between olivine and plagioclase and symplectitic pargasite-muscovite-scapolite rims around the clusters of olivine and Fe-Ti oxides are observed as well. Thus, the coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero Complex provide the first evidence for the existence of an immiscible, relatively low-temperature high-Fe melt in the natural magmatic systems.

  8. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2015-08-01

    The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and the effect of the plant location on the utilization of the produced energy can already be identified when planning an appropriate site for the waste incineration plant. PMID:25936556

  9. Archean crustal evolution of the Suomussalmi district as part of the Kianta Complex, Karelia: Constraints from geochemistry and isotopes of granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, Perttu; Huhma, Hannu; Heilimo, Esa; Whitehouse, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotopic data from granitoids belonging to the Kianta Complex of the Western Karelian terrane, collected from the Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland. Geochemically the Archean granitoids can be divided into five groups: TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite, sensu stricto), transitional TTGs, sanukitoids (high-Mg granitoids), quartz diorites and anatectic leucogranitoids. This study includes chemical data for the first four and isotopic data for all the suites. The majority (78 out of 80 samples) of TTGs sensu stricto (K2O/Na2O < 0.5) belongs to the low-HREE type (YbN < 4) with highly variable (La/Yb)N (7-161) ratios and are interpreted as partial melts of garnet amphibolites. TTGs have low Mg numbers (average 38) and 90% of the samples have Cr and Ni contents below detection limits (30 and 20 ppm respectively). This suggests absence of or limited interaction with mantle. Transitional TTGs (K2O/Na2O > 0.5) display higher LILE concentrations, but otherwise closely resemble the TTGs sensu stricto. Sanukitoids and quartz diorites have moderate (La/Yb)N (6-50) and higher HREE, Cr and Ni than the TTGs. Sanukitoids can be differentiated from quartz diorites based on higher Ba (averages 1453 vs. 626 ppm), K2O (averages 3.02 vs. 1.94%) and LREE (LaN averages 141 vs. 92) contents, although overlap between these two suites exists. TTG magmatism in Suomussalmi and the surrounding parts of Kianta Complex can be divided into three major phases: ca 2.95 Ga, 2.83-2.78 Ga and 2.76-2.74 Ga. Sanukitoid magmatism (2.73-2.71 Ga) partly overlaps in error limits with quartz diorites aged 2.70 Ga and is coeval with one transitional TTG sample (2.72 Ga). Migmatization of older rocks and intrusion of leucogranitoids took place at 2.70-2.69 Ga. Geochemistry, inherited zircons (< 3.44 Ga) and the negative initial εNd values of most rocks indicate varying involvement of older crust in their genesis, but δ18O values of zircons show that source(s) with high δ18O value(s) were significant only in the genesis of the youngest TTG and sanukitoid samples.

  10. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae).

    PubMed

    Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka

    2014-01-01

    New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  12. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  13. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  14. Admixture and Gene Flow from Russia in the Recovering Northern European Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F.; Danilov, Pjotr I.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia. PMID:24839968

  15. [Genetic variability and differentiation of three Russian populations of yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis as revealed by nuclear markers].

    PubMed

    Khrisanfova, G G; Kharchevnikov, D A; Popov, I O; Zinov'eva, S V; Semenova, S K

    2008-05-01

    Genetic variability of yellow potato cyst nematode G. rostochiensis from three Russian populations (Karelia, Vladimir oblast, and Moscow oblast) was investigated using two types of nuclear markers. Using RAPD markers identified with the help of six random primers (P-29, OPA-10, OPT-14, OPA-11, OPB-11, and OPH-20), it was possible to distinguish Karelian population from the group consisting of the populations from two adjacent regions (Moscow oblast and Vladimir oblast). Based on the combined matrix, containing 294 RAPD fragments, dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed, and the indices of genetic divergence and partition (P, H, and G(st)), as well as the gene flow indices N(m) between the nematode samples examined, were calculated. The dendrogram structure, genetic diversity indices, and variations of genetic distances between single individuals in each population from Karelia and Central Russia pointed to genetic isolation and higher genetic diversity of the nematodes from Karelia. Based on polymorphism of rDNA first intergenic spacer ITS1, attribution of all populations examined to the species G. rostochiensis was proved. Small variations of the ITS1 sequence in different geographic populations of nematodes from different regions of the species world range did not allow isolation of separate groups within the species. Possible factors (including interregional transportations of seed potato) affecting nematode population structure in Russia are discussed. PMID:18672794

  16. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  17. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  18. Development And Structure Of Root Systems of Phleum pretense in monospecies cultures under the influence of the soil conditions and field management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkevich, M. G.

    2012-08-01

    The influence of the soil conditions and anthropogenic effects on the formation of root systems in meadow agrocenoses of southern Karelia was studied. It was shown that the development and vertical structure of the underground organs depend on the degree of soil cultivation. Most roots (39.0 to 87.0%) are concentrated in the sod at the depth of 0 to 6 cm. The root architectonics in young agrocenoses depend mostly on the degree of soil cultivation and the rates of the applied fertilizers. The botanical composition of phytocenoses affects the vertical distribution of roots in the layers of 6-15 and 15-30 cm in old herb cenoses.

  19. Bone structure studies with HNDT and x-ray diffraction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Nygren, Kaarlo; Rouvinen, Juha; Petrova, Valentina V.

    1993-09-01

    Changes in molecular texture and structure of isolated radioulnar bones of subadult European moose collected in various environmental pollution areas of Finland were investigated by using HNDT and x-ray diffraction methods. By using small caudo-cranial bending forces, the bones were tested by using HNDT. For bone molecular texture and structure studies by using x-ray diffraction methods, samples were taken from the ulnar metaphyse (Olecranon). Results show that the bones obtained from the Harjavalta area and one from North Karelia showed changes in molecular texture and structure compared with samples from apparently normal animals.

  20. New Data on Microfossils from Shungites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Robert B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Shungites are pre-cambrian (2Gya) carbon-rich, silicate rocks known from deposits in the north-western part of lake Onega, near the city of Petrozavodsk in Karelia (North from St. Petersburg, Russia). Shungites are extremely rich in carbon, with carbon accounting for 98% in vein shungites. Shungites have been found to exhibit interesting optical, ultrasonic, thermal, mechanical, electrical properties and have recently been found to contain small amounts of C60 fullerene. Shungite rocks from Karelia have a characteristic globular structure and are chemically inert and metastable. As part of our ongoing search for biomarkers in ancient terrestrial rocks that are of potential significance to Astrobiology, we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrographs of freshly fractured interior surfaces of Shungites. We find them to contain indigenous miocrofossils, similar to cyanobacteria known from the phosphorites of Khubsugul, Mongolia. We describe this investigation and provide ESEM and FESEM images of biomorphic microstructures that we interpret as indigenous microfossils in Shungites.

  1. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  2. A Patchwork Paper: What Paediatricians Should Read.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper honours a paediatrician whose career has been patchwork but distinguished, with many facets. It is a light-hearted look at the printed (infinitely preferable to the electronic) word. Although the obvious response is "read everything I have written", this would only drive down the stores of Prozac. Read the scientific literature of course. The oldie reads to stay one jump ahead on the ward round. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews rely on the judgement of others, so should be regarded with suspicion. Do your own research, and do not rely on the thoughts of other people. Read beyond PubMed. "There is more in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than is dreamed of in your PubMed" (Shakespeare). Read the giants of the past. Richard Asher has so much to teach. What are the seven sins of medicine, and how many have you committed? Asher is top read of the talk. Learn from the mistakes of the past. Your patient comes first. Read how the medical profession covered up the death of Steve Biko and never compromise with patient safety and your integrity. Finally, remember thou art mortal - read a real book for pleasure. Kindle reading must be like making love to an inflatable doll (not that I have done either). Choose what you relax with; for me, PG Wodehouse, Jane Austen, Billy Bunter and Wisden. Who said and why: 'Madam, under similar circumstances I would have kicked the Archangel Gabriel!'. PMID:26547508

  3. THE MID-INFRARED TULLY-FISHER RELATION: SPITZER SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Helene M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 {mu}m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45 Degree-Sign from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  4. [Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

    2012-09-01

    Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

  5. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  6. [MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF PROTEOCEPHALUS PERCAE (MÜLLER 1780) PARASITIZING COREGONID FISHES].

    PubMed

    Anikieva, L V; Ieshko, E P; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variability of Proteocephalus percae from native host--perch Perca fluviatilis and two species of coregonids (whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and Arctic cisco C. autumnalis) from fish farms of Karelia were studied. Parasite groups from 3 host species differed by morphometric parameters. Morphological structure of P. percae from native host included three morphs, those numbers were almost equal. Parasite groups of whitefish and Arctic cisco differed from that of perch in morphological structure and dominance of different morphs. Changes of the P. percae morphological structure was related to differences in ecological niches of three hosts of parasite. This reflects the initial stages of microevolution. The results obtained allow us to estimate an adaptive response of parasitic worms to new host species settling to pond. PMID:26373190

  7. [IXODID TICKS (PARASITIFORMES: IXODIDAE) FROM SMALL MAMMALS IN DEFORESTED BOREAL HABITATS IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Bespyatova, L A; Bugmyrin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the population density of two hard tick species, Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895 and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, 1930, were examined in 1998-2001, and in 2003-2004 near Gomselga Village (Kondopoga District, 62° 04' N, 33° 55' E) in central Karelia. Data on the abundance of ixodid ticks and the species composition of their hosts in 4 forest sites at different stages of post-felling regeneration (secondary succession), i. e. 7-14, 12-19, 25-32, and 80-87 after logging were obtained. I. persulcatus dominated, comprising 73 % of the total tick number in samples. Regenera- tion of the forest resulted in fluctuations of the population density of two examined tick species: I. (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps (larvae 2.8-5.3; nymphs 1.5-2.2; adults 0-0.09) and I. persulcatus (larvae 4.3-10.6; nymphs 0.6-4.2). PMID:26946827

  8. Updated archeomagnetic data set of the past 8 millennia from the Sofia laboratory, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, M.; Boyadziev, Y.; Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Jordanova, N.; Donadini, F.

    2009-05-01

    This data brief reports the latest updates of archeomagnetic data obtained at the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory of the Geophysical Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The current data set consists of measurements from 284 Bulgarian archeological sites covering the past 8000 years. There are also 54 sites from other European regions, namely, Serbia, Kossovo, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Finland, and Russian Karelia, as well as five sites from Morocco in North Africa. The update of the archeomagnetic results consisted of a thorough revision of all geomagnetic field measurements as well as dating these measurements that were published in the original papers or in previous compilations. The updated results can be found in GEOMAGIA (http://geomagia.ucsd.edu) or as an Excel spreadsheet at the EarthRef.org Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/cgi-bin/erda.cgi?n = 946).

  9. Diagnostic Potential and Antigenic Properties of Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Subviral Particles Expressed in Mammalian Cells from Semliki Forest Virus Replicons

    PubMed Central

    Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jääskeläinen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM μ-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house μ-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated μ-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the μ-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

  10. Geochemistry of mantle metasomatism related to formation of kimberlites in the northern East European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The geochemistry of mantle metasomatism related to the formation of kimberlites and allied rocks in the northern East European Platform (EEP) is considered with allowance for chemical systematics and geodynamic position. The Paleoproterozoic kimberlites of Kimozero, Mesoproterozoic orangeites of Karelia, Neoproterozoic kimberlites of Finland, and Devonian kimberlites of the Arkhangel'sk diamond province (ADP) are the objects of this research. Kimberlites from the EEP are characterized by wide variations in contents of rock-forming oxides and trace elements caused by secondary alteration, belonging to different lithofacies and specific sources. The diversity of kimberlites from the EEP is explained by the interaction of asthenospheric protokimberlitic melt with depleted or metasomatically enriched lithospheric mantle. A (Zr/Sm) n -Cr/Ni diagram has been proposed to identify specific attributes of mantle metasomatism. Comparison of the geodynamic setting of kimberlite formation in the EEP with the revealed geochemical features of mantle metasomatism shows that kimberlites having sources with the participation of MARID-type meta-somatic assemblages were formed under conditions of changing supercontinental cycles, when the breakdown of large supercontinent coincided in time with the initial stage of assembly of a new supercontinent. This is characteristic of the Kimozero kimberlites, orangeites of Karelia, and kimberlites from the ADP. Kimberlites of Finland were formed under geodynamic conditions characterized by supercontinent breakdown coeval with abundant within-plate mafic magmatism. These kimberlites bear geochemical features inherent to an asthenospheric source. The economic Devonian diamond-bearing kimberlites from the ADP display a subordinate role of the metasomatic lithospheric as a component of their source against the background of a significant interaction of melted asthenospheric material with the depleted lithospheric mantle.

  11. Mesoproterozoic CFB magmatism in the central Fennoscandian shield: source variation and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämö, O. T.; Kohonen, J.; Upton, B. G. J.; Vaasjoki, M.; Mänttäri, I.; Sviridenko, L. P.

    2003-04-01

    The central part of the Fennoscandian shield in southwestern Finland and central Sweden hosts the remnants of a 1265-Ma tholeiitic magmatic system associated with fault-bounded basins and continental red-beds. The magmatic rocks are represented by transitional basalt dykes and sills - possibly feeders to once-extensive lavas - that delineate an area of circa 500 km in diameter. Farther to the east, a suite of 1460-Ma dolerites is found in the Lake Ladoga basin of Russian Karelia. These are more alkaline and form at least two major sills that can be followed circa 150 km along strike. In the Lake Ladoga region, an extrusive lave succession is also present. Epsilon-Nd (at 1265 Ma) values of the Finnish (Rämö, 1990 and unpublished data) and Swedish (Patchett et al., 1994) tholeiites range from +0.4 to +3.7 and average at +2.2 ± 0.9 (1 S.D., n = 25). The geographic position of the analysed samples reveals regionally different initial Nd isotope compositions that are not correlative with the Nd isotope composition of the enclosing Palaeoproterozoic crustal country rocks. The alkaline dolerites of the Lake Ladoga basin are distictly less radiogenic (lower long-term Sm/Nd) than the Finnish and Swedish transitional and tholeiitic basalts, having epsilon-Nd (at 1460 Ma) values between -8.6 and -9.2 and a mean value of -8.8 ± 0.2 (1 S.D., n = 7). Overall, the initial Nd isotope compositions probably reflect variation in the mantle source composition of the basalts rather than crustal contamination. The 1265-Ma magmatism in southwestern Finland and central Sweden may reflect the onset of the Sveconorwegian-Grenvillian Wilson cycle, while the 1460-Ma magmatism in Russian Karelia probably reflects thermal contraction of ruptured, relatively thin crust in the aftermath of the thermal perturbations that created the classic Finnish rapakivi granite suites.

  12. THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS-SPHEROID STELLAR MASS RELATION FOR SERSIC AND CORE-SERSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between supermassive black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and the stellar mass of the host spheroid (M{sub sph,*}) for a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. To derive the spheroid stellar masses we used improved Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s}-band photometry from the ARCHANGEL photometry pipeline. Dividing our sample into core-Sersic and Sersic galaxies, we find that they are described by very different M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relations. For core-Sersic galaxies-which are typically massive and luminous, with M{sub BH} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to} M{sub sph,*}{sup 0.97{+-}0.14}, consistent with other literature relations. However, for the Sersic galaxies-with typically lower masses, M{sub sph,*} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to}M{sub sph,*}{sup 2.22{+-}0.58}, a dramatically steeper slope that differs by more than 2 standard deviations. This relation confirms that, for Sersic galaxies, M{sub BH} is not a constant fraction of M{sub sph,*}. Sersic galaxies can grow via the accretion of gas which fuels both star formation and the central black hole, as well as through merging. Their black hole grows significantly more rapidly than their host spheroid, prior to growth by dry merging events that produce core-Sersic galaxies, where the black hole and spheroid grow in lockstep. We have additionally compared our Sersic M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relation with the corresponding relation for nuclear star clusters, confirming that the two classes of central massive object follow significantly different scaling relations.

  13. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  14. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  15. Trace elements in organic- and iron-rich surficial fluids of the boreal zone: Assessing colloidal forms via dialysis and ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, E. V.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Oliva, P.; Dupré, B.; Martin, F.; Candaudap, F.

    2010-01-01

    On-site size fractionation of about 40 major and trace elements (TE) was performed on waters from boreal small rivers and their estuaries in the Karelia region of North-West Russia around the "Vetreny Belt" mountain range and in Paanajärvi National Park (Northern Karelia). Samples were filtered in the field using a progressively decreasing pore size (5 μm, 2.5 (3) μm, 0.22 (0.45) μm, 100 kDa, 10 and 1 kDa) by means of frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) techniques and employing in-situ dialysis with 10 and 1 kDa membranes followed by ICP-MS analysis. For most samples, dialysis yields a systematically higher (factor of 2-3) proportion of colloidal forms compared to UF. Nevertheless, dialysis is able to provide a fast and artefact-free in-situ separation of colloidal and dissolved components. Similar to previous studies in European subarctic zones, poor correlation of iron concentration with that of organic carbon (OC) in (ultra)filtrates and dialysates reflect the presence of two pools of colloids composed of organic-rich and Fe-rich particles. All major anions and silica are present as dissolved species (or solutes) passing through the 1-kDa membrane. Size-separation ultrafiltration experiments show the existence of larger or smaller pools of colloidal particles different for each of the considered elements. The effect of rock lithology (acidic versus basic) on the colloidal speciation of TE is seen solely in the increase of Fe and some accompanying TE concentrations in catchment areas dominated by basic rocks compared to granitic catchments. Neither the ultrafiltration pattern nor the relative proportions of colloidal versus truly dissolved TE are affected by the lithology of the underlying rocks: within ±10% uncertainty, the two colloidal (10 kDa-0.22 μm and 1-10 kDa) and the truly dissolved (<1 kDa) pools show no difference in percentage of TE distribution between two types of bedrock lithology. The same conclusion is held for organic- and Fe

  16. Deglaciation chronology of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet from the Lake Onega Basin to the Salpausselkä End Moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarnisto, Matti; Saarinen, Timo

    2001-11-01

    Several long sediment cores (max. 12 m) from various parts (up to 150 km apart) of Lake Onega, Russian Karelia, have been studied for lithology, varve chronology and palaeomagnetism. The two longest varve records from the central basin contain 1300 varves. These indicate the length of the deglaciation period from these localities to the north of Lake Onega, where the drainage of glacial meltwaters was directed towards the White Sea and the deposition of varves in the Onega basin terminated. An estimate of the duration of deglaciation of the whole Onega basin is 1500 years. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is strong and stable in these sediments and accurately records changes in the Earth's magnetic field. A distinct change in the magnetic field, when the declination shifted from east to west by at least 60° in 350 varve years, is clearly identifiable in all cores. This palaeomagnetic feature was used for core to core correlation together with other variations in magnetic parameters and widely distributed lithological marker horizons. On the basis of the correlations between the cores and calibration of AMS radiocarbon dates from varves obtained from the northern archipelago of Lake Onega, the age of the westerly declination peak is dated to 13 090 cal. BP and accordingly the deglaciation of the Onega basin took place between 14 250 and 12 750±100 cal. BP. The westerly declination peak was also recognized earlier by Bakhmutov and Zagniy in the Helylä varved clay sequence near Sortavala on the northern shore of Lake Ladoga. Helylä is situated outside the Salpausselkä end moraines and the accumulation of varved clays continued there 1500 years after the declination peak, up until the drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake, which more or less coincides with the ice margin retreat from Salpausselkä II end moraine and the termination of the Younger Dryas event. The date thus arrived at for this event is 11 590±100 cal. BP, close to the recent results from Greenland

  17. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  18. New paradigm for layered paleoproterozoic PGE intrusions of the Fennoscandian Shield: duration and multistage magmatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Felix; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Layered mafic-ultramafic paleoproterozoic PGE intrusions are widespread in the N-E part of Fennoscandian Shield and belongs to two belt: North (Kola) and South (Finland and Karelia). Precise isotope-geochemical data using U-Pb (on zircon and baddeleyite) and Sm-Nd (rock-forming and sulfides minerals), systematic reflect long magmatic activity (with 2.53, 2.50, 2.45, 2.40 pulses) and duration of mantle event from 2.53 to 2.40 Ga. The Kola belt barren phases were dated in Fedorovo-Pansky massifs with 2.53 Ga for orthopyroxenites and olivine gabbro based on U-Pb (on zircon) and Sm-Nd (rock-forming minerals) data. Main PGE-bearing phases of gabbronorite (Mt. Generalskaya) norite (Monchepluton) and gabbronorite (Fedorovo-Pansky) massif have yielded 2.50 Ga on U-Pb and Sm-Nd dating. The second PGE-bearing phases with 2.45 Ga belong to anorthosite of Mt. Generalskaya, Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchetundra massifs. The same ages have layered PGE-bearing intrusions of Finland - Koitelainen, Penikat et. set. and Oulanga group in Karelia (Bayanova et al., 2009). The final mafic magmatic activity connected with dykes of Imandra lopolith with 2.40 Ga. Isotope geochemical ɛNd - ISr indicators for layered intrusions (more than 70 analyses) reflect enriched mantle EM-1 type reservoir with ISr values from 0.703-0.704. Isotope 3He/4He data for accessory minerals (ilmenite, magnetite et. set.) have significant lower and upper mantle contribution. The model Sm-Nd ages of protolith lies in 3.2-2.9 Ga and primary magma source as fertile according to (Arndt, 2010). The geological and isotope-geochemistry data for layered paleoproterozoic PGE-intrusions permit considered Fennoscandian Shield with Superior and Wyoming as a big magmatic LIP, which related with breakup of oldest Kenorland Sypercontitent. We thank to G. Wasserburg for 205 Pb artificial spike, J. Ludden for 91500 and Temora standards, F. Corfu, V. Todt and U. Poller for assistance in the establishing of the U-Pb method for single

  19. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  20. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  1. New paleomagnetic data from 1.80-1.75 Ga mafic intrusions of Fennoscandia and Sarmatia: implications for the late Paleoproterozoic paleogeography of Baltica and Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Lubnina, Natalia; Sokolov, Svetoslav; Bogdanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    A series of recently dated 1.78-1.75 Ga lamprophyre and shoshonite intrusions are exposed north of Ladoga Lake in southern Karelia (Fennoscandia). We carried out a paleomagnetic study of these intrusions and an additional study of the coeval gabbro-dolerite Ropruchey sill near the Onega Lake. All studied rocks carry a stable primary remanence supported by positive contact tests. We also studied 14 mafic dykes and 1 mafic sill from Ukrainian shield (Sarmatia). Most of these intrusions have been dated or re-dated recently by U-Pb (baddeleyite) method at 1.80-1.75 Ga. Ukrainian dykes also carry a consistent stable bipolar remanence. Two positive contact tests suggest that this remanence is primary. A comparison of new and previously published paleomagnetic data shows a significant difference between Fennoscandian and Sarmatian 1.80-1.75 Ga paleopoles. This implies that the final assemble of Baltica by docking of Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia occurred after 1.75 Ga. Consequently these two parts of Baltica should be considered as independent blocks in pre-1.75 Ga paleogeographic reconstructions. Using late Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia together with geological constraints we have built a new kinematic paleogeographic model for Laurentia and Baltica in the Statherian.

  2. Age range of formation of sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt (the southeast of the Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhelovskaya, S. V.; Korsakov, A. K.; Mezhelovskii, A. D.; Bibikova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    As a result of studying the Vetreny Belt greenstone structure (the southeast of the Baltic Shield), zircons from terrigenous deposits of the Toksha Formation, underlying the section of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex, and zircons of the Vetreny Belt Formation, deposits of which crown the section, were dated. The results of analysis of age data of detrital zircons from quartzites of the Toksha Formation indicate that Mesoarchean greenstone complexes and paleo-Archean granitogneisses of the Vodlozero Block (Karelia) were the provenance area from which these zircons were derived. The occurrence of the youngest zircons with age of 2654.3 ± 38.5 Ma is evidence that the formation of the Vetreny Belt, including the Toksha Formation, began no earlier than this time. Zircons from volcanic rocks of the Vetreny Belt yielded the age of 2405 ± 5 Ma. Thus, the age interval of the formation of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt ranges from 2654.3 ± 38.5 to 2405 ± 5 Ma.

  3. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics. PMID:23706292

  4. The Tturbulent Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Small Northern Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, I.; Stepanenko, V.; Artamonov, A.; Barskov, K.; Polukhov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland and freshwater ecosystems of the Northern Europe are an important natural source of atmospheric methane. Adequate calculation of gas emission from the northern territories requires calculation of balances of heat, moisture, and gases at the surface of water bodies on the sub-grid scale in the climate models. We carried out measurements in North Karelia on the lake Verkhneye (White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University). The purpose of the study is evaluation of turbulent transport in the system "lake water- near-surface air - surrounding forest" in the winter season. We used an array of acoustic anemometers mounted at different distances from the lake shore. Measurements were taken at two heights in the center of the lake. It was revealed that the intensity of the turbulent transfer essentially depends on the height and location of sensors, and the wind direction. Stratification in the near-to-surface air probably does not play significant role. Besides, there is no constant-flux layer. The later makes Monin and Obukhov similarity theory (which is used in most of the parameterizations for calculating turbulent flows) inapplicable in this case. The work was sponsored by RFBR 14-05-91752, 14-05-91764, 15-35-20958.

  5. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. ); Hettich, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  6. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  7. Study of natural zircon-xenotime assemblages for estimation of the actinide waste forms stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lapina, M.I.; Yudintsev, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    In order to estimate compositions and structural stability of YPO{sub 4}-ZrSiO{sub 4}-USiO{sub 4}-ThSiO{sub 4} solid solution, natural specimens of (U, Th)-enriched zircon-xenotime assemblages were studied. The samples were picked from granitic pegmatites of North Karelia of about 1,850 Ma age. TEM data show that amorphization of the zircon structure is not complete. Xenotime has typical crystal structure. ASEM and EPMA results indicate that zircon and xenotime are micro-heterogeneous in there compositions. Numerous micro-inclusions (<5 {micro}m in diameter) of xenotime and uranium oxide were found within the zircon grains. Xenotime is free from inclusions. The results give rise to the conclusions that xenotime-zircon solid solution is restricted due to high difference in ionic radii (Y{sup 3+} vs. Zr{sup 4+} and P{sup 5+} vs. Si{sup 4+}). Data on high amounts of rare earth elements and phosphorus in natural zircons are result from REE-phosphate inclusions in analyzed zircons. Content of U in the zircon allowed the estimation of the solubility of coffinite end member to be no less than 5 mol.% USiO{sub 4}.

  8. Changes in serum enterolactone, genistein, and daidzein in a dietary intervention study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, K; Pietinen, P; Puska, P; Adlercreutz, H

    2000-12-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may have cancer-protective properties. The purpose of the study was to see how enterolactone, daidzein, and genistein serum concentrations reflect major changes in the diet of Finnish subjects. Phytoestrogen concentrations were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay after hydrolysis and extraction in samples from 85 middle-aged subjects who were part of a 12-week dietary intervention study carried out in North Karelia, Finland. In the baseline and the switchback periods, the subjects consumed their habitual Finnish diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in polyunsaturated fat and vegetables. During the 12-week intervention period, the proportion of dietary energy derived from fat was reduced from approximately 39% to 23%, and the consumption of vegetables, fruit, and berries was markedly increased. Enterolactone concentrations were measured during the baseline, intervention, and switchback periods. The median concentration of enterolactone rose from 12.2 to 19.5 nmol/l (P = 0.002) during the low-fat, high-vegetable diet. Daidzein and genistein concentrations were very low and did not change during the intervention. At baseline, 65% of the population had a low serum enterolactone concentration of <15 nmol/l. During the intervention period, this proportion fell to 34%. These major differences in serum enterolactone concentrations suggest that enterolactone may be used as a biomarker of a healthy diet containing plenty of vegetables, fruit, and berries. PMID:11142423

  9. A Mobile Phone Application for the Collection of Opinion Data for Forest Planning Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  10. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis. PMID:25579620

  11. Carbon-isotope composition of the carbonatites and a probable source for their material

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhinskii, A.F.; Mamchur, G.P.

    1980-12-01

    The ..delta..C/sup 13/ values in carbonatites of different composition and origin from the Maymecha-Kotuy province of Polar Siberia, the East Sayan province of Eastern Siberia, and the Karelia-Kola province, vary within very narrow limits: from -0.46% for the high-temperature calcitic generations up to -0.24% for the low-temperature dolomitic and ankerite-dolomitic generations of carbonatites. From an analysis of the ..delta..C/sup 13/ values obtained and their comparison with values for deep-seated carbon dioxide (average -0.7%) and carbon dioxide of marine carbonates (average approx. 0.0%), on the one hand, and also allowing for the thermodynamic isotope effect in the system CO/sub 2/ == CO/sub 3//sup -2/, on the other, it follows that the source of the carbon dioxide for the carbonatites may have been a mixture of deep-seated and sedimentary-carbonate CO/sub 2/. Judging by the ..delta..C/sup 13/ values for the high-temperature calcitic carbonatites (0.45/-0.46%), deep-seated carbon dioxide predominated in the original mixture. (JMT)

  12. Bulding and Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    First, the Our Lady of Kazan Orthodox Cathedral and some mansions are used to demonstrate Russian stones in the architectural décor of St Petersburg, XVIII-XX cc. These rocks are granites from Vyborg and Sortavala, lime tufa from Gatchina, marbles from Ruskeala and Juven at the Ladoga Lake, Tivdian marble, Shokshian quartzite, and black aspid slate of the Onega Lake. Later German and Polish sandstones and Finnish soap stone came to the city. Second, there is given a review of rock types used in St Petersburg at XX-XXI cc. margins. They are granites, granosyenites, syenites, gneisses, marbles, limestones both from Russia and from abroad. Which ones are more usual? From what regions did Russian stone come? References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print. House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. 2) A.Ya. Tutakova, A.Z. Romanovskiy, A.G. Bulakh, V.I. Leer. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p. (In Russian).

  13. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  14. Community-based noncommunicable disease interventions: lessons from developed countries for developing ones.

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, A.; Berrios, X.; Puska, P.

    2001-01-01

    Community-based programmes for prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) started in Europe and the USA in the early 1970s. High mortality from CVD in Finland led to the start of the North Karelia Project. Since then, a vast amount of scientific literature has accumulated to present results and discuss experience. The results indicate that heart health programmes have a high degree of generalizability, are cost-effective and can influence health policy. In the 1980s the focus of programmes expanded from CVD to noncommunicable diseases (NCD), mainly because of the common risk factors. Attention has now turned to promoting this approach in developing countries, where the prevalence of NCD is growing. Theory and experience show that community-based NCD programmes should be planned, run and evaluated according to clear principles and rules, collaborate with all sectors of the community, and maintain close contact with the national authorities. In view of the burden of disease they represent and of globalization, there is a great need for international collaboration. Practical networks with common guidelines but adaptable to local cultures in a flexible way have proved to be very useful. PMID:11693979

  15. [Factors of macrozoobenthic communities formation on stony rapids and bars in streams of East Fennoscandia].

    PubMed

    Baryshev, I A

    2014-01-01

    Relying on own data (267 quantitative samples in total), factors of rheophilous zoobenthos formation in East Fennoscandia have been studied with use of detrended correspondence analysis. In the period from 2005 to 2011, in August, samples were taken from 90 stony rapids belonging to 39 streams. On East Fennoscandia territory, which extends over 1000 kilometers in south-north direction, climatic factor plays an important role in formation of macrozoobenthos in streams. With regard to both species composition and total abundance, the poorest benthic communities are found in tundra rivers in the northern part of the region. In limnetic-riverine systems of south Karelia, on the contrary, rheophilous macrozoobenthos is characterized by great number of species and high biomass. However, the structure of benthic communities is markedly influenced, beside the climate, by flowing lakes and settlements located in the catchment area. Under their influence, the species richness of zoobenthos in streams decreases while the biomass increases. Under the conditions of low trophic status that are indicative of northern water bodies, these sources of additional organic matter and biogenic elements improve feeding conditions for macrozoobenthic organisms which, in its turn, leads to biomass and production growth. PMID:25490841

  16. [Resource availability and its role in development of invasion processes].

    PubMed

    Kriksunov, E A; Bobyrev, A E; Burmenskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    The state of biotic communities inhabiting different water bodies is analyzed aiming to determination of conditions facilitating development of biological invasions. Mass-balance and dynamic models are used to reveal the factors ensuring the invasion of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in Naroch Lakes (Byelorussia), and smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, in Lake Syamozero (Karelia). The results obtained indicate that for invasions leading to trophic chain lengthening, the main factor of successful invasion is the availability of resources that are not utilized by aboriginal species. Highest chances for successful invasion belong to invading species feeding on those trophic groups which contribute to the most extent to forming of 'excess' (i.e., available for the invader) production. It is shown that establishment of an alien species in a native community appears to be possible only when total amount of such 'excess' production is higher then some threshold value. Under conditions of spatio-temporal environmental heterogeneity, the timing factor, which determines the exact moment of an alien species intrusion, becomes important as well. PMID:21061642

  17. Passing excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupikova, Daria

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of a virtual reality visualization project "Passing excellence" about the world famous architectural ensemble "Kizhi". The Kizhi Pogost is located on an island in Lake Onega in northern Karelia in Russia. It is an authentic museum of an ancient wood building tradition which presents a unique artistic achievement. This ensemble preserves a concentration of masterpieces of the Russian heritage and is included in the List of Most Endangered Sites of the World Monuments Watch protected by World Heritage List of UNESCO. The project strives to create a unique virtual observation of the dynamics of the architectural changes of the museum area beginning from the 15th Century up to the 21st Century. The visualization is being created to restore the original architecture of Kizhi island based on the detailed photographs, architectural and geometric measurements, textural data, video surveys and resources from the Kizhi State Open-Air Museum archives. The project is being developed using Electro, an application development environment for the tiled display high-resolution graphics visualization system and can be shown on the virtual reality systems such as the GeoWall TM and the C-Wall.

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian model for rare variant association analysis integrating genotype uncertainty in human sequence data.

    PubMed

    He, Liang; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Sillanpää, Mikko J; Ripatti, Samuli

    2015-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to the study of rare genetic variants, which possibly explain the missing heritability for complex diseases. Most existing methods for rare variant (RV) association detection do not account for the common presence of sequencing errors in NGS data. The errors can largely affect the power and perturb the accuracy of association tests due to rare observations of minor alleles. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate the association between RVs and complex diseases. Our integrated framework combines the misclassification probability with shrinkage-based Bayesian variable selection. It allows for flexibility in handling neutral and protective RVs with measurement error, and is robust enough for detecting causal RVs with a wide spectrum of minor allele frequency (MAF). Imputation uncertainty and MAF are incorporated into the integrated framework to achieve the optimal statistical power. We demonstrate that sequencing error does significantly affect the findings, and our proposed model can take advantage of it to improve statistical power in both simulated and real data. We further show that our model outperforms existing methods, such as sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Finally, we illustrate the behavior of the proposed method using a Finnish low-density lipoprotein cholesterol study, and show that it identifies an RV known as FH North Karelia in LDLR gene with three carriers in 1,155 individuals, which is missed by both SKAT and Granvil. PMID:25395270

  19. New archaeointensity results from Scandinavia and Bulgaria. Rock-magnetic studies inference and geophysical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Casas, Ll.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates archaeological artifacts from five sites in Europe: one from Switzerland (Cheyres—baked clay remains from an Iron Age kiln: 700-530 BC); one from Bulgaria (Drustur—Medieval kiln: 1200-1300 AD); two from Finland (Busö—Medieval kiln: 1570 AD and bricks from Helsinki: 1906 AD); and one from Russian Karelia (bricks from Valaam: 1856 AD). The goal of the paper is to determine palaeointensity from the archaeological sites mentioned above, as well as to compare the values obtained in different laboratories, and so to infer reliability to the results. Palaeointensity experiments were mainly carried out at the Division of Geophysics, University of Helsinki and at the Palaeomagnetic Laboratory of the Geophysical Institute in Sofia. Additionally, microwave palaeointensity determinations on few sister specimens from Helsinki bricks and from Drustur kiln were performed in Liverpool. Large amount of rock-magnetic studies accompanies the work in order to find possible explanations for the acceptance or failure of palaeointensity experiments. The encountered difficulties in obtaining reliable palaeointensity results are discussed and show a still incomplete state of art for determination of this important ancient geomagnetic field characteristic. The accepted new palaeointensity evaluations for different time and space will partly fill up considerable gaps in European palaeointensity databases. Geophysical inference is demonstrated on the basis of virtual axial dipole moment calculated from the new palaeointensity results and its relationship with the CALS7K.2 model calculation and the observatory measurements for the corresponding territories.

  20. Complex lithospheric structure under the central Baltic Shield from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneton, Marianne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Farra, VéRonique; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Vacher, Pierre; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bock, G.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Heikkinen, P.; Hjelt, S.-E.; HyvöNen, T. L.; Ikonen, J.-P.; Kissling, E.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Nevsky, M. V.; Paulssen, H.; Pavlenkova, N. I.; Plomerová, J.; Raita, T.; Riznichenko, O. Y.; Roberts, R. G.; Sandoval, S.; Sanina, I. A.; Sharov, N. V.; Shomali, Z. H.; Tiikkainen, J.; Wielandt, E.; Wilegalla, K.; Yliniemi, J.; Yurov, Y. G.

    2004-10-01

    Regional seismic tomography provides valuable information on the structure of shields, thereby gaining insight to the formation and stabilization of old continents. Fennoscandia (known as the Baltic Shield for its exposed part) is a composite shield for which the last recorded tectonic event is the intrusion of the Rapakivi granitoids around 1.6 Ga. A seismic experiment carried out as part of the European project Svecofennian-Karelia-Lapland-Kola (SVEKALAPKO) was designed to study the upper mantle of the Finnish part of the Baltic Shield, especially the boundary between Archean and Proterozoic domains. We invert the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves to obtain a three-dimensional shear wave velocity model using a ray-based method accounting for the curvature of wave fronts. The experiment geometry allows an evaluation of lateral variations in velocities down to 150 km depth. The obtained model exhibits variations of up to ±3% in S wave velocities. As the thermal variations beneath Finland are very small, these lateral variations must be caused by different rock compositions. The lithospheres beneath the Archean and Proterozoic domains are not noticeably different in the S wave velocity maps. A classification of the velocity profiles with depth yields four main families and five intermediate regions that can be correlated with surface features. The comparison of these profiles with composition-based shear wave velocities implies both lateral and vertical variations of the mineralogy.

  1. Temporal and spatial distribution of glacial earthquakes in Greenland during the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes are seismic events associated with rapid changes in the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. Monitoring of such events from Greenland at gerional distances was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, recorded high-frequency continuous data of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in the Fennoscandia. Glacial events from Greenland were identified using manual analysis of the continuous POLENET/LAPNET data. Recordings of glacial earthquakes by the array contain the long-period energy only. In many cases the events were recorded in groups within the time interval of up to 1 hour. For some of the events it was possible to recognize not only the long-period surface wave, but also the first arrival of a long-period P-wave. The events were located using standard array techniques. Our study proves that glacial earthquakes show a strong seasonality, with most of events occurring during summer months. We found out that during Summer, 2008, significant number of events originated from the northern part of Greenland, where recent investigation using GRACE data (Chen et al., 2011) showed rapid increase of ice loss rate. This

  2. Source rocks and provenances of the Ladoga Group siliciclastic metasediments (Svecofennian Foldbelt, Baltic Shield): Results of geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, L. N.; Kotov, A. B.; Glebovitskii, V. A.; Podkovyrov, V. N.; Savatenkov, V. M.

    2009-02-01

    Siliciclastic metasediments of the Ladoga Group that is the Kalevian stratotype in Karelia correlative with the Kalevian siliciclastic succession in Finland are studied in terms of geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics. The results obtained show that rocks in the Ladoga Group lower part are enriched, as compared to rocks of the upper part, in TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, Cr, Co, Ni, and Sc, being comparatively depleted in Al2O3 and Th that is a result of compositional changes in provenances. The Sm-Nd isotopic data evidence that siliciclastic sediments of the Ladoga Group have accumulated during the erosion of rocks, which originated at the time of the Archean and Early Proterozoic crust-forming processes. Siliciclastic material with the Archean and Early Proterozoic TNd(DM) values, which are characteristic of metasediments in the group lower part, was derived respectively from granite gneisses of the Archean basement in the Karelian megablock of the Baltic Shield and from volcanic rocks of the Sortavala Group. Volcanic rocks of island-arc terranes of the Svecofennian foldbelt represented main source of siliciclastic material that accumulated in upper part of the succession.

  3. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  4. Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to reveal morphological features of first-generation Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids (nymphs and adults) obtained under laboratory conditions for further study of natural populations of these species in sympatry foci. In 65 nymphs of three groups I. ricinus (23 specimens), I. persulcatus (21 specimens), and hybrids (21 specimens), 16 parameters were evaluated (length/width of the scutum and capitulum, length of the hypostome, palp, tarsus I, coxa I, sternal setae, and various scutal and alloscutal setae) and discrimination analysis was performed allowing differentiation of hybrid nymphs from original species. General effectiveness of classification of I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, and hybrids was >95 %. Discriminant functions are presented allowing classification of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrid nymphs. For description of morphology, 27 adult hybrids (13 males and 14 females) were examined under a stereo microscope at 14-28× (without preparation of permanent mounts). The following morphological distinctions of hybrids from original species were described: posterior marginal groove is not clear (as in I. ricinus) and absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I persulcatus). In hybrid males, simultaneous absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I. persulcatus) and a long internal spur on coxa I (as in I. ricinus) can be used as a diagnostic feature. Based on the detected characteristics, 10 of 157 ticks collected in Karelia in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus sympatry area were classified as hybrids. PMID:26984610

  5. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu mining district - a metallogenic province about 100 km long x 60 km wide - hosts a Palaeoproterozoic sulfide deposit characterized by an unusual lithological association. It is located in the North Karelia Schist Belt , which was thrust on the late Archaean gneissic-granitoid basement of the Karelian craton during the early stages of the Svecofennian Orogeny between 1.92 and 1.87 Ga (Koistinen 1981). Two major tectono-stratigraphic units can be distinguished, a lower, parautochthonous 'Lower Kaleva' unit and an upper, allochthonous 'upper Kaleva' unit or 'Outokumpu allochthon'. The latter consists of tightly-folded deep marine turbiditic mica schists and metagraywackes containing intercalations of black schist, and the Outo¬kumpu assemblage, which comprises ca. 1950 Ma old, serpentinized peridotites surrounded by carbonate-calc-silicate ('skarn')-quartz rocks. The ore body is enclosed in the Outokumpu assemblage, which is thought to be part of a disrupted and incomplete ophiolite complex (Vuollo & Piirainen 1989) that can be traced to the Kainuu schist belt further north where the well-preserved Jormua ophiolite is ex¬posed (Kontinen 1987, Peltonen & Kontinen 2004). Outokumpu can be divided into blocks divided by faults and shear zones (Saalmann and Laine, 2014). The aim of this study was to make a 3D lithological model of a small part of the Outokumpu association rocks in the Vuonos area honoring the 3D fault model built by Saalmann and Laine (2014). The Vuonos study area is also a part of the Outokumpu mining camp area (Aatos et al. 2013, 2014). Fault and shear structures was used in geostatistical gridding and simulation of the lithologies. Several possible realizations of the structural grids, conforming the main lithological trends were built. Accordingly, it was possible to build a 3D structural grid containing information of the distribution of the possible lithologies and an estimation the associated uncertainties. References: Aatos, S

  6. Review of global 2.1-1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Sun, Min

    2002-11-01

    Available lithostratigraphic, tectonothermal, geochronological and paleomagnetic data from 2.1-1.8 Ga collisional orogens and related cratonic blocks around the world have established connections between South America and West Africa; Western Australia and South Africa; Laurentia and Baltica; Siberia and Laurentia; Laurentia and Central Australia; East Antarctica and Laurentia, and North China and India. These links are interpreted to indicate the presence of a supercontinent existing before Rodinia, referred to herein as Columbia, a name recently proposed by Rogers and Santosh [Gondwana Res. 5 (2002) 5] for a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent. In this supercontinent, the Archean to Paleoproterozoic cratonic blocks were welded by the global 2.1-1.8 Ga collisional belts. The cratonic blocks in South America and West Africa were welded by the 2.1-2.0 Ga Transamazonian and Eburnean Orogens; the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons in southern Africa were collided along the ˜2.0 Ga Limpopo Belt; the cratonic blocks of Laurentia were sutured along the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson, Penokean, Taltson-Thelon, Wopmay, Ungava, Torngat and Nagssugtoqidian Orogens; the Kola, Karelia, Volgo-Uralia and Sarmatia (Ukrainian) Cratons in Baltica (Eastern Europe) were joined by the 1.9-1.8 Ga Kola-Karelia, Svecofennian, Volhyn-Central Russian and Pachelma Orogens; the Anabar and Aldan Cratons in Siberia were connected by the 1.9-1.8 Ga Akitkan and Central Aldan Orogens; the East Antarctica and an unknown continental block were joined by the Transantarctic Mountains Orogen; the South and North Indian Blocks were amalgamated along the Central Indian Tectonic Zone; and the Eastern and Western Blocks of the North China Craton were welded together by the ˜1.85 Ga Trans-North China Orogen. The existence of Columbia is consistent with late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic sedimentary and magmatic records. The ˜2.0 Ga fluvio-deltaic deposits have been found in all cratonic blocks in South

  7. 1.8 Ga magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield; lateral variations in subcontinental mantle enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, U. B.; Eklund, O.; Fröjdö, S.; Konopelko, D.

    2006-01-01

    The ca. 1.8 Ga post-collisional magmatism in the southern part of the 2.1-1.86 Ga Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield have been studied with particular reference to the character and sources of the mafic rocks in a traverse from the Archaean craton margin in east, across the juvenile Svecofennian domain to its western margin. For this purpose three key areas were selected in the eastern, central and western parts of the domain: (i) in the western part of the domain, the Tjällmo-Vättern zone (southern Sweden) of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB) consists of extensive areas of dominantly alkali-calcic granitoids associated with calc-alkaline to tholeiitic mafic rocks. Initial ɛNd for the mafic rocks vary from around 0 to above +3. (ii) In the central part of the domain (SW Finland), the post-collisional rocks are represented by small intrusions consisting of calc-alkaline high-Ba-Sr granites associated with shoshonitic lamprophyres and their plutonic equivalents. Initial ɛNd for the rocks in this series vary between 0 and +1. (iii) In the easternmost part of the Svecofennian domain (Russian Karelia and SE Finland) shoshonitic associations occur, comprising lamprophyres and their plutonic equivalents (apatite and magnetite-rich monzodiorites), which are related to syenites and high-Ba-Sr granites by fractional crystallization. All the rock types in this shoshonitic association have strongly elevated contents of P 2O 5, LREE and LILE. Initial ɛNd for all rocks in Karelia fall between 0 and -1. Geochemical and isotopic results indicate that the post-collisional rocks in the central and eastern part of the domain stem from lithospheric mantle sources that were enriched during the preceding Svecofennian orogeny. The HFSE depletion, combined with the strong Sr, LILE and LREE enrichment, recall signatures of increasingly carbonate-dominated metasomatism of the mantle eastwards towards the craton margin. In contrast, the mainly LILE enriched mafic

  8. Glacial seismic events from Greenland recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET seismic array during the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial earthquakes are seismic events associated with rapid changes in the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. They belong to the class of so-called slow earthquakes caused by a variety of stick-slip and creep processes. Recordings of glacial events are depleted in high frequencies and can be detected from recordings of broadband seismic instruments. Monitoring of such events from Greenland at regional distances was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, recorded high-frequency continuous data of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in the Fennoscandia. Glacial events from Greenland were identified using manual analysis of the continuous POLENET/LAPNET data filtered by a bandpass filter from 35 s to 140 s frequency band. The detected events were located using standard array techniques. Our study demonstrated that the POLENET/LAPNET array, located at regional distances from Greenland, recorded more such events than the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) during the same observation period. In addition, the array detected a number of slow earthquakes originating from northern part of Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, vicinity of Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen Island and a number of events originated from Arctic Canada. This shows that analysis of recordings of broadband stations in low-frequency can provide new information about seismicity and spreading processes in the Arctics. Our study proves that glacial earthquakes in Greenland show a seasonality, with most of events occurring during summer months. We found out that during 2008, significant number of events originated from the northern part of Greenland, where recent investigation using

  9. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  10. Suspended Matter Studies In Keret' River Mixing Zone (karelian Coast of The White Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Dolotov, Yu. S.; Filatov, N. N.; Kovalenko, V. N.; Lifshitz, V. Kh.; Petrov, M. P.; Platonov, A. V.; Prego, R.; Rat'kova, T. N.

    In September 2000 suspended matter was studied in the Keret' estuary and adjacent part of the White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia) along with hydrophysical measure- ments during the expedition onboard the RV "Ecolog". 106 samples of total suspended matter were obtained by filtration of water samples through nuclepore filters, 87 sam- ples of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen were collected by filtration through the Whatman GF/F filters. 21 samples of phytoplankton were collected from the same water samples. Pico- (< 2 mkm) and the most abundant nanoplankton (2-20 mkm) al- gae were counted before any concentration of the sample, then samples were allowed to settle for a week and were slowly decanted through a glass tube covered with nylon gauze. Microplankton cells (> 20 mkm) and less abundant nanoplankton algae were counted at 200X magnification. Concentrations of total suspended matter in the sur- face layer decreased .from 0.79 - 2.00 mg/l in near-mouth zone to 0.40 - 1.00 mg/l in marine zone (at the distance of 9 km from the Keret' mouth). Molar C/N ration decreased from 10.2 in the Keret' mouth to 7.1 in the marine zone demonstrating that content of terrigenic organic matter in suspended material decreases and content of marine plankton increases. Flagellates dominated in the composition of phytoplank- ton in the period of expedition. Phytoplankton was distributed in water column rela- tively evenly. Fresh water species were sparse, may be because of the strong salinity gradient in the mouth of the river. The work was supported by Russian Fund of Ba- sic Researches (grants 00-05-64070 and 00-05-79063), INTAS (grant 97-1881) and INCO-COPERNICUS (grant ICA2-CT-2000-10053).

  11. Electromagnetic studies on the Kola peninsula and in Northern Finland by means of a powerful controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, Ye. P.; Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Belkov, I. V.; Gorbunov, G. I.; Hjelt, S. E.; Lisin, A. S.; Vanyan, L. L.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Demidova, T. A.; Korja, T.; Kirillov, S. K.; Kuksa, Yu. I.; Poltanov, A. Ye.; Tokarev, A. D.; Yevstigneyev, V. V.

    1986-07-01

    Station "Khibiny", equipped with a powerful magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and/or diesel generator, has been successfully used since 1976 to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust in the northern part of the Baltic Shield. The present paper describes the techniques of measurement, data processing and interpretation of the five-component electromagnetic fields created by this source. A longitudinal conductance map for the upper 10 km of the Earth's crust has been constructed. Several blocks, with conductances varying from 0.1 to some thousands of Siemens, have been revealed on the Kola Peninsula, in northern Karelia and in northern Finland. The blocks of high conductance are connected with relatively young complexes of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean ages. In some places, they create thick and extensive conductive belts such as the Imandra-Varzuga and the Pechenga zones. More often, they appear in the shape of vast regions with enhanced conductivity (e.g., the granulite belts and the Allarechen region). The geoelectric cross-section of the Imandra-Varzuga ore-critical structure has been studied in detail, using the method of electromagnetic field migration. Its depth extent is approximately 10 km. Highly resistant blocks are associated with the most ancient geological units, of early Archean age. Resistant regions have been found in the Murmansk and Central Kola regions, as well as in the Kovdor massif and in the Central Finland granite area. These regions are the most promising ones for deep electromagnetic sounding of the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Earth.

  12. Chiral Biomarkers and Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as ?bio-discriminators? that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  13. Geochemical features of carbonatites of the Fennoscandian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, Yu. B.; Gorbachev, N. S.; Kostyuk, A. V.; Sultanov, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    The petrochemistry of carbonatites of three formation types were studied: (1) ultrahigh-pressure garnet-containing carbonatites (UHPC) of the Caledonian sheet (Tromsö, Norway); (2) rocks of the carbonatite—alkaline—ultrabasic Kovdor massif (the Kola Peninsula); and (3) rocks of the carbonatite—alkaline—gabbroid Tikshozero massif (north of Karelia). The samples of carbonatites were examined and tested with a microprobe; the microelements were determined using the ICP—MS technique at the Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Chernogolovka). The carbonatites of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs are characterized by similar negative REE trends, with a degree of REE enrichment of the Tikshozero carbonatites. The UHPC from Tromsö are different from those of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs in the negative trend along with lower concentrations of light REEs. The Tromsö UHPC are similar to the carbonatites of the Kovdor and Tikshozero massifs in the trend and concentrations of heavy REEs. The carbonatites of the Fennoscandian shield of various formation times and types are characterized by the geochemical similarity to those in different regions of the world with the sources associated to mantle plumes. This similarity might be caused by the formation of the mantle carbonated magmas of carbonatite-containing igneous complexes from a mantle source enriched under either mantle metasomatism or plume—lithosphere interaction, with similar mechanisms of formation. The appearance of the formations as such within a wide time interval points to the long-term occurrence of a superplume at the Fennoscandian shield and to permanent activation of the related processes of magma formation.

  14. Theoretical rationale of community intervention for the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    MacLean, D R

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the developed world, accounting for slightly more than 40% of all mortality. Along with the resultant disability of those who survive with the disease it costs the health care system in Canada approximately $17 billion on an annual basis. The known risk factors for cardiovascular disease are widespread within the population; in Canada, approximately 70% of individuals have one or more of the major risk factors. Research over the past 25 years has disclosed that a significant proportion of the cause of heart disease and its risk factors are rooted in the unhealthy habits of average living in conjunction with unfavorable physical, economic and psychosocial environments. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease has focused on individual risk factor change combined with approaches to community organization in an effort to produce a more conducive environment for behavior change to be carried out. First-generation community programs for cardiovascular disease prevention, as illustrated by the North Karelia Project, Stanford Five City Project and others in the United States, have relied heavily on social learning theory as advanced by Bandura, from Stanford University. Second-generation prevention programs, such as the Nova Scotia Heart Health Program, have relied on these theories as well as theories of participation and community development in the prevention of major noncommunicable diseases. This paper gives an overview of the theoretical basis of community intervention programs for cardiovascular disease. Included will be a discussion of some of the various theoretical approaches used in Canada and the United States and elsewhere over the past 25 years. PMID:7919078

  15. The temporal evolution of sanukitoids in the Karelian Craton, Baltic Shield: an ion microprobe U Th Pb isotopic study of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Petrova, A.; Claesson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of zircons from six sanukitoid intrusions in the Karelian Craton has been investigated, using the secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). Our results show that Karelian sanukitoids formed between 2745 and 2705 Ma ago and that there is an age difference of about 30 Ma between sanukitoids in the eastern and western Karelia. Results for intrusions made up of a number of magmatic phases show no internal age variation. In the east of the study region, zircons from a monzodiorite and two quartz monzonites from the Panozero pluton were dated at 2737±11, 2739±11, and 2741±8 Ma; in the Hautavaara pluton, a monzodiorite and a subalkaline granite were dated at 2743±8 and 2742±23 Ma, and a quartz diorite from the Elmus pluton gave an age of 2741±7 Ma. In addition, a lamprophyre dyke within the Sjargozero pluton gave an age of 2742±14 Ma. In the west, zircons from a quartz monzonite and a granodiorite in the Njuk intrusion gave ages of 2709±10 and 2716±11 Ma. In the Kurgelampi pluton, zircons from a diorite and two granodiorites were dated at 2707±9, 2719±6, and 2712±9 Ma, respectively. Zircons from the granodiorites and the alkaline granites contain older cores with 207Pb/ 206Pb ages greater than 2800 Ma. The absence of inherited zircons in the more mafic sanukitoids is attributed to their higher saturation levels for zirconium. Sanukitoid zircons have Th/U ratios above 0.5 and often higher, whereas nearby tonalite-tondhjemite-granodiorites (TTGs) have Th/U ratios below 0.5. Typically, tonalites are older than sanukitoids by more than 100 Ma and it is possible that tectonic processes associated with the collision of the Belomorian Mobile Belt provided the heat necessary to initiate the generation of the sanukitoid melts.

  16. Contribution of regulatory and structural variations in APOE to predicting dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Stengård, Jari H.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hamon, Sara C.; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Salomaa, Veikko; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 1) whether non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (non-cSNP) in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) identified by resequencing studies contribute to statistically explaining dyslipidemia if variations in the two cSNPs in exon 4 that define the ɛ2, ɛ3, and ɛ4 alleles are ignored, and 2) whether the contribution of these additional SNPs persists when variations in the cSNPs are considered. We used an ecological, multiple-population, data-mining strategy to identify single-SNP and two-SNP genotypes that distinguish between high and low levels of plasma lipids in three training samples, European-Americans from Rochester, MN, African-Americans from Jackson, MS, and Europeans from North Karelia, Finland. We found that a pair of SNPs located in the 5' region define genotypes A560T832/A560T832, A560T832/A560G832, and A560T832/T560T832, which distinguish between high and low levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and/or total cholesterol (T-C). The A560T832/- genotypes predicted high TG and high T-C in both genders in a large independent test sample from Copenhagen, Denmark. Prediction of high T-C in the Danish females was dependent on genotypes defined by the cSNPs. Our study suggests that both regulatory and structural variations should be considered when evaluating the utility of APOE for predicting dyslipidemia in the population at large. PMID:16317171

  17. Apolipoprotein E Variation at the Sequence Haplotype Level: Implications for the Origin and Maintenance of a Major Human Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Clark, Andrew G.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Taylor, Scott L.; Stengård, Jari H.; Salomaa, Veikko; Vartiainen, Erkki; Perola, Markus; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Three common protein isoforms of apolipoprotein E (apoE), encoded by the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles of the APOE gene, differ in their association with cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease risk. To gain a better understanding of the genetic variation underlying this important polymorphism, we identified sequence haplotype variation in 5.5 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the whole of the APOE locus and adjoining flanking regions in 96 individuals from four populations: blacks from Jackson, MS (n=48 chromosomes), Mayans from Campeche, Mexico (n=48), Finns from North Karelia, Finland (n=48), and non-Hispanic whites from Rochester, MN (n=48). In the region sequenced, 23 sites varied (21 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, 1 diallelic indel, and 1 multiallelic indel). The 22 diallelic sites defined 31 distinct haplotypes in the sample. The estimate of nucleotide diversity (site-specific heterozygosity) for the locus was 0.0005±0.0003. Sequence analysis of the chimpanzee APOE gene showed that it was most closely related to human ε4-type haplotypes, differing from the human consensus sequence at 67 synonymous (54 substitutions and 13 indels) and 9 nonsynonymous fixed positions. The evolutionary history of allelic divergence within humans was inferred from the pattern of haplotype relationships. This analysis suggests that haplotypes defining the ε3 and ε2 alleles are derived from the ancestral ε4s and that the ε3 group of haplotypes have increased in frequency, relative to ε4s, in the past 200,000 years. Substantial heterogeneity exists within all three classes of sequence haplotypes, and there are important interpopulation differences in the sequence variation underlying the protein isoforms that may be relevant to interpreting conflicting reports of phenotypic associations with variation in the common protein isoforms. PMID:10986041

  18. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  19. History and development of plant sterol and stanol esters for cholesterol-lowering purposes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gilbert R; Grundy, Scott M

    2005-07-01

    Plant stanol esters provide a novel approach to lowering plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by dietary means. Their development was preceded by a long period of research into the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols and, recently, plant stanols. Both classes of compound competitively inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and thus lower its level in plasma. Initial impressions were that stanols were more effective and safer than sterols, but the negative outcome of a study led to the recognition that the lipid solubility of free stanols was very limited. This was overcome by esterifying them with fatty acids, with the resultant stanol esters being freely soluble in fat spreads. This led to the launch of Benecol (margarine; Raisio Group, Raisio, Finland) in 1995. The coincident publication of the year-long North Karelia study conclusively demonstrated the long-term LDL-lowering efficacy of plant stanol esters. Variables that might influence the efficacy of stanol esters include dose, frequency of administration, food vehicle in which the stanol ester is incorporated, and background diet. The effective dose is 1 to 3 g/day, expressed as free stanol, which, in placebo-controlled studies, decreased LDL cholesterol by 6% to 15%. This effect is maintained, appears to be similar with once-daily or divided dosage, and is independent of the fat content of the food vehicle. Short-term studies suggest that equivalent amounts of plant sterol and stanol esters are similarly effective in lowering LDL, the main difference being that plasma plant sterol levels increase on plant sterols and decrease on plant stanols. The clinical significance of these changes remains to be determined. PMID:15992509

  20. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene. PMID:26852572

  1. Monitoring of glacial seismic events from Greenland at regional distances: experience from the POLENET/LAPNET experiment during the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.; Pedersen, H.; Plomerova, J.; Achauer, U.; Kissling, E. H.; Sanina, I.; Jämsen, T.; Silvennoinen, H.; Pequegnat, C.; Hurskainen, R.; Hausmann, H.; Jedlicka, P.; Aleshine, I.; Bourova, E.; Bodvarsson, R.; Brueckl, E. P.; Eken, T.; Heikkinen, P. J.; Houseman, G. A.; Johnsen, H.; Kari, K.; Munzarova, H.; Roberts, R.; Ruzek, B.; Hosein Shomali, Z.; Schweitzer, J.; Shaumyan, A.; Vecsey, L.; Volosov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of glacial earthquakes from Greenland was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, was designed to solve specific tasks of polar seismology. The collected POLENET/LAPNET dataset includes high-frequency continuous data (sampling rate from 50 to 100 sps) of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in Fennoscandia. The first results of the experiment have shown that the POLENET/LAPNET array, located at regional distances from Greenland, recorded more such events than it has been recorded by the Global Seismographic Network during the same observation period. The waveforms of events recorded by the array differ from both long-period waveforms of glacial earthquakes recorded at teleseismic distances and from short-period glacial rumblings recorded at local distances. Recordings of glacial earthquakes obtained by the array contain the long-period energy only. In many cases the events were recorded in groups within the time interval of up to 1 hour. Generally, the waveforms of events within the same group are different and the events not always originate from the same location. For some of the events it was possible to recognize not only dispersed long-period surface wave, but also the first arrival of a long-period P-wave. This suggests that source duration of these events was long. Diversity of the waveforms of glacial events recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET array can be considered as evidence for diversity of source mechanisms of these events.

  2. Geochronology of an archaean tonalitic gneiss dome in Northern Finland and its relation with an unusual overlying volcanic conglomerate and komatiitic greenstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Puustinen, K.; Hickman, M.

    1981-04-01

    Archaean gneiss-greenstone relationships are still unresolved in many ancient cratonic terrains although there is growing evidence that most of the late Archaean greenstone assemblages were deposited on older tonalitic crust. We report here well defined basement-cover relationships from a late Archaean greenstone belt in Lapland, north of the Polar Circle. The basal greenstone sequence contains quartzite, schist, komatiitic volcanics and an unusual volcanic conglomerate with well preserved granite pebbles of an older basement. These rocks surround a gneiss dome composed of foliated tonalite which shows a polyphase deformation pattern not seen in the neighbouring greenstones. Zircon fractions of the gneisses plot on two discordia lines and give upper intercept ages with concordia at 3,069±16 Ma and 3,110±17 Ma respectively. One fraction contains metamict zircons with components at least 3,135 Ma old. These are the oldest reliable ages yet reported from the Archaean of the Baltic Shield. Rb-Sr whole-rock dating of the tonalitic gneiss yielded an isochron age of 2,729±122 Ma and an ISr of 0.703±0.001. This is interpreted to reflect a resetting event during which the gneisses may have acquired their present tectonic fabric. Rb-Sr model age calculations yield mantle values for ISr at about 2,950±115 Ma and suggest that the tonalite was intruded into the crust as juvenile material at about 3.1 Ga ago as reflected by the zircon ages. It was subsequently deformed and isotopically reset at about 2.7 Ga ago, prior to greenstone deposition. Comparison with tonalitic gneisses of eastern Karelia displays significant differences and suggests that the Archaean of Finland may contain several generations of pre-greenstone granitoid rocks.

  3. On the recovery of effective elastic thickness using spectral methods: Examples from synthetic data and from the Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PéRez-Gussinyé, Marta; Lowry, Anthony R.; Watts, Anthony B.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2004-10-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding the long-term strength of continents (Te). While some authors obtain both low and high Te estimates from the Bouguer coherence and suggest that both crust and mantle contribute to lithospheric strength, others obtain estimates of only <25 km using the free-air admittance and suggest that the mantle is weak. At the root of this controversy is how accurately Te can be recovered from coherence and admittance. We investigate this question by using synthetic topography and gravity anomaly data for which Te is known. We show that the discrepancies stem from comparison of theoretical curves to multitaper power spectral estimates of free-air admittance. We reformulate the admittance method and show that it can recover synthetic Te estimates similar to those recovered using coherence. In light of these results, we estimate Te in Fennoscandia and obtain similar results using both techniques. Te is 20-40 km in the Caledonides, 40-60 km in the Swedish Svecofennides, 40-60 km in the Kola peninsula, and 70-100 km in southern Karelia and Svecofennian central Finland. Independent rheological modeling, using a xenolith-controlled geotherm, predicts similar high Te in central Finland. Because Te exceeds crustal thickness in this area, the mantle must contribute significantly to the total strength. Te in Fennoscandia increases with tectonic age, seismic lithosphere thickness, and decreasing heat flow, and low Te correlates with frequent seismicity. However, in Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere the relationship of Te to age is ambiguous, suggesting that compositional variations may influence the strength of continents.

  4. Sedimentary anisotropy diverges from flute trends in south-east Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Närhi, Paavo; Haavikko, Paula; Piekkari, Matti; Middleton, Maarit

    2010-12-01

    Subglacial flutes are parallel-to-ice flow lineations indicative of glacial streamlining, yet their depositional/erosional origin or sedimentary anisotropy is not fully understood. The flutes, aligned NW-SE with a flow direction to the SE, are superimposed on westerly oriented drumlins, in Kuusamo, south-eastern Finnish Lapland (65°45'N and 29°40'E) and reflect ice stream flow pattern towards the Younger Dryas End Moraines (YDEMs) in Russian Karelia. We investigated bedform morphology (flutes, drumlins and crescentic troughs), as well as sedimentary anisotropy of flute ridges and troughs using digital elevation models (DEMs), airborne radiometric (AR) data, and measurements of azimuthal electrical conductivity ( σa). The DEM-AR revealed elongation ratios ( L/ W) from 2:1 to 25:1, yet the highest ratios reached L/ W = 48:1. Flutes in the study area fan towards the east and south-east, whereas the drumlins on which they are superimposed show ice flow from the west (280°). The σa-anisotropy of the flute ridges and troughs indicates sedimentation from 340° to 350°, diagonal with respect to both drumlins and flutes. We found erosional crescentic troughs with down-flow rims indicative of both phases, but failed to find evidence for subglacial meltwater boulder lags or ice-flow erosional bedrock bump sticky spots. We contend that the studied flutes are erosional and date to the YDEM-phase, yet the origin of the precursory sediments may date to Early Weichselian.

  5. Preliminary Thellier-paleoinetnsity measurements on Precambrian rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Pesonen, L. J.; Harlan, S.

    2003-04-01

    There are two models to explain the magnetic field intensity of the Earth during the last 3 Ga. The models depart from each other in particular during the period 2.5 - 1.0 Ga. When model I sees a maximum field of about 70000 nT, model II shows a minimum of about 15000 nT. Aim of the current research is to provide further data to solve this contradiction. Dated specimens have been collected from Matachewan (2452 +/- 2 Ma) and from Nipissing dykes in Canada (2217 +/- 1.6 Ma), from Gila diabase intrusion in Arizona (1090 Ma), and from various dykes in Finland (1042 +/- 50 Ma; 2693 Ma respectively) and in Russian Karelia (2422 +/- 35 Ma). In order to select the most stable specimens, a small chip was cut out from each specimen for thermomagnetic analysis as well as for paleomagnetic investigations. The characteristic magnetic directions of the studied specimens were compared with those obtained on sister specimens used for paleomagnetic studies. By using a special non-magnetic ceramic holder, the specimens were oriented so that the characteristic remanence direction was aligned with the laboratory field direction. This technique offers a simple method to avoid anisotropy effects due to directional differences between the ancient field (Ba) and the applied field (Bl). A Modified Coe-version of the Thellier procedure was used with the addition of pTRM-tail checks to identify MD grains. We will present preliminary paleointensity results and discuss their role in describing the growth of the core of the Earth.

  6. Monitoring of slow seismic events from Arctics using the data of the POLENET/LAPNET broadband temporary array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring of slow glacial seismic events from Greenland at regional distances was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, recorded high-frequency continuous data of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in the Fennoscandia. Most stations of the array were equipped by broadband STS-2 seismometers. Glacial events from Greenland were identified using manual analysis of the continuous POLENET/LAPNET data filtered by a bandpass filter from 35 s to 140 s frequency band. The detected events were located using standard array techniques. Our study proves that glacial earthquakes in Greenland show a strong seasonality, with most of events occurring during summer months in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The detected slow events have their origins not only at marine-terminated glaciers, but also in offshore areas of Greenland. As the epicentres of these events are located mainly in the areas with high speed of ice flow, they could be due to interaction of ice sheet with solid bedrock. However, they could also be tectonic events. We also identified and located a number of slow evens originating from marine-terminated glaciers in Svalbard. In addition, the array detected a number of slow earthquakes from northern part of Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the vicinity of Svalbard, Jan Mayen Island and Arctic Canada. However, no slow earthquakes from Iceland were recorded during the POLENET/LAPNET data acquisition period. Our result shows that analysis of recordings of broadband stations in low frequency band can provide new information not only about temporary changes in Greenland Ice Sheet, but also about seismicity and spreading processes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and

  7. Climatic and environmental changes in north-western Russia between 15,000 and 8000 cal yr BP: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Barbara; Lacourse, Terri; Bennike, Ole; Subetto, Dmitry; Tarasov, Pavel; Demidov, Igor; Filimonova, Ludmila; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2007-07-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental studies of nine sediment sequences from four areas in north-western Russia reveal significant changes in climate, lake productivity and vegetation during the Lateglacial and early Holocene that show some degree of correlation with changes reconstructed from sites throughout the North Atlantic region. At Lake Nero in the Rostov-Jaroslavl' area, which is outside the maximum limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, sedimentation recommenced shortly after 15 cal ka BP in response to increases in temperature and humidity during Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1; Bølling-Allerød). However, climatic amelioration during GI-1 was slow to increase lake organic productivity or trigger large-scale changes in much of northwestern Russia. In general, this region was characterised by long-lasting lake-ice cover, low lake productivity, soil erosion, and dwarf shrub and herb tundra until the end of Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1; Younger Dryas). At some sites, distinct increases in lake organic productivity, mean summer temperatures and humidity and the expansion of forest trees coincide with rapid warming at the beginning of the Holocene and the increasing influence of warm air masses from the North Atlantic. At other sites, particularly on the Karelian Isthmus, but also in Russian Karelia, the delayed response of limnic and terrestrial environments to early Holocene warming is likely related to the cold surface waters of the Baltic Ice Lake, the proximity of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and associated strengthened easterlies, and/or extensive permafrost and stagnant ice. These multi-proxy studies underscore the importance of local conditions in modifying the response of individual lakes and their catchments. While Lateglacial vegetation was dominated by Betula nana and Salix shrubs and various herbs, pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that Betula pubescens trees became established as early as 14-13 cal ka BP in the Rostov-Jaroslavl' area. In general, our

  8. Widespread euxinia in the aftermath of the Lomagundi event: insights from a modeling study of ocean biogeochemical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of strongly sulphidic oceanic waters (euxinia) during the Proterozoic may have affected biological turnover, extinction, and evolution, not only because of its toxicity to eukaryotes but also because of its fundamental role on bioessential trace metal availability. From this point of view, the evidence for euxinic environments in the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE) aftermath (~2.08-2.05 billion years ago) in Gabon and Karelia are notable because their low δ98/95Mo values (less than 0.95o and 0.85o respectively) imply widespread euxinia at that time. The Francevillian Group in Gabon represents the oxic-anoxic/euxinic transitional sequence, implying a fluctuation in the atmospheric redox condition from oxic to relatively reducing, possibly due to the oxidation of substantial amount of organic matter deposited during the LJE. The large positive anomaly of sulphur isotopes and a substantial contraction of marine sulphate reservoir size through the latter part of the LJE also imply a fall in surface oxidation state. Variations of the oxygenation state of the Earth's surface would have caused substantial changes in oceanic chemical composition and, in turn, would surely have impacted the biosphere. However, the nature and dynamics of oceanic biogeochemical cycles for this interval are poorly understood. To unravel cause and effect of the variations of oceanic redox state in the Paleoproteorozoic, we improved the CANOPS model (a 1-D advection-diffusion-reaction marine biogeochemical cycle model), in which coupled C-N-O-P-S marine biogeochemical cycles and a series of redox reactions were adequately taken into account. Through systematic sensitivity experiments we show that a substantial drop in atmospheric oxygen level could cause a widespread euxinia for millions of years, which provides a theoretical explanation consistent with the geological records, such as large positive anomaly of δ34S, low δ98/95Mo, and a decrease in SO4 concentration, in the

  9. [Structural variability of the lithorheophile macrobenthos communities].

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, M V

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the abundance of taxa and life forms of lithorheophile macrobenthos and its variability were studied based on 200 quantitative samples from six territories of the Palaearctic (Moscow province, northwestern Caucasus, eastern Carpathians, northern Karelia, South Urals, and Altai mountains). The set of taxa predominant in the communities and their ecology are described. It is found that community structure varies strongly, depending on the characteristics of each region, on the size of the watercourse, and on the season. Six types of biocenoses are recognized by means of the Braun-Blanquet method, each characterized by its peculiar set of predominant life forms and families rather similar in different territories. The differences between these types are related to the size and the hydrological conditions of the watercourse. Biocenosis 1 is typical to smal brooks (up to 0.01-0.1 m3/s), characterised by the predominance of detritophagous animals non-specific to the type of food (Gammarus, Nemoura, Limnephilidae). In biocenosis 2a (large brooks with water flow 0.03-0.3 m3/s and velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s), almost immobile shell scrapers (Ancylus, Silo, Agapetes, Glossosoma) are predominant. Biocenosis 2b (large brooks with velocity 0.3-0.5 m/s) have a more or less balanced set of fundamental lithorheophile life forms. Biocenosis 2c (large mountain brooks with velocity 0.5-1 m/s) is characterised by specialized scrapers of the rapids (Epeorus and Diomesa) and filterers (Simuliidae). In biocenosis 3 (small rivers), sedentary filterers (Hydropsychidae, Simulliidae) are predominant; scrapers also play a significant role. Biocenosis 4 (rivers with water flow more than 3 m3/s, thick incrustations, and silted stones on the bottom) has predominant filterers (Hydropsychidae) and vermiform algophagous animals inside the incrustations (Orthocladius, Psychomyia). Significant variability in community structure unrelated to the environmental factors is revealed

  10. Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway, in its Fennoscandian context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Bernard; Solli, Arne; Viola, Giulio; Sverre Sandstad, Jan; Torgersen, Espen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Skår, Øyvind; Nasuti, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    metabasalts provide an EpsilonNd =+2.2 at 2137 Ma, fitting the secular Fennoscandian trend and more specifically continental mafic dikes in Karelia (EpsilonNd =+2.5 at 2140 Ma). The Ráiseatnu Gneiss Complex comprises amphibolite-facies granitic orthogneisses, intruded between 1868 ±13 and 1828 ±5 Ma. These orthogneisses contain rafts of metasediments and abundant zircon xenocrysts ranging from c. 3100 to 2437 Ma, and are regarded as remelted Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Kautokeino Greenstone Belt is interpreted as a weak Palaeoproterozoic pericontinental lithospheric domain, that accommodated oblique convergence between the stronger Karelian and the Norrbotten cratons during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Convergence was possibly associated with a mechanism of lithospheric subduction or lithospheric drip off.

  11. Age constraints from northwest Russia on the global accumulation of carbon during the Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Condon, D. J.; Prave, A. R.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event records significant organic-carbon accumulation in sediments correlated between the type-locality in northwest Russia's Onega Basin, the Francevillian series of Gabon, and Indian Palaeoproterozoic sections. The estimated burial of >25 x 10E +10 tonnes of C in the Shunga event is significant and hypotheses have suggested this accumulation as one causal mechanism to the large positive Lomagundi-Jatuli positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of marine carbonates. Conversely, is has been suggested that the Shunga event post-dates the termination (at c. 2060 Ma) of the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE and the two are not overlapping in time. Discrimination between these competing theories requires precise and accurate chronologies for the stratigraphic successions hosting the proxy records. We present new age constraints from a combination of primary volcanic rocks and sedimentary units recording the Shunga event, from the well preserved Palaeoproterozoic sections in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt (Kola craton) and Onega Paleo Basin (Karelia craton) northwest Russia, to further elucidate the unresolved question of timing between the Shunga event and the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE. Carbon accumulations of the Shunga event are recorded in the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks, and mafic pyroclastic rocks, in the Pilgujärvi Volcanic Formation overlying the Pilgujärvi sediments yield zircons with concordant U-Pb ages between c. 1970 and 1903 Ma. In the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation detrital zircons yield a minimum age of c. 1922 Ma, equivalent to a minimum c. 1915 Ma age of detrital zircons in the underlying Kolosjoki Sedimentary Formation. Thrust over the main units of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt is a tectonic melange known as the South Pechenga Zone where zircons from an intermediate volcanic rock yield the first age from this zone at c. 1930 Ma. Samples from the Onega Basin are

  12. Biogeochemistry of carbon, major and trace elements in watersheds of northern Eurasia drained to the Arctic Ocean: The change of fluxes, sources and mechanisms under the climate warming prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jérôme; Dupré, Bernard; Chabaux, François; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.

    2012-11-01

    Warming of the permafrost accompanied by the release of ancient soil organic carbon is one of the most significant environmental threats within the global climate change scenario. While the main sites of permafrost carbon processing and its release to the atmosphere are thermokarst (thaw) lakes and ponds, the main carriers of carbon and related major and trace elements from the land to the Arctic ocean are Russian subarctic rivers. The source of carbon in these rivers is atmospheric C consumed by chemical weathering of rocks and amplified by plant uptake and litter decomposition. This multidisciplinary study describes results of more than a decade of observations and measurements of elements fluxes, stocks and mechanisms in the Russian boreal and subarctic zone, from Karelia region to the Kamchatka peninsula, along the gradient of permafrost-free terrain to continuous permafrost settings, developed on various lithology and vegetation types. We offer a comprehensive, geochemically-based view on the functioning of aquatic boreal systems which quantifies the role of the following factors on riverine element fluxes: (1) the specificity of lithological substrate; (2) the importance of organic and organo-mineral colloidal forms, notably during the snowmelt season; (3) the phenomenon of lakes seasonal overturn; (4) the role of permafrost within the small and large watersheds; and (5) the governing role of terrestrial vegetation in element mobilization from rock substrate to the river. Care of such a multiple approach, a first order prediction of the evolution of element stocks and fluxes under scenario of progressive warming in high latitudes becomes possible. It follows the increase of frozen peat thawing in western Siberia will increase the stocks of elements in surface waters by a factor of 3 to 10 whereas the increase of the thickness of active layer, the biomass and the primary productivity all over permafrost-affected zone will bring about a short-term increase of

  13. Social class, health behaviour, and mortality among men and women in eastern Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Pekkanen, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Uutela, A.; Vartiainen, E.; Nissinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the associations between social class as defined by occupation, health behaviour, and mortality from all causes and coronary heart disease among middle aged men and women in eastern Finland. DESIGN--Prospective observational study of two independent, random population samples examined in 1972 and 1977. SETTING--North Karelia and Kuopio, Finland. SUBJECTS--8967 men and 9694 women aged 30-64 years at the beginning of the follow up study. The subjects were followed up for mortality up till 1987 by using the National Death Registry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 1429 men and 620 women died during the follow up, 603 men and 164 women of coronary heart disease. Among both sexes, compared with white collar workers unskilled blue collar workers had more adverse risk factors and also higher mortality due to coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, cancer, violent causes, and all other causes. Among men the age adjusted relative risk for all cause mortality in unskilled blue collar workers v white collar workers was reduced from 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 2.22) to 1.47 (1.23 to 1.77) when adjusted for smoking, serum cholesterol concentration, hypertension, body mass index, and physical activity in leisure time. Among women the corresponding reduction in hazard ratio was from 1.49 (1.15 to 1.92) to 1.39 (1.07 to 1.81). The respective hazard ratios for coronary heart disease were 1.54 (1.16 to 2.02) and 1.22 (0.92 to 1.61) among men and 1.74 (1.05 to 2.90) and 1.66 (0.99 to 2.79) among women. CONCLUSIONS--Unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors and high mortality are concentrated among lower social classes in Finland. Among men about half of the excess coronary and all cause mortality among unskilled blue collar workers was associated with their unfavourable risk factor profile. The association was smaller in women. PMID:7663252

  14. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  15. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  16. Reconstructing the redox conditions of Paleoproterozoic oceans: Insights from the Zaonega Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Neel; Zerkle, Aubrey; Izon, Gareth; Romashkin, Alexander; Rychanchik, Dmtriy; Upraus, Kärt; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Wing, Boswell; Lepland, Aivo

    2015-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic is marked by profound changes in global tectonics, climate and biogeochemical cycling of redox sensitive elements. Determining the redox state of marine environments at this point in Earth's history is fundamental in understanding the connections between the geosphere and biosphere, including possible microbially-assisted phosphogenesis. One hypothesis suggests that oxidative weathering following Earth's first significant rise in atmospheric oxygen, resulted in an increased supply of sulfate and phosphate to the oceans, culminating in the first significant phosphorite deposits some 300-400 Ma later (Lepland et al., 2013). Thus Paleoproterozoic ocean structure has been envisaged as stratified, through mildly oxygenated shallow water and anoxic deep water, with temporally and spatially variable phases of euxinia possibly linked to transient changes in the size of the seawater sulfate reservoir (Scott et al., 2014). New cores obtained from the upper part of the 2 Ga Zaonega Formation in the Onega Basin of Karelia, NW Russia, have recovered a variety of organic-rich mudstones and carbonate rocks, containing several discrete mm-cm scale P-rich beds that may represent seep or hydrothermally-influenced depositional settings (Lepland et al., 2013). Here we present new Fe-speciation data and pyrite derived S-isotope data spanning one of these new cores in order to: i) evaluate the redox state of the water column, determining the extent of water column euxinia, and ii) assess the potential influence of S-cycling on phosphogenesis. Preliminary Fe extractions show that total Fe is broadly dictated by lithology, but generally lower in samples where the P-rich intervals occur, possibly supporting extensive sulfate reduction and the formation of a euxinic water column. Further S-isotope analyses on associated pyrites will determine the extent to which additional biogeochemical S-cycling (e.g., sulfide oxidation) could also have contributed to the P

  17. Tracking Down the Paleoproterozoic Glaciations 2.5-2.2 Ga Using Coeval Subglacial Meteoric-Hydrothermal Systems and Estimates of δ18O Value in Seawater at ~2.45Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.; Serebryakov, N. S.; Kulikov, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We continue investigation of the world's lowest δ18O and δD (down to -27.3‰ and -235‰, respectively) rocks associated with high-Mg and high-Fe intrusions found within a 450-km-long zone of metamorphic rocks in the Belomorian Belt (Baltic shield, Russia). We suggest that extreme depletion occurred during premetamorphic high temperature interaction between shallow mafic intrusions and Paleoproterozoic glacial waters. Heat associated with intrusion of Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes allowed for circulation of glacial water in mafic dikes' exterior causing isotopic exchange between ultra-low-δ18O water and host rocks. Based on correlation of Paleoproterozoic glaciogenic deposits scattered worldwide, it was inferred that that global glaciations occurred three times between 2.45 to 2.20 Ga, independently or systematically coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen. However, the exact ages of glaciations remain uncertain. Dating igneous cores within zircon grains from the intrusions that interacted with subglacial meteoric waters enables us to develop a new approach to determine the age of δ18O depletion and thus, glacial events. Recently published geochronology data for Fennoscandia indicates that there were at least three episodes of compositionally distinct mafic magmatism spanning between 2.5 and 2.2 Ga which may help us to precisely resolve the glaciation episodes. Initial efforts to date the Paleoproterozoic mafic intrusions in conjunction with newly published geochronology data suggest that the low-δ18O anomalies discovered at different localities were probably produced during different glacial episodes. We also present new data based on a study of the ~2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift, Karelia craton, where unmetamorphosed pillow basalts contain abundant genetically-related hydrothermal quartz-epidote veins (+4.7‰ and -0.44‰, for the two minerals respectively) that formed at temperature of ~350°C. Since hydrothermal minerals likely precipitated from

  18. Using Archean and Paleoproterozoic Shales and Tillites as a Window into Crustal Evolution and Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.

    2014-12-01

    in Karelia (Russia), quartz amygdules in mafics and their relations to our global shale dataset. The overall conclusion is that despite first-order changes in areal mass, exposed surface conditions, pCO2, pO2 affecting chemical/physical weathering cycle, it was not dramatically different before and after the rise of atmospheric oxygen at ~2.3-2.4 Ga.

  19. Contributions of 18 Additional DNA Sequence Variations in the Gene Encoding Apolipoprotein E to Explaining Variation in Quantitative Measures of Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stengård, Jari H.; Clark, Andrew G.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Kardia, Sharon; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ehnholm, Christian; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a major constituent of many lipoprotein particles. Previous genetic studies have focused on six genotypes defined by three alleles, denoted ε2, ε3, and ε4, encoded by two variable exonic sites that segregate in most populations. We have reported studies of the distribution of alleles of 20 biallelic variable sites in the gene encoding the ApoE molecule within and among samples, ascertained without regard to health, from each of three populations: African Americans from Jackson, Miss.; Europeans from North Karelia, Finland; and non-Hispanic European Americans from Rochester, Minn. Here we ask (1) how much variation in blood levels of ApoE (lnApoE), of total cholesterol (TC), of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and of triglyceride (lnTG) is statistically explained by variation among APOE genotypes defined by the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles; (2) how much additional variation in these traits is explained by genotypes defined by combining the two variable sites that define these three alleles with one or more additional variable sites; and (3) what are the locations and relative allele frequencies of the sites that define multisite genotypes that significantly improve the statistical explanation of variation beyond that provided by the genotypes defined by the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles, separately for each of the six gender-population strata. This study establishes that the use of only genotypes defined by the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles gives an incomplete picture of the contribution that the variation in the APOE gene makes to the statistical explanation of interindividual variation in blood measurements of lipid metabolism. The addition of variable sites to the genotype definition significantly improved the ability to explain variation in lnApoE and in TC and resulted in the explanation of variation in HDL-C and in lnTG. The combination of additional sites that explained the greatest amount of trait variation was different for

  20. Magma mingling in the panozero sanukitoid intrusion, baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The 2.7 Ga Panozero pluton is a composite intrusion comprising magmas of sanukitoid affinity, intrusive into the ca. 2.75 Ga Segozero greenstone belt in western Karelia in the Baltic Shield. The intrusion is predominantly a monzonite, is elliptical in form (9 x 6 km) and is undeformed. Along the eastern margin of the intrusion a wide variety of cogenetic magmas have been mapped ranging in composition from biotite-hornblendites, through monzo-gabbro and monzonite to quartz-monzonite. The contact relationships between the different phases of the intrusion are complex and imply magma mingling and incomplete mixing between magma types. The monzogabbros show a gradational relationship with the monzodiorites, but occur as inclusions within, and contain inclusions of, the monzonite implying two coexisting melts. Similar relationships exist between the monzonite and quartz monzonite and in places there is a gneissose banding of the darker phase within the lighter phase. The quartz-syenite is intrusive into all earlier phases, although the latest phase is hornblendite. This is present as net veining in gabbro and as irregular veins, dykes and as irregularly shaped xenoliths in monzonite, quartz monzonite and syenite. The irregular form and deformed state of the hornblendite inclusions within the earlier magmas implies that the hornblendite was emplaced whilst the host magma was hot. Also developed along the eastern margin of the intrusion are breccia pipes. These are found in the monzodiorites, monzonites and in quartz monzonites. They contain elliptical fragments up to 20 cm long of hornblendite, tremolitite, epidotised amphibolite and in the monzodiorite euhedral feldspars with felsic reaction rims. The matrix of the breccias is often very similar to the composition of their host rock. Many of the fragments are thought to be derived from the adjacent greenstone belt. However, metabasaltic rocks are not recorded from this part of the greenstone belt and so may be derived

  1. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  2. On the recovery of effective elastic thickness using spectral methods: examples from synthetic data and from the Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Watts, A. B.; Velicogna, I.

    2003-12-01

    The effective elastic thickness, Te, represents the response to long-term loading of the lithosphere; it is thus a useful measure of its strength. However, the use of different methods and assumptions to calculate Te yield different results, leading to controversial interpretations of the relationship of Te to rheology. We investigate the ability of the Bouguer coherence and free air admittance to recover Te assuming that surface and subsurface loads exist. We use synthetic data to show that the estimated Te using both functions is similar; the recovery with admittance is somewhat poorer due to leakage problems. When the underlying Te is constant, the bias and variance of the resulting Te increases with decreasing analysis window size and increasing underlying Te value. When Te varies spatially, Te estimation using sliding, overlapping windows retrieves a structure that approximates the true spatial variability, but window sizes must be chosen carefully. In light of these results, we analyse Te in Fennoscandia using both techniques and obtain similar estimates. Te is 20-40 km in the Caledonides, 40- 60 km in the Swedish Svecofennides, 40-60 km in the Kola peninsula and 70-100 km in southern Karelia and Svecofennian central Finland. These estimates are not biased by unrecovered post-glacial rebound and also potential noise introduced by long-term erosion and sedimentation does not appear to affect Te. An independent estimate of Te using rheological modelling, confirms that Te in central Finland should be high. Because Te exceeds crustal thickness ( ˜ 60 km), the mantle must contribute significant strength to the total. Te is also larger than the seismogenic thickness, thus indicating that they represent different physical behaviours. In general, Te in Fennoscandia increases with tectonic age, seismic lid thickness and decreasing heat flow. Te is low where seismicity is frequent and high where it is reduced. In Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere, the relationship

  3. 1.8 Ga Svecofennian post-collisional shoshonitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, O.; Konopelko, D.; Rutanen, H.; Fröjdö, S.; Shebanov, A. D.

    1998-12-01

    At least 14 small (1-11 km across) 1.8 Ga Svecofennian post-collisional bimodal intrusions occur in southern Finland and Russian Karelia in a 600-km-long belt from the Åland Islands to the NW Lake Ladoga region. The rocks range from ultramafic, calc-alkaline, apatite-rich potassium lamprophyres to peraluminous HiBaSr granites, and form a shoshonitic series with K 2O+Na 2O>5%, K 2O/Na 2O>0.5, Al 2O 3>9% over a wide spectrum of SiO 2 (32-78%). Although strongly enriched in all rocks, the LILE Ba and Sr and the LREE generally define a decreasing trend with increasing SiO 2. Depletion is noted for HFSE Ti, Nb and Ta. Available isotopic data show overlapping values for lamprophyres and granites within separate intrusions and a cogenetic origin is thus not precluded. Initial magmas (Mg#>65) in this shoshonitic association are considered to be generated in an enriched lithospheric mantle during post-collisional uplift some 30 Ma after the regional Svecofennian metamorphic peak. However, prior to the melting episode, the lithospheric mantle was affected by carbonatite metasomatism; more extensively in the east than in the west. The melts generated in the more carbonate-rich mantle are extremely enriched in P 2O 5˜4%, F˜12,000 ppm, LILE: Ba˜9000 ppm, Sr˜7000 ppm, LREE: La˜600 ppm and Ce˜1000 ppm. The parental magma underwent 55-60% fractionation of biotite+clinopyroxene+apatite+magnetite+sphene whereupon intermediate varieties were produced. After further fractionation, 60-80%, of K-feldspar+amphibole+plagioclase±(minor magnetite, sphene and apatite), leucosyenites and quartz-monzonites were formed. In the west, where the source was less affected by carbonatite metasomatism, calc-alkaline lamprophyres (vogesites, minettes and spessartites) and equivalent plutonic rocks (monzonites) were formed. Removal of about 50% of biotite, amphibole, plagioclase, magnetite, apatite and sphene produced peraluminous HiBaSr granites. The impact of crustal assimilation is considered

  4. Seismicity and depth of faulting in the Archean Kuusamo region based on relocation of earthquakes with new velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uski, M.; Tiira, T.; Grad, M.; Yliniemi, J.

    2012-04-01

    New crustal velocity models and synthetic waveform modelling are used to constrain the depth distribution of earthquakes in Kuusamo and surrounding Archean areas of north-eastern Fennoscandia. In the Kuusamo block, the seismogenic layer extends from about 8 km below the surface down to a depth of about 30 km, i.e., close to the basement of the middle crust. Clear decrease in activity at about 20 km depth may be related to lithological contrast between the upper and middle crust. The upper cut-off in seismicity is attributed to the excess of strong mafic material in the uppermost crust. Comparison with the rheological profiles of the lithosphere, calculated at nearby locations, indicates that the base of the seismogenic layer correlates best with the onset of brittle to ductile transition at about 30 km depth. In the surrounding Archean areas, two-thirds of the earthquakes occur in the upper crust between 1 and 13 km depth, and a sharp drop in seismicity level happens at 14 km. The lower cut-off depth of 38 km is solely attributed to the deep microseismic activity in the Norrbotten tectonic province of northern Sweden. The limited data set available for this study shows no evidence on movements in the lower crust beneath the Archean Karelian bedrock of northern Finland and Russian Karelia. The new 2-D crustal velocity models and a Moho depth map of the area were derived by integrating waveform data recorded by the Kuusamo temporary network with previous data sets. The results indicate that the Karelian upper crust is 12-20 km thick and associated with P wave velocities of 6.1-6.4 km/s. The relatively high velocities are related to layered mafic intrusive and volcanic rocks. The middle crust - lower crust boundary is located at depths between 28 and 38 km. In the middle crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle P wave velocities range from 6.5 to 6.8 km/s, 6.9 to 7.3 km/s and 7.9 to 8.2 km/s, respectively. The average Vp/Vs ratio increases from 1.71 in the upper crust

  5. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia - A Contribution to Understanding Postglacial Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.; Timmen, L.; Gitlein, O.; Muller, J.; Denker, H.; Makinen, J.; Bilker, M.; Lysaker, D. I.; Omang, O. C.; Svendsen, J. G.; Wilmes, H.; Falk, R.; Reinhold, A.; Hoppe, W.; Scherneck, H.; Lidberg, M.; Engen, B.; Kristiansen, O.; Engfeldt, A.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.; Klopping, F.; Sasagawa, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results from different instruments and discuss the challenges of combining and validating such data products. Examples are shown where temporal gravity change may be compared to

  6. Intraplate earthquake swarm in Kouvola, south-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedberg, I.; Uski, M.; Tiira, T.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Vyborg rapakivi batholith comprises an area of more than 20 000 km3 in south-eastern Finland and Russian Karelia. The 1.65-1.63 Ga old batholith intrudes Paleoproterozoic bedrock that was formed in the Svecofennian orogeny between 1.9 and 1.8 Ga. The batholiths area is known for shallow swarm type earthquake activity. The latest swarm has been occurring since December 1, 2011 in and around the town of Kouvola. More than 70 earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from ML 0.4-2.8, have been recorded so far by the Finnish permanent seismic network. The swarm has been widely felt and reports on explosion- or thunder-like sounds accompanied by shaking of the ground are common. The felt effects and a strong Rg phase recorded by the nearest stations, at epicentral distances of 60-70 km, constrain the earthquake foci within the uppermost few kilometres of the crust. The events are concentrated around a major sub-vertical fault and contact zone traversing the batholith in NE- SW direction. Inspired by the ongoing activity, four off-line seismic stations have been installed in the source area on December 19-20, 2011. The central station is located close to the active fault segment, while the others are deployed within a radius of 9 km from it. The stations are equipped with three-component Trillium 120 PA broadband seismometers. The sampling rate is set to 250 Hz. The response to ground velocity is flat in the frequency band of 0.01-100 Hz. In this study, waveform data recorded by the off-line stations are used to improve the detection capability and hypocentre locations of the swarm events. Preliminary locations of the events are reanalysed using synthetic waveform-modelling of depth sensitive Rg phases and a high-precision relative location method. The relocated hypocentres are correlated with magnetic anomalies associated with tectonized lithological contacts within the batholiths. A composite fault plane solution is computed to constrain the source mechanism and the

  7. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    Russia and border countries has been performed. It has been found that for the "mild emission scenario" (i.e. approx. 31.6 ths. ton), for the Severonickel smelters, the annual average daily dry deposition value is 5.79 ton (with the highest - 10.4 ton - in September, and the lowest - 2.9 ton - in March). The annual average daily wet deposition is 22.7 tons, and a strong month-to-month variability is seen compared with dry deposition. The highest average WD (46.3 ton) is in January, and the lowest - 5.5 ton - in July. There are also differences in amount deposited in total from daily releases. On an annual scale, on average, 32.9% of emitted amount could be deposited at the surface during the considered duration (i.e. 10 days) of atmospheric transport. The highest deposited amount of 57.2% is observed in January and the lowest of 14.3% - in July. Taking into account actual annual (on example of year 2000) emissions of sulfur dioxide as 45.3 ths. ton (Severonickel smelters, city of Monchegorsk), the summary annual time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition were re-scaled and these have been estimated for most populated cities (Arkhangelsk, Petrozavodsk, Sankt-Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Pskov, and Vologda) of the North-West Russia. It was found that among these cities, the TIAC is the highest - 86 μg•h/m3 - for Arkhangelsk and the lowest - 4 μg•h/m3 - for Pskov. Both dry and wet depositions were also the highest for Arkhangelsk - 0.5 and 2.2 mg/m2, respectively. Detailed analysis also showed that for regions surrounding the Kola Peninsula, on average (maximum), the total (dry plus wet) deposition was 0.6 (3.0), 1.8 (5.1), and 28.3 (122) mg/m2 for the territories of the Arkhangelsk, Karelia, and Murmansk regions of Russia. For border regions with Scandinavian countries, on average (maximum), the total deposition was 2.2 (6.7) mg/m2 in Finnmark (Norway); 0.2 (0.4) in Norrbotten and 0.03 (0.1) mg/m2 in Vsterbotten counties (Sweden); 0.6 (1.2) in Eastern

  8. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  9. The water regime of silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches under sufficient and limited soil moisture conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, T.; Pridacha, V.; Olchev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The sensitivity of the silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches to different soil moisture conditions was investigated using results of field measurements provided in 2008-11 at forest experimental sites of the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Center of RAS in Karelia, Russia. Karelian birch is a specific form of the silver birch and it is characterized by structural abnormalities of trunk tissues (thickenings on the trunk, the marble-like pattern and figured wood) that results in considerable reduction of number of xylem vessels and increase of parenchyma cell number (Novitskaya, 2008). For experimental study several three-, five- and seven-year old trees of the silver and Karelian birches were selected. The transpiration rate of the leaves (E) was determined using the portable photosynthesis system Li-6400XTR (Li-Cor, USA). Leaf water potential of photosynthesizing leaves (Ψ) was measured using the pressure chamber. Amount of available water in leaves (WCf), water deficit (WSD) and saturating leaf water content (WCs) were calculated using the following equations: WCf = (Wf -Wd)/ Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), WSD = (Ws - Wf)/(Ws - Wd) (%), WCs= (Ws- Wf) / Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), where Wf and Wd - fresh and dried leaf biomass, Ws - weight of the leaves at saturation. Comparisons of three and five years old birches showed that the differences between WSD and WCs of the Karelian and silver birch increased with tree age. It can be explained that the Karelian birch has increased parenchyma and significant amount of water can be additionally stored there. Comparisons of WSD and WCs of silver birches of both forms show that the differences between forms increase with growth of water deficit in plants. It was observed in both seasonal and daily patterns. The largest differences were indicated at the afternoon and at the end of growing season (from middle of August until September). These results also show that WSD and WCs

  10. Mid-Paleoproterozoic (Jatulian) large igneous province of the Phanerozoic type, eastern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, M. M.; Sharkov, E. V.; Zlobin, V. L.; Chistyakov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Mid-Paleoprotrozoic Jatulian large igneous province (LIP) are located at the eastern Fennoscandian Shield. It is formed by lava plateaus in riftogenic structures, dyke swarms and different intrusions, and developed in range 2.35-2.06 Ga. All volcanics were undergone by greenschist alterations with practically complete replacement of original minerals by albite, actinolite, epidote, and chlorite, however, their primary structures and textures are often survived. Pillow-lavas are rare, which evidence about predominance of subaerial eruptions and it is in agreement with continental conditions of their formation. Jatulian complexes has studied about a hundred years, however, their geochemistry is known poor. So, we present here the new data for the better understanding this province. Jatulian rocks in Karelia are represented by basalts and andesibasalts of normal alkalinity with subordinate alkali basalts. The rocks are characterized by narrow variations of SiO2 (usually up to 53 wt.%); TiO2 content is vary from 0.72 to 3.06 wt.%, and mg# from 30 to 65. Spectrums REE of the basalts are characterized by low to moderate fractionation: (La/YbN= 1.28-5.27) under low fractionation of LREE (La/SmN=0.9-2.15) and HREE (Gd/YbN=1.19-2.55) and slight Eu-anomaly right up to it absence. At that group of high-Ti rocks is characterized by higher REE content. On multicomponet diagrams Jatulian rocks have moderate negative Nb-anomaly, which decreases up to section and sometimes becomes positive under weakly positive or absent Ti-anomaly. Jatulian volcanics on Kola Craton are located in Pechenga structure (Kuetsjarvi and Kolosiok Formation) and in Imandra-Varzuga structure (Umba Fm). Rocks of Kuetsjarvi Fm are characterized by very wide diversity, vary on SiO2 content from alkali basalts via trachyandesites, trachydacites to rhyolites. Such series of rocks very rare in the early Precambrian, which sharply distinguish them from the most Precambrian volcanics on the shield. Majority

  11. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    projects on the delineation of a diamond deposit in Karelia, on the localisation of unauthorized penetrations in product pipelines, and others. Since 2007, in close cooperation with researchers from V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (www.univer.kharkov.ua/en) and Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University (www.khadi.kharkov.ua), we have been developing a GPR to monitor road conditions. The main objective is the creation of an equipment suitable to determine the strength characteristics of pavements. A GPR allowing to measure thicknesses of asphalt pavement layers with an accuracy better than 3 mm has already been created; it was transferred to services responsible for maintaining roads in good condition. Specific standards and guidelines for the use of GPR has not been adopted in Ukraine, yet. GPRs are rarely used by public services. Nevertheless, recently the Ukrainian government has funded several projects on GPR technologies. Ukrainians seek to maintain old and to establish new relationships with colleagues around the world. We were partners of the Ultrawideband Radar Working Group, which developed the standard "IEEE P1672 TM Ultrawideband Radar Definitions." LLC "Transient Technologies" has cooperation agreements with more than a dozen of GPR companies all over the world. A group of scientists from IRE is working in cooperation with researchers from Italy, Holland, Turkey, Brazil, Russia and Ukraine on the project of FP-7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES no 269157 "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface Imaging" (for more details, please visit www.irea.cnr.it/en/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=342:progetto-amiss&Itemid=165). In recent years, many representative companies have appeared, offering GPRs of foreign production on the market of Ukraine. The authors acknowledge COST for funding Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar," supporting this work.

  12. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  13. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  14. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling Pursuant to the Great Oxidation Event: Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic of Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, L.; Junium, C. K.; Arthur, M. A.; Brasier, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Melezhik, V.; Lepland, A.; Crne, A.; Luo, G.; Far-Deep Drilling Team

    2010-12-01

    A key goal of FAR-DEEP (Fennoscandia Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project) is to document the development of an aerobic biosphere following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, ~2.4 Ga). Toward that end, we present an analysis of C and N cycling during this critical interval, based on preliminary C and N isotope analysis of archival FAR-DEEP samples. A prolonged interval of high δ13C in the ocean / atmosphere system characterizes the Paleoproterozoic from approximately 2.3 to 2.06 billion years ago. The event is known as the Lomagundi-Jatuli event (LJE). The initiation of the LJE occurs at as evidence for non-mass dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes disappear, suggesting a relationship to the GOE. Sediments deposited during the event are notably devoid of organic matter (Corg). Moreover, Corg-rich sedimentary rocks are found which have been thought to postdate the LJE; in Fennoscandia these rocks are associated with the Zaonega Formation, with Corg contents approaching 60%. Zaonega Formation shales containing Corg-rich deposits were penetrated by three FAR-DEEP holes in the Paleoproterozoic Onega Basin, Karelia Russia. Low in the section, δ13Corg values increase gradually from ~ -28‰ to -24 ‰, then increase markedly to ~ -18 ‰, before beginning a gradual decline for much of the rest of the studied interval. δ13Ccarb values follow a parallel trend, although low in the section they have anomalously light values (~ -10‰), rising abruptly to +4‰ as δ13Corg reaches its peak value. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg then decline by 15-20‰ as one proceeds up-section. In the same interval, δ15Norg values shift from relatively light values of ~ +2‰ to +4‰ to heavier values of ~ +8‰ to +9‰. δ13Ccarb values increase by +10‰ toward the top of the cored interval, while δ15Norg fluctuate between +5 to +9 ‰. Petrographic evidence shows that some of the carbonates with lowest δ13Ccarb values are diagenetic concretions, and some of the Cor has

  15. Telemonitoring and Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Among Finnish Diabetic and Heart Disease Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Tuula; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. Objective The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. Results A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients’ unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients’ comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed

  16. The Large Igneous Province (LIP) Record during the Archean-Proterozoic Transition Between 2.5 Ga and 2.0 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.

    2010-12-01

    A review of the large igneous province (LIP) record reveals numerous events between 2500 and 2000 Ma with a potential gap between 2370 Ma and 2230 Ma. The distribution is uneven with some blocks, such as Superior and Karelia, being well populated, while others, such as Kaapvaal, Amazonia and Yilgarn, having few well-dated LIP events in this time interval; however, the relative paucity of dated events on some blocks may at present simply reflect severe undersampling. LIP events in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval are thought to be linked to progressive rifting and breakup of late Archean supercratons (e.g., Bleeker 2003, Lithos), or possibly a large supercontinent. Some of these LIPs may also be linked to major environmental changes including iron formation deposition (e.g., Bekker et al. 2010, Econ. Geol.). In terms of understanding the changing geodynamic setting in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval it is critical to discriminate between LIPs that perhaps were global in extent and those that were more regional in scale but have been widely scattered through subsequent supercontinent fragmentation. Thus, determining the paleogeography of latest Archean supercratons is key. This can be achieved most efficiently by completing the LIP records (magmatic “barcodes”) for all major crustal blocks. Craton-scale blocks that were nearest neighbours in a preexisting landmass will share essential elements of their barcodes, and geometrical information inherent in giant dyke swarms, the plumbing systems of LIPs, can constrain likely configurations. Comparison of paleomagnetic poles and matching of geochemical fingerprints from coeval LIPs on different crustal blocks will provide additional constraints. Using the 2.5-2.0 Ga LIP record, it has been determined that the Superior craton was bordered on its southern-southeastern margin, from west to east, by the Wyoming, Hearne, Karelian, and Kola cratons (Bleeker and Ernst 2006 in Hanski et al. (eds.) Dyke swarms — time markers of crustal

  17. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    eclogites is attributed to processes in a subducting slab. Correlation of the above complexes has revealed four alternating subduction systems: 2.88-2.82 Ga which comprises both suprasubduction (island-arc volcanics, graywackes) complexes and those from a subduction slab (eclogites), 2.81-2.78 Ga - island-arc volcanics, graywackes, granulites and eclogites; 2.75 Ga - island-arc volcanics only; 2.73-2.72 Ga - island-arc volcanics, granulites and eclogites. The duration of functioning of Meso-Neoarchaean subduction systems varies from 60 (or probably 30) to 15 Ma, which is consistent with the results of the numerical modelling (van Hunen, 2001) of subduction at mantle temperatures 125-150 degrees higher than the present temperature. This is a contribution to RFBR Project 11-05-00168 a References: Bibikova, E.V., Glebovitskii, V.A., Claesson, S. et al., 2001. Geochemistry International, 39(1) Mil'kevich, R.I., Myskova, T.A., Glebovitsky, V.A. et al. 2007. Geochemistry International, 45 Mints, M.V., Belousova, E.A., Konilov, A.N. et al., 2011. Geology, 38 Shchipansky, A.A., Khodorevskaya, L.I., Konilov, A.N., Slabunov, A.I., 2012. Russian Geology and Geophysics 53 Slabunov, A.I., Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Bibikova, E.V. et al., 2006. European Lithosphere Dynamics, Memoir 32 Slabunov, A.I., 2008. Geology and geodynamics of Archean mobile belts (example from the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield van Hunen, J., 2001. Shallow and buoyant lithospheric subduction: couses and implications from thrmo-chemical numerical modelling. Theses PhD Volodichev, O.I., 1990. The Belomorian complex of Karelia: geology and petrology

  18. Proterozoic granitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapala, I.; Lahtinen, R.; Rämö, O. T.

    2003-04-01

    Archean border indicate a major Archean source component (Huhma, 1986). The western margin of the Svecofennian domain is marked by the Transcandinavian Igneous Belt consisting of various 1.8--1.5 Ga granites. A-type rapakivi granites and associated diabase dikes of southern Finland, Russian Karelia, Baltic countries, and central Sweden can be divided into four age groups, from east to west: 1.56--1.53 Ga, 1.67--1.62 Ga, 1.59--1.54 Ga, 1.53--1.47 Ga. Bimodal magmatism, extensional setting and thinning of the lower crust below rapakivi granites can be explained by the mafic underplate model (Haapala and Rämö, 1992).

  19. Ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicritic magmatism: A record of Fe-rich heterogeneities during Neoarchean global mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Francis, Don

    2016-07-01

    Although terrestrial picritic magmas with FeOTOT ⩾13 wt.% are rare in the geological record, they were relatively common ca. 2.7 Ga during the Neoarchean episode of enhanced global growth of continental crust. Recent evidence that ferropicritic underplating played an important role in the ca. 2.74-2.70 Ga reworking of the Ungava craton provides the impetus for a comparison of ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicrite occurrences in the global Neoarchean magmatic record. In addition to the Fe-rich plutons of the Ungava craton, volumetrically minor ferropicritic flows, pyroclastic deposits, and intrusive rocks form parts of the Neoarchean greenstone belt stratigraphy of the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon and Vermillion domains of the southern and western Superior Province. Neoarchean ferropicritic rocks also occur on five other Archean cratons: West Churchill, Slave, Yilgarn, Kaapvaal, and Karelia; suggesting that ca. 2.7 Ga Fe-rich magmatism was globally widespread. Neoarchean ferropicrites form two distinct groups in terms of their trace element geochemistry. Alkaline ferropicrites have fractionated REE profiles and show no systematic HFSE anomalies, broadly resembling the trace element character of modern-day ocean island basalt (OIB) magmas. Magmas parental to ca. 2.7 Ga alkaline ferropicrites also had high Nb/YPM (>2), low Al2O3/TiO2 (<8) and Sc/Fe (⩽3 × 10-4) ratios, and were enriched in Ni relative to primary pyrolite mantle-derived melts. The high Ni contents of the alkaline ferropicrites coupled with the low Sc/Fe ratios are consistent with derivation from olivine-free garnet-pyroxenite sources. The second ferropicrite group is characterized by decisively non-alkaline primary trace element profiles that range from flat to LREE-depleted, resembling Archean tholeiitic basalts and komatiites. In contrast to the alkaline ferropicrites, the magmas parental to the subalkaline ferropicrites had flat HREE, lower Nb/YPM (<2), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (8-25) and Sc/Fe (⩾4 × 10-4) ratios, and

  20. Extreme 13Ccarb enrichment in ca. 2.0 Ga magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' association in a global context: a case for the world-wide signal enhanced by a local environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melezhik, Victor A.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Medvedev, Pavel V.; Makarikhin, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic positive excursion of δ 13Ccarb is now considered as three positive shifts of δ 13Ccarb separated by returns to 0‰, which all occurred between 2.40 and 2.06 Ma. This isotopic event is unique in terms of both duration (>300 Ma) and 13C enrichment (up to +18‰). The mechanism responsible for one of the most significant carbon isotopic shifts in Earth history remains highly debatable. To date, δ 13C of +10‰ to +15‰ cannot be balanced by organic carbon burial ( forg) as there is no geological evidence for an enhanced C org accumulation prior to or synchronous with the excursion. Instead, termination of these excursions is followed by formation of a vast reservoir of 13C-depleted organic material (-45‰ at Shunga) and by one of the earliest known oil-generation episodes at 2.0 Ga. None of the three positive excursions of δ 13Ccarb is followed by a negative isotopic shift significantly below 0‰, as has always been observed in younger isotopic events, reflecting an overturn of a major marine carbon reservoirs. This may indicate that forg was constant: implying that the mechanism involved in the production of C org was different. Onset of intensive methane cycling resulting in Δc change is another possibility. The majority of sampled 13Ccarb-rich localities represents shallow-water stromatolitic dolostones, `red beds' and evaporites formed in restricted intracratonic basins, and may not reflect global δ 13Ccarb values. Closely spaced drill core samples ( n=73) of stromatolitic dolostones from the >1980±27 Ma Tulomozerskaya Formation in the Onega palaeobasin, Russian Karelia, have been analysed for δ 13Ccarb and δ 18Ocarb in order to demonstrate that different processes were involved in the formation of 13Ccarb-rich carbonates. The 800 m-thick magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' succession formed in a complex combination of environments on the Karelian craton: peritidal shallow marine, low-energy protected bights, barred

  1. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  2. Archaean to Paleozoic mantle plumes in the N-E Baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanova, T.

    2003-04-01

    In Archaean the largest alkaline province occurred in the Keivy terrane. U-Pb dated zircon from alkaline and nepheline syenite (Ponoy, Zapadnokeivsky, Belaya Tundra and Saharjok) gave the age of 2.75-2.61Ga. The alkaline granite of the terrane belongs to A-type granite and has high HFSE and low Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios typical of enriched mantle. Nepheline syenite of Saharjok massif corresponds to analogous of the OIB-magma. ɛNd(T) ranges from +0.6 to -9.0 and reflects high metamorphic alterations of the rocks. ɛSr(T) shows a large scatter from -10000 to +100 for alkaline granite and from +100 to +5000 for subalkaline rocks which is interpreted as long-term magmatic differentiation. On ɛSr-ɛNd diagram less-altered alkaline granosyenite and alkaline gabbro lie in EM2 field (Zozulya and Bayanova, 2002). He^3/He^4 ratio for ilmenite from Ponoy massif is 0.6x10-6 suggesting contribution of mantle helium (Vetrin et al., 2000). U-Pb ages for zircons from the alkaline massifs are quite similar to those of 2613±18 and 2611±10 Ma for baddeleyite and zircon from Siilinjarvi's carbonatite. Geochronological results for the Kola alkaline massifs of the Baltic Shield increase well-known world data (Blichert-Toft et al., 1996). Close U-Pb ages are yielded by zircons from anorthosite of Achinsky, Tsaga and Medvezhje-Schuchjeozersky terranes. Duration of magmatism and isotope signatures for the rocks and minerals from alkaline and anorthosite association reflect the Archaean plume existence. In Proterozoic there are distinguished two 350 km-long belts of the PGE-bearing intrusions: Mt. Generalskaya, Monchepluton, Pana massif and Imandra Lopolith - Northern belt and Finnish Russian Southern belt with Penikat, Koiliismaa, Kontilainen and Olanga-group intrusions and Burakovsky massif in Karelia. U-Pb precise zircon-baddeleyite ages for the different parts of the intrusions (gabbronorite, gabbropegmatite and anorthosite) show 100 m.y. (2.5-2.4 Ga) duration of the mantle plume. Rocks

  3. Long-Term (4 mo) Oxygen Isotope Exchange Experiment between Zircon and Hydrothermal Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lundstrom, C.; Golledge, S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing oxygen diffusivity in zircon has several critical applications: 1) establishing zircon stability and solubility in hot silica-saturated hydrothermal solutions; 2) deriving metamorphic and magmatic heating timescales from intra-crystal oxygen isotopic gradients; 3) assessing the survivability of oxygen isotopic signatures in Hadean zircons. We report results of a microanalytical investigation of an isotope exchange experiment using a cold-seal pressure apparatus at 850°C and 500 MPa over 4 months duration. Natural zircon, quartz and rutile were sealed with a silica-rich solution doped with 18-O, D, 7-Li and 10-B in a gold capsule. The diffusion length-scales were examined by depth profiling using time-of-flight (TOF) and high-sensitivity dynamic secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Starting materials had distinct and homogeneous δ18O: zircon from Mesa Falls tuff of Yellowstone (+3.6‰), rutile from Karelia (-29‰), Bishop Tuff Quartz (+8.4‰), and δ18O doped water (+400‰). Starting material zircon showed invariant 18O/16O during depth profiling. After the 4 month experiment, rutile crystal surfaces displayed etching (100's of nm), while zircon exteriors lacked visible change. Quartz was completely dissolved and reprecipitated in a minor residue. Rutile developed ~2 μm long Fickian diffusion profiles largely consistent with the wet diffusion coefficients for rutile previously reported [1]. Surface U-Pb dating of zircon detected no significant Pb loss from the outermost ~300 nm of the crystal face and returned identical core-face ages. We performed δ18O depth profiling of zircon in two directions. First, forward profiles (crystal rim inwards) by dynamic SIMS (no surface treatment besides Au-coating; Cs+ beam of 20 kV impact energy) showed initially high and decreasing 18O/16O over ~130 nm; TOF-SIMS forward profiles using a 2 kV Cs+ sputter beam and 25 kV Bi3+ primary ions on uncoated zircon surfaces (cleaned for 2 min with HF) yielded

  4. Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei; Eugene, Sharkov; Alexei, Chistyakov; Maria, Bogina

    2010-05-01

    Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Staromonetny 35, Moscow, Russia; Microbial complexes from volcanogenic rocks both ancient (Early Paleoproterozoic (2.41 GA) basalt pillow-lavas with inclusions of volcanic glass from Karelia) and recent (fresh volcanic glass from pillow-lavas of underwater Middle-Atlantic Ridge were revealed, studied and compared. Our studies confirmed that basaltic glass of the Early Precambrian submarine eruptions was inhabited by microbes in a similar way as it had been done for volcanic glass of modern eruptions. So, well preserved pillow-lavas, that are the main component of Arkhaean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, could be the most perspective for searching of traces of ancient life on the Earth. Consequently, it is possible to say, that volcanogenic rocks are not the obstacle for finding traces of life in them. The assumption that volcanic rocks served as habitats for the early microbial life was not unexpected. Some of the most primitive organisms close to the base of the phylogenetic tree are thermophilic microbes. Some data indicates that early life could be restricted to the hydrothermal vents in volcanic settings1. For instance, filamentous bacteria described from the massive sulfide deposits (age ~3.235 Ga) are interpreted as formed under black smoker conditions2, which provide the temperature tolerant for the growth of thermophilic bacteria (about 70oC). It was additionally proposed that life can be present immediately after volcanic eruptions, when the temperature of rock surface decreases below 113oC3,4 and bacteria penetrate the glass-like material of pillow lavas together

  5. Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei; Eugene, Sharkov; Alexei, Chistyakov; Maria, Bogina

    2010-05-01

    Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Staromonetny 35, Moscow, Russia; Microbial complexes from volcanogenic rocks both ancient (Early Paleoproterozoic (2.41 GA) basalt pillow-lavas with inclusions of volcanic glass from Karelia) and recent (fresh volcanic glass from pillow-lavas of underwater Middle-Atlantic Ridge were revealed, studied and compared. Our studies confirmed that basaltic glass of the Early Precambrian submarine eruptions was inhabited by microbes in a similar way as it had been done for volcanic glass of modern eruptions. So, well preserved pillow-lavas, that are the main component of Arkhaean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, could be the most perspective for searching of traces of ancient life on the Earth. Consequently, it is possible to say, that volcanogenic rocks are not the obstacle for finding traces of life in them. The assumption that volcanic rocks served as habitats for the early microbial life was not unexpected. Some of the most primitive organisms close to the base of the phylogenetic tree are thermophilic microbes. Some data indicates that early life could be restricted to the hydrothermal vents in volcanic settings1. For instance, filamentous bacteria described from the massive sulfide deposits (age ~3.235 Ga) are interpreted as formed under black smoker conditions2, which provide the temperature tolerant for the growth of thermophilic bacteria (about 70oC). It was additionally proposed that life can be present immediately after volcanic eruptions, when the temperature of rock surface decreases below 113oC3,4 and bacteria penetrate the glass-like material of pillow lavas together

  6. Snow and ice properties and melt water dynamics control the methane fluxes during early spring in two boreal mires in north Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, P.; Kutzbach, L.; Forbrich, I.; Gažovič, M.; Wilmking, M.

    2009-04-01

    High-latitude peatlands are globally important sources of the atmospheric trace gas methane (CH4). CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands are characterised by a pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity and a high seasonal variability due to extreme climatic contrasts between seasons. Although winter is the predominant season in boreal climates, most CH4 studies were conducted during the vegetation period whereas wintertime data are sparse. Here, we present the results of two intense field campaigns in two boreal peatlands starting close to the end of winter until the start of the vegetation period, focussing on CH4 fluxes during the very dynamic spring thaw periods. The mire complex Salmisuo in North Karelia (Finland, 62.46˚ N, 30.58˚ E) was investigated during spring 2006, and the mire complex Ust Pojeg in the Komi Republic (Northwest Russia, 61.56˚ N, 50.13˚ E) was studied during spring 2008. Both peatlands represent transition mire complexes in which both fen and bog types of vegetation can be found with three typical micro-site types: hummocks (dry), lawns (intermediate) and flarks (wet). CH4 fluxes were measured by the snow gradient approach (according to Fick's first law) until the snow was nearly completely melted, followed by closed dark chamber measurements. Fluxes were measured every second or third day. During the spring thaw period, CH4 fluxes were highly dynamic due to rapidly changing snow and ice properties, hydrological characteristics and temperature variations. Due to melting and refreezing of snow-melt water and surface water, ice layers were created which acted as efficient barriers for CH4 efflux from the peatlands. In both peatlands, an 8 to 15 cm massive ice layer developed during winter in or above the peat soil depending on microtopography and water level. The surface was covered by snow with an average height of 50 cm (Salmisuo) and 65 cm (Ust Pojeg). During the ongoing snowmelt, the CH4 fluxes decreased from highest values

  7. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    (Nikitina et al., 1999). Vergleiche von gemessenen mit berechneten Edelgaskonzentrationen aus in-situ-Produktion zeigen weiterhin, dass in Abhängigkeit vom Alter der Probe Diffusionsprozesse stattgefunden haben, die zu unterschiedlichen und z. T. erheblichen Verlusten an Helium und Neon führten. Diffusionsverluste an Argon sind dagegen kaum signifikant. Unterschiedliche Diffusionsverluste in Abhängigkeit von Alter und betrachtetem Edelgas zeigen auch die primordialen Edelgase. In the present thesis, interactions of kimberlites and lamproites as well as their constituent minerals with fluids are discussed based on noble gas compositions. The samples originate from the eastern Baltic Shield, more specifically from the Kola craton (Poria Guba and Kandalaksha) and the Karelia craton (Kostamuksha). Gas was extracted by stepwise heating and crushing from 23 whole rock samples and 15 mineral separates. These two techniques allow differential extraction of gas from fluid inclusions (crushing technique) and from the bulk sample (stepwise heating). The noble gas analyses provide the following information: Helium and neon isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions in lamproites reveal the presence of a crustal fluid phase. Fluid interaction probably ocurred already during the process of magma ascent. Interaction after lamproite emplacement seems unlikely. The lamproites and their host rock differ in the degree of fluid-rock interaction, as demonstrated by the C/36Ar composition. In addition, various dating methods (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) yield almost the same age within analytical error. Thus, a metamorphic overprint can be excluded. The distribution of primordial noble gases between fluid inclusions and crystal lattice suggests a relatively slow magma ascent, making an interaction of the lamproitic magma with crustal fluids even more likely. Since noble gases from mineral separates were extracted only by the stepwise heating method, gases stored in fluid inclusions could not be