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Sample records for architecture based medical

  1. [Wearable Medical Devices' MCU Selection Analysis Based on the ARM Cortex-MO+ Architecture].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zaoquan; Liu, Mengxing; Qin, Liping; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang

    2015-03-01

    According to the characteristics of low cost, high performance, high integration and long battery life of wearable medical devices, the mainstream low-power microcontroller(MCU) series were compared, and came to the conclusion that the MCU series based on ARM Cortex-M0+ architecture were suitable for the development of wearable medical devices. In aspects of power consumption, operational performance, integrated peripherals and cost, the MCU series based on Cortex-M0+ architecture of primary semiconductor companies were compared, aimed at providing the guides of MCU selection for wearable medical devices. PMID:26524785

  2. [A distributed storage architecture for regional medical image sharing and cooperation based on HDFS].

    PubMed

    LI, Peng-jun; CHEN, Guang-jie; GUO, Wen-ming

    2011-03-01

    Given the importance of regional centers for medical image sharing and cooperation is important for resource balancing, healthcare service enhancement and medical expense reduction, building such regional medical image sharing and cooperation centers faces huge challenges. In this paper we analyze the advantages and weakness of two storage architectures, and designed a hybrid storage architecture combining FC SAN and Hadoop HDFS. A HDFS suitable medical image file format, called S-DICOM, and a set of S-DICOM operating middleware, SDFO (S-DICOM File Operator), was developed. The results of performance testing indicated that this hybrid storage architecture is suitable for storing and managing large volume of medical images. PMID:21421491

  3. Next Generation RFID-Based Medical Service Management System Architecture in Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Randy S.; Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Park, Gil-Cheol

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide unlimited future potentials most especially in healthcare systems. RFID is used to detect presence and location of objects while WSN is used to sense and monitor the environment. Integrating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of an object but also provides information regarding the condition of the object carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. However, there isn't any flexible and robust communication infrastructure to integrate these devices into an emergency care setting. An efficient wireless communication substrate for medical devices that addresses ad hoc or fixed network formation, naming and discovery, transmission efficiency of data, data security and authentication, as well as filtration and aggregation of vital sign data need to be study and analyze. This paper proposed an efficient next generation architecture for RFID-based medical service management system in WSN that possesses the essential elements of each future medical application that are integrated with existing medical practices and technologies in real-time, remote monitoring, in giving medication, and patient status tracking assisted by embedded wearable wireless sensors which are integrated in wireless sensor network.

  4. Toward a Fault Tolerant Architecture for Vital Medical-Based Wearable Computing.

    PubMed

    Abdali-Mohammadi, Fardin; Bajalan, Vahid; Fathi, Abdolhossein

    2015-12-01

    Advancements in computers and electronic technologies have led to the emergence of a new generation of efficient small intelligent systems. The products of such technologies might include Smartphones and wearable devices, which have attracted the attention of medical applications. These products are used less in critical medical applications because of their resource constraint and failure sensitivity. This is due to the fact that without safety considerations, small-integrated hardware will endanger patients' lives. Therefore, proposing some principals is required to construct wearable systems in healthcare so that the existing concerns are dealt with. Accordingly, this paper proposes an architecture for constructing wearable systems in critical medical applications. The proposed architecture is a three-tier one, supporting data flow from body sensors to cloud. The tiers of this architecture include wearable computers, mobile computing, and mobile cloud computing. One of the features of this architecture is its high possible fault tolerance due to the nature of its components. Moreover, the required protocols are presented to coordinate the components of this architecture. Finally, the reliability of this architecture is assessed by simulating the architecture and its components, and other aspects of the proposed architecture are discussed. PMID:26364202

  5. System architecture for intraoperative ultrasound registration in image-based medical navigation.

    PubMed

    Dekomien, Claudia; Roeschies, Benjamin; Winter, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Medical navigation systems for orthopedic surgery are becoming more and more important with the increasing proportion of older people in the population, and hence the increasing incidence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The central problem for such systems is the exact transformation of the preoperatively acquired datasets to the coordinate system of the patient's body, which is crucial for the accuracy of navigation. Our approach, based on the use of intraoperative ultrasound for image registration, is capable of robustly registering bone structures for different applications, e.g., at the spine or the knee. Nevertheless, this new procedure demands additional steps of preparation of preoperative data. To increase the clinical acceptance of this procedure, it is useful to automate most of the data processing steps. In this article, we present the architecture of our system with focus on the automation of the data processing steps. In terms of accuracy, a mean target registration error of 0.68 mm was achieved for automatically segmented and registered phantom data where the reference transformation was obtained by performing point-based registration using artificial structures. As the overall accuracy for subject data cannot be determined non-invasively, automatic segmentation and registration were judged by visual inspection and precision, which showed a promising result of 1.76 mm standard deviation for 100 registration trials based on automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging data of the spine. PMID:22868778

  6. The component-based architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment.

    PubMed

    Degoulet, P; Jean, F C; Engelmann, U; Meinzer, H P; Baud, R; Sandblad, B; Wigertz, O; Le Meur, R; Jagermann, C

    1994-12-01

    The constitution of highly integrated health information networks and the growth of multimedia technologies raise new challenges for the development of medical applications. We describe in this paper the general architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment devoted to the development and maintenance of multimedia distributed medical applications. HELIOS is made of a set of software components, federated by a communication channel called the HELIOS Unification Bus. The HELIOS kernel includes three main components, the Analysis-Design and Environment, the Object Information System and the Interface Manager. HELIOS services consist in a collection of toolkits providing the necessary facilities to medical application developers. They include Image Related services, a Natural Language Processor, a Decision Support System and Connection services. The project gives special attention to both object-oriented approaches and software re-usability that are considered crucial steps towards the development of more reliable, coherent and integrated applications. PMID:7882667

  7. Workflow-enabled distributed component-based information architecture for digital medical imaging enterprises.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen T C; Tjandra, Donny; Wang, Huili; Shen, Weimin

    2003-09-01

    Few information systems today offer a flexible means to define and manage the automated part of radiology processes, which provide clinical imaging services for the entire healthcare organization. Even fewer of them provide a coherent architecture that can easily cope with heterogeneity and inevitable local adaptation of applications and can integrate clinical and administrative information to aid better clinical, operational, and business decisions. We describe an innovative enterprise architecture of image information management systems to fill the needs. Such a system is based on the interplay of production workflow management, distributed object computing, Java and Web techniques, and in-depth domain knowledge in radiology operations. Our design adapts the approach of "4+1" architectural view. In this new architecture, PACS and RIS become one while the user interaction can be automated by customized workflow process. Clinical service applications are implemented as active components. They can be reasonably substituted by applications of local adaptations and can be multiplied for fault tolerance and load balancing. Furthermore, the workflow-enabled digital radiology system would provide powerful query and statistical functions for managing resources and improving productivity. This paper will potentially lead to a new direction of image information management. We illustrate the innovative design with examples taken from an implemented system. PMID:14518730

  8. SW Architecture for Access to Medical Information for Knowledge Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suntae; Shim, Bingu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, many approaches have been studied to author medical knowledge and verify doctor's diagnosis based on the specified knowledge. During the verification, intensive access to medical information is unavoidable. Also, the access approach should consider modifiability in order to cover diverse medical information from the variety of hospitals. This paper presents an approach to generating query language from medical knowledge, and shows software architecture for accessing medical information from hospitals by executing generated query languages. Implementation of this architecture has been deployed in a hospital of South Korea so that it shows the feasibility of the architecture.

  9. A Medical Image Backup Architecture Based on a NoSQL Database and Cloud Computing Services.

    PubMed

    Santos Simões de Almeida, Luan Henrique; Costa Oliveira, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital systems for storing medical images generates a huge volume of data. Digital images are commonly stored and managed on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), under the DICOM standard. However, PACS is limited because it is strongly dependent on the server's physical space. Alternatively, Cloud Computing arises as an extensive, low cost, and reconfigurable resource. However, medical images contain patient information that can not be made available in a public cloud. Therefore, a mechanism to anonymize these images is needed. This poster presents a solution for this issue by taking digital images from PACS, converting the information contained in each image file to a NoSQL database, and using cloud computing to store digital images. PMID:26262231

  10. Designing an architectural style for dynamic medical Cross-Organizational Workflow management system: an approach based on agents and web services.

    PubMed

    Bouzguenda, Lotfi; Turki, Manel

    2014-04-01

    This paper shows how the combined use of agent and web services technologies can help to design an architectural style for dynamic medical Cross-Organizational Workflow (COW) management system. Medical COW aims at supporting the collaboration between several autonomous and possibly heterogeneous medical processes, distributed over different organizations (Hospitals, Clinic or laboratories). Dynamic medical COW refers to occasional cooperation between these health organizations, free of structural constraints, where the medical partners involved and their number are not pre-defined. More precisely, this paper proposes a new architecture style based on agents and web services technologies to deal with two key coordination issues of dynamic COW: medical partners finding and negotiation between them. It also proposes how the proposed architecture for dynamic medical COW management system can connect to a multi-agent system coupling the Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE). The idea is to assist the health professionals such as doctors, nurses and pharmacists with decision making tasks, as determining diagnosis or patient data analysis without stopping their clinical processes in order to act in a coherent way and to give care to the patient. PMID:24682670

  11. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    It is a well known fact that managed care and new treatment technologies are revolutionizing the health care provider world. Community Health Information Network and Computer-based Patient Record projects are underway throughout the United States. More and more hospitals are installing digital, `filmless' radiology (and other imagery) systems. They generate a staggering amount of information around the clock. For example, a typical 500-bed hospital might accumulate more than 5 terabytes of image data in a period of 30 years for conventional x-ray images and digital images such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computer Tomography images. With several hospitals contributing to the archive, the storage required will be in the hundreds of terabytes. Systems for reliable, secure, and inexpensive storage and retrieval of digital medical information do not exist today. In this paper, we present a Medical Image Archive and Distribution Service (MIADS) concept. MIADS is a system shared by individual and community hospitals, laboratories, and doctors' offices that need to store and retrieve medical images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data, as well as the diversified user access requirement, implementation of the MIADS will be a complex procedure. One of the key challenges to implementing a MIADS is to select a cost-effective, scalable system architecture to meet the ingest/retrieval performance requirements. We have performed an in-depth system engineering study, and developed a sophisticated simulation model to address this key challenge. This paper describes the overall system architecture based on our system engineering study and simulation results. In particular, we will emphasize system scalability and upgradability issues. Furthermore, we will discuss our simulation results in detail. The simulations study the ingest/retrieval performance requirements based on different system configurations and architectures for variables such as workload, tape

  12. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  13. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Zhang, Mingjun; Kretly, Luiz C.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  14. Novel Architecture for supporting medical decision making of different data types based on Fuzzy Cognitive Map Framework.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki; Stylios, Chrysostomos; Groumpos, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Medical problems involve different types of variables and data, which have to be processed, analyzed and synthesized in order to reach a decision and/or conclude to a diagnosis. Usually, information and data set are both symbolic and numeric but most of the well-known data analysis methods deal with only one kind of data. Even when fuzzy approaches are considered, which are not depended on the scales of variables, usually only numeric data is considered. The medical decision support methods usually are accessed in only one type of available data. Thus, sophisticated methods have been proposed such as integrated hybrid learning approaches to process symbolic and numeric data for the decision support tasks. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) is an efficient modelling method, which is based on human knowledge and experience and it can handle with uncertainty and it is constructed by extracted knowledge in the form of fuzzy rules. The FCM model can be enhanced if a fuzzy rule base (IF-THEN rules) is available. This rule base could be derived by a number of machine learning and knowledge extraction methods. Here it is introduced a hybrid attempt to handle situations with different types of available medical and/or clinical data and with difficulty to handle them for decision support tasks using soft computing techniques. PMID:18002176

  15. Architecture and Workflow of Medical Knowledge Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyunsook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, clinical field builds various forms of computerized medical knowledge and tries to use it efficiently. In general, to build and reuse knowledge easily, it is needed to build a knowledge repository. Especially, the credibility of knowledge is important in clinical domain. This paper proposes methods for supporting it. To perform it systematically, we propose the method of the knowledge management processes. The methods for knowledge management can serve equal quality, usability and credibility of knowledge. Knowledge management methods consist of 2 methods. They are the knowledge management processes and the specification of the management targets. And this paper proposes the requirement of a knowledge repository and the architecture of the knowledge repository.

  16. An architecture for the construction of medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchaukoski, Jeroniza N.; Silva, Luciano; Sunye, Marcos S.; Bellon, Olga R. P.

    2003-05-01

    Due to the large volume and density of the medical images data, it is necessary the use of suitable database systems to facilitate their storage and management, interacting with the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). This paper presents an architecture designed for acquisition and storage of the extracted data related to medical images, emphasizing the importance of experts in acquisition of consistent data. This work also presents the division of the information contained in the medical images into levels such as: low level, segmentation level, interpretation level, semantic level and related information. The levels work as a basis to the database schema represented by ER (entity relationship). This architecture has been validated by a content-based image retrieval system for Neonatology support.

  17. A multiagent architecture for developing medical information retrieval agents.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Information that is available on the world wide web (WWW) is already more vast than can be comprehensibly studied by individuals and this quantity is increasing at a staggering pace. The quality of service delivered by physicians is dependent on the availability of current information. The agent paradigm offers a means for enabling physicians to filter information and retrieve only information that is relevant to current patient treatments. As with many specialized domains, agent-based information retrieval in medical domains must satisfy several domain-dependent constraints. A multiple agent architecture is developed and described in detail to efficiently provide agent-based information retrieval from the WWW and other explicit information resources. A simulation of the proposed multiple agent architecture shows a 97% decrease in information overload and an 85% increase in information relevancy over existing meta-search tools (with even larger gains over standard search engines). PMID:14584625

  18. Flexible medical image management using service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Oded; Melament, Alex; Barak-Corren, Yuval; Kostirev, Igor; Shmueli, Noam; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Management of medical images increasingly involves the need for integration with a variety of information systems. To address this need, we developed Content Management Offering (CMO), a platform for medical image management supporting interoperability through compliance with standards. CMO is based on the principles of service-oriented architecture, implemented with emphasis on three areas: clarity of business process definition, consolidation of service configuration management, and system scalability. Owing to the flexibility of this platform, a small team is able to accommodate requirements of customers varying in scale and in business needs. We describe two deployments of CMO, highlighting the platform's value to customers. CMO represents a flexible approach to medical image management, which can be applied to a variety of information technology challenges in healthcare and life sciences organizations. PMID:22874344

  19. Architecture for Integrated Medical Model Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Goodenow, D.; Young, M.; Arellano, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a modeling tool used to predict potential outcomes of a complex system based on a statistical understanding of many initiating events. Utilizing a Monte Carlo method, thousands of instances of the model are considered and outcomes are collected. PRA is considered static, utilizing probabilities alone to calculate outcomes. Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (dPRA) is an advanced concept where modeling predicts the outcomes of a complex system based not only on the probabilities of many initiating events, but also on a progression of dependencies brought about by progressing down a time line. Events are placed in a single time line, adding each event to a queue, as managed by a planner. Progression down the time line is guided by rules, as managed by a scheduler. The recently developed Integrated Medical Model (IMM) summarizes astronaut health as governed by the probabilities of medical events and mitigation strategies. Managing the software architecture process provides a systematic means of creating, documenting, and communicating a software design early in the development process. The software architecture process begins with establishing requirements and the design is then derived from the requirements.

  20. A Parallel Software Architecture for Building Intelligent Medical Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Factor, Michael; Sittig, Dean F.; Cohn, Aaron I.; Gelernter, David H.; Miller, Perry L.; Rosenbaum, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) become more complicated each day; the number of devices to monitor various aspects of a patient's status continues to increase. Intelligent monitors attempt to reduce this complexity by interpreting the data and presenting a high-level summary of a patient's condition. We propose a parallel software architecture for constructing intelligent medical monitors, the process trellis; we contrast the process trellis to other software architectures that have been used for heuristic medical programs: blackboards and production rules. The process trellis is an explicitly parallel structure, and therefore can take advantage of the performance gains available from parallel computer hardware. Its use does not, however, presuppose any expertise in parallel programming. We are currently building an Intelligent Cardiovascular Monitor (ICM) using the process trellis. We describe the ICM and the use of the process trellis architecture in its construction.

  1. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  2. A patient-centric distribution architecture for medical image sharing.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Liviu; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Haraguchi, Daiki; Wen, Lingfeng; Feng, Dagan

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, rapid development of imaging technologies has resulted in the introduction of improved imaging devices, such as multi-modality scanners that produce combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images. The adoption of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in hospitals have dramatically improved the ability to digitally share medical image studies via portable storage, mobile devices and the Internet. This has in turn led to increased productivity, greater flexibility, and improved communication between hospital staff, referring physicians, and outpatients. However, many of these sharing and viewing capabilities are limited to proprietary vendor-specific applications. Furthermore, there are still interoperability and deployment issues which reduce the rate of adoption of such technologies, thus leaving many stakeholders, particularly outpatients and referring physicians, with access to only traditional still images with no ability to view or interpret the data in full. In this paper, we present a distribution architecture for medical image display across numerous devices and media, which uses a preprocessor and an in-built networking framework to improve compatibility and promote greater accessibility of medical data. Our INVOLVE2 system consists of three main software modules: 1) a preprocessor, which collates and converts imaging studies into a compressed and distributable format; 2) a PACS-compatible workflow for self-managing distribution of medical data, e.g. via CD USB, network etc; 3) support for potential mobile and web-based data access. The focus of this study was on cultivating patient-centric care, by allowing outpatient users to comfortably access and interpret their own data. As such, the image viewing software included on our cross-platform CDs was designed with a simple and intuitive user-interface (UI) for use by outpatients and referring physicians. Furthermore, digital image access via

  3. An integrated architecture for deploying a virtual private medical network over the web.

    PubMed

    Gritzalis, S; Gritzalis, D; Moulinos, C; Iliadis, J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a pilot architecture aiming at protecting Web-based medical applications through the development of a virtual private medical network. The basic technology, which is utilized by this integrated architecture, is the Trusted Third Party (TTP). In specific, a TTP is used to generate, distribute, and revoke digital certificates to/from medical practitioners and healthcare organizations wishing to communicate in a secure way. Digital certificates and digital signatures are, in particular, used to provide peer and data origin authentication and access control functionalities. We also propose a logical Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) architecture, which is robust, scalable, and based on standards. This architecture aims at supporting large-scale healthcare applications. It supports openness, scalability, flexibility and extensibility, and can be integrated with existing TTP schemes and infrastructures offering transparency and adequate security. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed architecture enjoys all desirable usability characteristics, and meets the set of criteria, which constitutes an applicable framework for the development of trusted medical services over the Web. PMID:11583408

  4. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  5. A National Medical Information System for Senegal: Architecture and Services.

    PubMed

    Camara, Gaoussou; Diallo, Al Hassim; Lo, Moussa; Tendeng, Jacques-Noël; Lo, Seynabou

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, great amounts of data are daily generated by medical activities such as consultation, hospitalization, blood test, x-ray, birth, death, etc. These data are still recorded in register, printed images, audios and movies which are manually processed. However, some medical organizations have their own software for non-standardized patient record management, appointment, wages, etc. without any possibility of sharing these data or communicating with other medical structures. This leads to lots of limitations in reusing or sharing these data because of their possible structural and semantic heterogeneity. To overcome these problems we have proposed a National Medical Information System for Senegal (SIMENS). As an integrated platform, SIMENS provides an EHR system that supports healthcare activities, a mobile version and a web portal. The SIMENS architecture proposes also a data and application integration services for supporting interoperability and decision making. PMID:27577338

  6. Java based open architecture controller

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F

    2000-01-13

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

  7. Application of Multiprotocol Medical Imaging Communications and an Extended DICOM WADO Service in a Teleradiology Architecture.

    PubMed

    Koutelakis, George V; Anastassopoulos, George K; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios K

    2012-01-01

    Multiprotocol medical imaging communication through the Internet is more flexible than the tight DICOM transfers. This paper introduces a modular multiprotocol teleradiology architecture that integrates DICOM and common Internet services (based on web, FTP, and E-mail) into a unique operational domain. The extended WADO service (a web extension of DICOM) and the other proposed services allow access to all levels of the DICOM information hierarchy as opposed to solely Object level. A lightweight client site is considered adequate, because the server site of the architecture provides clients with service interfaces through the web as well as invulnerable space for temporary storage, called as User Domains, so that users fulfill their applications' tasks. The proposed teleradiology architecture is pilot implemented using mainly Java-based technologies and is evaluated by engineers in collaboration with doctors. The new architecture ensures flexibility in access, user mobility, and enhanced data security. PMID:22489237

  8. A fully programmable computing architecture for medical ultrasound machines.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Agarwal, Anup; Yoo, Yang Mo; Fukuoka, Tetsuya; Kim, Yongmin

    2010-03-01

    Application-specific ICs have been traditionally used to support the high computational and data rate requirements in medical ultrasound systems, particularly in receive beamforming. Utilizing the previously developed efficient front-end algorithms, in this paper, we present a simple programmable computing architecture, consisting of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP), to support core ultrasound signal processing. It was found that 97.3% and 51.8% of the FPGA and DSP resources are, respectively, needed to support all the front-end and back-end processing for B-mode imaging with 64 channels and 120 scanlines per frame at 30 frames/s. These results indicate that this programmable architecture can meet the requirements of low- and medium-level ultrasound machines while providing a flexible platform for supporting the development and deployment of new algorithms and emerging clinical applications. PMID:19546045

  9. A next-generation enterprise medical object management system (MOMS) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol, Tomer; Shachor, Gal; Shani, Uri

    2004-04-01

    The sheer amount of digital data generated by the proliferation of filmless medical imaging, poses great scalability and manageability challenges to PACS systems. Manageability challenges are aggravated when weighing legislative requirements. An architecture for an enterprise level PACS should support the management of assorted medical objects (e.g., images and reports). Additionally, the architecture should allow services, including performance and reliability, to be tailored to classes of objects according to complex and possibly varying rules. The design should be flexible, allowing for on-demand cost-effective scaling, using a mix-and-match selection of hardware, operating systems, and storage devices. In light of the increased reliance on stored data, it should ensure 24x7 availability, even during system upgrade, and allow pluggable support for future formats. The Medical Object Management System (MOMS) presented in this paper, is an enterprise medical imaging solution architectured to meet the above demands. Flexible, configurable and scalable content and source based management of objects enables administrators to define and modify policies that govern various aspects of the objects' life-cycles, using either configuration files or a Web-based GUI. The modular architecture of MOMS includes (possibly multiple) instances of interface (DICOM, HL7 and Tivoli Storage Manager), storage management and administration agents. Agent instances are hot-pluggable, allowing for zero-downtime upgrades, and can be deployed on a heterogeneous and distributed infrastructure. Leveraging the expertise gained in the development and deployment of the IDMR research PACS project, combined with recent technological advances and modern middleware, MOMS delivers a solution for the present and future requirements of medical objects management.

  10. Developing secure Web-based medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gritzalis, S; Iliadis, J; Gritzalis, D; Spinellis, D; Katsikas, S

    1999-01-01

    The EUROMED-ETS pilot system offers a number of security functionalities using off-the-shelf available products, in order to protect Web-based medical applications. The basic concept used by the proposed security architecture is the Trusted Third Party (TTP). A TTP is used in order to generate, distribute and revoke digital certificates to medical practitioners and healthcare organizations that wish to communicate securely. Digital certificates and digital signatures are used to provide peer and data origin authentication and access control. The paper demonstrates how TTPs can be used effectively in order to develop medical applications that run securely over the World Wide Web. PMID:10224220

  11. A medical-grade wireless architecture for remote electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungtae; Park, Kyung-Joon; Song, Jae-Jin; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Sha, Lui

    2011-03-01

    In telecardiology, electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a patient are acquired by sensors and transmitted in real time to medical personnel across a wireless network. The use of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (WLANs), which are already deployed in many hospitals, can provide ubiquitous connectivity and thus allow cardiology patients greater mobility. However, engineering issues, including the error-prone nature of wireless channels and the unpredictable delay and jitter due to the nondeterministic nature of access to the wireless medium, need to be addressed before telecardiology can be safely realized. We propose a medical-grade WLAN architecture for remote ECG monitoring, which employs the point-coordination function (PCF) for medium access control and Reed-Solomon coding for error control. Realistic simulations with uncompressed two-lead ECG data from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database demonstrate reliable wireless ECG monitoring; the reliability of ECG transmission exceeds 99.99% with the initial buffering delay of only 2.4 s. PMID:21216717

  12. An architecture for rule based system explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, T. R.; Johannes, James D.

    1990-01-01

    A system architecture is presented which incorporate both graphics and text into explanations provided by rule based expert systems. This architecture facilitates explanation of the knowledge base content, the control strategies employed by the system, and the conclusions made by the system. The suggested approach combines hypermedia and inference engine capabilities. Advantages include: closer integration of user interface, explanation system, and knowledge base; the ability to embed links to deeper knowledge underlying the compiled knowledge used in the knowledge base; and allowing for more direct control of explanation depth and duration by the user. User models are suggested to control the type, amount, and order of information presented.

  13. Architecture of portable electronic medical records system integrated with streaming media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shih, Chien-Chou

    2012-02-01

    Due to increasing occurrence of accidents and illness during business trips, travel, or overseas studies, the requirement for portable EMR (Electronic Medical Records) has increased. This study proposes integrating streaming media technology into the EMR system to facilitate referrals, contracted laboratories, and disease notification among hospitals. The current study encoded static and dynamic medical images of patients into a streaming video format and stored them in a Flash Media Server (FMS). Based on the Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) standard, EMR records can be converted into XML documents and used to integrate description fields with embedded streaming videos. This investigation implemented a web-based portable EMR interchanging system using streaming media techniques to expedite exchanging medical image information among hospitals. The proposed architecture of the portable EMR retrieval system not only provides local hospital users the ability to acquire EMR text files from a previous hospital, but also helps access static and dynamic medical images as reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed method protects property rights of medical images through information security mechanisms of the Medical Record Interchange Service Center and Health Certificate Authorization to facilitate proper, efficient, and continuous treatment of patients. PMID:20703752

  14. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  15. Integrating medical devices in the operating room using service-oriented architectures.

    PubMed

    Ibach, Bastian; Benzko, Julia; Schlichting, Stefan; Zimolong, Andreas; Radermacher, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    Abstract With the increasing documentation requirements and communication capabilities of medical devices in the operating room, the integration and modular networking of these devices have become more and more important. Commercial integrated operating room systems are mainly proprietary developments using usually proprietary communication standards and interfaces, which reduce the possibility of integrating devices from different vendors. To overcome these limitations, there is a need for an open standardized architecture that is based on standard protocols and interfaces enabling the integration of devices from different vendors based on heterogeneous software and hardware components. Starting with an analysis of the requirements for device integration in the operating room and the techniques used for integrating devices in other industrial domains, a new concept for an integration architecture for the operating room based on the paradigm of a service-oriented architecture is developed. Standardized communication protocols and interface descriptions are used. As risk management is an important factor in the field of medical engineering, a risk analysis of the developed concept has been carried out and the first prototypes have been implemented. PMID:22718585

  16. ITOHealth: a multimodal middleware-oriented integrated architecture for discovering medical entities.

    PubMed

    Alor-Hernández, Giner; Sánchez-Cervantes, José Luis; Juárez-Martínez, Ulises; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Emergency healthcare is one of the emerging application domains for information services, which requires highly multimodal information services. The time of consuming pre-hospital emergency process is critical. Therefore, the minimization of required time for providing primary care and consultation to patients is one of the crucial factors when trying to improve the healthcare delivery in emergency situations. In this sense, dynamic location of medical entities is a complex process that needs time and it can be critical when a person requires medical attention. This work presents a multimodal location-based system for locating and assigning medical entities called ITOHealth. ITOHealth provides a multimodal middleware-oriented integrated architecture using a service-oriented architecture in order to provide information of medical entities in mobile devices and web browsers with enriched interfaces providing multimodality support. ITOHealth's multimodality is based on the use of Microsoft Agent Characters, the integration of natural language voice to the characters, and multi-language and multi-characters support providing an advantage for users with visual impairments. PMID:22462196

  17. An Architecture for Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Laurent; Mercer, Rene; Alverez, Omar; Bettati, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a case-based instructional environment designed for learning network engineering skills for cybersecurity. We describe the societal problem addressed, the theory-based solution, and the preliminary testing and evaluation of that solution. We identify an architecture for…

  18. Laying the groundwork for enterprise-wide medical language processing services: architecture and process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Maloney, Francine L; Shilmayster, Eugene; Goldberg, Howard S

    2009-01-01

    A systematic and standard process for capturing information within free-text clinical documents could facilitate opportunities for improving quality and safety of patient care, enhancing decision support, and advancing data warehousing across an enterprise setting. At Partners HealthCare System, the Medical Language Processing (MLP) services project was initiated to establish a component-based architectural model and processes to facilitate putting MLP functionality into production for enterprise consumption, promote sharing of components, and encourage reuse. Key objectives included exploring the use of an open-source framework called the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) and leveraging existing MLP-related efforts, terminology, and document standards. This paper describes early experiences in defining the infrastructure and standards for extracting, encoding, and structuring clinical observations from a variety of clinical documents to serve enterprise-wide needs. PMID:20351830

  19. Web architecture for the remote browsing and analysis of distributed medical images and data.

    PubMed

    Masseroli, M; Pinciroli, F

    2001-01-01

    To provide easy retrieval, integration and evaluation of multimodal medical images and data in a web browser environment, distributed application technologies and Java programming were used to develop a client-server architecture based on software agents. The server side manages secure connections and queries to heterogeneous remote databases and file systems containing patient personal and clinical data. The client side is a Java applet running in a web browser and providing a friendly medical user interface to perform queries on patient and medical test data and integrate and visualize properly the various query results. A set of tools based on Java Advanced Imaging API enables to process and analyze the retrieved bioimages, and quantify their features in different regions of interest. The platform-independence Java technology makes the developed prototype easy to be managed in a centralized form and provided in each site where an intranet or internet connection can be located. Giving the healthcare providers effective tools for browsing, querying, visualizing and evaluating comprehensively medical images and records in all locations where they can need them - e.g. emergency, operating theaters, ward, or even outpatient clinics- the implemented prototype represents an important aid in providing more efficient diagnoses and medical treatments. PMID:11604703

  20. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vang, Leng; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis

    2014-09-01

    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  1. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  2. Building a generic architecture for medical information exchange among healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Kuo, H S; Jian, W S; Tang, D D; Liu, C T; Liu, L L; Hsu, C Y; Tan, Y K; Hu, C H

    2001-05-01

    Due to the inability to exchange clinical information among hospitals, continuity of care cannot be maintained and a tremendous amount of medical resource has been wasted. This paper describes an architecture that would facilitate exchange of clinical information among heterogeneous hospital information systems. It is dubbed 'Medical Information Exchange Center' or MIEC as part of a six-year Health Information Network Project hosted by the Department of Health. MIEC was designed so that it is innovative yet technically feasible today. It is convenient for authorized users yet secure enough so people can trust and has minimal impact to participated hospitals. Authorized users will be able to access information through two web-based interfaces directed to physician and non-physician users respectively. Hospitals are connected through a virtual private network to exchange patient information and users need to obtain a private key from the certificate authority in order to securely connect to MIEC. A pilot project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of this architecture and the problems encountered were discussed. PMID:11311678

  3. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-02-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  4. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  5. An Analysis of an Improved Bus-Based Multiprocessor Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Kenneth G.; Wells, B. Earl

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of a hybrid multiprocessing/multicomputing architecture that is based upon a single-board-computer multiprocessor (SBCM) architecture. Based upon empirical analysis using discrete event simulations and Monte Carlo techniques, this hybrid architecture, called the enhanced single-board-computer multiprocessor (ESBCM), is shown to have improved performance and scalability characteristics over current SBCM designs.

  6. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  7. MEDEMAS -Medical Device Management and Maintenance System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Ülkü Balcı; Dogan, Mehmet Ugur; Ülgen, Yekta; Özkan, Mehmed

    In the proposed study, a medical device maintenance management system (MEDEMAS) is designed and implemented which provides a data pool of medical devices, the maintenance protocols and other required information for these devices. The system also contains complete repair and maintenance history of a specific device. MEDEMAS creates optimal maintenance schedule for devices and enables the service technician to carry out and report maintenance/repair processes via remote access. Thus predicted future failures are possible to prevent or minimize. Maintenance and repair is essential for patient safety and proper functioning of the medical devices, as it prevents performance decrease of the devices, deterioration of the equipment, and detrimental effects on the health of a patient, the user or other interacting people. The study aims to make the maintenance process more accurate, more efficient, faster and easier to manage and organize; and much less confusing. The accumulated history of medical devices and maintenance personnel helps efficient facility planning.

  8. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  9. Semantic-Web Architecture for Electronic Discharge Summary Based on OWL 2.0 Standard

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebian, Shahram; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients’ electronic medical record contains all information related to treatment processes during hospitalization. One of the most important documents in this record is the record summary. In this document, summary of the whole treatment process is presented which is used for subsequent treatments and other issues pertaining to the treatment. Using suitable architecture for this document, apart from the aforementioned points we can use it in other fields such as data mining or decision making based on the cases. Material and Methods: In this study, at first, a model for patient’s medical record summary has been suggested using semantic web-based architecture. Then, based on service-oriented architecture and using Java programming language, a software solution was designed and run in a way to generate medical record summary with this structure and at the end, new uses of this structure was explained. Results: in this study a structure for medical record summaries along with corrective points within semantic web has been offered and a software running within Java along with special ontologies are provided. Discussion and Conclusion: After discussing the project with the experts of medical/health data management and medical informatics as well as clinical experts, it became clear that suggested design for medical record summary apart from covering many issues currently faced in the medical records has also many advantages including its uses in research projects, decision making based on the cases etc. PMID:27482132

  10. High dynamic range pixel architecture for advanced diagnostic medical x-ray imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Karim S.

    2006-05-15

    The most widely used architecture in large-area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers is a passive pixel sensor (PPS), which consists of a detector and a readout switch. While the PPS has the advantage of being compact and amenable toward high-resolution imaging, small PPS output signals are swamped by external column charge amplifier and data line thermal noise, which reduce the minimum readable sensor input signal. In contrast to PPS circuits, on-pixel amplifiers in a-Si technology reduce readout noise to levels that can meet even the stringent requirements for low noise digital x-ray fluoroscopy (<1000 noise electrons). However, larger voltages at the pixel input cause the output of the amplified pixel to become nonlinear thus reducing the dynamic range. We reported a hybrid amplified pixel architecture based on a combination of PPS and amplified pixel designs that, in addition to low noise performance, also resulted in large-signal linearity and consequently higher dynamic range [K. S. Karim et al., Proc. SPIE 5368, 657 (2004)]. The additional benefit in large-signal linearity, however, came at the cost of an additional pixel transistor. We present an amplified pixel design that achieves the goals of low noise performance and large-signal linearity without the need for an additional pixel transistor. Theoretical calculations and simulation results for noise indicate the applicability of the amplified a-Si pixel architecture for high dynamic range, medical x-ray imaging applications that require switching between low exposure, real-time fluoroscopy and high-exposure radiography.

  11. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  12. Web-based medical image archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Edward B.; Warach, Steven; Cheung, Huey; Wang, Shaohua A.; Tangiral, Phanidral; Luby, Marie; Martino, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a Web-based medical image archive system in three-tier, client-server architecture for the storage and retrieval of medical image data, as well as patient information and clinical data. The Web-based medical image archive system was designed to meet the need of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke for a central image repository to address questions of stroke pathophysiology and imaging biomarkers in stroke clinical trials by analyzing images obtained from a large number of clinical trials conducted by government, academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers. In the database management-tier, we designed the image storage hierarchy to accommodate large binary image data files that the database software can access in parallel. In the middle-tier, a commercial Enterprise Java Bean server and secure Web server manages user access to the image database system. User-friendly Web-interfaces and applet tools are provided in the client-tier for easy access to the image archive system over the Internet. Benchmark test results show that our three-tier image archive system yields fast system response time for uploading, downloading, and querying the image database.

  13. Disease Risk Factors Identified through Shared Genetic Architecture and Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Ruau, David J.; Patel, Chirag J.; Weber, Susan C.; Chen, Rong; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Butte, Atul J.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants for thousands of diseases and traits. In this study, we evaluated the relationships between specific risk factors (for example, blood cholesterol level) and diseases on the basis of their shared genetic architecture in a comprehensive human disease-SNP association database (VARIMED), analyzing the findings from 8,962 published association studies. Similarity between traits and diseases was statistically evaluated based on their association with shared gene variants. We identified 120 disease-trait pairs that were statistically similar, and of these we tested and validated five previously unknown disease-trait associations by searching electronic medical records (EMR) from 3 independent medical centers for evidence of the trait appearing in patients within one year of first diagnosis of the disease. We validated that mean corpuscular volume is elevated before diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; both have associated variants in the gene IKZF1. Platelet count is decreased before diagnosis of alcohol dependence; both are associated with variants in the gene C12orf51. Alkaline phosphatase level is elevated in patients with venous thromboembolism; both share variants in ABO. Similarly, we found prostate specific antigen and serum magnesium levels were altered before the diagnosis of lung cancer and gastric cancer, respectively. Disease-trait associations identifies traits that can potentially serve a prognostic function clinically; validating disease-trait associations through EMR can whether these candidates are risk factors for complex diseases. PMID:24786325

  14. A Cloud-based Approach to Medical NLP

    PubMed Central

    Chard, Kyle; Russell, Michael; Lussier, Yves A.; Mendonça, Eneida A; Silverstein, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables access to deep content embedded in medical texts. To date, NLP has not fulfilled its promise of enabling robust clinical encoding, clinical use, quality improvement, and research. We submit that this is in part due to poor accessibility, scalability, and flexibility of NLP systems. We describe here an approach and system which leverages cloud-based approaches such as virtual machines and Representational State Transfer (REST) to extract, process, synthesize, mine, compare/contrast, explore, and manage medical text data in a flexibly secure and scalable architecture. Available architectures in which our Smntx (pronounced as semantics) system can be deployed include: virtual machines in a HIPAA-protected hospital environment, brought up to run analysis over bulk data and destroyed in a local cloud; a commercial cloud for a large complex multi-institutional trial; and within other architectures such as caGrid, i2b2, or NHIN. PMID:22195072

  15. Definition of Information Technology Architectures for Continuous Data Management and Medical Device Integration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H.; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2008-01-01

    The growing availability of continuous data from medical devices in diabetes management makes it crucial to define novel information technology architectures for efficient data storage, data transmission, and data visualization. The new paradigm of care demands the sharing of information in interoperable systems as the only way to support patient care in a continuum of care scenario. The technological platforms should support all the services required by the actors involved in the care process, located in different scenarios and managing diverse information for different purposes. This article presents basic criteria for defining flexible and adaptive architectures that are capable of interoperating with external systems, and integrating medical devices and decision support tools to extract all the relevant knowledge to support diabetes care. PMID:19885276

  16. Implementation of medical monitor system based on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Cao, Yuzhen; Zhang, Lixin; Ding, Mingshi

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, the development trend of medical monitor system is analyzed and portable trend and network function become more and more popular among all kinds of medical monitor devices. The architecture of medical network monitor system solution is provided and design and implementation details of medical monitor terminal, monitor center software, distributed medical database and two kind of medical information terminal are especially discussed. Rabbit3000 system is used in medical monitor terminal to implement security administration of data transfer on network, human-machine interface, power management and DSP interface while DSP chip TMS5402 is used in signal analysis and data compression. Distributed medical database is designed for hospital center according to DICOM information model and HL7 standard. Pocket medical information terminal based on ARM9 embedded platform is also developed to interactive with center database on networks. Two kernels based on WINCE are customized and corresponding terminal software are developed for nurse's routine care and doctor's auxiliary diagnosis. Now invention patent of the monitor terminal is approved and manufacture and clinic test plans are scheduled. Applications for invention patent are also arranged for two medical information terminals.

  17. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  18. Case-based medical informatics

    PubMed Central

    Pantazi, Stefan V; Arocha, José F; Moehr, Jochen R

    2004-01-01

    Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning) and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences of problem-solving and

  19. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz, Yanira; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a kind of intelligent agent, which integrates a case-based reasoning system. This agent, which is the core of the architecture, allows the application of detection techniques based on anomalies as well as those based on patterns, providing a great degree of autonomy, flexibility, robustness and dynamic scalability. The characteristics of the multiagent system allow an architecture to detect attacks from different types of devices, regardless of the physical location. The architecture has been tested on a medical database, guaranteeing safe access from various devices such as PDAs and notebook computers.

  20. SOA Security Aspects in Web-based Architectural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Asadullah; Ali, Shccraz; Memon, Nasrullah; Karampelas, Panagiotis

    Distributed web-based applications have been progressively increasing in number and scale over the past decades. There is an intensification of the need for security frameworks in the era of web-based applications when wc refer to distributed tclcmcdicinc interoperability architectures. In contrast. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is gaining popularity day by day when wc specially consider the web applications. SOA is playing a major role to maintain the security standards of distributed applications. This paper proposes a secure web-based architectural design by using the standards of SOA for distributed web application that maintains the interoperability and data integration through certain secure channels. Wc have created CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations that has an implication on our own created web services and wc propose a secure architecture that is implemented on CRUD operations.

  1. Model-based engineering for medical-device software.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arnab; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting model-based design techniques for engineering medical device software. By using a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion pump as a candidate medical device, the authors show how using models to capture design information allows for i) fast and efficient construction of executable device prototypes ii) creation of a standard, reusable baseline software architecture for a particular device family, iii) formal verification of the design against safety requirements, and iv) creation of a safety framework that reduces verification costs for future versions of the device software. 1. PMID:21142522

  2. E-maintenance Scenarios Based on Augmented Reality Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents architecture of augmented reality for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. This architecture allows implementing different scenarios which give to the technician possibilities to intervene on a breakdown device with a distant expert help. Each scenario is established according to machine parameters and technician competences. In our case, a hardware platform is designed to carry out e-maintenance scenarios. An example of e-maintenance scenario is then presented.

  3. Model-Drive Architecture for Agent-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Bohner, Shawn A.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach uses a platform-independent model to define system functionality, or requirements, using some specification language. The requirements are then translated to a platform-specific model for implementation. An agent architecture based on the human cognitive model of planning, the Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is selected for the implementation platform. The resulting Cougaar MDA prescribes certain kinds of models to be used, how those models may be prepared and the relationships of the different kinds of models. Using the existing Cougaar architecture, the level of application composition is elevated from individual components to domain level model specifications in order to generate software artifacts. The software artifacts generation is based on a metamodel. Each component maps to a UML structured component which is then converted into multiple artifacts: Cougaar/Java code, documentation, and test cases.

  4. Novel power saving architecture for FBG based OCDMA code generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadola, Tolulope B.; Idris, Siti K.; Glesk, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    A novel architecture for generating incoherent, 2-dimensional wavelength hopping-time spreading optical CDMA codes is presented. The architecture is designed to facilitate the reuse of optical source signal that is unused after an OCDMA code has been generated using fiber Bragg grating based encoders. Effective utilization of available optical power is therefore achieved by cascading several OCDMA encoders thereby enabling 3dB savings in optical power.

  5. A unified architecture for biomedical search engines based on semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Vahid; Matash Borujerdi, Mohammad Reza

    2011-04-01

    There is a huge growth in the volume of published biomedical research in recent years. Many medical search engines are designed and developed to address the over growing information needs of biomedical experts and curators. Significant progress has been made in utilizing the knowledge embedded in medical ontologies and controlled vocabularies to assist these engines. However, the lack of common architecture for utilized ontologies and overall retrieval process, hampers evaluating different search engines and interoperability between them under unified conditions. In this paper, a unified architecture for medical search engines is introduced. Proposed model contains standard schemas declared in semantic web languages for ontologies and documents used by search engines. Unified models for annotation and retrieval processes are other parts of introduced architecture. A sample search engine is also designed and implemented based on the proposed architecture in this paper. The search engine is evaluated using two test collections and results are reported in terms of precision vs. recall and mean average precision for different approaches used by this search engine. PMID:20703566

  6. An intelligent service-based network architecture for wearable robots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka Keung; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Yangsheng; Liang, Bin

    2004-08-01

    We are developing a novel robot concept called the wearable robot. Wearable robots are mobile information devices capable of supporting remote communication and intelligent interaction between networked entities. In this paper, we explore the possible functions of such a robotic network and will present a distributed network architecture based on service components. In order to support the interaction and communication between the components in the wearable robot system, we have developed an intelligent network architecture. This service-based architecture involves three major mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the use of a task coordinator service such that the execution of the services can be managed using a priority queue. The second mechanism enables the system to automatically push the required service proxy to the client intelligently based on certain system-related conditions. In the third mechanism, we allow the system to automatically deliver services based on contextual information. Using a fuzzy-logic-based decision making system, the matching service can determine whether the service should be automatically delivered utilizing the information provided by the service, client, lookup service, and context sensors. An application scenario has been implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of this distributed service-based robot architecture. The architecture is implemented as extensions to the Jini network model. PMID:15462452

  7. A neurocomputer based on an analog-digital hybrid architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.; Duong, T.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    A novel analog-digital hybrid architecture based on the utilization of high density digital random access memories for the storage of the synaptic weights of a neural network, and high speed analog hardware to perform neural computation is described. An electronic neurocomputer based on such an architecture is ideally suited for investigating the dynamics, associative recall properties, and computational capabilities of neural networks and provides significant speed improvement in comparison to conventional software based neural network simulations. As a demonstration of the feasibility of the hybrid architectural concept, a prototype breadboard hybrid neurocomputer system with 32 neurons has been designed and fabricated with off-the-shelf hardware components. The performance of the breadboard system has been tested for variety of applications including associative memory and combinatorial problem solving such as Graph Coloring, and is discussed in this paper.

  8. Systems modeling of space medical support architecture: topological mapping of high level characteristics and constraints.

    PubMed

    Musson, David M; Doyle, Thomas E; Saary, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The challenges associated with providing medical support to astronauts on long duration lunar or planetary missions are significant. Experience to date in space has included short duration missions to the lunar surface and both short and long duration stays on board spacecraft and space stations in low Earth orbit. Live actor, terrestrial analogue setting simulation provides a means of studying multiple aspects of the medical challenges of exploration class space missions, though few if any published models exist upon which to construct systems-simulation test beds. Current proposed and projected moon mission scenarios were analyzed from a systems perspective to construct such a model. A resulting topological mapping of high-level architecture for a reference lunar mission with presumed EVA excursion and international mission partners is presented. High-level descriptions of crew operational autonomy, medical support related to crew-member status, and communication characteristics within and between multiple teams are presented. It is hoped this modeling will help guide future efforts to simulate medical support operations for research purposes, such as in the use of live actor simulations in terrestrial analogue environments. PMID:23367318

  9. A supportive architecture for CFD-based design optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Su, Zeya; Bi, Zhuming; Tian, Chao; Ren, Zhiming; Gong, Guanghong

    2014-03-01

    Multi-disciplinary design optimisation (MDO) is one of critical methodologies to the implementation of enterprise systems (ES). MDO requiring the analysis of fluid dynamics raises a special challenge due to its extremely intensive computation. The rapid development of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has caused a rise of its applications in various fields. Especially for the exterior designs of vehicles, CFD has become one of the three main design tools comparable to analytical approaches and wind tunnel experiments. CFD-based design optimisation is an effective way to achieve the desired performance under the given constraints. However, due to the complexity of CFD, integrating with CFD analysis in an intelligent optimisation algorithm is not straightforward. It is a challenge to solve a CFD-based design problem, which is usually with high dimensions, and multiple objectives and constraints. It is desirable to have an integrated architecture for CFD-based design optimisation. However, our review on existing works has found that very few researchers have studied on the assistive tools to facilitate CFD-based design optimisation. In the paper, a multi-layer architecture and a general procedure are proposed to integrate different CFD toolsets with intelligent optimisation algorithms, parallel computing technique and other techniques for efficient computation. In the proposed architecture, the integration is performed either at the code level or data level to fully utilise the capabilities of different assistive tools. Two intelligent algorithms are developed and embedded with parallel computing. These algorithms, together with the supportive architecture, lay a solid foundation for various applications of CFD-based design optimisation. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and algorithms, the case studies on aerodynamic shape design of a hypersonic cruising vehicle are provided, and the result has shown that the proposed architecture

  10. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures.

    PubMed

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores. PMID:19834234

  11. Transforming XML-based electronic patient records for use in medical case based reasoning systems.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S; Manickam, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic patient records (EPR) can be regarded as an implicit source of clinical behaviour and problem-solving knowledge, systematically compiled by clinicians. We present an approach, together with its computational implementation, to pro-actively transform XML-based EPR into specialised Clinical Cases (CC) in the realm of Medical Case Base Systems. The 'correct' transformation of EPR to CC involves structural, terminological and conceptual standardisation, which is achieved by a confluence of techniques and resources, such as XML, UMLS (meta-thesaurus) and medical knowledge ontologies. We present below the functional architecture of a Medical Case-Base Reasoning Info-Structure (MCRIS) that features two distinct, yet related, functionalities: (1) a generic medical case-based reasoning system for decision-support activities; and (2) an EPR-CC transformation system to transform typical EPR's to CC. PMID:11187645

  12. Knowledge-based architecture for airborne mine and minefield detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Menon, Deepak; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    One of the primary lessons learned from airborne mid-wave infrared (MWIR) based mine and minefield detection research and development over the last few years has been the fact that no single algorithm or static detection architecture is able to meet mine and minefield detection performance specifications. This is true not only because of the highly varied environmental and operational conditions under which an airborne sensor is expected to perform but also due to the highly data dependent nature of sensors and algorithms employed for detection. Attempts to make the algorithms themselves more robust to varying operating conditions have only been partially successful. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based architecture to tackle this challenging problem. The detailed algorithm architecture is discussed for such a mine/minefield detection system, with a description of each functional block and data interface. This dynamic and knowledge-driven architecture will provide more robust mine and minefield detection for a highly multi-modal operating environment. The acquisition of the knowledge for this system is predominantly data driven, incorporating not only the analysis of historical airborne mine and minefield imagery data collection, but also other "all source data" that may be available such as terrain information and time of day. This "all source data" is extremely important and embodies causal information that drives the detection performance. This information is not being used by current detection architectures. Data analysis for knowledge acquisition will facilitate better understanding of the factors that affect the detection performance and will provide insight into areas for improvement for both sensors and algorithms. Important aspects of this knowledge-based architecture, its motivations and the potential gains from its implementation are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  13. Contextual cloud-based service oriented architecture for clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Conde, Jesús; Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Núñez-Benjumea, Francisco J; Parra-Calderón, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Given that acceptance of systems within the healthcare domain multiple papers highlighted the importance of integrating tools with the clinical workflow. This paper analyse how clinical context management could be deployed in order to promote the adoption of cloud advanced services and within the clinical workflow. This deployment will be able to be integrated with the eHealth European Interoperability Framework promoted specifications. Throughout this paper, it is proposed a cloud-based service-oriented architecture. This architecture will implement a context management system aligned with the HL7 standard known as CCOW. PMID:25991217

  14. A Novel Architecture of Radio Tracking System Based on Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Bo; Jin, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xinfeng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a photonics-based novel architecture of radio tracking system in space applications. This system can operate in multiple frequency bands, implement various functions, and realize integrated, generalized, frequency-independent design. This new scheme can meet the needs of future space missions, and especially suitable for space tracking ship.

  15. Neural network based architectures for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricart, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the field of neural networks research is given and some simple concepts are described. In addition, some neural network based avionics research and development programs are reviewed. The need for the United States Air Force and NASA to assume a leadership role in supporting this technology is stressed.

  16. A web-services architecture designed for intermittent connectivity to support medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steve; Griswold, William; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    To support mobile computing systems for first responders at mass casualty sites, as part of the WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) project, we have developed a data architecture to gracefully handle an environment with frequent network failure and, multiple writers that also supports rapid dissemination of updates that could be critical to the safety of responders. This is accomplished by allowing for a subset of the overall information available in a disaster scene to be cached locally on a responder's device and locally modified with or without network access. When the network is available, the local subset of the model is automatically synchronized with a server that contains the full model, and conflicts are resolved. When changes from a device are committed, the changes are instantly sent to any connected devices where the local subset would be modified by the changes. PMID:16779191

  17. Traffic and Driving Simulator Based on Architecture of Interactive Motion.

    PubMed

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khaddar, Romesh; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns; Modorcea, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an architecture for an interactive motion-based traffic simulation environment. In order to enhance modeling realism involving actual human beings, the proposed architecture integrates multiple types of simulation, including: (i) motion-based driving simulation, (ii) pedestrian simulation, (iii) motorcycling and bicycling simulation, and (iv) traffic flow simulation. The architecture has been designed to enable the simulation of the entire network; as a result, the actual driver, pedestrian, and bike rider can navigate anywhere in the system. In addition, the background traffic interacts with the actual human beings. This is accomplished by using a hybrid mesomicroscopic traffic flow simulation modeling approach. The mesoscopic traffic flow simulation model loads the results of a user equilibrium traffic assignment solution and propagates the corresponding traffic through the entire system. The microscopic traffic flow simulation model provides background traffic around the vicinities where actual human beings are navigating the system. The two traffic flow simulation models interact continuously to update system conditions based on the interactions between actual humans and the fully simulated entities. Implementation efforts are currently in progress and some preliminary tests of individual components have been conducted. The implementation of the proposed architecture faces significant challenges ranging from multiplatform and multilanguage integration to multievent communication and coordination. PMID:26491711

  18. Traffic and Driving Simulator Based on Architecture of Interactive Motion

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khaddar, Romesh; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns; Modorcea, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an architecture for an interactive motion-based traffic simulation environment. In order to enhance modeling realism involving actual human beings, the proposed architecture integrates multiple types of simulation, including: (i) motion-based driving simulation, (ii) pedestrian simulation, (iii) motorcycling and bicycling simulation, and (iv) traffic flow simulation. The architecture has been designed to enable the simulation of the entire network; as a result, the actual driver, pedestrian, and bike rider can navigate anywhere in the system. In addition, the background traffic interacts with the actual human beings. This is accomplished by using a hybrid mesomicroscopic traffic flow simulation modeling approach. The mesoscopic traffic flow simulation model loads the results of a user equilibrium traffic assignment solution and propagates the corresponding traffic through the entire system. The microscopic traffic flow simulation model provides background traffic around the vicinities where actual human beings are navigating the system. The two traffic flow simulation models interact continuously to update system conditions based on the interactions between actual humans and the fully simulated entities. Implementation efforts are currently in progress and some preliminary tests of individual components have been conducted. The implementation of the proposed architecture faces significant challenges ranging from multiplatform and multilanguage integration to multievent communication and coordination. PMID:26491711

  19. A Cloud-Based Simulation Architecture for Pandemic Influenza Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Henrik; Raciti, Massimiliano; Basile, Maurizio; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Fröberg, Anders; Leifler, Ola; Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity simulations of pandemic outbreaks are resource consuming. Cluster-based solutions have been suggested for executing such complex computations. We present a cloud-based simulation architecture that utilizes computing resources both locally available and dynamically rented online. The approach uses the Condor framework for job distribution and management of the Amazon Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2) as well as local resources. The architecture has a web-based user interface that allows users to monitor and control simulation execution. In a benchmark test, the best cost-adjusted performance was recorded for the EC2 H-CPU Medium instance, while a field trial showed that the job configuration had significant influence on the execution time and that the network capacity of the master node could become a bottleneck. We conclude that it is possible to develop a scalable simulation environment that uses cloud-based solutions, while providing an easy-to-use graphical user interface. PMID:22195089

  20. A cloud-based simulation architecture for pandemic influenza simulation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Henrik; Raciti, Massimiliano; Basile, Maurizio; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Fröberg, Anders; Leifler, Ola; Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity simulations of pandemic outbreaks are resource consuming. Cluster-based solutions have been suggested for executing such complex computations. We present a cloud-based simulation architecture that utilizes computing resources both locally available and dynamically rented online. The approach uses the Condor framework for job distribution and management of the Amazon Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2) as well as local resources. The architecture has a web-based user interface that allows users to monitor and control simulation execution. In a benchmark test, the best cost-adjusted performance was recorded for the EC2 H-CPU Medium instance, while a field trial showed that the job configuration had significant influence on the execution time and that the network capacity of the master node could become a bottleneck. We conclude that it is possible to develop a scalable simulation environment that uses cloud-based solutions, while providing an easy-to-use graphical user interface. PMID:22195089

  1. Trust-based information system architecture for personal wellness.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Modern eHealth, ubiquitous health and personal wellness systems take place in an unsecure and ubiquitous information space where no predefined trust occurs. This paper presents novel information model and an architecture for trust based privacy management of personal health and wellness information in ubiquitous environment. The architecture enables a person to calculate a dynamic and context-aware trust value for each service provider, and using it to design personal privacy policies for trustworthy use of health and wellness services. For trust calculation a novel set of measurable context-aware and health information-sensitive attributes is developed. The architecture enables a person to manage his or her privacy in ubiquitous environment by formulating context-aware and service provider specific policies. Focus groups and information modelling was used for developing a wellness information model. System analysis method based on sequential steps that enable to combine results of analysis of privacy and trust concerns and the selection of trust and privacy services was used for development of the information system architecture. Its services (e.g. trust calculation, decision support, policy management and policy binding services) and developed attributes enable a person to define situation-aware policies that regulate the way his or her wellness and health information is processed. PMID:25160161

  2. Optimizing medical data quality based on multiagent web service framework.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Seh; Khoury, Ibrahim; Shah, Hemant

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important issues in e-healthcare information systems is to optimize the medical data quality extracted from distributed and heterogeneous environments, which can extremely improve diagnostic and treatment decision making. This paper proposes a multiagent web service framework based on service-oriented architecture for the optimization of medical data quality in the e-healthcare information system. Based on the design of the multiagent web service framework, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) for the dynamic optimization of the medical data quality is proposed. The framework consists of two main components; first, an EA will be used to dynamically optimize the composition of medical processes into optimal task sequence according to specific quality attributes. Second, a multiagent framework will be proposed to discover, monitor, and report any inconstancy between the optimized task sequence and the actual medical records. To demonstrate the proposed framework, experimental results for a breast cancer case study are provided. Furthermore, to show the unique performance of our algorithm, a comparison with other works in the literature review will be presented. PMID:22614723

  3. A Scalable Architecture for Rule Engine Based Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Banerjee, Ansuman; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support systems (CDSS) have reached a fair level of sophistication and have emerged as the popular system of choice for their aid in clinical decision making. These decision support systems are based on rule engines navigate through a repertoire of clinical rules and multitudes of facts to assist a clinical expert to decide on the set of actuations in response to a medical situation. In this paper, we present the design of a scalable architecture for a rule engine based clinical decision system. PMID:26262249

  4. A new global GIS architecture based on STQIE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chengqi; Guan, Li; Guo, Shide; Pu, Guoliang; Sun, Min

    2007-06-01

    Global GIS is a system, which supports the huge data process and the global direct manipulation on global grid based on spheroid or ellipsoid surface. A new Global GIS architecture based on STQIE model is designed in this paper, according to the computer cluster theory, the space-time integration technology and the virtual real technology. There is four-level protocol framework and three-layer data management pattern of Global GIS based on organization, management and publication of spatial information in this architecture. In this paper a global 3D prototype system is developed taking advantage of C++ language according to the above thought. This system integrated the simulation system with GIS, and supported display of multi-resolution DEM, image and multi-dimensional static or dynamic 3D objects.

  5. Medical image denoising via optimal implementation of non-local means on hybrid parallel architecture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan-Anh; Nakib, Amir; Nguyen, Huy-Nam

    2016-06-01

    The Non-local means denoising filter has been established as gold standard for image denoising problem in general and particularly in medical imaging due to its efficiency. However, its computation time limited its applications in real world application, especially in medical imaging. In this paper, a distributed version on parallel hybrid architecture is proposed to solve the computation time problem and a new method to compute the filters' coefficients is also proposed, where we focused on the implementation and the enhancement of filters' parameters via taking the neighborhood of the current voxel more accurately into account. In terms of implementation, our key contribution consists in reducing the number of shared memory accesses. The different tests of the proposed method were performed on the brain-web database for different levels of noise. Performances and the sensitivity were quantified in terms of speedup, peak signal to noise ratio, execution time, the number of floating point operations. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Moreover, the implementation is compared to that of other techniques, recently published in the literature. PMID:27084318

  6. Trust Information-Based Privacy Architecture for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. Methods A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections

  7. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  8. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M.

    This chapter details the necessity for alternative access concepts to the currently mainly text-based methods in medical information retrieval. This need is partly due to the large amount of visual data produced, the increasing variety of medical imaging data and changing user patterns. The stored visual data contain large amounts of unused information that, if well exploited, can help diagnosis, teaching and research. The chapter briefly reviews the history of image retrieval and its general methods before technologies that have been developed in the medical domain are focussed. We also discuss evaluation of medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems and conclude with pointing out their strengths, gaps, and further developments. As examples, the MedGIFT project and the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework are presented.

  9. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Y.; Gui, L.; Wang, X. N.; Ma, D.

    2014-06-01

    In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  10. Autonomous, Decentralized Grid Architecture: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-Reliable Green Electricity Networks

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-11

    GENI Project: Georgia Tech is developing a decentralized, autonomous, internet-like control architecture and control software system for the electric power grid. Georgia Tech’s new architecture is based on the emerging concept of electricity prosumers—economically motivated actors that can produce, consume, or store electricity. Under Georgia Tech’s architecture, all of the actors in an energy system are empowered to offer associated energy services based on their capabilities. The actors achieve their sustainability, efficiency, reliability, and economic objectives, while contributing to system-wide reliability and efficiency goals. This is in marked contrast to the current one-way, centralized control paradigm.

  11. Couple-based interventions for medical problems.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Donald H; Porter, Laura S; Kirby, Jennifer S; Hudepohl, Jasmine

    2012-03-01

    The current paper discusses general principles, therapeutic strategies, common factors, and domains commonly addressed in the treatment of couples who have a partner with a medical condition. Couple-based interventions for medical problems are contrasted with couple therapy and relationship education in that the emphasis is on assisting the patient in addressing the medical disorder, along with being attentive to the patient's partner and their relationship. Guidelines are provided showing how knowledge and understanding of medical disorders and couple functioning are integrated in order to conduct such interventions. Five common domains addressed during intervention are elaborated upon: (a) psychoeducation about the disorder, (b) sharing thoughts and feeling regarding the disorder, (c) making decisions focal to the medical disorder, (d) implementing relationship changes that are nonmedical but that result from the disorder, and (e) addressing relationship functioning unrelated to the disorder. The importance of empirically demonstrating the utility of each domain in future investigations is noted. PMID:22304879

  12. Do Performance-Based Codes Support Universal Design in Architecture?

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'An analysis of the accessibility requirements' studies how Danish architectural firms experience the accessibility requirements of the Danish Building Regulations and it examines their opinions on how future regulative models can support innovative and inclusive design - Universal Design (UD). The empirical material consists of input from six workshops to which all 700 Danish Architectural firms were invited, as well as eight group interviews. The analysis shows that the current prescriptive requirements are criticized for being too homogenous and possibilities for differentiation and zoning are required. Therefore, a majority of professionals are interested in a performance-based model because they think that such a model will support 'accessibility zoning', achieving flexibility because of different levels of accessibility in a building due to its performance. The common understanding of accessibility and UD is directly related to buildings like hospitals and care centers. When the objective is both innovative and inclusive architecture, the request of a performance-based model should be followed up by a knowledge enhancement effort in the building sector. Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives is suggested as a tool for such a boost. The research project has been financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. PMID:27534292

  13. Radon-Based Image Processing In A Parallel Pipeline Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Eric B.; Sanz, Jorge L. C.; Jain, Anil K.

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with a novel architecture that makes real-time projection-based algorithms a reality. The design is founded on raster-mode processing, which is exploited in a powerful and flexible pipeline. This architecture, dubbed "P3 E" ( Parallel Pipeline Projection Engine), supports a large variety of image processing and image analysis applications. The image processing applications include: discrete approximations of the Radon and inverse Radon transform, among other projection operators; CT reconstructions; 2-D convolutions; rotations and translations; discrete Fourier transform computations in polar coordinates; autocorrelations; etc. There is also an extensive list of key image analysis algorithms that are supported by P E, thus making it a profound and versatile tool for projection-based computer vision. These include: projections of gray-level images along linear patterns (the Radon transform) and other curved contours; generation of multi-color digital masks; convex hull approximations; Hough transform approximations for line and curve detection; diameter computations; calculations of moments and other principal components; etc. The effectiveness of our approach and the feasibility of the proposed architecture have been demonstrated by running some of these image analysis algorithms in conventional short pipelines, to solve some important automated inspection problems. In the present paper, we will concern ourselves with reconstructing images from their linear projections, and performing convolutions via the Radon transform.

  14. SIFT - A Component-Based Integration Architecture for Enterprise Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Almquist, Justin P.; Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Chatterton, Jack

    2007-02-01

    Architectures and technologies for enterprise application integration are relatively mature, resulting in a range of standards-based and proprietary middleware technologies. In the domain of complex analytical applications, integration architectures are not so well understood. Analytical applications such as those used in scientific discovery, emergency response, financial and intelligence analysis exert unique demands on their underlying architecture. These demands make existing integration middleware inappropriate for use in enterprise analytics environments. In this paper we describe SIFT (Scalable Information Fusion and Triage), a platform designed for integrating the various components that comprise enterprise analytics applications. SIFT exploits a common pattern for composing analytical components, and extends an existing messaging platform with dynamic configuration mechanisms and scaling capabilities. We demonstrate the use of SIFT to create a decision support platform for quality control based on large volumes of incoming delivery data. The strengths of the SIFT solution are discussed, and we conclude by describing where further work is required to create a complete solution applicable to a wide range of analytical application domains.

  15. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  16. Nanotube devices based crossbar architecture: toward neuromorphic computing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W S; Agnus, G; Derycke, V; Filoramo, A; Bourgoin, J-P; Gamrat, C

    2010-04-30

    Nanoscale devices such as carbon nanotube and nanowires based transistors, memristors and molecular devices are expected to play an important role in the development of new computing architectures. While their size represents a decisive advantage in terms of integration density, it also raises the critical question of how to efficiently address large numbers of densely integrated nanodevices without the need for complex multi-layer interconnection topologies similar to those used in CMOS technology. Two-terminal programmable devices in crossbar geometry seem particularly attractive, but suffer from severe addressing difficulties due to cross-talk, which implies complex programming procedures. Three-terminal devices can be easily addressed individually, but with limited gain in terms of interconnect integration. We show how optically gated carbon nanotube devices enable efficient individual addressing when arranged in a crossbar geometry with shared gate electrodes. This topology is particularly well suited for parallel programming or learning in the context of neuromorphic computing architectures. PMID:20368686

  17. Space-Based Information Infrastructure Architecture for Broadband Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Inukai, Tom; Razdan, Rajendev; Lazeav, Yvonne M.

    1996-01-01

    This study addressed four tasks: (1) identify satellite-addressable information infrastructure markets; (2) perform network analysis for space-based information infrastructure; (3) develop conceptual architectures; and (4) economic assessment of architectures. The report concludes that satellites will have a major role in the national and global information infrastructure, requiring seamless integration between terrestrial and satellite networks. The proposed LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite systems have satellite characteristics that vary widely. They include delay, delay variations, poorer link quality and beam/satellite handover. The barriers against seamless interoperability between satellite and terrestrial networks are discussed. These barriers are the lack of compatible parameters, standards and protocols, which are presently being evaluated and reduced.

  18. Reconfigurable architecture for MIMO systems based on CORDIC operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Leray, Pierre; Palicot, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    The MIMO system is an attractive technology for wireless 3G/4G systems. In this article we propose the realization on FPGA of a MIMO 'V-BLAST Square Root' algorithm based on a variable number of CORDIC operators. The CORDIC operator is highly suitable for this implementation as it only relies on simple techniques of addition and vector offsets. This square root algorithm architecture is reconfigurable in order to adapt itself to different numbers of antennas and different data rates. The proposed architecture can achieve a data rate of 600 Mbit/s in a Virtex-II FPGA circuit from Xilinx for the MIMO system with QPSK modulation. To cite this article: H. Wang et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  19. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  20. A safety-based decision making architecture for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musto, Joseph C.; Lauderbaugh, L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Engineering systems designed specifically for space applications often exhibit a high level of autonomy in the control and decision-making architecture. As the level of autonomy increases, more emphasis must be placed on assimilating the safety functions normally executed at the hardware level or by human supervisors into the control architecture of the system. The development of a decision-making structure which utilizes information on system safety is detailed. A quantitative measure of system safety, called the safety self-information, is defined. This measure is analogous to the reliability self-information defined by McInroy and Saridis, but includes weighting of task constraints to provide a measure of both reliability and cost. An example is presented in which the safety self-information is used as a decision criterion in a mobile robot controller. The safety self-information is shown to be consistent with the entropy-based Theory of Intelligent Machines defined by Saridis.

  1. Practical Application of Model-based Programming and State-based Architecture to Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Gregory; Ingham, Michel; Chung, Seung; Martin, Oliver; Williams, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation to develop models from systems engineers that accomplish mission objectives and manage the health of the system is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview; 2) Motivation; 3) Objective/Vision; 4) Approach; 5) Background: The Mission Data System; 6) Background: State-based Control Architecture System; 7) Background: State Analysis; 8) Overview of State Analysis; 9) Background: MDS Software Frameworks; 10) Background: Model-based Programming; 10) Background: Titan Model-based Executive; 11) Model-based Execution Architecture; 12) Compatibility Analysis of MDS and Titan Architectures; 13) Integrating Model-based Programming and Execution into the Architecture; 14) State Analysis and Modeling; 15) IMU Subsystem State Effects Diagram; 16) Titan Subsystem Model: IMU Health; 17) Integrating Model-based Programming and Execution into the Software IMU; 18) Testing Program; 19) Computationally Tractable State Estimation & Fault Diagnosis; 20) Diagnostic Algorithm Performance; 21) Integration and Test Issues; 22) Demonstrated Benefits; and 23) Next Steps

  2. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004

  3. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004

  4. Web-based Distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Qin, Tuan-fa; Jiang, Jian-ning; Lu, Hui; Ma, Zong-e.; Meng, Hong-chang

    2008-11-01

    To make a long-term dynamic monitoring to the chronically ill, especially patients of HBV A, we build a distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis (MISCHV). The Web-based system architecture and its function are described, and the extensive application and important role are also presented.

  5. Knowledge-acquisition tools for medical knowledge-based systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Quaglini, S; Stefanelli, M

    1995-03-01

    Knowledge-based systems (KBS) have been proposed to solve a large variety of medical problems. A strategic issue for KBS development and maintenance are the efforts required for both knowledge engineers and domain experts. The proposed solution is building efficient knowledge acquisition (KA) tools. This paper presents a set of KA tools we are developing within a European Project called GAMES II. They have been designed after the formulation of an epistemological model of medical reasoning. The main goal is that of developing a computational framework which allows knowledge engineers and domain experts to interact cooperatively in developing a medical KBS. To this aim, a set of reusable software components is highly recommended. Their design was facilitated by the development of a methodology for KBS construction. It views this process as comprising two activities: the tailoring of the epistemological model to the specific medical task to be executed and the subsequent translation of this model into a computational architecture so that the connections between computational structures and their knowledge level counterparts are maintained. The KA tools we developed are illustrated taking examples from the behavior of a KBS we are building for the management of children with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:9082135

  6. Implementation of Medical Information Exchange System Based on EHR Standard

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soon Hwa; Kim, Sang Guk; Jeong, Jun Yong; Lee, Bi Na; Choi, Myeong Seon; Kim, Il Kon; Park, Woo Sung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Eunyoung; Kim, Yoon; Bae, Jae Bong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To develop effective ways of sharing patients' medical information, we developed a new medical information exchange system (MIES) based on a registry server, which enabled us to exchange different types of data generated by various systems. Methods To assure that patient's medical information can be effectively exchanged under different system environments, we adopted the standardized data transfer methods and terminologies suggested by the Center for Interoperable Electronic Healthcare Record (CIEHR) of Korea in order to guarantee interoperability. Regarding information security, MIES followed the security guidelines suggested by the CIEHR of Korea. This study aimed to develop essential security systems for the implementation of online services, such as encryption of communication, server security, database security, protection against hacking, contents, and network security. Results The registry server managed information exchange as well as the registration information of the clinical document architecture (CDA) documents, and the CDA Transfer Server was used to locate and transmit the proper CDA document from the relevant repository. The CDA viewer showed the CDA documents via connection with the information systems of related hospitals. Conclusions This research chooses transfer items and defines document standards that follow CDA standards, such that exchange of CDA documents between different systems became possible through ebXML. The proposed MIES was designed as an independent central registry server model in order to guarantee the essential security of patients' medical information. PMID:21818447

  7. Medical complications of intra-hospital patient transports: implications for architectural design and research.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Roger S; Zhu, Xuemei

    2007-01-01

    Literature on healthcare architecture and evidence-based design has rarely considered explicitly that patient outcomes may be worsened by intra-hospital transport (IHT), which is defined as transport of patients within the hospital. The article focuses on the effects of IHTs on patient complications and outcomes, and the implications of such impacts for designing safer, better hospitals. A review of 22 scientific studies indicates that IHTs are subject to a wide range of complications, many of which occur frequently and have distinctly detrimental effects on patient stability and outcomes. The research suggests that higher patient acuity and longer transport durations are associated with more frequent and serious IHT-related complications and outcome effects. It appears no rigorous research has compared different hospital designs and layouts with respect to having possibly differential effects on transport-related complications and worsened outcomes. Nonetheless, certain design implications can be extracted from the existing research literature, including the importance of minimizing transport delays due to restricted space and congestion, and creating layouts that shorten IHT times for high-acuity patients. Limited evidence raises the possibility that elevator-dependent vertical building layouts may increase susceptibility to transport delays that worsen complications. The strong evidence indicating that IHTs trigger complications and worsen outcomes suggests a powerful justification for adopting acuity-adaptable rooms and care models that substantially reduce transports. A program of studies is outlined to address gaps in knowledge.Key WordsPatient transports, transports within hospitals, patient safety, evidence-based design, hospital design, healthcare architecture, intra-hospital transport complications, acuity-adaptable care, elevators, outcomes. PMID:21157716

  8. Applying XDS for sharing CDA-based medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Il; Jang, Bong Mun; Han, Dong Hoon; Yang, Keon Ho; Kang, Won-Suk; Jung, Haijo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2006-03-01

    Many countries have set long-term objectives for establishing an Electronic Healthcare Records system(EHRs). Various IT Strategies note that integration of EHR systems has a high priority. Because the EHR systems are based on different information models and different technology platforms, one of the key integration problems in the realization of the EHRs for the continuity of patient care, is the inability to share patient records between various institutions. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) committee has defined the detailed implementations of existing standards such as DICOM, HL7, in a publicly available document called the IHE technical framework (IHE-TF). Cross-enterprise document sharing (XDS), one of IHE technical frameworks, is describing how to apply the standards into the information systems for the sharing of medical documents among hospitals. This study aims to design Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) schema based on HL7, and to apply implementation strategies of XDS using this CDA schema.

  9. Wavelet-Based DFT calculations on Massively Parallel Hybrid Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    In this contribution, we present an implementation of a full DFT code that can run on massively parallel hybrid CPU-GPU clusters. Our implementation is based on modern GPU architectures which support double-precision floating-point numbers. This DFT code, named BigDFT, is delivered within the GNU-GPL license either in a stand-alone version or integrated in the ABINIT software package. Hybrid BigDFT routines were initially ported with NVidia's CUDA language, and recently more functionalities have been added with new routines writeen within Kronos' OpenCL standard. The formalism of this code is based on Daubechies wavelets, which is a systematic real-space based basis set. As we will see in the presentation, the properties of this basis set are well suited for an extension on a GPU-accelerated environment. In addition to focusing on the implementation of the operators of the BigDFT code, this presentation also relies of the usage of the GPU resources in a complex code with different kinds of operations. A discussion on the interest of present and expected performances of Hybrid architectures computation in the framework of electronic structure calculations is also adressed.

  10. FPGA-based architecture for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, João.; Nascimento, José M. P.; Véstias, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral instruments have been incorporated in satellite missions, providing data of high spectral resolution of the Earth. This data can be used in remote sensing applications, such as, target detection, hazard prevention, and monitoring oil spills, among others. In most of these applications, one of the requirements of paramount importance is the ability to give real-time or near real-time response. Recently, onboard processing systems have emerged, in order to overcome the huge amount of data to transfer from the satellite to the ground station, and thus, avoiding delays between hyperspectral image acquisition and its interpretation. For this purpose, compact reconfigurable hardware modules, such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are widely used. This paper proposes a parallel FPGA-based architecture for endmember's signature extraction. This method based on the Vertex Component Analysis (VCA) has several advantages, namely it is unsupervised, fully automatic, and it works without dimensionality reduction (DR) pre-processing step. The architecture has been designed for a low cost Xilinx Zynq board with a Zynq-7020 SoC FPGA based on the Artix-7 FPGA programmable logic and tested using real hyperspectral data sets collected by the NASA's Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Cuprite mining district in Nevada. Experimental results indicate that the proposed implementation can achieve real-time processing, while maintaining the methods accuracy, which indicate the potential of the proposed platform to implement high-performance, low cost embedded systems, opening new perspectives for onboard hyperspectral image processing.

  11. Human friendly architectural design for a small Martian base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, J.; Kozicka, J.

    2011-12-01

    The manned mission to Mars is expected to last almost three years. A human factor must be taken seriously into account in such a long-term mission. A big comfortable habitat can help to overcome sociopsychological problems, that occur in ICEs (Isolated and Confined Environments). Authors have come forward to this issue and have developed a Martian base design as a human friendly habitat. The project is based on researches of extreme conditions on Mars, architecture in ICEs and contemporary building technologies. The base consists of five modules: a Central Module (CM), an Agriculture Dome (AD), a Residential Dome (RD), a Laboratory Dome (LD) and a Garage (G). Each element has its own functional purpose. The CM is a metal capsule similar to the Reference Mission module (RM, NASA, 1997). Domes are inflatable multilayer structures, which interiors are "open planned". Interiors can be arranged and divided into rooms by using modular partition walls designed by authors.

  12. A reinforcement learning-based architecture for fuzzy logic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for learning to refine a rule-based fuzzy logic controller. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multilayer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The approximate reasoning based intelligent control (ARIC) architecture proposed here learns by updating its prediction of the physical system's behavior and fine tunes a control knowledge base. Its theory is related to Sutton's temporal difference (TD) method. Because ARIC has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine tuning it through the process of learning, it learns faster than systems that train networks from scratch. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  13. A knowledge base architecture for distributed knowledge agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    A tuple space based object oriented model for knowledge base representation and interpretation is presented. An architecture for managing distributed knowledge agents is then implemented within the model. The general model is based upon a database implementation of a tuple space. Objects are then defined as an additional layer upon the database. The tuple space may or may not be distributed depending upon the database implementation. A language for representing knowledge and inference strategy is defined whose implementation takes advantage of the tuple space. The general model may then be instantiated in many different forms, each of which may be a distinct knowledge agent. Knowledge agents may communicate using tuple space mechanisms as in the LINDA model as well as using more well known message passing mechanisms. An implementation of the model is presented describing strategies used to keep inference tractable without giving up expressivity. An example applied to a power management and distribution network for Space Station Freedom is given.

  14. HL7 document patient record architecture: an XML document architecture based on a shared information model.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H; Alschuler, L; Behlen, F; Biron, P V; Boyer, S; Essin, D; Harding, L; Lincoln, T; Mattison, J E; Rishel, W; Sokolowski, R; Spinosa, J; Williams, J P

    1999-01-01

    The HL7 SGML/XML Special Interest Group is developing the HL7 Document Patient Record Architecture. This draft proposal strives to create a common data architecture for the interoperability of healthcare documents. Key components are that it is under the umbrella of HL7 standards, it is specified in Extensible Markup Language, the semantics are drawn from the HL7 Reference Information Model, and the document specifications form an architecture that, in aggregate, define the semantics and structural constraints necessary for the exchange of clinical documents. The proposal is a work in progress and has not yet been submitted to HL7's formal balloting process. PMID:10566319

  15. An agent-based multilayer architecture for bioinformatics grids.

    PubMed

    Bartocci, Ezio; Cacciagrano, Diletta; Cannata, Nicola; Corradini, Flavio; Merelli, Emanuela; Milanesi, Luciano; Romano, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    Due to the huge volume and complexity of biological data available today, a fundamental component of biomedical research is now in silico analysis. This includes modelling and simulation of biological systems and processes, as well as automated bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput data. The quest for bioinformatics resources (including databases, tools, and knowledge) becomes therefore of extreme importance. Bioinformatics itself is in rapid evolution and dedicated Grid cyberinfrastructures already offer easier access and sharing of resources. Furthermore, the concept of the Grid is progressively interleaving with those of Web Services, semantics, and software agents. Agent-based systems can play a key role in learning, planning, interaction, and coordination. Agents constitute also a natural paradigm to engineer simulations of complex systems like the molecular ones. We present here an agent-based, multilayer architecture for bioinformatics Grids. It is intended to support both the execution of complex in silico experiments and the simulation of biological systems. In the architecture a pivotal role is assigned to an "alive" semantic index of resources, which is also expected to facilitate users' awareness of the bioinformatics domain. PMID:17695749

  16. ARPENTEUR: a web-based photogrammetry tool for architectural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Drap, Pierre

    2000-12-01

    ARPENTEUR is a web application for digital photogrammetry mainly dedicated to architecture. ARPENTEUR has been developed since 1998 by two French research teams: the 'Photogrammetry and Geomatics' group of ENSAIS-LERGEC's laboratory and the MAP-gamsau CNRS laboratory located in the school of Architecture of Marseille. The software package is a web based tool since photogrammetric concepts are embedded in Web technology and Java programming language. The aim of this project is to propose a photogrammetric software package and 3D modeling methods available on the Internet as applets through a simple browser. The use of Java and the Web platform is ful of advantages. Distributing software on any platform, at any pace connected to Internet is of course very promising. The updating is done directly on the server and the user always works with the latest release installed on the server. Three years ago the first prototype of ARPENTEUR was based on the Java Development Kit at the time only available for some browsers. Nowadays, we are working with the JDK 1.3 plug-in enriched by Java Advancing Imaging library.

  17. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    McInnes, Lois C.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert; Benson, Steven J.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Diachin, Lori; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Zhou, Shujia

    2006-03-05

    Summary. The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of componentbased software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and generalpurpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications.

  18. Mars Scenario-Based Visioning: Logistical Optimization of Transportation Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual design investigation is to examine transportation forecasts for future human Wu missions to Mars. - Scenario-Based Visioning is used to generate possible future demand projections. These scenarios are then coupled with availability, cost, and capacity parameters for indigenously designed Mars Transfer Vehicles (solar electric, nuclear thermal, and chemical propulsion types) and Earth-to-Orbit launch vehicles (current, future, and indigenous) to provide a cost-conscious dual-phase launch manifest to meet such future demand. A simulator named M-SAT (Mars Scenario Analysis Tool) is developed using this method. This simulation is used to examine three specific transportation scenarios to Mars: a limited "flaus and footprints" mission, a More ambitious scientific expedition similar to an expanded version of the Design Reference Mission from NASA, and a long-term colonization scenario. Initial results from the simulation indicate that chemical propulsion systems might be the architecture of choice for all three scenarios. With this mind, "what if' analyses were performed which indicated that if nuclear production costs were reduced by 30% for the colonization scenario, then the nuclear architecture would have a lower life cycle cost than the chemical. Results indicate that the most cost-effective solution to the Mars transportation problem is to plan for segmented development, this involves development of one vehicle at one opportunity and derivatives of that vehicle at subsequent opportunities.

  19. Advanced nanoelectronic architectures for THz-based biological agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) and the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) jointly lead and support novel research programs that are advancing the state-of-the-art in nanoelectronic engineering in application areas that have relevance to national defense and security. One fundamental research area that is presently being emphasized by ARO and ECBC is the exploratory investigation of new bio-molecular architectural concepts that can be used to achieve rapid, reagent-less detection and discrimination of biological warfare (BW) agents, through the control of multi-photon and multi-wavelength processes at the nanoscale. This paper will overview an ARO/ECBC led multidisciplinary research program presently under the support of the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) that seeks to develop new devices and nanoelectronic architectures that are effective for extracting THz signatures from target bio-molecules. Here, emphasis will be placed on the new nanosensor concepts and THz/Optical measurement methodologies for spectral-based sequencing/identification of genetic molecules.

  20. Services oriented architecture (SOA)-based persistent ISR simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Huimin; Pham, Khanh

    2010-04-01

    In the modern networked battlefield, network centric warfare (NCW) scenarios need to interoperate between shared resources and data assets such as sensors, UAVs, satellites, ground vehicles, and command and control (C2/C4I) systems. By linking and fusing platform routing information, sensor exploitation results, and databases (e.g. Geospatial Information Systems [GIS]), the shared situation awareness and mission effectiveness will be improved. Within the information fusion community, various research efforts are looking at open standard approaches to composing the heterogeneous network components under one framework for future modeling and simulation applications. By utilizing the open source services oriented architecture (SOA) based sensor web services, and GIS visualization services, we propose a framework that ensures the fast prototyping of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) system simulations to determine an asset mix for a desired mission effectiveness, performance modeling for sensor management and prediction, and user testing of various scenarios.

  1. SoC-based architecture for biomedical signal processing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rivas, R; Hernández, A; García, J J; Marnane, W

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, many algorithms have been proposed for processing biomedical signals. Most of these algorithms have been focused on the elimination of noise and artifacts existing in these signals, so they can be used for automatic monitoring and/or diagnosis applications. With regard to remote monitoring, the use of portable devices often requires a reduced number of resources and power consumption, being necessary to reach a trade-off between the accuracy of algorithms and their computational complexity. This paper presents a SoC (System-on-Chip) architecture, based on a FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) device, suitable for the implementation of biomedical signal processing. The proposal has been successfully validated by implementing an efficient QRS complex detector. The results show that, using a reduced amount of resources, values of sensitivity and positive predictive value above 99.49% are achieved, which make the proposed approach suitable for telemedicine applications. PMID:26737663

  2. ME: Multimodal Environment Based on Web Services Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara Caschera, Maria; D'Andrea, Alessia; D'Ulizia, Arianna; Ferri, Fernando; Grifoni, Patrizia; Guzzo, Tiziana

    Information, documents and knowledge for each person and for public and private organizations are fundamental in each activity, and they may be the products or services they provide or supply. The daily activities and decision-making processes are usually based on many different pieces of information, which could be handled on PDAs and mobile devices in general, or stored on laptop computers using a lot of different forms, such as spreadsheets, e-mail messages, Web information obtained as the result of a Google search or a query, and so on. Simulating and managing services and information in catastrophic events and emergencies does not represent an exception. This paper describes the Web Services architecture of the Multimodal collaborative knowledge oriented Environment (ME), a platform designed to manage data, information and services for catastrophic events such as earthquakes, floods and dangerous natural phenomena.

  3. Timeline-Based Mission Operations Architecture: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bindschadler, Duane L.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the challenges in developing a mission operations system and operating a mission can be traced back to the challenge of integrating a mission operations system from its many components and to the challenge of maintaining consistent and accountable information throughout the operations processes. An important contributing factor to both of these challenges is the file-centric nature of today's systems. In this paper, we provide an overview of these challenges and argue the need to move toward an information-centric mission operations system. We propose an information representation called Timeline as an approach to enable such a move, and we provide an overview of a Timeline-based Mission Operations System architecture.

  4. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  5. The simcyp population based simulator: architecture, implementation, and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Jamei, Masoud; Marciniak, Steve; Edwards, Duncan; Wragg, Kris; Feng, Kairui; Barnett, Adrian; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Developing a user-friendly platform that can handle a vast number of complex physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models both for conventional small molecules and larger biologic drugs is a substantial challenge. Over the last decade the Simcyp Population Based Simulator has gained popularity in major pharmaceutical companies (70% of top 40 - in term of R&D spending). Under the Simcyp Consortium guidance, it has evolved from a simple drug-drug interaction tool to a sophisticated and comprehensive Model Based Drug Development (MBDD) platform that covers a broad range of applications spanning from early drug discovery to late drug development. This article provides an update on the latest architectural and implementation developments within the Simulator. Interconnection between peripheral modules, the dynamic model building process and compound and population data handling are all described. The Simcyp Data Management (SDM) system, which contains the system and drug databases, can help with implementing quality standards by seamless integration and tracking of any changes. This also helps with internal approval procedures, validation and auto-testing of the new implemented models and algorithms, an area of high interest to regulatory bodies. PMID:25505654

  6. Water System Architectures for Moon and Mars Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Water systems for human bases on the moon and Mars will recycle multiple sources of wastewater. Systems for both the moon and Mars will also store water to support and backup the recycling system. Most water system requirements, such as number of crew, quantity and quality of water supply, presence of gravity, and surface mission duration of 6 or 18 months, will be similar for the moon and Mars. If the water system fails, a crew on the moon can quickly receive spare parts and supplies or return to Earth, but a crew on Mars cannot. A recycling system on the moon can have a reasonable reliability goal, such as only one unrecoverable failure every five years, if there is enough stored water to allow time for attempted repairs and for the crew to return if repair fails. The water system that has been developed and successfully operated on the International Space Station (ISS) could be used on a moon base. To achieve the same high level of crew safety on Mars without an escape option, either the recycling system must have much higher reliability or enough water must be stored to allow the crew to survive the full duration of the Mars surface mission. A three loop water system architecture that separately recycles condensate, wash water, and urine and flush can improve reliability and reduce cost for a Mars base.

  7. Soft-core processor study for node-based architectures.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Jarosz, Jason P.; Welch, Benjamin James; Gallegos, Daniel E.; Learn, Mark Walter

    2008-09-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hardcore processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA based processors for use in future NBA systems--two soft cores (MicroBlaze and non-fault-tolerant LEON) and one hard core (PowerPC 405). Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration. Cache configurations impacted the results greatly; for optimal processor efficiency it is necessary to enable caches on the processors. Processor caches carry a penalty; cache error mitigation is necessary when operating in a radiation environment.

  8. Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R.; Bechtel, R.; Chen, T.; Cormier, T.; Kalaver, S.; Kirtas, M.; Lewe, J.-H.; Marcus, L.; Marshall, D.; Medlin, M.; McIntire, J.; Nelson, D.; Remolina, D.; Scott, A.; Weglian, J.; Olds, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of 1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the Earth's surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify if it was cost effective. The

  9. A generalized locomotion CPG architecture based on oscillatory building blocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijun; França, Felipe M G

    2003-07-01

    Neural oscillation is one of the most extensively investigated topics of artificial neural networks. Scientific approaches to the functionalities of both natural and artificial intelligences are strongly related to mechanisms underlying oscillatory activities. This paper concerns itself with the assumption of the existence of central pattern generators (CPGs), which are the plausible neural architectures with oscillatory capabilities, and presents a discrete and generalized approach to the functionality of locomotor CPGs of legged animals. Based on scheduling by multiple edge reversal (SMER), a primitive and deterministic distributed algorithm, it is shown how oscillatory building block (OBB) modules can be created and, hence, how OBB-based networks can be formulated as asymmetric Hopfield-like neural networks for the generation of complex coordinated rhythmic patterns observed among pairs of biological motor neurons working during different gait patterns. It is also shown that the resulting Hopfield-like network possesses the property of reproducing the whole spectrum of different gaits intrinsic to the target locomotor CPGs. Although the new approach is not restricted to the understanding of the neurolocomotor system of any particular animal, hexapodal and quadrupedal gait patterns are chosen as illustrations given the wide interest expressed by the ongoing research in the area. PMID:12836031

  10. Image processing technique based on image understanding architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2000-12-01

    Effectiveness of image applications is directly based on its abilities to resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the real images. That requires tight integration of low-level image processing with high-level knowledge-based reasoning, which is the solution of the image understanding problem. This article presents a generic computational framework necessary for the solution of image understanding problem -- Spatial Turing Machine. Instead of tape of symbols, it works with hierarchical networks dually represented as discrete and continuous structures. Dual representation provides natural transformation of the continuous image information into the discrete structures, making it available for analysis. Such structures are data and algorithms at the same time and able to perform graph and diagrammatic operations being the basis of intelligence. They can create derivative structures that play role of context, or 'measurement device,' giving the ability to analyze, and run top-bottom algorithms. Symbols naturally emerge there, and symbolic operations work in combination with new simplified methods of computational intelligence. That makes images and scenes self-describing, and provides flexible ways of resolving uncertainty. Classification of images truly invariant to any transformation could be done via matching their derivative structures. New proposed architecture does not require supercomputers, opening ways to the new image technologies.

  11. An open medical imaging workstation architecture for platform-independent 3-D medical image processing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Cosić, D

    1997-12-01

    A need for an entirely new medical workstation design was identified to increase the deployment of 3-D medical imaging and multimedia communication. Recent wide acceptance of the Word Wide Web (WWW) as a general communication service within the global network has shown how big the impact of standards and open systems can be. Information is shared among heterogeneous systems and diverse applications on various hardware platforms only by agreeing on a common format for information distribution. For medical image communications, the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard is possibly anticipating such a role. Logically, the next step is open software: platform-independent tools, which can as easily be transferred and used on multiple platforms. Application of the platform-independent programming language Java enables creation of plug-in tools, which can easily extend the basic system. Performance problems inherent to all interpreter systems can be circumvented by using a hybrid approach. Computationally intensive functions like image processing functions can be integrated into a natively implemented optimized image processing kernel. Plug-in tools implemented in Java can utilize the kernel functions via a Java-wrapper library. This approach is comparable to the implementation of computationally intensive operations in hardware. PMID:11020831

  12. Design and implementation of web-based mobile electronic medication administration record.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hou, I-Ching; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Tan, Ching-Ting; Shen, Po-Chao; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Lai, Feipei

    2010-10-01

    Patients' safety is the most essential, critical issue, however, errors can hardly prevent, especially for human faults. In order to reduce the errors caused by human, we construct Electronic Health Records (EHR) in the Health Information System (HIS) to facilitate patients' safety and to improve the quality of medical care. During the medical care processing, all the tasks are based upon physicians' orders. In National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), the Electronic Health Record committee proposed a standard of order flows. There are objectives of the standard: first, to enhance medical procedures and enforce hospital policies; secondly, to improve the quality of medical care; third, to collect sufficient, adequate data for EHR in the near future. Among the proposed procedures, NTUH decides to establish a web-based mobile electronic medication administration record (ME-MAR) system. The system, build based on the service-oriented architecture (SOA) as well as embedded the HL7/XML standard, is installed in the Mobile Nursing Carts. It also implement accompany with the advanced techniques like Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (Ajax) or Web services to enhance the system usability. According to researches, it indicates that medication errors are highly proportion to total medical faults. Therefore, we expect the ME-MAR system can reduce medication errors. In addition, we evaluate ME-MAR can assist nurses or healthcare practitioners to administer, manage medication properly. This successful experience of developing the NTUH ME-MAR system can be easily applied to other related system. Meanwhile, the SOA architecture of the system can also be seamless integrated to NTUH or other HIS system. PMID:20703613

  13. TRENCADIS - secure architecture to share and manage DICOM objects in a ontological framework based on OGSA.

    PubMed

    Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernandez, Vicente; Segrelles, Damià; Torres, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Today most European healthcare centers use the digital format for their databases of images. TRENCADIS is a software architecture comprising a set of services as a solution for interconnecting, managing and sharing selected parts of medical DICOM data for the development of training and decision support tools. The organization of the distributed information in virtual repositories is based on semantic criteria. Different groups of researchers could organize themselves to propose a Virtual Organization (VO). These VOs will be interested in specific target areas, and will share information concerning each area. Although the private part of the information to be shared will be removed, special considerations will be taken into account to avoid the access by non-authorized users. This paper describes the security model implemented as part of TRENCADIS. The paper is organized as follows. First introduces the problem and presents our motivations. Section 1 defines the objectives. Section 2 presents an overview of the existing proposals per objective. Section 3 outlines the overall architecture. Section 4 describes how TRENCADIS is architected to realize the security goals discussed in the previous sections. The different security services and components of the infrastructure are briefly explained, as well as the exposed interfaces. Finally, Section 5 concludes and gives some remarks on our future work. PMID:17476054

  14. An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed. PMID:26642827

  15. An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed.

  16. An architecture for distributed video applications based on declarative networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiping; Gonzales, Cesar; Lobo, Jorge; Calo, Seraphin; Verma, Dinesh

    2012-06-01

    Video surveillance applications are examples of complex distributed coalition tasks. Real-time capture and analysis of image sensor data is one of the most important tasks in a number of military critical decision making scenarios. In complex battlefield situations, there is a need to coordinate the operation of distributed image sensors and the analysis of their data as transmitted over a heterogeneous wireless network where bandwidth, power, and computational capabilities are constrained. There is also a need to automate decision making based on the results of the analysis of video data. Declarative Networking is a promising technology for controlling complex video surveillance applications in this sort of environment. This paper presents a flexible and extensible architecture for deploying distributed video surveillance applications using the declarative networking paradigm, which allows us to dynamically connect and manage distributed image sensors and deploy various modules for the analysis of video data to satisfy a variety of video surveillance requirements. With declarative computing, it becomes possible for us not only to express the program control structure in a declarative fashion, but also to simplify the management of distributed video surveillance applications.

  17. Agent-based copyright protection architecture for online electronic publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xun; Kitazawa, S.; Okamoto, Ejii; Wang, Xiao F.; Lam, KwokYan; Tu, S.

    1999-04-01

    Electronic publishing faces one major technical and economic challenge, i.e., how to prevent individuals from easily copying and illegally distributing electronic documents. Conventional cryptographic systems permit only valid key- holders access to encrypted data, but once such data is decrypted there is no way to track its reproduction or retransmission. Therefore, they provide little protection against data privacy, in which a publisher is confronted with unauthorized reproduction of information. In this paper, we explore the use of intelligent agent, digital watermark and cryptographic techniques to discourage the distribution of illegal electronic copies and propose an agent-based strategy to protect the copyright of on-line electronic publishing. In fact, it is impossible to develop an absolute secure copyright protection architecture for on-line electronic publishing which can prevent a malicious customer from spending a great deal of efforts on analyzing the software and finally obtaining the plaintext of the encrypted electronic document. Our work in this paper aims at making the value of analyzing agent and removing watermark to be much greater than that of the electronic document itself.

  18. a New Architecture for Intelligent Systems with Logic Based Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, K. K.; Saini, Sanju

    2008-10-01

    People communicate with each other in sentences that incorporate two kinds of information: propositions about some subject, and metalevel speech acts that specify how the propositional information is used—as an assertion, a command, a question, or a promise. By means of speech acts, a group of people who have different areas of expertise can cooperate and dynamically reconfigure their social interactions to perform tasks and solve problems that would be difficult or impossible for any single individual. This paper proposes a framework for intelligent systems that consist of a variety of specialized components together with logic-based languages that can express propositions and speech acts about those propositions. The result is a system with a dynamically changing architecture that can be reconfigured in various ways: by a human knowledge engineer who specifies a script of speech acts that determine how the components interact; by a planning component that generates the speech acts to redirect the other components; or by a committee of components, which might include human assistants, whose speech acts serve to redirect one another. The components communicate by sending messages to a Linda-like blackboard, in which components accept messages that are either directed to them or that they consider themselves competent to handle.

  19. A real-time FPGA-based architecture for OpenSURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoxiu; Yong, Huang; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Luxin

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a low-cost FPGA architecture of Speed-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm based on OpenSURF. It optimizes the computing architecture for the steps of feature detection and feature description involved in SURF to reduce the resource utilization and improve processing speed. As a result, this architecture can detect feature and extract descriptor from video streams of 800x600 resolutions at 60 frames per second (60fps). Extensive experiments have demonstrated its efficiency and effectiveness.

  20. [Looking for evidence-based medical informatics].

    PubMed

    Coiera, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    e-Health is experiencing a difficult time. On the one side, the forecast is for a bright digital health future created by precision medicine and smart devices. On the other hand, most large scale e-health projects struggle to make a difference and are often controversial. Both futures fail because they are not evidence-based. Medical informatics should follow the example of evidence-based medicine, i.e. conduct rigorous research that gives us evidence to solve real world problems, synthesise that evidence and then apply it strictly. We already have the tools for creating a different universe. What we need is evidence, will, a culture of learning, and hard work. PMID:27030221

  1. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  2. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  3. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. PMID:25748973

  4. Framework for distributed medical image collaborative processing based on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    During the last few years, the development of the modern medicine has permitted the accurate diagnosis on more symptom of illness. But it is the imbalance of the medical treatment on different areas and decentralization of the medical resources that limited the widely applying on more people. However, as the important evidence on medical diagnosis, medical images need to be collaborative processed because of their large sizes, modality and processing complexity. Therefore one of the main aims on medical treatment now is to establish the distributed computer to support collaboration working environment based on web. The establishing of the environment is help to dissolve the problem about medical collaborative working on different areas, computer systems and network structures and to permit more people to receive the high quality medical care. In this paper, a distributed medical image collaborative framework was presented using the JAVA (a network computing language) and CORBA (Common Object Broker Request Architecture, a distributed computing standard). From the experimental result with the framework, it was clear that the framework made possible collaborative processing of the medical image by using many collaborative tools.

  5. Medical Data GRIDs as approach towards secure cross enterprise document sharing (based on IHE XDS).

    PubMed

    Wozak, Florian; Ammenwerth, Elske; Breu, Micheal; Penz, Robert; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Vogl, Raimund; Wurz, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Quality and efficiency of health care services is expected to be improved by the electronic processing and trans-institutional availability of medical data. A prototype architecture based on the IHE-XDS profile is currently being developed. Due to legal and organizational requirements specific adaptations to the IHE-XDS profile have been made. In this work the services of the health@net reference architecture are described in details, which have been developed with focus on compliance to both, the IHE-XDS profile and the legal situation in Austria. We expect to gain knowledge about the development of a shared electronic health record using Medical Data Grids as an Open Source reference implementation and how proprietary Hospital Information systems can be integrated in this environment. PMID:17108551

  6. Supporting diagnosis and treatment in medical care based on Big Data processing.

    PubMed

    Lupşe, Oana-Sorina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernard, Elena

    2014-01-01

    With information and data in all domains growing every day, it is difficult to manage and extract useful knowledge for specific situations. This paper presents an integrated system architecture to support the activity in the Ob-Gin departments with further developments in using new technology to manage Big Data processing - using Google BigQuery - in the medical domain. The data collected and processed with Google BigQuery results from different sources: two Obstetrics & Gynaecology Departments, the TreatSuggest application - an application for suggesting treatments, and a home foetal surveillance system. Data is uploaded in Google BigQuery from Bega Hospital Timişoara, Romania. The analysed data is useful for the medical staff, researchers and statisticians from public health domain. The current work describes the technological architecture and its processing possibilities that in the future will be proved based on quality criteria to lead to a better decision process in diagnosis and public health. PMID:24743079

  7. MediAgent: a WWW-based scalable and self-learning medical search engine.

    PubMed Central

    Tay, J.; Ke, S.; Lun, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Searching for medical information on the Internet can be tedious and frustrating due to the number of irrelevant entries returned from generic search engines. We have developed MediAgent, a scalable search engine that aims to deliver a web-based medical search solution which is focused, exhaustive and able to keep improving its databases. The software package can run off a single low-end system and be scaled into a client-server, distributed computing architecture for high-end needs. This scalable architecture boosts MediAgent's handling capacity to tens of millions of web pages. In addition to large volume handling, MediAgent is designed to be manageable. All subsystems are not only highly configurable, but also support remote, interactive management and monitoring by the system administrator. PMID:9929289

  8. Architecture-Level Dependability Analysis of a Medical Decision Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L; Symons, Christopher T; Patton, Robert M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as image analysis, text analysis and machine learning have shown great potential to assist physicians in detecting and diagnosing health issues in patients. In this paper, we describe the approach and findings of an architecture-level dependability analysis for a mammography decision support system that incorporates these techniques. The goal of the research described in this paper is to provide an initial understanding of the dependability issues, particularly the potential failure modes and severity, in order to identify areas of potential high risk. The results will guide design decisions and provide the basis of a dependability and performance evaluation program.

  9. Synthetic Adhesive Attachment Discs based on Spider Pyriform Silk Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Sahni, Vasav; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Among the variety of silks produced by spiders, pyriform silk is used in conjunction with the dragline silk to attach webs to different surfaces. Cob weaver spiders employ different architectural patterns to utilize the pyriform silk and form attachment joints with each pattern having a characteristic adhesive performance. The staple pin architecture is a one of the strongest attachment designs employed by spiders to attach their webs. Here we use a synthetic approach to create the a similar patterned architecture attachment discs on aluminum substrate using thermoplastic polyurethane. Measurable pull off forces are generated when the synthetic discs are peeled off a surface. This innovative adhesive strategy can be a source of design in various biomedical applications. Financial Support from National Science Foundation.

  10. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  11. A DBMS-based medical teleconferencing system.

    PubMed

    Chun, J; Kim, H; Lee, S; Choi, J; Cho, H

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the design of a medical teleconferencing system that is integrated with a multimedia patient database and incorporates easy-to-use tools and functions to effectively support collaborative work between physicians in remote locations. The design provides a virtual workspace that allows physicians to collectively view various kinds of patient data. By integrating the teleconferencing function into this workspace, physicians are able to conduct conferences using the same interface and have real-time access to the database during conference sessions. The authors have implemented a prototype based on this design. The prototype uses a high-speed network test bed and a manually created substitute for the integrated patient database. PMID:11522766

  12. Practical Application of Model-based Programming and State-based Architecture to Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Gregory A.; Ingham, Michel D.; Chung, Seung; Martin, Oliver; Williams, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Innovative systems and software engineering solutions are required to meet the increasingly challenging demands of deep-space robotic missions. While recent advances in the development of an integrated systems and software engineering approach have begun to address some of these issues, they are still at the core highly manual and, therefore, error-prone. This paper describes a task aimed at infusing MIT's model-based executive, Titan, into JPL's Mission Data System (MDS), a unified state-based architecture, systems engineering process, and supporting software framework. Results of the task are presented, including a discussion of the benefits and challenges associated with integrating mature model-based programming techniques and technologies into a rigorously-defined domain specific architecture.

  13. Case-Based Tutoring from a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Homer L.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of programs that make use of large knowledge bases to assist physicians in diagnosis within the general field of internal medicine. One such program, Internist-I, contains knowledge about over 600 diseases, covering a significant proportion of internal medicine. This paper describes the process of converting a subset of this knowledge base--in the area of cardiovascular diseases--into a probabilistic format, and the use of this resulting knowledge base to teach medical diagnostic knowledge. The system (called KBSimulator--for Knowledge-Based patient Simulator) generates simulated patient cases and uses these cases as a focal point from which to teach medical knowledge. It interacts with the student in a mixed-initiative fashion, presenting patients for the student to diagnose, and allowing the student to obtain further information on his/her own initiative in the context of that patient case. The system scores the student, and uses these scores to form a rudimentary model of the student. This resulting model of the student is then used to direct the generation of subsequent patient cases. This project demonstrates the feasibility of building an intelligent, flexible instructional system that uses a knowledge base constructed primarily for medical diagnosis.

  14. Developing a Systematic Architecture Approach for Designing an Enhanced Electronic Medical Record (EEMR) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldukheil, Maher A.

    2013-01-01

    The Healthcare industry is characterized by its complexity in delivering care to the patients. Accordingly, healthcare organizations adopt and implement Information Technology (IT) solutions to manage complexity, improve quality of care, and transform to a fully integrated and digitized environment. Electronic Medical Records (EMR), which is…

  15. Component Architectures and Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdig, Richard E.; Mishra, Punya; Zhao, Yong

    2004-01-01

    The Web has caught the attention of many educators as an efficient communication medium and content delivery system. But we feel there is another aspect of the Web that has not been given the attention it deserves. We call this aspect of the Web its "component architecture." Briefly it means that on the Web one can develop very complex…

  16. Architecture-Based Reliability Analysis of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmani, Cobra Mariam

    2012-01-01

    In a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the hierarchical complexity of Web Services (WS) and their interactions with the underlying Application Server (AS) create new challenges in providing a realistic estimate of WS performance and reliability. The current approaches often treat the entire WS environment as a black-box. Thus, the sensitivity…

  17. A CSP-Based Agent Modeling Framework for the Cougaar Agent-Based Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Eltoweissy, Mohamed; Hinchey, Michael G.; Bohner, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is a Java-based architecture for large-scale distributed agent-based applications. A Cougaar agent is an autonomous software entity with behaviors that represent a real-world entity (e.g., a business process). A Cougaar-based Model Driven Architecture approach, currently under development, uses a description of system's functionality (requirements) to automatically implement the system in Cougaar. The Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) formalism is used for the formal validation of the generated system. Two main agent components, a blackboard and a plugin, are modeled as CSP processes. A set of channels represents communications between the blackboard and individual plugins. The blackboard is represented as a CSP process that communicates with every agent in the collection. The developed CSP-based Cougaar modeling framework provides a starting point for a more complete formal verification of the automatically generated Cougaar code. Currently it is used to verify the behavior of an individual agent in terms of CSP properties and to analyze the corresponding Cougaar society.

  18. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end. PMID:26675191

  19. WebMIRS: web-based medical information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Pillemer, Stanley R.; Lawrence, Reva C.; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-12-01

    At the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), we are developing a prototype multimedia database system to provide World Wide Web access to biomedical databases. WebMIRS (Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System) will allow access to databases containing text and images and will allow database query by standard SQL, by image content, or by a combination of the two. The system is being developed in the form of Java applets, which will communicate with the Informix DBMS on an NLM Sun workstation running the Solaris operating system. The system architecture will allow access from any hardware platform, which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. Initial databases will include data from two national health surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and will include x-ray images from those surveys. In addition to describing in- house research in database access systems, this paper describes ongoing work toward querying by image content. Image content search capability will include capability to search for x-ray images similar to an input image with respect to vertebral morphometry used to characterize features such as fractures and disc space narrowing.

  20. Image-based electronic patient records for secured collaborative medical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen; Yao, Yihong; Cai, Weihua; Jin, Jin; Zhang, Guozhen; Sun, Kun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a Web-based system to interactively display image-based electronic patient records (EPR) for secured intranet and Internet collaborative medical applications. The system consists of four major components: EPR DICOM gateway (EPR-GW), Image-based EPR repository server (EPR-Server), Web Server and EPR DICOM viewer (EPR-Viewer). In the EPR-GW and EPR-Viewer, the security modules of Digital Signature and Authentication are integrated to perform the security processing on the EPR data with integrity and authenticity. The privacy of EPR in data communication and exchanging is provided by SSL/TLS-based secure communication. This presentation gave a new approach to create and manage image-based EPR from actual patient records, and also presented a way to use Web technology and DICOM standard to build an open architecture for collaborative medical applications. PMID:17282930

  1. Local Alignment Tool Based on Hadoop Framework and GPU Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of next generation sequencing technologies, such as Slex, more and more data have been discovered and published. To analyze such huge data the computational performance is an important issue. Recently, many tools, such as SOAP, have been implemented on Hadoop and GPU parallel computing architectures. BLASTP is an important tool, implemented on GPU architectures, for biologists to compare protein sequences. To deal with the big biology data, it is hard to rely on single GPU. Therefore, we implement a distributed BLASTP by combining Hadoop and multi-GPUs. The experimental results present that the proposed method can improve the performance of BLASTP on single GPU, and also it can achieve high availability and fault tolerance. PMID:24955362

  2. Local alignment tool based on Hadoop framework and GPU architecture.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of next generation sequencing technologies, such as Slex, more and more data have been discovered and published. To analyze such huge data the computational performance is an important issue. Recently, many tools, such as SOAP, have been implemented on Hadoop and GPU parallel computing architectures. BLASTP is an important tool, implemented on GPU architectures, for biologists to compare protein sequences. To deal with the big biology data, it is hard to rely on single GPU. Therefore, we implement a distributed BLASTP by combining Hadoop and multi-GPUs. The experimental results present that the proposed method can improve the performance of BLASTP on single GPU, and also it can achieve high availability and fault tolerance. PMID:24955362

  3. Dynamic DICOM configuration in a service-oriented medical device architecture.

    PubMed

    Schlamelcher, Jan; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    A surgical intervention raises additional requirements to a medical device network, be it security concerns or the demand for just-in-time integration of an additional devices. The German national flagship project OR.NET aims to satisfy these requirements by defining, implementing and validating an integration solution for safe and dynamic networking. This work presents an approach to incorporate imaging related medical devices into a dynamic plug and play operating room (OR) network utilizing the existing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) protocol. The presented approach was created as part of the OR.NET project to realize the integration of DICOM devices into the developed infrastructure, both in regard to newly created DICOM devices with direct support of the OR.NET protocol and the integration of existing DICOM devices (e.g. image archives) employing a gateway. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that the approach is viable and that no critical transmission delays are introduced by the prototypical gateway implementation. PMID:26736608

  4. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

  5. Developing image-based electronic patient records for collaborative medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Jianyong; Yong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiaomeng; Yu, Fenghai; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lian, Ping; Sun, Kun; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    We developed a Web-based system to interactively display image-based electronic patient records (EPR) for intranet and Internet collaborative medical applications. The system consists of four major components: EPR DICOM gateway (EPR-GW), Image-based EPR repository server (EPR-Server), Web Server and EPR DICOM viewer (EPR-Viewer). We have successfully used this system two times for the teleconsultation on Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Shanghai Xinhua Hospital and Shanghai Infection Hospital. During the consultation, both the physicians in infection control area and the experts outside the control area could interactively study, manipulate and navigate the EPR of the SARS patients to make more precise diagnosis on images with this system assisting. This presentation gave a new approach to create and manage image-based EPR from actual patient records, and also presented a way to use Web technology and DICOM standard to build an open architecture for collaborative medical applications.

  6. Security mechanism based on Hospital Authentication Server for secure application of implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Seop

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  7. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  8. Detecting medication errors: analysis based on a hospital's incident reports.

    PubMed

    Härkänen, Marja; Turunen, Hannele; Saano, Susanna; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how medication incidents are detected in different phases of the medication process. The study design is a retrospective register study. The material was collected from one university hospital's web-based incident reporting database in Finland. In 2010, 1617 incident reports were made, 671 of those were medication incidents and analysed in this study. Statistical methods were used to analyse the material. Results were reported using frequencies and percentages. Twenty-one percent of all medication incidents were detected during documenting or reading the documents. One-sixth of medication incidents were detected during medicating the patients, and approximately one-tenth were detected during verifying of the medicines. It is important to learn how to break the chain of medication errors as early as possible. Findings showed that for nurses, the ability to concentrate on documenting and medicating the patient is essential. PMID:24256158

  9. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model for Analysis of Distributed Space Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindiy, Oleg V.; DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Stein, William B.

    2009-07-01

    A range of complex challenges, but also potentially unique rewards, underlie the development of exploration architectures that use a distributed, dynamic network of resources across the solar system. From a methodological perspective, the prime challenge is to systematically model the evolution (and quantify comparative performance) of such architectures, under uncertainty, to effectively direct further study of specialized trajectories, spacecraft technologies, concept of operations, and resource allocation. A process model for System-of-Systems Engineering is used to define time-varying performance measures for comparative architecture analysis and identification of distinguishing patterns among interoperating systems. Agent-based modeling serves as the means to create a discrete-time simulation that generates dynamics for the study of architecture evolution. A Solar System Mobility Network proof-of-concept problem is introduced representing a set of longer-term, distributed exploration architectures. Options within this set revolve around deployment of human and robotic exploration and infrastructure assets, their organization, interoperability, and evolution, i.e., a system-of-systems. Agent-based simulations quantify relative payoffs for a fully distributed architecture (which can be significant over the long term), the latency period before they are manifest, and the up-front investment (which can be substantial compared to alternatives). Verification and sensitivity results provide further insight on development paths and indicate that the framework and simulation modeling approach may be useful in architectural design of other space exploration mass, energy, and information exchange settings.

  10. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  11. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  12. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based regional health information networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Methods Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. Results The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML-based

  13. Achieving the Desired Transformation: Thoughts on Next Steps for Outcomes-Based Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Holmboe, Eric S; Batalden, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Since the introduction of the outcomes-based medical education (OBME) movement, progress toward implementation has been active but challenging. Much of the angst and criticism has been directed at the approaches to assessment that are associated with outcomes-based or competency frameworks, particularly defining the outcomes. In addition, these changes to graduate medical education (GME) are concomitant with major change in health care systems--specifically, changes to increase quality and safety while reducing cost. Every sector, from medical education to health care delivery and financing, is in the midst of substantial change and disruption.The recent release of the Institute of Medicine's report on the financing and governance of GME highlights the urgent need to accelerate the transformation of medical education. One source of continued tension within the medical education community arises from the assumption that the much-needed increases in value and improvement in health care can be achieved by holding the current educational structures and architecture of learning in place while concomitantly withdrawing resources. The authors of this Perspective seek to reframe the important and necessary debate surrounding the current challenges to implementing OBME. Building on recent change and service theories (e.g., Theory U and coproduction), they propose several areas of redirection, including reexamination of curricular models and greater involvement of learners, teachers, and regulators in cocreating new training models, to help facilitate the desired transformation in medical education. PMID:26083400

  14. Applying a service-based architecture to autonomous distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrone, David M.; Patrone, Dennis S.; Wenstrand, Doug S.; Smith, Dexter G.

    2004-04-01

    Traditional distributed architectures are not sufficient when developing an autonomous, distributed sensor network. In order to be truly autonomous, a distributed sensor network must be able to survive and reconfigure in-the-field without manual intervention. A limitation of traditional distributed architectures, such as client/server or peer-to-peer, within an autonomous network is that the distributed devices and applications are tightly coupled by their communication protocols prior to implementation and deployment. The introduction of new devices and applications in the field is difficult due to this coupling. Also, autonomous reconfiguration of the devices on the network due to faults or addition of new devices is extremely difficult unless the devices are homogeneous. A service-based architecture is proposed as an alternative architecture for creating autonomous, distributed sensor networks. The service-based approach provides the ability to create a scalable, self-configuring, and self-healing network for building and maintaining large, emerging and ad-hoc virtual networks of devices and applications. New devices can be automatically discovered by current devices on the network and automatically integrated into the system without manual intervention. This paper will explain the benefits and limitations of applying a service-based architecture to autonomous, distributed sensor networks and compare this approach with traditional architectures such as client/server and peer-to-peer. A description will be given of a prototype system developed using service-enabled seismic, acoustic, and visual sensors.

  15. Performance evaluation of data-base machine architectures

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.J.; Hawthorn, P.B.

    1981-06-01

    The rapid advances in the development of low-cost computer hardware have led to many proposals for the use of this hardware to improve the performance of database management systems. Usually the design proposals are quite vague about the performance of the system with respect to a given data management application. This paper develops an analytical model of the performance of a conventional database management system and four generic database machine architectures. This model is then used to compare the performance of each type of machine with a conventional DBMS. It is demonstrated that no one type of database machine is best for executing all types of queries. It is also shown that for several classes of queries certain database machine designs which have been proposed are actually slower than a DBMS on a conventional processor.

  16. Rapid architecture alternative modeling (RAAM): A framework for capability-based analysis of system of systems architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, Joseph V.

    problem domain by establishing an effective means to communicate the semantics from the RAAM framework. These techniques make it possible to include diverse multi-metric models within the RAAM framework in addition to system and operational level trades. A canonical example was used to explore the uses of the methodology. The canonical example contains all of the features of a full system of systems architecture analysis study but uses fewer tasks and systems. Using RAAM with the canonical example it was possible to consider both system and operational level trades in the same analysis. Once the methodology had been tested with the canonical example, a Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) capability model was developed. Due to the sensitive nature of analyses on that subject, notional data was developed. The notional data has similar trends and properties to realistic Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses data. RAAM was shown to be traceable and provided a mechanism for a unified treatment of a variety of metrics. The SEAD capability model demonstrated lower computer runtimes and reduced model creation complexity as compared to methods currently in use. To determine the usefulness of the implementation of the methodology on current computing hardware, RAAM was tested with system of system architecture studies of different sizes. This was necessary since system of systems may be called upon to accomplish thousands of tasks. It has been clearly demonstrated that RAAM is able to enumerate and evaluate the types of large, complex design spaces usually encountered in capability based design, oftentimes providing the ability to efficiently search the entire decision space. The core algorithms for generation and evaluation of alternatives scale linearly with expected problem sizes. The SEAD capability model outputs prompted the discovery a new issue, the data storage and manipulation requirements for an analysis. Two strategies were developed to counter large data sizes, the use

  17. Architecture and System Engineering Development Study of Space-Based Satellite Networks for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional NASA missions, both near Earth and deep space, have been stovepipe in nature and point-to-point in architecture. Recently, NASA and others have conceptualized missions that required space-based networking. The notion of networks in space is a drastic shift in thinking and requires entirely new architectures, radio systems (antennas, modems, and media access), and possibly even new protocols. A full system engineering approach for some key mission architectures will occur that considers issues such as the science being performed, stationkeeping, antenna size, contact time, data rates, radio-link power requirements, media access techniques, and appropriate networking and transport protocols. This report highlights preliminary architecture concepts and key technologies that will be investigated.

  18. Rapid architecture alternative modeling (RAAM): A framework for capability-based analysis of system of systems architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, Joseph V.

    problem domain by establishing an effective means to communicate the semantics from the RAAM framework. These techniques make it possible to include diverse multi-metric models within the RAAM framework in addition to system and operational level trades. A canonical example was used to explore the uses of the methodology. The canonical example contains all of the features of a full system of systems architecture analysis study but uses fewer tasks and systems. Using RAAM with the canonical example it was possible to consider both system and operational level trades in the same analysis. Once the methodology had been tested with the canonical example, a Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) capability model was developed. Due to the sensitive nature of analyses on that subject, notional data was developed. The notional data has similar trends and properties to realistic Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses data. RAAM was shown to be traceable and provided a mechanism for a unified treatment of a variety of metrics. The SEAD capability model demonstrated lower computer runtimes and reduced model creation complexity as compared to methods currently in use. To determine the usefulness of the implementation of the methodology on current computing hardware, RAAM was tested with system of system architecture studies of different sizes. This was necessary since system of systems may be called upon to accomplish thousands of tasks. It has been clearly demonstrated that RAAM is able to enumerate and evaluate the types of large, complex design spaces usually encountered in capability based design, oftentimes providing the ability to efficiently search the entire decision space. The core algorithms for generation and evaluation of alternatives scale linearly with expected problem sizes. The SEAD capability model outputs prompted the discovery a new issue, the data storage and manipulation requirements for an analysis. Two strategies were developed to counter large data sizes, the use

  19. A comparative analysis of loop heat pipe based thermal architectures for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Mike; Birur, Gaj

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) have gained acceptance as a viable means of heat transport in many spacecraft in recent years. However, applications using LHP technology tend to only remove waste heat from a single component to an external radiator. Removing heat from multiple components has been done by using multiple LHPs. This paper discusses the development and implementation of a Loop Heat Pipe based thermal architecture for spacecraft. In this architecture, a Loop Heat Pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers is described in which heat load sharing and thermal control of multiple components can be achieved. A key element in using a LHP thermal architecture is defining the need for such an architecture early in the spacecraft design process. This paper describes an example in which a LHP based thermal architecture can be used and how such a system can have advantages in weight, cost and reliability over other kinds of distributed thermal control systems. The example used in this paper focuses on a Mars Rover Thermal Architecture. However, the principles described here are applicable to Earth orbiting spacecraft as well.

  20. Automated Communication Tools and Computer-Based Medication Reconciliation to Decrease Hospital Discharge Medication Errors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J; Handler, Steven M; Kapoor, Wishwa N; Martich, G Daniel; Reddy, Vivek K; Clark, Sunday

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of automated primary care physician (PCP) communication and patient safety tools, including computerized discharge medication reconciliation, on discharge medication errors and posthospitalization patient outcomes, using a pre-post quasi-experimental study design, in hospitalized medical patients with ≥2 comorbidities and ≥5 chronic medications, at a single center. The primary outcome was discharge medication errors, compared before and after rollout of these tools. Secondary outcomes were 30-day rehospitalization, emergency department visit, and PCP follow-up visit rates. This study found that discharge medication errors were lower post intervention (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = 0.44-0.74; P < .001). Clinically important errors, with the potential for serious or life-threatening harm, and 30-day patient outcomes were not significantly different between study periods. Thus, automated health system-based communication and patient safety tools, including computerized discharge medication reconciliation, decreased hospital discharge medication errors in medically complex patients. PMID:25753453

  1. Secure Medical Diagnosis Using Rule Based Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem Durai, M. A.; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, N. Ch.

    Security is the governing dynamics of all walks of life. Here we propose a secured medical diagnosis system. Certain specific rules are specified implicitly by the designer of the expert system and then symptoms for the diseases are obtained from the users and by using the pre defined confidence and support values we extract a threshold value which is used to conclude on a particular disease and the stage using Rule Mining. "THINK" CAPTCHA mechanism is used to distinguish between the human and the robots thereby eliminating the robots and preventing them from creating fake accounts and spam's. A novel image encryption mechanism is designed using genetic algorithm to encrypt the medical images thereby storing and sending the image data in a secured manner.

  2. A cloud-based medical image repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Anthony J.; Planitz, Birgit M.; El Rifai, Diaa

    2012-02-01

    Many widely used digital medical image collections have been established but these are generally used as raw data sources without related image analysis toolsets. Providing associated functionality to allow specific types of operations to be performed on these images has proved beneficial in some cases (e.g. brain image registration and atlases). However, toolset development to provide generic image analysis functions on medical images has tended to be ad hoc, with Open Source options proliferating (e.g. ITK). Our Automated Medical Image Collection Annotation (AMICA) system is both an image repository, to which the research community can contribute image datasets, and a search/retrieval system that uses automated image annotation. AMICA was designed for the Windows Azure platform to leverage the flexibility and scalability of the cloud. It is intended that AMICA will expand beyond its initial pilot implementation (for brain CT, MR images) to accommodate a wide range of modalities and anatomical regions. This initiative aims to contribute to advances in clinical research by permitting a broader use and reuse of medical image data than is currently attainable. For example, cohort studies for cases with particular physiological or phenotypical profiles will be able to source and include enough cases to provide high statistical power, allowing more individualised risk factors to be assessed and thus allowing screening and staging processes to be optimised. Also, education, training and credentialing of clinicians in image interpretation, will be more effective because it will be possible to select instances of images with specific visual aspects, or correspond to types of cases where reading performance improvement is desirable.

  3. Gold microwires based amperometric biosensor exploiting microbial architecture.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Srivastava, Sudha

    2013-12-15

    Amalgamation of nanotechnology and biology has opened new horizons for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials of nano and micro-lengthscales for diverse sensing, catalytic and electromechanical applications. Inspired from nature and driven by the need to have nanostructures of desired morphology, microbial architecture has been exploited as a template in the present work. Biocompatible 1-D gold microwires, generated by assembly of amino acid functionalized AuNPs over the proliferating fungal hyphae, served as potential microelectrodes for electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. Delocalization of electrons over longer length scales, large surface area provided by assembled AuNPs and high biocompatibility yielded excellent analytical performance characteristics with high sensitivity of 43.2 µA/mM/cm(2) with standard deviation of 0.88% and wide linear range from 5 µM to 20 mM of glucose. The gold microwires thus generated demonstrate appreciable repeatability over 20 cycles in a cyclic voltammogram, and reproducibility with root mean square deviation as low as 1.3%. High stability and biocompatibility attribute these microwires with myriad potential biosensing and catalytic applications in varied domains. PMID:23850785

  4. Microwave-based medical diagnosis using particle swarm optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Arezoo

    This dissertation proposes and investigates a novel architecture intended for microwave-based medical diagnosis (MBMD). Furthermore, this investigation proposes novel modifications of particle swarm optimization algorithm for achieving enhanced convergence performance. MBMD has been investigated through a variety of innovative techniques in the literature since the 1990's and has shown significant promise in early detection of some specific health threats. In comparison to the X-ray- and gamma-ray-based diagnostic tools, MBMD does not expose patients to ionizing radiation; and due to the maturity of microwave technology, it lends itself to miniaturization of the supporting systems. This modality has been shown to be effective in detecting breast malignancy, and hence, this study focuses on the same modality. A novel radiator device and detection technique is proposed and investigated in this dissertation. As expected, hardware design and implementation are of paramount importance in such a study, and a good deal of research, analysis, and evaluation has been done in this regard which will be reported in ensuing chapters of this dissertation. It is noteworthy that an important element of any detection system is the algorithm used for extracting signatures. Herein, the strong intrinsic potential of the swarm-intelligence-based algorithms in solving complicated electromagnetic problems is brought to bear. This task is accomplished through addressing both mathematical and electromagnetic problems. These problems are called benchmark problems throughout this dissertation, since they have known answers. After evaluating the performance of the algorithm for the chosen benchmark problems, the algorithm is applied to MBMD tumor detection problem. The chosen benchmark problems have already been tackled by solution techniques other than particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the results of which can be found in the literature. However, due to the relatively high level

  5. Architecture Design of Healthcare Software-as-a-Service Platform for Cloud-Based Clinical Decision Support Service

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sungyoung; Cha, Jieun; Ji, Myungkyu; Kang, Hyekyung; Kim, Seok; Heo, Eunyoung; Han, Jong Soo; Kang, Hyunggoo; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To design a cloud computing-based Healthcare Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Platform (HSP) for delivering healthcare information services with low cost, high clinical value, and high usability. Methods We analyzed the architecture requirements of an HSP, including the interface, business services, cloud SaaS, quality attributes, privacy and security, and multi-lingual capacity. For cloud-based SaaS services, we focused on Clinical Decision Service (CDS) content services, basic functional services, and mobile services. Microsoft's Azure cloud computing for Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) was used. Results The functional and software views of an HSP were designed in a layered architecture. External systems can be interfaced with the HSP using SOAP and REST/JSON. The multi-tenancy model of the HSP was designed as a shared database, with a separate schema for each tenant through a single application, although healthcare data can be physically located on a cloud or in a hospital, depending on regulations. The CDS services were categorized into rule-based services for medications, alert registration services, and knowledge services. Conclusions We expect that cloud-based HSPs will allow small and mid-sized hospitals, in addition to large-sized hospitals, to adopt information infrastructures and health information technology with low system operation and maintenance costs. PMID:25995962

  6. Java-based browsing, visualization and processing of heterogeneous medical data from remote repositories.

    PubMed

    Masseroli, M; Bonacina, S; Pinciroli, F

    2004-01-01

    The actual development of distributed information technologies and Java programming enables employing them also in the medical arena to support the retrieval, integration and evaluation of heterogeneous data and multimodal images in a web browser environment. With this aim, we used them to implement a client-server architecture based on software agents. The client side is a Java applet running in a web browser and providing a friendly medical user interface to browse and visualize different patient and medical test data, integrating them properly. The server side manages secure connections and queries to heterogeneous remote databases and file systems containing patient personal and clinical data. Based on the Java Advanced Imaging API, processing and analysis tools were developed to support the evaluation of remotely retrieved bioimages through the quantification of their features in different regions of interest. The Java platform-independence allows the centralized management of the implemented prototype and its deployment to each site where an intranet or internet connection is available. Giving healthcare providers effective support for comprehensively browsing, visualizing and evaluating medical images and records located in different remote repositories, the developed prototype can represent an important aid in providing more efficient diagnoses and medical treatments. PMID:17270994

  7. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Ben; Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors. PMID:22163845

  8. Incorporating Computer-Based Learning in a Medical School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Leonard,; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents the history and background for the use of computers in medical education at the Norris Medical School at the University of Southern California. Describes the current computer facilities and how computer-based learning is incorporated into the curriculum. (PR)

  9. A Service-Oriented Healthcare Message Alerting Architecture in an Asia Medical Center: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lai, Feipei; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates how our development team has used some information technologies to let physicians obtain an instant abnormal laboratory result report for critical patient care services. We have implemented a healthcare message alerting system (HMAS) on a healthcare short message service (HSMS) engine and the distributed healthcare-oriented service environment (DiHOSE) in the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). The HSMS engine has a general interface for all applications which could easily send any kind of alerting messages. Fundamentally, the DiHOSE uses HL7 standard formats to process the information exchange behaviors and can be flexibly extended for reasonable user requirements. The disease surveillance subsystem is an integral part of NTUH new hospital information system which is based on DiHOSE and the disease surveillance subsystem would send alerting messages through the HSMS engine. The latest cell phone message alerting subsystem, a case study, in NTUH proved that the DiHOSE could integrate the user required functions without much work. We concluded that both HSMS and DiHOSE can generalize and extend application demands efficiently. PMID:19578465

  10. A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Pappas, J. J.; Ford, M.; Zatsman, P.; Tu, J.; Barnett, G. O.

    1996-01-01

    Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces. PMID:8947744

  11. Regulatory science based approach in development of novel medical devices.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    For development rational evaluation method for medical devices' safety and efficacy, regulatory science studies are important. Studies on regulatory affairs related to a medical device under development should be conducted as well as its technological development. Clinical performance of a medical device is influenced by performance of the device, medical doctors' skill, pathological condition of a patient, and so on. Thus it is sometimes difficult to demonstrate superiority of the device in terms of clinical outcome although its efficacy as a medical device is accepted. Setting of appropriate end points is required to evaluate a medical device appropriately. Risk assessment and risk management are the basis of medical device safety assurance. In case of medical device software, there are difficulties in identifying the risk due to its complexity of user environment and different design and manufacturing procedure compared with conventional hardware based medical devices. Recent technological advancement such as information and communication technologies (ICT) for medical devices and wireless network has raised new issue on risk management: cybersecurity. We have to watch closely the progress of safety standard development. PMID:26736611

  12. [Enhanced recovery after surgery based on medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a new model of perioperative management developed in recent years, can shorten hospital stay, reduce medical cost and postoperative discomfort. However, some of these measures under the strategy are negation of the traditional recommendation and many surgeons are concerned about the medical tangle by the complications coming with the ERAS strategy. In this paper, ERAS strategy is evaluated from an ethical standpoint and the assessment factors of medical behavior are introduced based on medical virtues and medical ethnics. It is also analyzed that how to deal with the conflicts between the textbooks and the ERAS strategy, and elaborated that the medical ethics should be observed if the ERAS strategy is implemented. The scientific principles must be followed, the rights and interests of the patients need to be protected, and the informed consent should be guaranteed. PMID:27003639

  13. Heterogeneous waveband switching in wavelength division multiplexed networks based on autonomous clustering architecture [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengke; Ramamurthy, Byrav

    2006-09-01

    Adopting waveband switching (WBS) in backbone wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is promising since it can reduce the network operational cost and the call blocking probability. However, upgrading the existing optical switching architecture requires time and money. Thus heterogeneous waveband switching (HeteroWBS) architecture would be desirable in such a system, where some nodes can support WBS functions and some cannot. We study the performance of HeteroWBS networks in terms of call blocking probability and cost savings under dynamically arriving traffic requests. We first investigate the effects of optical component developments on waveband switching in WDM networks. Various connection managements are then listed and analyzed. Next, to assist in the designing of efficient WBS algorithms, an autonomous clustering-based HeteroWBS (AS-HeteroWBS) architecture is proposed. The AS-HeteroWBS architecture clusters the network into multiple autonomous systems (ASs). An AS may contain some specific nodes that provide WBS functions for all the nodes in the AS. Based on the architecture, three HeteroWBS algorithms are proposed, namely, the autonomous heterogeneous WBS algorithm (AS-WBS), the autonomous source-limited heterogeneous WBS algorithm (AS-S-WBS), and the shortest-path-based heterogeneous WBS algorithm (SH-WBS). Our simulation results show that the HeteroWBS algorithms can achieve optimal cost savings while maintaining the same network throughput compared with the algorithm without WBS.

  14. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS. PMID:26736524

  15. Rule-based graph theory to enable exploration of the space system architecture design space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Dale Curtis

    network flow problems in the past, where nodes represent physical locations and edges represent the means by which information or vehicles travel between those locations. In space system architecting, expressing the physical locations (low-Earth orbit, low-lunar orbit, etc.) and steady states (interplanetary trajectory) as nodes and the different means of moving between the nodes (propulsive maneuvers, etc.) as edges formulates a mathematical representation of this design space. The selection of a given system architecture using graph theory entails defining the paths that the systems take through the space system architecture graph. A path through the graph is defined as a list of edges that are traversed, which in turn defines functions performed by the system. A structure to compactly represent this information is a matrix, called the system map, in which the column indices are associated with the systems that exist and row indices are associated with the edges, or functions, to which each system has access. Several contributions have been added to the state of the art in space system architecture analysis. The framework adds the capability to rapidly explore the design space without the need to limit trade options or the need for user interaction during the exploration process. The unique mathematical representation of a system architecture, through the use of the adjacency, incidence, and system map matrices, enables automated design space exploration using stochastic optimization processes. The innovative rule-based graph traversal algorithm ensures functional feasibility of each system architecture that is analyzed, and the automatic generation of the system hierarchy eliminates the need for the user to manually determine the relationships between systems during or before the design space exploration process. Finally, the rapid evaluation of system architectures for various mission types enables analysis of the system architecture design space for multiple

  16. A framework for semantic interoperability in healthcare: a service oriented architecture based on health informatics standards.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amanda; Eklund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare information is composed of many types of varying and heterogeneous data. Semantic interoperability in healthcare is especially important when all these different types of data need to interact. Presented in this paper is a solution to interoperability in healthcare based on a standards-based middleware software architecture used in enterprise solutions. This architecture has been translated into the healthcare domain using a messaging and modeling standard which upholds the ideals of the Semantic Web (HL7 V3) combined with a well-known standard terminology of clinical terms (SNOMED CT). PMID:18487823

  17. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient. PMID:19565800

  18. Emerging medical informatics with case-based reasoning for aiding clinical decision in multi-agent system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Colloc, Joël; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Lei, Kai

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to depict the methodological steps and tools about the combined operation of case-based reasoning (CBR) and multi-agent system (MAS) to expose the ontological application in the field of clinical decision support. The multi-agent architecture works for the consideration of the whole cycle of clinical decision-making adaptable to many medical aspects such as the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, therapeutic monitoring of gastric cancer. In the multi-agent architecture, the ontological agent type employs the domain knowledge to ease the extraction of similar clinical cases and provide treatment suggestions to patients and physicians. Ontological agent is used for the extension of domain hierarchy and the interpretation of input requests. Case-based reasoning memorizes and restores experience data for solving similar problems, with the help of matching approach and defined interfaces of ontologies. A typical case is developed to illustrate the implementation of the knowledge acquisition and restitution of medical experts. PMID:26133480

  19. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Atiya, A S

    2002-12-01

    Medical practice is changing, and the foundations of the paradigm shift lie in the development in research over the last four decades. Today, it is no longer adequate to treat a patient purely on clinical experience alone without a clear demonstration of evidence based on research, particularly the use of randomised controlled clinical trials. What is thought to be an effective mode of treatment currently may not necessarily hold true by the time medical students begin his/her medical practice. As a consequence, many medical schools worldwide are increasingly promoting evidence-based medicine (EBM) teaching in their medical curriculum along with problem-based learning (PBL). Teaching of EBM requires a paradigm shift in itself, as students must possess additional skills that are not traditionally part of medical training. These include the ability to acquire the skills in 'means of answering questions' than just 'knowing the answer to questions'. This paper aims to describe what EBM is and to highlight the formative experience of the teaching of EBM at the medical undergraduate level in the University of Malaya. Challenges and opportunities towards successful adoption of evidence-based practice are discussed. PMID:12733204

  20. Medication Safety During Pregnancy: Improving Evidence-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Susan M; Miller, Richard K; Chambers, Christina; Cooper, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 90% of women in the United States have taken medications during pregnancy. Medication exposures during pregnancy can result in adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including birth defects, fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, and longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Advising pregnant women about the safety of medication use during pregnancy is complicated by a lack of data necessary to engage the woman in an informed discussion. Routinely, health care providers turn to the package insert, yet this information can be incomplete and can be based entirely on animal studies. Often, adequate safety data are not available. In a busy clinical setting, health care providers need to be able to quickly locate the most up-to-date information in order to counsel pregnant women concerned about medication exposure. Deciding where to locate the best available information is difficult, particularly when the needed information does not exist. Pregnancy registries are initiated to obtain more data about the safety of specific medication exposures during pregnancy; however, these studies are slow to produce meaningful information, and when they do, the information may not be readily available in a published form. Health care providers have valuable data in their everyday practice that can expand the knowledge base about medication safety during pregnancy. This review aims to discuss the limitations of the package insert regarding medication safety during pregnancy, highlight additional resources available to health care providers to inform practice, and communicate the importance of pregnancy registries for expanding knowledge about medication safety during pregnancy. PMID:26771055

  1. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming; Wang, Defeng

    2012-09-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine. PMID:23256080

  2. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine. PMID:23256080

  3. State-based scheduling: An architecture for telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of constraint-based scheduling, a methodology previously developed and validated in the domain of factory scheduling, is extended to problem domains that require attendance to a wider range of state-dependent constraints. The problem of constructing and maintaining a short-term observation schedule for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which typifies this type of domain is the focus of interest. The nature of the constraints encountered in the HST domain is examined, system requirements are discussed with respect to utilization of a constraint-based scheduling methodology in such domains, and a general framework for state-based scheduling is presented.

  4. Pax permanent Martian base: Space architecture for the first human habitation on Mars, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner-Moths, Janis; Fieber, Joseph P.; Rebholz, Patrick J.; Paruleski, Kerry L.; Moore, Gary T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    America at the Threshold: Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative (the 'Synthesis Report,' sometimes called the Stafford Report after its astronaut chair, published in 1991) recommended that NASA explore what it called four 'architectures,' i.e., four different scenarios for habitation on Mars. The Advanced Design Program in Space Architecture at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee supported this report and two of its scenarios--'Architecture 1' and 'Architecture 4'--during the spring of 1992. This report investigates the implications of different mission scenarios, the Martian environment, supporting technologies, and especially human factors and environment-behavior considerations for the design of the first permanent Martian base. The report is comprised of sections on mission analysis, implications of the Martian atmosphere and geologic environment, development of habitability design requirements based on environment-behavior and human factors research, and a full design proposed (concept design and design development) for the first permanent Martian base and habitat. The design is presented in terms of a base site plan, master plan based on a Mars direct scenario phased through IOC, and design development details of a complete Martian habitat for 18 crew members including all laboratory, mission control, and crew support spaces.

  5. Towards a State Based Control Architecture for Large Telescopes: Laying a Foundation at the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karban, R.; Kornweibel, N.; Dvorak, D.; Ingham, M.; Wagner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Large telescopes are characterized by a high level of distribution of control-related tasks and will feature diverse data flow patterns and large ranges of sampling frequencies; there will often be no single, fixed server-client relationship between the control tasks. the architecture is also challenged by the task of integrating heterogeneous subsystems which will be delivered by multiple different contractors. Due to the high number of distributed components, the control system needs to effectively detect errors and faults, impede their propagation, and accurately mitigate them in the shortest time possible, enabling the service to be restored. The presented Data-Driven Architecture is based on a decentralized approach with an end-to-end integration of disparate, independently developed software components. These components employ a high-performance standards-based communication middle-ware infrastructure, based on the Data Distribution Service. A set of rules and principles, based on JPL's State Analysis method and architecture, are use to constrain component-to component interactions, where the Control System and System Under Control are clearly separated. State Analysis provide a model-based process for capturing system and software requirements and design, greatly reducing the gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation by software engineers. The method and architecture has been field tested at the Very Large Telescope, where it has been integrated into an operational system.

  6. Evolving the Web-Based Distributed SI/PDO Architecture for High-Performance Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    HOLMES,VICTOR P.; LINEBARGER,JOHN M.; MILLER,DAVID J.; VANDEWART,RUTHE LYNN; CROWLEY,CHARLES P.

    2000-08-16

    The Simulation Intranet/Product Database Operator (SI/PDO) project has developed a Web-based distributed object architecture for high performance scientific simulation. A Web-based Java interface guides designers through the design and analysis cycle via solid and analytical modeling, meshing, finite element simulation, and various forms of visualization. The SI/PDO architecture has evolved in steps towards satisfying Sandia's long-term goal of providing an end-to-end set of services for high fidelity full physics simulations in a high-performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. This paper describes the continuing evolution of the architecture to provide high-performance visualization services. Extensions to the SI/PDO architecture allow web access to visualization tools that run on MP systems. This architecture makes these tools more easily accessible by providing web-based interfaces and by shielding the user from the details of these computing environments. The design is a multi-tier architecture, where the Java-based GUI tier runs on a web browser and provides image display and control functions. The computation tier runs on MP machines. The middle tiers provide custom communication with MP machines, remote file selection, remote launching of services, load balancing, and machine selection. The architecture allows middleware of various types (CORBA, COM, RMI, sockets, etc.) to connect the tiers depending upon the situation. Testing of constantly developing visualization tools can be done in an environment where there are only two tiers which both run on desktop machines. This allows fast testing turnaround and does not use compute cycles on high-performance machines. Once the code and interfaces are tested, they are moved to high-performance machines, and new tiers are added to handle the problems of using these machines. Uniform interfaces are used throughout the tiers to allow this flexibility. Experiments test the appropriate level of

  7. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems.

  8. A portable, GUI-based, object-oriented client-server architecture for computer-based patient record (CPR) systems.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, T K

    1995-01-01

    Software applications for computer-based patient records require substantial development investments. Portable, open software architectures are one way to delay or avoid software application obsolescence. The Clinical Management System at Temple University School of Dentistry uses a portable, GUI-based, object-oriented client-server architecture. Two main criteria determined this approach: preservation of investment in software development and a smooth migration path to a Computer-based Patient Record. The application is separated into three layers: graphical user interface, database interface, and application functionality Implementation with generic cross-platform development tools ensures maximum portability. PMID:7662879

  9. Medical Images Fusion with Patch Based Structure Tensor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fen; Sun, Jiangfeng; Hou, Shouming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays medical imaging has played an important role in clinical use, which provide important clues for medical diagnosis. In medical image fusion, the extraction of some fine details and description is critical. To solve this problem, a modified structure tensor by considering similarity between two patches is proposed. The patch based filter can suppress noise and add the robustness of the eigen-values of the structure tensor by allowing the use of more information of far away pixels. After defining the new structure tensor, we apply it into medical image fusion with a multi-resolution wavelet theory. The features are extracted and described by the eigen-values of two multi-modality source data. To test the performance of the proposed scheme, the CT and MR images are used as input source images for medical image fusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method can produce better results compared to some related approaches. PMID:26628927

  10. From Cases to Projects in Problem-Based Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stentoft, Diana; Duroux, Meg; Fink, Trine; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL…

  11. Distributed Computing Architecture for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing and 2 D FFTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce H.; Haghani, Shadan

    2006-01-01

    Image-based wavefront sensing (WFS) provides significant advantages over interferometric-based wavefi-ont sensors such as optical design simplicity and stability. However, the image-based approach is computational intensive, and therefore, specialized high-performance computing architectures are required in applications utilizing the image-based approach. The development and testing of these high-performance computing architectures are essential to such missions as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestial Planet Finder-Coronagraph (TPF-C and CorSpec), and Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT). The development of these specialized computing architectures require numerous two-dimensional Fourier Transforms, which necessitate an all-to-all communication when applied on a distributed computational architecture. Several solutions for distributed computing are presented with an emphasis on a 64 Node cluster of DSPs, multiple DSP FPGAs, and an application of low-diameter graph theory. Timing results and performance analysis will be presented. The solutions offered could be applied to other all-to-all communication and scientifically computationally complex problems.

  12. An Architecture for Performance Optimization in a Collaborative Knowledge-Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Velasco, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, Intelligent Spaces (ISs) have received the attention of many Wireless Sensor Network researchers. Recently, several studies have been devoted to identify their common capacities and to set up ISs over these networks. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems into collaborative Wireless Sensor Networks for the purpose of implementing ISs. This work presents a distributed architecture proposal for collaborative Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems embedded in Wireless Sensor Networks, which has been designed to optimize the implementation of ISs. This architecture includes the following: (a) an optimized design for the inference engine; (b) a visual interface; (c) a module to reduce the redundancy and complexity of the knowledge bases; (d) a module to evaluate the accuracy of the new knowledge base; (e) a module to adapt the format of the rules to the structure used by the inference engine; and (f) a communications protocol. As a real-world application of this architecture and the proposed methodologies, we show an application to the problem of modeling two plagues of the olive tree: prays (olive moth, Prays oleae Bern.) and repilo (caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina). The results show that the architecture presented in this paper significantly decreases the consumption of resources (memory, CPU and battery) without a substantial decrease in the accuracy of the inferred values. PMID:22163687

  13. Architectural, Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and Site Documents Associated with Sustainability Base, N232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, Rosalind A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Dianati, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    These files contain more precise and accurate representations of the architectural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and site information pertaining to Sustainability Base, aka Collaborative Support Facility, aka N232. These supersede the 'bid' drawings released in STI 8112 previously. They are useful for NASA researchers and collaborators in modeling the performance characteristics of the facility. Otherwise, they do not contain new data.

  14. ESPA-Based Multiple Satellite Architecture for Mars Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, A. S.; Griffin, K.; Hanson, M.; Lee, G.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a LCROSS-based approach, enabled by ts innovative use of the ESPA ring. Exploiting this architecture for Mars mission can use the upcoming Mars launch opportunities to inject multiple satellites that can support the wide range of NASA’s goals.

  15. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  16. An Autonomous Mobile Agent-Based Distributed Learning Architecture: A Proposal and Analytical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Sadeq, Muhammad Jafar

    2006-01-01

    Current distance learning systems are increasingly packing highly data-intensive contents on servers, resulting in the congestion of network and server resources at peak service times. A distributed learning system based on faded information field (FIF) architecture that employs mobile agents (MAs) has been proposed and simulated in this work. The…

  17. A Disk-Based Storage Architecture for Movie on Demand Servers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozden, Banu; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movie on demand (MOD) servers, which are computer systems that store movies in compressed digital form for broadcast cable television systems. Highlights include network bandwidths, a disk-based storage architecture for a MOD server, implementing VCR (video cassette recorder) functions to movie viewing, and buffers. (LRW)

  18. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Nicholas James

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  19. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  20. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  1. The Design of a Fault-Tolerant COTS-Based Bus Architecture for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon; Tai, Ann T.

    2000-01-01

    The high-performance, scalability and miniaturization requirements together with the power, mass and cost constraints mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and standards in the X2000 avionics system architecture for deep-space missions. In this paper, we report our experiences and findings on the design of an IEEE 1394 compliant fault-tolerant COTS-based bus architecture. While the COTS standard IEEE 1394 adequately supports power management, high performance and scalability, its topological criteria impose restrictions on fault tolerance realization. To circumvent the difficulties, we derive a "stack-tree" topology that not only complies with the IEEE 1394 standard but also facilitates fault tolerance realization in a spaceborne system with limited dedicated resource redundancies. Moreover, by exploiting pertinent standard features of the 1394 interface which are not purposely designed for fault tolerance, we devise a comprehensive set of fault detection mechanisms to support the fault-tolerant bus architecture.

  2. A real-time CORBA based system architecture for robot assisted craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pernozzoli, A; Burghart, C; Brief, J; Hassfeld, S; Raczkowsky, J; Mühling, J; Rembold, U; Wörn, H

    2000-01-01

    We present the concept of a system architecture for the computer aided craniofacial surgery. The architecture is based on CORBA, an industrial standard specification for the development of distributed applications. Our concept includes a fundamental behaviour oriented communication model and some fundamental software safety considerations. We've developed a standard library for the integration of new services and devices into our system architecture. It decreases development time noticeably. We tested the performance and usability of our concept on an evaluation set up consisting of a surgery robot system, an infrared navigation system, a force-torque sensor and a visualisation software, obtaining excellent results. Future work will consist in the integration of further devices and the extension of our safety concept. An accurate clinical evaluation will take place continuously. PMID:10977551

  3. A common network architecture efficiently implements a variety of sparsity-based inference problems.

    PubMed

    Charles, Adam S; Garrigues, Pierre; Rozell, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed in the signal processing and statistics literatures can be implemented exactly in the common network architecture known as the locally competitive algorithm (LCA). Among the cost functions we examine are approximate l(p) norms (0 ≤ p ≤ 2), modified l(p)-norms, block-l1 norms, and reweighted algorithms. Of particular interest is that we show significantly increased performance in reweighted l1 algorithms by inferring all parameters jointly in a dynamical system rather than using an iterative approach native to digital computational architectures. PMID:22970876

  4. High efficiency, broadband solar cell architectures based on arrays of volumetrically distributed narrowband photovoltaic fibers.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Brendan; Nothern, Denis; Pipe, Kevin P; Shtein, Max

    2010-09-13

    We propose a novel solar cell architecture consisting of multiple fiber-based photovoltaic (PV) cells. Each PV fiber element is designed to maximize the power conversion efficiency within a narrow band of the incident solar spectrum, while reflecting other spectral components through the use of optical microcavity effects and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) coatings. Combining PV fibers with complementary absorption and reflection characteristics into volume-filling arrays enables spectrally tuned modules having an effective dispersion element intrinsic to the architecture, resulting in high external quantum efficiency over the incident spectrum. While this new reflective tandem architecture is not limited to one particular material system, here we apply the concept to organic PV (OPV) cells that use a metal-organic-metal-dielectric layer structure, and calculate the expected performance of such arrays. Using realistic material properties for organic absorbers, transport layers, metallic electrodes, and DBR coatings, 17% power conversion efficiency can be reached. PMID:21165073

  5. A Systolic Array-Based FPGA Parallel Architecture for the BLAST Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Hong; Devabhaktuni, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    A design of systolic array-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) parallel architecture for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) Algorithm is proposed. BLAST is a heuristic biological sequence alignment algorithm which has been used by bioinformatics experts. In contrast to other designs that detect at most one hit in one-clock-cycle, our design applies a Multiple Hits Detection Module which is a pipelining systolic array to search multiple hits in a single-clock-cycle. Further, we designed a Hits Combination Block which combines overlapping hits from systolic array into one hit. These implementations completed the first and second step of BLAST architecture and achieved significant speedup comparing with previously published architectures. PMID:25969747

  6. Computer Assisted Multi-Center Creation of Medical Knowledge Bases

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Giuse, Dario A.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs which support different aspects of medical care have been developed in recent years. Their capabilities range from diagnosis to medical imaging, and include hospital management systems and therapy prescription. In spite of their diversity these systems have one commonality: their reliance on a large body of medical knowledge in computer-readable form. This knowledge enables such programs to draw inferences, validate hypotheses, and in general to perform their intended task. As has been clear to developers of such systems, however, the creation and maintenance of medical knowledge bases are very expensive. Practical and economical difficulties encountered during this long-term process have discouraged most attempts. This paper discusses knowledge base creation and maintenance, with special emphasis on medical applications. We first describe the methods currently used and their limitations. We then present our recent work on developing tools and methodologies which will assist in the process of creating a medical knowledge base. We focus, in particular, on the possibility of multi-center creation of the knowledge base.

  7. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  8. A protocol-based evaluation of medical image digitizers.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, E P; Costaridou, L; Kocsis, O; Panayiotakis, G

    2001-09-01

    Medical film digitizers play an important transitory role as digital-to-analogue bridges in radiology. Their use requires performance evaluation to assure medical image quality. A complete quality control protocol is presented, based on a set of test objects adaptable to the specification of various digitizers. The protocol includes parameters such as uniformity, input-output response, noise, geometric distortion, spatial resolution, low contrast discrimination, film slippage and light leakage, as well as associated measurement methods. The applicability of the protocol is demonstrated with two types of medical film digitizers; a charge-coupled device (CCD) digitizer and a laser digitizer. The potential value of the protocol is also discussed. PMID:11560833

  9. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2010-11-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  10. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2009-09-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  11. An Architecture for Intelligent Systems Based on Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Mandayam, Shreekanth; Polikar, Robi

    2004-01-01

    Based on requirements for a next-generation rocket test facility, elements of a prototype Intelligent Rocket Test Facility (IRTF) have been implemented. A key component is distributed smart sensor elements integrated using a knowledgeware environment. One of the specific goals is to imbue sensors with the intelligence needed to perform self diagnosis of health and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. The preliminary results provide the basis for future advanced development and validation using rocket test stand facilities at Stennis Space Center (SSC). We have identified issues important to further development of health-enabled networks, which should be of interest to others working with smart sensors and intelligent health management systems.

  12. Building a prototype of a Martian base in Poland, an architectural design overview and progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    This talk focuses on recent advances in the construction of a prototype 1000 m2 Martian out-post for 8 inhabitants. The architectural design for such a Martian base has been presented previously on COSPAR 2008, the presentation being entitled ,,Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission". The presentation was welcomed with warm interest by various institutions, some of which offered help in building a prototype such as providing the building site or funding. This year's oral presentation will focus on a progress report and will briefly describe the architectural design. The architectural design is inspired by terrestrial pneumatic architecture. It has small volume, can be easily transported and provides a large habitable space. An architectural solution analo-gous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. The spatial placement of the following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as garage and workshop. Further attention was paid to transportation routes and a control and communications center. The issues of a life support system, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least one and a half year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation. The prototype of such a Polish-origin Martian outpost will be used in a manner similar to MDRS or FMARS but to a larger extent. The prototype's design itself will be tested and corrected to achieve a design which can be used on Mars. The procedure of unfolding the pneumatic modules and floor leveling will be tested. The 1000 m2 interior will be used for various simulation exercises: socio-psychological testing, interior arrangement experiments

  13. Home medical monitoring network based on embedded technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Deng, Wenyi; Yan, Bixi; Lv, Naiguang

    2006-11-01

    Remote medical monitoring network for long-term monitoring of physiological variables would be helpful for recovery of patients as people are monitored at more comfortable conditions. Furthermore, long-term monitoring would be beneficial to investigate slowly developing deterioration in wellness status of a subject and provide medical treatment as soon as possible. The home monitor runs on an embedded microcomputer Rabbit3000 and interfaces with different medical monitoring module through serial ports. The network based on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) or local area network (LAN) is established and a client - server model, each embedded home medical monitor is client and the monitoring center is the server, is applied to the system design. The client is able to provide its information to the server when client's request of connection to the server is permitted. The monitoring center focuses on the management of the communications, the acquisition of medical data, and the visualization and analysis of the data, etc. Diagnosing model of sleep apnea syndrome is built basing on ECG, heart rate, respiration wave, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, air temperature of mouth cavity or nasal cavity, so sleep status can be analyzed by physiological data acquired as people in sleep. Remote medical monitoring network based on embedded micro Internetworking technology have advantages of lower price, convenience and feasibility, which have been tested by the prototype.

  14. Architectures for a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the ``Gravitational Universe,'' for the third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has begun negotiating a NASA role. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, thereby augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described.

  15. The Architecture of Information Fusion System Ingreenhouse Wireless Sensor Network Based on Multi-Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenting; Chen, Ming

    In view of current unprogressive situation of factory breeding in aquaculture, this article designed a standardized, informationized and intelligentized aquaculture system, proposed a information fusion architecture based on multi-agent in greenhouse wireless sensor network (GWSN), and researched mainly the structural characteristic of the four-classed information fusion based on distributed multi-agent and the method to construct the structure inside of every agent.

  16. Trojan Tour Enabled by Solar Electric Based Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M.; Smith, D. B.; Behrens, J.; Bingaman, G.; Horsewood, J.

    2012-10-01

    A Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission was recommended by the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey. We utilize this concept as a basis for re-examining the feasibility of a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission using a Boeing bus and Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) for solar power generation. The concept study for the Decadal survey concluded that a SEP mission is not viable because of low solar intensity levels. With the new AMPS Technology that involves a Solar Concentrator array, SEP missions to the outer planets become viable. The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, a Trojan within the Trojan cloud, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. The REP mission concept flight time was 8 years. Our cruise time is 6 years. The Trojan asteroid exploration spacecraft is based around our flight proven 702HP bus. The bus has been slightly modified for this mission. Two 30 kW FAST solar wings replace the 9 kW 6 panel solar wings. The AMPS array has a 12.5:1 concentration ratio. At Jupiter (5.2 AU), the AMPS array solar cells still see .46 suns, which is high enough that LILT effects are negligible. The science payload instruments, data rates, mass and power requirements are identical to the Trojan Decadal study. The AMPS Technology benefits from over $30M in development investment by DARPA and the AFRL. The investments focused on lightweight structures, advanced deployment systems, linear concentrator arrays, high voltage power systems, and high efficiency solar cells. Additional investment in a flight demonstration mission is needed to reach TRL 7. Utilizing the AMPS technology with the concentrator array, SEP becomes a viable alternative. SEP with the AMPS concentrator also provides efficient on-station maneuvering for science at the Trojan. We seek support for Technology Demonstration Mission through the NASA OCT.

  17. The Setting is the Service: How the Architecture of Sober Living Residences Supports Community Based Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L.; Henderson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting – building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city – function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research. PMID:25328377

  18. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  19. One-dimension-based spatially ordered architectures for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siqi; Tang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Yugang; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-08-01

    The severe consequences of fossil fuel consumption have resulted in a need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. Conversion and storage of solar energy via a renewable method, such as photocatalysis, holds great promise as such an alternative. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have gained attention in solar energy conversion because they have a long axis to absorb incident sunlight yet a short radial distance for separation of photogenerated charge carriers. In particular, well-ordered spatially high dimensional architectures based on 1D nanostructures with well-defined facets or anisotropic shapes offer an exciting opportunity for bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world, providing a platform for integration of nanostructures on a larger and more manageable scale into high-performance solar energy conversion applications. In this review, we focus on the progress of photocatalytic solar energy conversion over controlled one-dimension-based spatially ordered architecture hybrids. Assembly and classification of these novel architectures are summarized, and we discuss the opportunity and future direction of integration of 1D materials into high-dimensional, spatially organized architectures, with a perspective toward improved collective performance in various artificial photoredox applications. PMID:25856797

  20. Teaching Evidence-based Medical Care: Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grad, Roland; Macaulay, Ann C.; Warner, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a teaching initiative in evidence-based medical care in McGill University's family practice residency program. Discusses results of pre- and post-course self-assessments by students, which indicated significant increases in skill at formulating clinical questions and searching for evidence-based answers, appraising reviews,…

  1. Community-based distributive medical education: Advantaging society

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Tracy J.; Frantz, Alan C.; McCune, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a narrative summary of an increasingly important trend in medical education by addressing the merits of community-based distributive medical education (CBDME). This is a relatively new and compelling model for teaching and training physicians in a manner that may better meet societal needs and expectations. Issues and trends regarding the growing shortage and imbalanced distribution of physicians in the USA are addressed, including the role of international medical graduates. A historical overview of costs and funding sources for medical education is presented, as well as initiatives to increase the training and placement of physicians cost-effectively through new and expanded medical schools, two- and four-year regional or branch campuses and CBDME. Our research confirms that although medical schools have responded to Association of American Medical Colleges calls for higher student enrollment and societal concerns about the distribution and placement of physicians, significant opportunities for improvement remain. Finally, the authors recommend further research be conducted to guide policy on incentives for physicians to locate in underserved communities, and determine the cost-effectiveness of the CBDME model in both the near and long terms. PMID:22355240

  2. An information system for epidemiology based on a computer-based medical record.

    PubMed

    Verdier, C; Flory, A

    1994-12-01

    A new way is presented to build an information system addressed to problems in epidemiology. Based on our analysis of current and future requirements, a system is proposed which allows for collection, organization and distribution of data within a computer network. In this application, two broad communities of users-physicians and epidemiologists-can be identified, each with their own perspectives and goals. The different requirements of each community lead us to a client-service centered architecture which provides the functionality requirements of the two groups. The resulting physician workstation provides help for recording and querying medical information about patients and from a pharmacological database. All information is classified and coded in order to be retrieved for pharmaco-economic studies. The service center receives information from physician workstations and permits organizations that are in charge of statistical studies to work with "real" data recorded during patient encounters. This leads to a new approach in epidemiology. Studies can be carried out with a more efficient data acquisition. For modelling the information system, we use an object-oriented approach. We have observed that the object-oriented representation, particularly its concepts of generalization, aggregation and encapsulation, are very usable for our problem. PMID:7869947

  3. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  4. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  5. Problem-based learning curriculum in medical education at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Tsai, Wen-Chan

    2009-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was first introduced to Kaohsiung Medical University in 1997 and was incorporated into the reform of the medical curriculum in 2005. An action committee was organized to manage PBL activities at Kaohsiung Medical University. A 2-year PBL curriculum with 14 blocks was delivered both in the School of Medicine and School of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine. Each block consists of lectures of basic and clinical science, clinical skills, and three PBL tutorials. Fifty-three well-edited PBL cases were created during the past 4 years. Some issues have arisen from the PBL curriculum including lack of tutors, low tutor numbers in tutorials, tutor training, and adequacy of assessment. Therefore, faculty development and a better system of evaluation and assessment are now our major tasks. We hope that our efforts to improve the PBL curriculum will provide students with a better education system. PMID:19502148

  6. Software architecture for multi-bed FDK-based reconstruction in X-ray CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Abella, M; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Pascau, J; Udías, A; García, V; Vidal, I; Desco, M

    2012-08-01

    Most small-animal X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners are based on cone-beam geometry with a flat-panel detector orbiting in a circular trajectory. Image reconstruction in these systems is usually performed by approximate methods based on the algorithm proposed by Feldkamp et al. (FDK). Besides the implementation of the reconstruction algorithm itself, in order to design a real system it is necessary to take into account numerous issues so as to obtain the best quality images from the acquired data. This work presents a comprehensive, novel software architecture for small-animal CT scanners based on cone-beam geometry with circular scanning trajectory. The proposed architecture covers all the steps from the system calibration to the volume reconstruction and conversion into Hounsfield units. It includes an efficient implementation of an FDK-based reconstruction algorithm that takes advantage of system symmetries and allows for parallel reconstruction using a multiprocessor computer. Strategies for calibration and artifact correction are discussed to justify the strategies adopted. New procedures for multi-bed misalignment, beam-hardening, and Housfield units calibration are proposed. Experiments with phantoms and real data showed the suitability of the proposed software architecture for an X-ray small animal CT based on cone-beam geometry. PMID:21908068

  7. An Architecture for Automated Fire Detection Early Warning System Based on Geoprocessing Service Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadzadegan, F.; Saber, M.; Zahmatkesh, H.; Joze Ghazi Khanlou, H.

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly discovering, sharing, integrating and applying geospatial information are key issues in the domain of emergency response and disaster management. Due to the distributed nature of data and processing resources in disaster management, utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to take advantages of workflow of services provides an efficient, flexible and reliable implementations to encounter different hazardous situation. The implementation specification of the Web Processing Service (WPS) has guided geospatial data processing in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) platform to become a widely accepted solution for processing remotely sensed data on the web. This paper presents an architecture design based on OGC web services for automated workflow for acquisition, processing remotely sensed data, detecting fire and sending notifications to the authorities. A basic architecture and its building blocks for an automated fire detection early warning system are represented using web-based processing of remote sensing imageries utilizing MODIS data. A composition of WPS processes is proposed as a WPS service to extract fire events from MODIS data. Subsequently, the paper highlights the role of WPS as a middleware interface in the domain of geospatial web service technology that can be used to invoke a large variety of geoprocessing operations and chaining of other web services as an engine of composition. The applicability of proposed architecture by a real world fire event detection and notification use case is evaluated. A GeoPortal client with open-source software was developed to manage data, metadata, processes, and authorities. Investigating feasibility and benefits of proposed framework shows that this framework can be used for wide area of geospatial applications specially disaster management and environmental monitoring.

  8. RootScape: a landmark-based system for rapid screening of root architecture in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ristova, Daniela; Rosas, Ulises; Krouk, Gabriel; Ruffel, Sandrine; Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2013-03-01

    The architecture of plant roots affects essential functions including nutrient and water uptake, soil anchorage, and symbiotic interactions. Root architecture comprises many features that arise from the growth of the primary and lateral roots. These root features are dictated by the genetic background but are also highly responsive to the environment. Thus, root system architecture (RSA) represents an important and complex trait that is highly variable, affected by genotype × environment interactions, and relevant to survival/performance. Quantification of RSA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using plate-based tissue culture is a very common and relatively rapid assay, but quantifying RSA represents an experimental bottleneck when it comes to medium- or high-throughput approaches used in mutant or genotype screens. Here, we present RootScape, a landmark-based allometric method for rapid phenotyping of RSA using Arabidopsis as a case study. Using the software AAMToolbox, we created a 20-point landmark model that captures RSA as one integrated trait and used this model to quantify changes in the RSA of Arabidopsis (Columbia) wild-type plants grown under different hormone treatments. Principal component analysis was used to compare RootScape with conventional methods designed to measure root architecture. This analysis showed that RootScape efficiently captured nearly all the variation in root architecture detected by measuring individual root traits and is 5 to 10 times faster than conventional scoring. We validated RootScape by quantifying the plasticity of RSA in several mutant lines affected in hormone signaling. The RootScape analysis recapitulated previous results that described complex phenotypes in the mutants and identified novel gene × environment interactions. PMID:23335624

  9. Open multi-agent control architecture to support virtual-reality-based man-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Brasch, Marcel

    2001-10-01

    Projective Virtual Reality is a new and promising approach to intuitively operable man machine interfaces for the commanding and supervision of complex automation systems. The user interface part of Projective Virtual Reality heavily builds on latest Virtual Reality techniques, a task deduction component and automatic action planning capabilities. In order to realize man machine interfaces for complex applications, not only the Virtual Reality part has to be considered but also the capabilities of the underlying robot and automation controller are of great importance. This paper presents a control architecture that has proved to be an ideal basis for the realization of complex robotic and automation systems that are controlled by Virtual Reality based man machine interfaces. The architecture does not just provide a well suited framework for the real-time control of a multi robot system but also supports Virtual Reality metaphors and augmentations which facilitate the user's job to command and supervise a complex system. The developed control architecture has already been used for a number of applications. Its capability to integrate sensor information from sensors of different levels of abstraction in real-time helps to make the realized automation system very responsive to real world changes. In this paper, the architecture will be described comprehensively, its main building blocks will be discussed and one realization that is built based on an open source real-time operating system will be presented. The software design and the features of the architecture which make it generally applicable to the distributed control of automation agents in real world applications will be explained. Furthermore its application to the commanding and control of experiments in the Columbus space laboratory, the European contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), is only one example which will be described.

  10. Towards computerizing intensive care sedation guidelines: design of a rule-based architecture for automated execution of clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computerized ICUs rely on software services to convey the medical condition of their patients as well as assisting the staff in taking treatment decisions. Such services are useful for following clinical guidelines quickly and accurately. However, the development of services is often time-consuming and error-prone. Consequently, many care-related activities are still conducted based on manually constructed guidelines. These are often ambiguous, which leads to unnecessary variations in treatments and costs. The goal of this paper is to present a semi-automatic verification and translation framework capable of turning manually constructed diagrams into ready-to-use programs. This framework combines the strengths of the manual and service-oriented approaches while decreasing their disadvantages. The aim is to close the gap in communication between the IT and the medical domain. This leads to a less time-consuming and error-prone development phase and a shorter clinical evaluation phase. Methods A framework is proposed that semi-automatically translates a clinical guideline, expressed as an XML-based flow chart, into a Drools Rule Flow by employing semantic technologies such as ontologies and SWRL. An overview of the architecture is given and all the technology choices are thoroughly motivated. Finally, it is shown how this framework can be integrated into a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Results The applicability of the Drools Rule language to express clinical guidelines is evaluated by translating an example guideline, namely the sedation protocol used for the anaesthetization of patients, to a Drools Rule Flow and executing and deploying this Rule-based application as a part of a SOA. The results show that the performance of Drools is comparable to other technologies such as Web Services and increases with the number of decision nodes present in the Rule Flow. Most delays are introduced by loading the Rule Flows. Conclusions The framework is an

  11. Lunar Outpost Life Support Architecture Study Based on a High-Mobility Exploration Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a life support architecture study based on a 2009 NASA lunar surface exploration scenario known as Scenario 12. The study focuses on the assembly complete outpost configuration and includes pressurized rovers as part of a distributed outpost architecture in both stand-alone and integrated configurations. A range of life support architectures are examined reflecting different levels of closure and distributed functionality. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the sensitivity of results to volatile high-impact mission variables, including the quantity of residual Lander oxygen and hydrogen propellants available for scavenging, the fraction of crew time away from the outpost on excursions, total extravehicular activity hours, and habitat leakage. Surpluses or deficits of water and oxygen are reported for each architecture, along with fixed and 10-year total equivalent system mass estimates relative to a reference case. System robustness is discussed in terms of the probability of no water or oxygen resupply as determined from the Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Distributed Scheduling Architecture for Multi-Center Time-Based Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Steven; Farley, Todd; Foster, John; Green, Steve; Hoang, Ty; Wong, Gregory L.

    2003-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is an air traffic control automation system currently in use in seven Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) to enable time based metering to busy airports within their airspace. However, this system is limited to operation within a single ARTCC, within about a 200 nautical mile radius of the airport, and on relatively simple streams of traffic. The need for coordinated metering within a greater (300+ nautical mile) radius of an airport, on streams of traffic with significant branching, and across ARTCC boundaries, has been identified. Early tests revealed that TMA could not simply be scaled up to handle such a problem. Instead, a loosely coupled hierarchy of schedules, in which constraints from downstream schedules are passed upstream, is required. Such an architecture reduces the reliance on distant projections of arrival times, making schedules robust to changes in sequence and to additions of aircraft (such as aircraft departing inside the system s scheduling horizon). This architecture is also scaleable, easily reconfigurable, and can be networked together. As such, it can be adapted for use in any size or configuration of airspace and with any number of airports delivering restrictions. An implementation of this distributed scheduling architecture is currently undergoing testing in the TMA-Multi Center system. This paper describes the architecture and its motivation.

  13. Agent-Oriented Privacy-Based Information Brokering Architecture for Healthcare Environments

    PubMed Central

    Masaud-Wahaishi, Abdulmutalib; Ghenniwa, Hamada

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels—locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc.) that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE. PMID:19325918

  14. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    PubMed Central

    IMANIEH, MOHAMMAD HADI; DEHGHANI, SEYED MOHSEN; SOBHANI, AHMAD REZA; HAGHIGHAT, MAHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning) as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical students introduced from Medical Faculty to the Pediatrics Department with no personal involvement. 120 medical students were assigned to 8 groups of 15 students each. For four months, 4 groups were trained with traditional method and 4 other groups underwent problem-based learning method on selected subject materials. In each method, a pre-course test at the beginning and a post-course test at the end of each course were given to each group. The questionnaire used in this study as the instrument was composed of 39 questions, 37 multiple choice questions and two short answer questions. Three professors of pediatric gastroenterologist took part in the training. Two of these professors were responsible for solving task training method. The third professor used traditional teacher-centered methodology to eliminate any possible bias. Scores obtained from these tests were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The scores of the students undergoing the traditional method were 14.70±3.03 and 21.20±4.07 in the first and second test, respectively. In problem-based learning, the scores were 15.82±3.29 in the first and 27.52±4.72 in the second test. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-course exams of the two groups (p=0.001), while no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of pre-course exams of the groups (p=0.550). Conclusion: It may be concluded that

  15. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    PubMed

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored. PMID:8071098

  16. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  17. A cryptologic based trust center for medical images.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate practical solutions that can integrate cryptographic techniques and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) to improve the security of medical images. DESIGN: The PACS at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center consolidate images and associated data from various scanners into a centralized data archive and transmit them to remote display stations for review and consultation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the model of a digital trust center that integrates cryptographic algorithms and protocols seamlessly into such a digital radiology environment to improve the security of medical images. MEASUREMENTS: The timing performance of encryption, decryption, and transmission of the cryptographic protocols over 81 volumetric PACS datasets has been measured. Lossless data compression is also applied before the encryption. The transmission performance is measured against three types of networks of different bandwidths: narrow-band Integrated Services Digital Network, Ethernet, and OC-3c Asynchronous Transfer Mode. RESULTS: The proposed digital trust center provides a cryptosystem solution to protect the confidentiality and to determine the authenticity of digital images in hospitals. The results of this study indicate that diagnostic images such as x-rays and magnetic resonance images could be routinely encrypted in PACS. However, applying encryption in teleradiology and PACS is a tradeoff between communications performance and security measures. CONCLUSION: Many people are uncertain about how to integrate cryptographic algorithms coherently into existing operations of the clinical enterprise. This paper describes a centralized cryptosystem architecture to ensure image data authenticity in a digital radiology department. The system performance has been evaluated in a hospital-integrated PACS environment. PMID:8930857

  18. A collaborative medical case authoring environment based on the UMLS.

    PubMed

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel collaborative authoring tool that was designed to allow medical teachers to formalize and visualize their knowledge for medical intelligent tutoring systems. Our goal is to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in creating the domain model representing the problem solution--often referred to as the bottleneck in developing intelligent tutoring systems. We incorporate the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge base to assist the authors in creating the problem solution collaboratively via a videoconferencing platform. The system consists of a shared workspace gathering information visualization and tools necessary for collaborative problem-solving tasks. We found that the authoring tool can be used to effectively elicit the knowledge structure of the domain model. This was achieved in hours compared to months for the conventional paper-based approach. PMID:17920337

  19. Performance optimization of web-based medical simulation.

    PubMed

    Halic, Tansel; Ahn, Woojin; De, Suvranu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for performance optimization of multimodal interactive web-based medical simulation. A web-based simulation framework is promising for easy access and wide dissemination of medical simulation. However, the real-time performance of the simulation highly depends on hardware capability on the client side. Providing consistent simulation in different hardware is critical for reliable medical simulation. This paper proposes a non-linear mixed integer programming model to optimize the performance of visualization and physics computation while considering hardware capability and application specific constraints. The optimization model identifies and parameterizes the rendering and computing capabilities of the client hardware using an exploratory proxy code. The parameters are utilized to determine the optimized simulation conditions including texture sizes, mesh sizes and canvas resolution. The test results show that the optimization model not only achieves a desired frame per second but also resolves visual artifacts due to low performance hardware. PMID:23400151

  20. Medical image compression algorithm based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghong; Zhang, Guoping; Wan, Wei; Liu, Minmin

    2005-02-01

    With rapid development of electronic imaging and multimedia technology, the telemedicine is applied to modern medical servings in the hospital. Digital medical image is characterized by high resolution, high precision and vast data. The optimized compression algorithm can alleviate restriction in the transmission speed and data storage. This paper describes the characteristics of human vision system based on the physiology structure, and analyses the characteristics of medical image in the telemedicine, then it brings forward an optimized compression algorithm based on wavelet zerotree. After the image is smoothed, it is decomposed with the haar filters. Then the wavelet coefficients are quantified adaptively. Therefore, we can maximize efficiency of compression and achieve better subjective visual image. This algorithm can be applied to image transmission in the telemedicine. In the end, we examined the feasibility of this algorithm with an image transmission experiment in the network.

  1. An end-to-end communications architecture for condition-based maintenance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroculick, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores challenges in implementing an end-to-end communications architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) data transmission which aligns with the Army's Network Modernization Strategy. The Army's Network Modernization strategy is based on rolling out network capabilities which connect the smallest unit and Soldier level to enterprise systems. CBM+ is a continuous improvement initiative over the life cycle of a weapon system or equipment to improve the reliability and maintenance effectiveness of Department of Defense (DoD) systems. CBM+ depends on the collection, processing and transport of large volumes of data. An important capability that enables CBM+ is an end-to-end network architecture that enables data to be uploaded from the platform at the tactical level to enterprise data analysis tools. To connect end-to-end maintenance processes in the Army's supply chain, a CBM+ network capability can be developed from available network capabilities.

  2. Carbon-Based Sorbents with Three-Dimensional Architectures for Water Remediation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ma, Qinglang; Tan, Chaoliang; Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, carbon-based 3D architectures have received increasing attention in science and technology due to their fascinating properties, such as a large surface area, macroscopic bulky shape, and interconnected porous structures, enabling them to be one of the most promising materials for water remediation. This review summarizes the recent development in design, preparation, and applications of carbon-based 3D architectures derived from carbon nanotubes, graphene, biomass, or synthetic polymers for water treatment. After a brief introduction of these materials and their synthetic strategies, their applications in water treatment, such as the removal of oils/organics, ions, and dyes, are summarized. Finally, future perspective directions for this promising field are also discussed. PMID:25808922

  3. Ultra-Fast Data-Mining Hardware Architecture Based on Stochastic Computing

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Antoni; Alomar, Miquel L.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hardware implementations able to cope with the processing of large amounts of data in reasonable times are highly desired in our information-driven society. In this work we review the application of stochastic computing to probabilistic-based pattern-recognition analysis of huge database sets. The proposed technique consists in the hardware implementation of a parallel architecture implementing a similarity search of data with respect to different pre-stored categories. We design pulse-based stochastic-logic blocks to obtain an efficient pattern recognition system. The proposed architecture speeds up the screening process of huge databases by a factor of 7 when compared to a conventional digital implementation using the same hardware area. PMID:25955274

  4. Ultra-fast data-mining hardware architecture based on stochastic computing.

    PubMed

    Morro, Antoni; Canals, Vincent; Oliver, Antoni; Alomar, Miquel L; Rossello, Josep L

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hardware implementations able to cope with the processing of large amounts of data in reasonable times are highly desired in our information-driven society. In this work we review the application of stochastic computing to probabilistic-based pattern-recognition analysis of huge database sets. The proposed technique consists in the hardware implementation of a parallel architecture implementing a similarity search of data with respect to different pre-stored categories. We design pulse-based stochastic-logic blocks to obtain an efficient pattern recognition system. The proposed architecture speeds up the screening process of huge databases by a factor of 7 when compared to a conventional digital implementation using the same hardware area. PMID:25955274

  5. A 2-dimensional optical architecture for solving Hamiltonian path problem based on micro ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama

    2015-01-01

    The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).

  6. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  7. Design and implementation of a page-oriented "holographic" memory based on a Lippmann architecture.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Kevin; Pauliat, Gilles

    2011-10-20

    Optical data storage inspired by Lippmann interference color photography was proposed a long time ago as an alternative to holographic memories. Very high capacities were predicted for a page-oriented approach with wavelength multiplexing, but, up to now, such an architecture has never been implemented. Based on simple conception rules, we build such a page-oriented Lippmann data storage system. Submicrometer resolved data pages recorded in thick materials are evidenced by the experimental results. PMID:22015410

  8. The middleware architecture supports heterogeneous network systems for module-based personal robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Seongho; Li, Vitaly; Choi, Dong Hee; Jung, Gi Deck; Park, Hong Seong; Ryuh, Youngsun

    2005-12-01

    On developing the personal robot system presently, the internal architecture is every module those occupy separated functions are connected through heterogeneous network system. This module-based architecture supports specialization and division of labor at not only designing but also implementation, as an effect of this architecture, it can reduce developing times and costs for modules. Furthermore, because every module is connected among other modules through network systems, we can get easy integrations and synergy effect to apply advanced mutual functions by co-working some modules. In this architecture, one of the most important technologies is the network middleware that takes charge communications among each modules connected through heterogeneous networks systems. The network middleware acts as the human nerve system inside of personal robot system; it relays, transmits, and translates information appropriately between modules that are similar to human organizations. The network middleware supports various hardware platform, heterogeneous network systems (Ethernet, Wireless LAN, USB, IEEE 1394, CAN, CDMA-SMS, RS-232C). This paper discussed some mechanisms about our network middleware to intercommunication and routing among modules, methods for real-time data communication and fault-tolerant network service. There have designed and implemented a layered network middleware scheme, distributed routing management, network monitoring/notification technology on heterogeneous networks for these goals. The main theme is how to make routing information in our network middleware. Additionally, with this routing information table, we appended some features. Now we are designing, making a new version network middleware (we call 'OO M/W') that can support object-oriented operation, also are updating program sources itself for object-oriented architecture. It is lighter, faster, and can support more operation systems and heterogeneous network systems, but other general

  9. Lidar detection of underwater objects using a neuro-SVM-based architecture.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Vikramjit; Wang, Chia-Jiu; Banerjee, Satarupa

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a neural network architecture using a support vector machine (SVM) as an inference engine (IE) for classification of light detection and ranging (Lidar) data. Lidar data gives a sequence of laser backscatter intensities obtained from laser shots generated from an airborne object at various altitudes above the earth surface. Lidar data is pre-filtered to remove high frequency noise. As the Lidar shots are taken from above the earth surface, it has some air backscatter information, which is of no importance for detecting underwater objects. Because of these, the air backscatter information is eliminated from the data and a segment of this data is subsequently selected to extract features for classification. This is then encoded using linear predictive coding (LPC) and polynomial approximation. The coefficients thus generated are used as inputs to the two branches of a parallel neural architecture. The decisions obtained from the two branches are vector multiplied and the result is fed to an SVM-based IE that presents the final inference. Two parallel neural architectures using multilayer perception (MLP) and hybrid radial basis function (HRBF) are considered in this paper. The proposed structure fits the Lidar data classification task well due to the inherent classification efficiency of neural networks and accurate decision-making capability of SVM. A Bayesian classifier and a quadratic classifier were considered for the Lidar data classification task but they failed to offer high prediction accuracy. Furthermore, a single-layered artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was also considered and it failed to offer good accuracy. The parallel ANN architecture proposed in this paper offers high prediction accuracy (98.9%) and is found to be the most suitable architecture for the proposed task of Lidar data classification. PMID:16722175

  10. Development of Network-based Communications Architectures for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announcement, NASA has been developing a communications infrastructure that combines existing terrestrial techniques with newer concepts and capabilities. The overall goal is to develop a flexible, modular, and extensible architecture that leverages and enhances terrestrial networking technologies that can either be directly applied or modified for the space regime. In addition, where existing technologies leaves gaps, new technologies must be developed. An example includes dynamic routing that accounts for constrained power and bandwidth environments. Using these enhanced technologies, NASA can develop nodes that provide characteristics, such as routing, store and forward, and access-on-demand capabilities. But with the development of the new infrastructure, challenges and obstacles will arise. The current communications infrastructure has been developed on a mission-by-mission basis rather than an end-to-end approach; this has led to a greater ground infrastructure, but has not encouraged communications between space-based assets. This alone provides one of the key challenges that NASA must encounter. With the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), NASA has the opportunity to provide an integration path for the new vehicles and provide standards for their development. Some of the newer capabilities these vehicles could include are routing, security, and Software Defined Radios (SDRs). To meet these needs, the NASA/Glenn Research Center s (GRC) Network Emulation Laboratory (NEL) has been using both simulation and emulation to study and evaluate these architectures. These techniques provide options to NASA that directly impact architecture development. This paper identifies components of the infrastructure that play a pivotal role in the new NASA architecture, develops a scheme using simulation and emulation for testing these architectures and demonstrates how NASA can strengthen the new infrastructure by

  11. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  12. Lunar Outpost Life Support Architecture Study Based on a High Mobility Exploration Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    As scenarios for lunar surface exploration and habitation continue to evolve within NASA s Constellation program, so must studies of optimal life support system architectures and technologies. This paper presents results of a life support architecture study based on a 2009 NASA scenario known as Scenario 12. Scenario 12 represents a consolidation of ideas from earlier NASA scenarios and includes an outpost near the Lunar South Pole comprised of three larger fixed surface elements and four attached pressurized rovers. The scenario places a high emphasis on surface mobility, with planning assuming that all four crewmembers spend roughly 50% of the time away from the outpost on 3-14 day excursions in two of the pressurized rovers. Some of the larger elements can also be mobilized for longer duration excursions. This emphasis on mobility poses a significant challenge for a regenerative life support system in terms of cost-effective waste collection and resource recovery across multiple elements, including rovers with very constrained infrastructure resources. The current study considers pressurized rovers as part of a distributed outpost life support architecture in both stand-alone and integrated configurations. A range of architectures are examined reflecting different levels of closure and distributed functionality. Different lander propellant scavenging options are also considered involving either initial conversion of residual oxygen and hydrogen propellants to water or initial direct oxygen scavenging. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the sensitivity of results to volatile high-impact mission variables, including the quantity of residual lander propellants available for scavenging, the fraction of crew time away from the outpost on excursions, total extravehicular activity hours, and habitat leakage. Architectures are evaluated by estimating surpluses or deficits of water and oxygen per 180-day mission and differences in fixed and 10-year

  13. New Molecular Architecture for Electrically Conducting Materials Based on Unsymmetrical Organometallic-Dithiolene Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Kazuya; Kato, Reizo

    New molecular architecture for highly conducting molecular materials was developed with use of unsymmetrical organometallic-dithiolene complexes. The new architecture has various advantages including easy modification of their molecular and electronic features. Organometallic complexes based on unsymmetrical Au(III)-dithiolene complexes [(ppy)Au(C8H4S8 or C8H4S6O2)] were prepared for new cationic components of molecular conductors. These unsymmetrical organometallic complexes can provide various cation radical salts [(ppy)Au(S-S)]2[anion][solvent] n (S-S = C8H4S8 or C8H4S6O2, anion = PF6 -, BF4 -, AsF6 -, TaF6 -, solvent = PhCl, n = 0-0.5) by constant current electrolysis of their benzonitrile or chlorobenzene solutions containing (Bu4N)(anion) as electrolyte. [(ppy)Au(C8H4S8)]2[PF6] under pressure is the first molecular metal based on the organometallic component. In this review, principle of the molecular architecture based on the unsymmetrical organometallic-dithiolene complexes and physical properties of their cation radical salts are discussed.

  14. Efficiency and Scalability of Barrier Synchronization on NoC Based Many-core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Oreste; Palermo, Gianluca; Silvano, Cristina

    2008-10-18

    Interconnects based on Networks-on-Chip are an appealing solution to address future microprocessor designs where, very likely, hundreds of cores will be connected on a single chip. A fundamental role in highly parallelized applications running on many-core architectures will be played by barrier primitives used to synchronize the execution of parallel processes. This paper focuses on the analysis of the efficiency and scalability of different barrier implementations in many-core architectures based on NoCs. Several message passing barrier implementations based on four algorithms (all-to-all, master-slave, butterfly and tree) have been implemented and evaluated for a single-chip target architecture composed of a variable number of cores (from 4 to 128) and different network topologies (mesh, torus, ring, clustered-ring and fat-tree). Using a cycle-accurate simulator, we show the scalability of each barrier for every NoC topology, analyzing and comparing theoretical with real behaviors. We observed that some barrier algorithms, when implemented in hardware or software, show a different scaling behavior with respect to those theoretically expected. We evaluate the efficiency of each combination topology-barrier, demonstrating that, in many cases, simple network topologies can be more efficient than complex and highly connected topologies.

  15. Characterization of Model-Based Reasoning Strategies for Use in IVHM Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Open architectures are gaining popularity for Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) applications due to the diversity of subsystem health monitoring strategies in use and the need to integrate a variety of techniques at the system health management level. The basic concept of an open architecture suggests that whatever monitoring or reasoning strategy a subsystem wishes to deploy, the system architecture will support the needs of that subsystem and will be capable of transmitting subsystem health status across subsystem boundaries and up to the system level for system-wide fault identification and diagnosis. There is a need to understand the capabilities of various reasoning engines and how they, coupled with intelligent monitoring techniques, can support fault detection and system level fault management. Researchers in IVHM at NASA Ames Research Center are supporting the development of an IVHM system for liquefying-fuel hybrid rockets. In the initial stage of this project, a few readily available reasoning engines were studied to assess candidate technologies for application in next generation launch systems. Three tools representing the spectrum of model-based reasoning approaches, from a quantitative simulation based approach to a graph-based fault propagation technique, were applied to model the behavior of the Hybrid Combustion Facility testbed at Ames. This paper summarizes the characterization of the modeling process for each of the techniques.

  16. Designing Protein-Based Biomaterials for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gagner, Jennifer E.; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides can be assembled into 3D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of elastin-like polypeptides. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored. PMID:24121196

  17. Emergency Medical Technician. Competency Based Education Curriculum. Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spotts, Sue Ann

    Beginning with an introductory handbook, this competency-based curriculum contains 13 modules for an 81-hour secondary- or postsecondary-level course for Emergency Medical Technician (EMT). Introductory materials include module component descriptions and information for administering an EMT training program, such as an instructor's schedule, list…

  18. Virtues-Based Advice for Beginning Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this article are to present a framework, based on John Gregory's (1724-1773) concept of professionalism, for advising beginning medical students about what is important to training and to the practice of medicine. Method: The author presents Gregory's concept of professionalism with an emphasis on the related virtues.…

  19. The Nomad Explorer assembly assist vehicle: An architecture for rapid global extraterrestrial base infrastructure establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thangavelu, Madhu

    1994-01-01

    Traditional concepts of lunar bases describe scenarios where components of the bases are landed on the lunar surface, one at a time, and then put together to form a complete stationary lunar habitat. Recently, some concepts have described the advantages of operating a mobile or 'roving' lunar base. Such a base vastly improves the exploration range from a primary lunar base. Roving bases would also allow the crew to first deploy, test, operationally certify, and then regularly maintain, service, and evolve long life-cycle facilities like observatories or other science payload platforms that are operated far apart from each other across the extraterrestrial surface. The Nomad Explorer is such a mobile lunar base. This paper describes the architectural program of the Nomad Explorer, its advantages over a stationary lunar base, and some of the embedded system concepts which help the roving base to speedily establish a global extraterrestrial infrastructure. A number of modular autonomous logistics landers will carry deployable or erectable payloads, service, and logistically resupply the Nomad Explorer at regular intercepts along the traverse. Starting with the deployment of science experiments and telecommunication networks, and the manned emplacement of a variety of remote outposts using a unique EVA Bell system that enhances manned EVA, the Nomad Explorer architecture suggests the capability for a rapid global development of the extraterrestrial body. The Moon and Mars are candidates for this 'mission oriented' strategy. The lunar case is emphasized in this paper.

  20. An Architecture and Supporting Environment of Service-Oriented Computing Based-On Context Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianxiao; Wu, Gang; Huang, Jun

    Service-oriented computing (SOC) is emerging to be an important computing paradigm of the next future. Based on context awareness, this paper proposes an architecture of SOC. A definition of the context in open environments such as Internet is given, which is based on ontology. The paper also proposes a supporting environment for the context-aware SOC, which focus on services on-demand composition and context-awareness evolving. A reference implementation of the supporting environment based on OSGi[11] is given at last.

  1. Medical-concept models and medical records: an approach based on GALEN and PEN&PAD.

    PubMed Central

    Rector, A L; Glowinski, A J; Nowlan, W A; Rossi-Mori, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the issues raised in applying a preliminary version of the GALEN compositional concept reference (CORE) model to a series of radiographic reports, and to demonstrate that the same underlying concept model could be used in conjunction with both a detailed, fine-grained model of medical records based on that used in the PEN&PAD project and with other more conventional medical-record models. DESIGN: Following analysis and representation of concepts from a set of reports, a single report was taken as a "case study." This report was analyzed in detail in its entirety and represented using each of the medical-record models. RESULTS: The reports were successfully represented within the limits of the study, but a number of significant issues were raised. CONCLUSION: The compositional approach plus the PEN&PAD medical-record model allowed detailed information in the radiographic report to be represented, including information about the inferences and the clinical process. The resulting representation was large, and more compact representations may be necessary for some systems. Alternative encapsulations of the information as might be used in such systems were successfully prepared. The compositional approach avoided many issues that often cause controversy in the design of traditional coding and classification systems, but it raised other issues, including the handling of ambiguity and underspecification, linkage to information not explicitly present in the report, and questions concerning the focus of individual concepts. All work is preliminary and definitive conclusions await further studies and systematic evaluation. PMID:7895133

  2. Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning in teaching Medical Genetics to Medical Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the experience of both learners and a teacher during a team-based learning (TBL) session. TBL involves active learning that allows medical students to utilise their visual, auditory, writing and kinetic learning styles in order to strengthen their knowledge and retain it for longer, which is important with regard to applying basic sciences in clinical settings. This pilot study explored the effectiveness of TBL in learning medical genetics, and its potential to replace conventional lectures. First-year medical students (n = 194) studying at Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, during 2014/2015 were selected to participate in this study. The topic of 'Mutation and Mutation Analysis' was selected, and the principles of TBL were adhered to during the study. It was found that the students' performance in a group readiness test was better than in individual readiness tests. The effectiveness of TBL was further shown in the examination, during which the marks obtained were tremendously improved. Collective commentaries from both the learners and the teacher recommended TBL as another useful tool in learning medical genetics. Implementation strategies should be advanced for the benefit of future learners and teachers. PMID:27547118

  3. Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning in teaching Medical Genetics to Medical Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experience of both learners and a teacher during a team-based learning (TBL) session. TBL involves active learning that allows medical students to utilise their visual, auditory, writing and kinetic learning styles in order to strengthen their knowledge and retain it for longer, which is important with regard to applying basic sciences in clinical settings. This pilot study explored the effectiveness of TBL in learning medical genetics, and its potential to replace conventional lectures. First-year medical students (n = 194) studying at Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, during 2014/2015 were selected to participate in this study. The topic of ‘Mutation and Mutation Analysis’ was selected, and the principles of TBL were adhered to during the study. It was found that the students’ performance in a group readiness test was better than in individual readiness tests. The effectiveness of TBL was further shown in the examination, during which the marks obtained were tremendously improved. Collective commentaries from both the learners and the teacher recommended TBL as another useful tool in learning medical genetics. Implementation strategies should be advanced for the benefit of future learners and teachers. PMID:27547118

  4. Setting Standards for Medically-Based Running Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Herman, Daniel C.; Lear-Barnes, Leslie; Barnes, Robert; Chen, Cong; Greenberg, Scott; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Setting standards for medically based running analyses is necessary to ensure that runners receive a high-quality service from practitioners. Medical and training history, physical and functional tests, and motion analysis of running at self-selected and faster speeds are key features of a comprehensive analysis. Self-reported history and movement symmetry are critical factors that require follow-up therapy or long-term management. Pain or injury is typically the result of a functional deficit above or below the site along the kinematic chain. PMID:25014394

  5. Newborn screening healthcare information system based on service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Weng, Yung-Ching; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Chen, Chi-Huang; Tu, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhenyu; Lai, Feipei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we established a newborn screening system under the HL7/Web Services frameworks. We rebuilt the NTUH Newborn Screening Laboratory's original standalone architecture, having various heterogeneous systems operating individually, and restructured it into a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), distributed platform for further integrity and enhancements of sample collections, testing, diagnoses, evaluations, treatments or follow-up services, screening database management, as well as collaboration, communication among hospitals; decision supports and improving screening accuracy over the Taiwan neonatal systems are also addressed. In addition, the new system not only integrates the newborn screening procedures among phlebotomy clinics, referral hospitals, as well as the newborn screening center in Taiwan, but also introduces new models of screening procedures for the associated, medical practitioners. Furthermore, it reduces the burden of manual operations, especially the reporting services, those were heavily dependent upon previously. The new system can accelerate the whole procedures effectively and efficiently. It improves the accuracy and the reliability of the screening by ensuring the quality control during the processing as well. PMID:20703906

  6. Studies on Lunar Base construction: architectural environment, thermal balance, economic technologies, local materials, on site assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldoghy, B.; Kummert, J.; Szilagyi, I.; Varga, T.; Berczi, Sz.

    We studied the strategies, technologies, designs of the Lunar Base architectural construction from the viewpoint of physical constraints (i.e. energy balance, strength and insulating properties of the lunar materials), engineering constraints (i.e. building technology, transports, insulating layers) and geological environment (allocation of the buildings). Our results contain proposals on the general strategy, on the local production technology, on arrangement and insulation solutions and the emplacement of the lunar base. We propose a complex architectural design for the lunar environment. It is economic to place the first long term used buildings below the surface. This way large mass of lunar soil can be used as insulator. Lunar soil can be moved by a lunar rover buldoser to cover the deposited container with regolith. We propose a double insulating layer system both using lunar soil as thermal insulator. We also propose a geological setting of the implementation of the architectural units in a groove or small valley mouth where not only the deposition of soil is economic but the enlargement of the station is possible in valley direction. Using the insulating and strength data of the lunar soil the following main technology phases of construction of the lunar base architecture are proposed. After transport of the primary container ISS type unit blocks from Earth to the lunar surface: 1) grading and basis forming in the bedrock for the frame, 2) assembly of the architectural constructions of the frame, (from frame units a spatial skeletal structure is built on the site which holds the stresses and load of the weight of both the cylindrical modules and the other insulating layers), 3) parallel filling the insulating quilted-coat like units with lunar fine soil, 4) fixing the quilted-coat like second insulating units to the surface of ISS type unit blocks, 5) final emplacement of the container blocks on the frame, 6) burial of the living bubble units by the lunar

  7. IRMA--content-based image retrieval in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Thomas M; Güld, Mark O; Thies, Christian; Plodowski, Bartosz; Keysers, Daniel; Ott, Bastian; Schubert, Henning

    2004-01-01

    The impact of content-based access to medical images is frequently reported but existing systems are designed for only a particular modality or context of diagnosis. Contrarily, our concept of image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) aims at a general structure for semantic content analysis that is suitable for numerous applications in case-based reasoning or evidence-based medicine. Within IRMA, stepwise processing results in six layers of information modeling (raw data layer, registered data layer, feature layer, scheme layer, object layer, knowledge layer) incorporating medical expert knowledge. At the scheme layer, medical images are represented by a hierarchical structure of ellipses (blobs) describing image regions. Hence, image retrieval transforms to graph matching. The multilayer processing is implemented using a distributed system designed with only three core elements. The central database holds program sources, process-ing schemes, images, features, and blob trees; the scheduler balances distributed computing by addressing daemons running on all connected workstations; and the web server provides graphical user interfaces for data entry and retrieval.. PMID:15360931

  8. [Health economics, medical ethics, and evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Bryła, Marek; Stelmach, Iwona; Denys, Andrzej

    2002-12-01

    The paper is based on the assumption that the management on different levels of decision-making requires not only strictly medical knowledge, but also the competence to make use of the acquisitions of health economics as well as certain knowledge of the principles of medical ethics and research methods applied in the evidence-based medicine. So far the relevant scientific literature lacks any attempts to analyse the common and separate features of the three fields mentioned above. Therefore, this paper aims at filling this gap. The objective is going to be met by acquainting the reader with the historical development of the three disciplines. Emphasis will be put on the existing definitions and scope of the health economics, medical ethics and evidence-based medicine. The concluding remarks contain the authors' conviction that this paper will contribute to make the medical environment more interested in the presented issues and thus constitute the first step to work out solutions which could be applied in clinical practice in the future. PMID:12666439

  9. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  10. A healthcare management system for Turkey based on a service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Herand, Deniz; Gürder, Filiz; Taşkin, Harun; Yuksel, Emre Nuri

    2013-09-01

    The current Turkish healthcare management system has a structure that is extremely inordinate, cumbersome and inflexible. Furthermore, this structure has no common point of view and thus has no interoperability and responds slowly to innovations. The purpose of this study is to show that using which methods can the Turkish healthcare management system provide a structure that could be more modern, more flexible and more quick to respond to innovations and changes taking advantage of the benefits given by a service-oriented architecture (SOA). In this paper, the Turkish healthcare management system is chosen to be examined since Turkey is considered as one of the Third World countries and the information architecture of the existing healthcare management system of Turkey has not yet been configured with SOA, which is a contemporary innovative approach and should provide the base architecture of the new solution. The innovation of this study is the symbiosis of two main integration approaches, SOA and Health Level 7 (HL7), for integrating divergent healthcare information systems. A model is developed which is based on SOA and enables obtaining a healthcare management system having the SSF standards (HSSP Service Specification Framework) developed by the framework of the HSSP (Healthcare Services Specification Project) under the leadership of HL7 and the Object Management Group. PMID:22958178

  11. A Cluster-Based Architecture to Structure the Topology of Parallel Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Diaz, Juan R.

    2009-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network developments and proposals in existence have been designed to build a network for just one type of node, where all nodes can communicate with any other nodes in their coverage area. Let us suppose a set of clusters of sensor nodes where each cluster is formed by different types of nodes (e.g., they could be classified by the sensed parameter using different transmitting interfaces, by the node profile or by the type of device: laptops, PDAs, sensor etc.) and exclusive networks, as virtual networks, are needed with the same type of sensed data, or the same type of devices, or even the same type of profiles. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that is able to structure the topology of different wireless sensor networks to coexist in the same environment. It allows control and management of the topology of each network. The architecture operation and the protocol messages will be described. Measurements from a real test-bench will show that the designed protocol has low bandwidth consumption and also demonstrates the viability and the scalability of the proposed architecture. Our ccluster-based algorithm is compared with other algorithms reported in the literature in terms of architecture and protocol measurements. PMID:22303185

  12. Predicting neutron diffusion eigenvalues with a query-based adaptive neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, M G; Wong, H I; Maldonado, G I

    1999-01-01

    A query-based approach for adaptively retraining and restructuring a two-hidden-layer artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed for the speedy prediction of the fundamental mode eigenvalue of the neutron diffusion equation, a standard nuclear reactor core design calculation which normally requires the iterative solution of a large-scale system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's). The approach developed focuses primarily upon the adaptive selection of training and cross-validation data and on artificial neural-network (ANN) architecture adjustments, with the objective of improving the accuracy and generalization properties of ANN-based neutron diffusion eigenvalue predictions. For illustration, the performance of a "bare bones" feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) is upgraded through a variety of techniques; namely, nonrandom initial training set selection, adjoint function input weighting, teacher-student membership and equivalence queries for generation of appropriate training data, and a dynamic node architecture (DNA) implementation. The global methodology is flexible in that it can "wrap around" any specific training algorithm selected for the static calculations (i.e., training iterations with a fixed training set and architecture). Finally, the improvements obtained are carefully contrasted against past works reported in the literature. PMID:18252578

  13. CRFs based de-identification of medical records

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Guan, Yi; Cheng, Jianyi; Cen, Keting; Hua, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    De-identification is a shared task of the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth challenge. The purpose of this task is to remove protected health information (PHI) from medical records. In this paper, we propose a novel de-identifier, WI-deId, based on conditional random fields (CRFs). A preprocessing module, which tokenizes the medical records using regular expressions and an off-the-shelf tokenizer, is introduced, and three groups of features are extracted to train the de-identifier model. The experiment shows that our system is effective in the de-identification of medical records, achieving a micro-F1 of 0.9232 at the i2b2 strict entity evaluation level. PMID:26315662

  14. Usage based indicators to assess the impact of scholarly works: architecture and method

    DOEpatents

    Bollen, Johan; Van De Sompel, Herbert

    2012-03-13

    Although recording of usage data is common in scholarly information services, its exploitation for the creation of value-added services remains limited due to concerns regarding, among others, user privacy, data validity, and the lack of accepted standards for the representation, sharing and aggregation of usage data. A technical, standards-based architecture for sharing usage information is presented. In this architecture, OpenURL-compliant linking servers aggregate usage information of a specific user community as it navigates the distributed information environment that it has access to. This usage information is made OAI-PMH harvestable so that usage information exposed by many linking servers can be aggregated to facilitate the creation of value-added services with a reach beyond that of a single community or a single information service.

  15. Architectural Analysis of Systems Based on the Publisher-Subscriber Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesun, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ruley, Lamont; Wiegand, Robert; Ly, Vuong; Tsui, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Architectural styles impose constraints on both the topology and the interaction behavior of involved parties. In this paper, we propose an approach for analyzing implemented systems based on the publisher-subscriber architectural style. From the style definition, we derive a set of reusable questions and show that some of them can be answered statically whereas others are best answered using dynamic analysis. The paper explains how the results of static analysis can be used to orchestrate dynamic analysis. The proposed method was successfully applied on the NASA's Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) software product line. The results show that the GMSEC has a) a novel reusable vendor-independent middleware abstraction layer that allows the NASA's missions to configure the middleware of interest without changing the publishers' or subscribers' source code, and b) some high priority bugs due to behavioral discrepancies, which were eluded during testing and code reviews, among different implementations of the same APIs for different vendors.

  16. Augmented reality & gesture-based architecture in games for the elderly.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Simon; Boletsis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    Serious games for health and, more specifically, for elderly people have developed rapidly in recent years. The recent popularization of novel interaction methods of consoles, such as the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect, has provided an opportunity for the elderly to engage in computer and video games. These interaction methods, however, still present various challenges for elderly users. To address these challenges, we propose an architecture consisted of Augmented Reality (as an output mechanism) combined with gestured-based devices (as an input method). The intention of this work is to provide a theoretical justification for using these technologies and to integrate them into an architecture, acting as a basis for potentially creating suitable interaction techniques for the elderly players. PMID:23739373

  17. A wide-band DSO architecture based on three time interleaved channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, M.; D'Arco, M.

    2016-08-01

    A DSO architecture consisting of three parallel channels, each of which includes a sampler and a cascaded synchronous ADC, is presented. Thanks to suitable time and frequency interleaving operations, the overall system bandwidth is three times that of each single ADC. The proposed architecture exploits in a better way the hardware resources with respect to classical time interleaving-based solutions, and grants lower noise floor with respect to pure frequency interleaving alternatives. It can approach the performance of the state of the art DSOs, namely 100 GHz analog bandwidth and 240 GSa/s sampling frequency, by exploiting three identical ADCs characterized by 33 GHz input bandwidth and 80 GSa/s sampling frequency.

  18. Implementation methods of medical image sharing for collaborative health care based on IHE XDS-I profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jianyong; Ling, Tonghui; Wang, Mingqing; Bak, Peter

    2015-10-01

    IHE XDS-I profile proposes an architecture model for cross-enterprise medical image sharing, but there are only a few clinical implementations reported. Here, we investigate three pilot studies based on the IHE XDS-I profile to see whether we can use this architecture as a foundation for image sharing solutions in a variety of health-care settings. The first pilot study was image sharing for cross-enterprise health care with federated integration, which was implemented in Huadong Hospital and Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital within the Shanghai Shen-Kang Hospital Management Center; the second pilot study was XDS-I-based patient-controlled image sharing solution, which was implemented by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) team in the USA; and the third pilot study was collaborative imaging diagnosis with electronic health-care record integration in regional health care, which was implemented in two districts in Shanghai. In order to support these pilot studies, we designed and developed new image access methods, components, and data models such as RAD-69/WADO hybrid image retrieval, RSNA clearinghouse, and extension of metadata definitions in both the submission set and the cross-enterprise document sharing (XDS) registry. We identified several key issues that impact the implementation of XDS-I in practical applications, and conclude that the IHE XDS-I profile is a theoretically good architecture and a useful foundation for medical image sharing solutions across multiple regional health-care providers. PMID:26835497

  19. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

  20. Problem-based learning in American medical education: an overview.

    PubMed

    Donner, R S; Bickley, H

    1993-07-01

    The recent trend toward problem-based learning (PBL) in American medical education amounts to one of the most significant changes since the Flexner report motivated global university affiliation. In PBL, fundamental knowledge is mastered by the solving of problems, so basic information is learned in the same context in which it will be used. Also, the PBL curriculum employs student initiative as a driving force and supports a system of student-faculty interaction in which the student assumes primary responsibility for the process. The first PBL medical curriculum in North America was established at McMaster University in Toronto in 1969. The University of New Mexico was the first to adopt a medical PBL curriculum in the United States, and Mercer University School of Medicine in Georgia was the first U.S. medical school to employ PBL as its only curricular offering. Many interpretations of the basic PBL plan are in use in North American medical schools. Common features include small-group discussions of biomedical problems, a faculty role as facilitator, and the student's relative independence from scheduled lectures. The advantages of PBL are perceived as far outweighing its disadvantages, and the authors conclude that eventually it will see wider use at all levels of education. PMID:8374585

  1. Phased Array-Fed Reflector (PAFR) Antenna Architectures for Space-Based Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Communication link and target ranges for satellite communications (SATCOM) and space-based sensors (e.g. radars) vary from approximately 1000 km (for LEO satellites) to 35,800 km (for GEO satellites). At these long ranges, large antenna gains are required and legacy payloads have usually employed large reflectors with single beams that are either fixed or mechanically steered. For many applications, there are inherent limitations that are associated with the use of these legacy antennas/payloads. Hybrid antenna designs using Phased Array Fed Reflectors (PAFRs) provide a compromise between reflectors and Direct Radiating phased Arrays (DRAs). PAFRs provide many of the performance benefits of DRAs while utilizing much smaller, lower cost (feed) arrays. The primary limitation associated with hybrid PAFR architectures is electronic scan range; approximately +/-5 to +/- 10 degrees is typical, but this range depends on many factors. For LEO applications, the earth FOV is approximately +/-55 degrees which is well beyond the range of electronic scanning for PAFRs. However, for some LEO missions, limited scanning is sufficient or the CONOPS and space vehicle designs can be developed to incorporate a combination mechanical slewing and electronic scanning. In this paper, we review, compare and contrast various PAFR architectures with a focus on their general applicability to space missions. We compare the RF performance of various PAFR architectures and describe key hardware design and implementation trades. Space-based PAFR designs are highly multi-disciplinary and we briefly address key hardware engineering design areas. Finally, we briefly describe two PAFR antenna architectures that have been developed at Northrop Grumman.

  2. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors that possess

  3. Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    The issue of extraterrestrial bases has recently been a very vivid one. There are orbital stations currently existing and humans will travel to Mars around 2030. They will need stations established there, which will provide them the proper living conditions. Firstly, it might be a small module brought from Earth (e.g. NASA Mars Design Reference Mission module (DRM)), in later stages equivalents of Earth houses may be built from local resources. The goal of this paper is to propose an architectural design for an intermediate stage — for a larger habitable unit transported from Earth. It is inspired by terrestrial portable architecture ideas. A pneumatic structure requires small volume during transportation. However, it provides large habitable space after deployment. It is designed for transport by DRM transportation module and its deployment is considerable easy and brief. An architectural solution analogous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. Its form was a result of technical and environmental limitations, and the need for an ergonomic interior. The spatial placement of following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as a garage with a workshop, transportation routes, and a control and communication center. The issues of Life Support System, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least 1.5 year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed in pneumatic modules, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation (e.g. damage of one of the pneumatic modules or a psychological ,,need of a change"). The architectural design focuses on ergonomic and psychological aspects of longer stay in hostile Martian environment. This solution provides Martian crew with a comfortable habitable

  4. A unique faith-based medical organization: the Christian Medical Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Peter F

    2008-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges has challenged medical educators to be role models for the incorporation of faith into the art and practice of medicine. The Christian Medical Fellowship (CMF) is one approach toward accomplishing this goal. CMF is a nonprofit organization that brings health, hope, and healing, to and through the health-care community, providing transformational love locally and internationally. CMFseeks to support the caregiver while serving the underserved. CMF accomplishes this through a three-fold approach: promoting individual faith, community outreach, and international missions. CMF provides a framework to assist health-care providers in meeting their own spiritual needs along with those of their patients. The Christian ethic teaches that Jesus touched and changed lives by showing love and compassion, while meeting physical as well as spiritual needs. The goal of CMF is to do the same. The CMF vision is to replicate CMF's three-fold ministry by fostering the development of independent, self-supporting CMF chapters to serve throughout the USA and the world. CMF plans to develop a fully functioning faith-based Fellowship Program in conjunction with a CMF faith-based clinic and an international hospital. The growth of CMF and the advancement of the educational experiences are a result of many committed, disciplined, and focused individuals motivated by a deep faith in the original vision. We look to the future with anticipation, as we continue to bridge the gap between faith and the science of medicine. PMID:18610708

  5. Great Expectations: Expectation Based Reasoning in Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Paul R.; Miller, Perry L.; Swett, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    Several different approaches to knowledge representation for medical expert systems have been explored. We suggest that a modified version of the script formalism, which we term “expectation-based reasoning”, may offer an additional knowledge representation for medical information, addressing certain shortcomings of previous approaches. This representation can drive expert system analysis for diagnosis and workup advice. The script formalism structures the knowledge base around a set of temporally sequenced event frames, each containing a list of default expectations. This model, we believe, allows straightforward knowledge generation from a domain expert, since it may closely parallel a central aspect of human clinical decision-making: that of projecting assumptions for a “hypothesize-and-test” inference mechanism. A prototype expectation-based expert system, OSCAR, is under development to explore this approach.

  6. Medical image fusion based on non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daoming; Zhang, Xianda

    2009-10-01

    Medical image fusion is a process of obtaining a new composite image from two or more source images which are from different modalities. In this paper, we proposed a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm, the only resulted basis image is just the fused image. Since the CT and MRI images have a lot of pixels which are zeros, the NMF algorithm can not be employed directly. To overcome this difficulty, we first add a positive bias to the original data matrix and remove the bias from the resulted fusion image after the NMF procedure. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing wavelet-based methods and Laplacian pyramid-based methods.

  7. Case-based reasoning to explain medical model exceptions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rainer; Vorobieva, Olga

    2008-01-01

    In medicine many exceptions occur. In medical practise and in knowledge-based systems too, it is necessary to consider them and to deal with them appropriately. In medical studies and in research exceptions shall be explained. We present a system that helps to explain cases that do not fit into a theoretical hypothesis. Our starting points are situations where neither a well-developed theory nor reliable knowledge nor a proper case base is available. So, instead of reliable theoretical knowledge and intelligent experience, we have just some theoretical hypothesis and a set of measurements. In this paper, we propose to combine CBR with a statistical model. We use CBR to explain those cases that do not fit the model. The case base has to be set up incrementally, it contains the exceptional cases, and their explanations are the solutions, which can be used to help to explain further exceptional cases. PMID:18487741

  8. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, G.; Stefanelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of. PMID:1807566

  9. Design of an Area-Efficient and Low-Power Hierarchical NoC Architecture Based on Circuit Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Joo; Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sun Young

    This paper presents a hierarchical NoC architecture to support GT (Guaranteed Throughput) signals to process multimedia data in embedded systems. The architecture provides a communication environment that meets the diverse conditions of communication constraints among IPs in power and area. With a system based on packet switching, which requires storage/control circuits to support GT signals, it is hard to satisfy design constraints in area, scalability and power consumption. This paper proposes a hierarchical 4 × 4 × 4 mesh-type NoC architecture based on circuit switching, which is capable of processing GT signals requiring high throughput. The proposed NoC architecture shows reduction in area by 50.2% and in power consumption by 57.4% compared with the conventional NoC architecture based on circuit switching. These figures amount to by 72.4% and by 86.1%, when compared with an NoC architecture based on packet switching. The proposed NoC architecture operates in the maximum throughput of 19.2Gb/s.

  10. Diffusion of Electronic Medical Record Based Public Hospital Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Kim, Seong Min; An, Chang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the adoption behavior of a newly developed Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-based information system (IS) at three public hospitals in Korea with a focus on doctors and nurses. Methods User satisfaction scores from four performance layers were analyzed before and two times after the newly develop system was introduced to evaluate the adoption process of the IS with Rogers' diffusion theory. Results The 'intention to use' scores, the most important indicator for determining whether or not to adopt the IS in Rogers' confirmation stage for doctors, were very high in the third survey (4.21). In addition, the scores for 'reduced medication errors', which is the key indicator for evaluating the success of the IS, increased in the third survey for both doctors and nurses. The factors influencing 'intention to use' with a high odds ratio (>1.5) were the 'frequency of attendance of user training sessions', 'mandatory use of system', 'reduced medication errors', and 'reduced medical record documentation time' for both doctors and nurses. Conclusions These findings show that the new EMR-based IS was well accepted by doctors. Both doctors and nurses also positively considered the effects of the new IS on their clinical environments. PMID:26279954

  11. Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D; Glick, Shimon

    2003-08-01

    Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these two needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes while protecting patients from unnecessary risk. Simulation-based training has been institutionalized in other high-hazard professions, such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military, to maximize training safety and minimize risk. Health care has lagged behind in simulation applications for a number of reasons, including cost, lack of rigorous proof of effect, and resistance to change. Recently, the international patient safety movement and the U.S. federal policy agenda have created a receptive atmosphere for expanding the use of simulators in medical training, stressing the ethical imperative to "first do no harm" in the face of validated, large epidemiological studies describing unacceptable preventable injuries to patients as a result of medical management. Four themes provide a framework for an ethical analysis of simulation-based medical education: best standards of care and training, error management and patient safety, patient autonomy, and social justice and resource allocation. These themes are examined from the perspectives of patients, learners, educators, and society. The use of simulation wherever feasible conveys a critical educational and ethical message to all: patients are to be protected whenever possible and they are not commodities to be used as conveniences of training. PMID:12915366

  12. Architecture effects on multivalent interactions by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang

    Multivalent interactions are characterized by the simultaneous binding between multiple ligands and multiple binding sites, either in solutions or at interfaces. In biological systems, most multivalent interactions occur between protein receptors and carbohydrate ligands through hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Compared with weak affinity binding between one ligand and one binding site, i.e. monovalent interaction, multivalent interactioins provide greater avidity and specificity, and therefore play unique roles in a broad range of biological activities. Moreover, the studies of multivalent interactions are also essential for producing effective inhibitors and effectors of biological processes that could have important therapeutic applications. Synthetic multivalent ligands have been designed to mimic the biological functions of natural multivalent interactions, and various types of scaffolds have been used to display multiple ligands, including small molecules, linear polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticle surfaces, monolayer surfaces and liposomes. Studies have shown that multivalent interactions can be highly affected by various architectural parameters of these multivalent ligands, including ligand identities, valencies, spacing, ligand densities, nature of linker arms, scaffold length and scaffold conformation. Most of these multivalent ligands are chemically synthesized and have limitations of controlling over sequence and conformation, which is a barrier for mimicking ordered and controlled natural biological systems. Therefore, multivalent ligands with precisely controlled architecture are required for improved structure-function relationship studies. Protein engineering methods with subsequent chemical coupling of ligands provide significant advantages of controlling over backbone conformation and functional group placement, and therefore have been used to synthesize recombinant protein-based materials with desired properties similar to natural

  13. Architecture effects on multivalent interactions by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang

    Multivalent interactions are characterized by the simultaneous binding between multiple ligands and multiple binding sites, either in solutions or at interfaces. In biological systems, most multivalent interactions occur between protein receptors and carbohydrate ligands through hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Compared with weak affinity binding between one ligand and one binding site, i.e. monovalent interaction, multivalent interactioins provide greater avidity and specificity, and therefore play unique roles in a broad range of biological activities. Moreover, the studies of multivalent interactions are also essential for producing effective inhibitors and effectors of biological processes that could have important therapeutic applications. Synthetic multivalent ligands have been designed to mimic the biological functions of natural multivalent interactions, and various types of scaffolds have been used to display multiple ligands, including small molecules, linear polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticle surfaces, monolayer surfaces and liposomes. Studies have shown that multivalent interactions can be highly affected by various architectural parameters of these multivalent ligands, including ligand identities, valencies, spacing, ligand densities, nature of linker arms, scaffold length and scaffold conformation. Most of these multivalent ligands are chemically synthesized and have limitations of controlling over sequence and conformation, which is a barrier for mimicking ordered and controlled natural biological systems. Therefore, multivalent ligands with precisely controlled architecture are required for improved structure-function relationship studies. Protein engineering methods with subsequent chemical coupling of ligands provide significant advantages of controlling over backbone conformation and functional group placement, and therefore have been used to synthesize recombinant protein-based materials with desired properties similar to natural

  14. Efficient Graph Based Assembly of Short-Read Sequences on Hybrid Core Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Sczyrba, Alex; Pratap, Abhishek; Canon, Shane; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Wang, Zhong; Brewer, Tony; Soper, David; D'Jamoos, Mike; Collins, Kirby; Vacek, George

    2011-03-22

    Advanced architectures can deliver dramatically increased throughput for genomics and proteomics applications, reducing time-to-completion in some cases from days to minutes. One such architecture, hybrid-core computing, marries a traditional x86 environment with a reconfigurable coprocessor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. In addition to higher throughput, increased performance can fundamentally improve research quality by allowing more accurate, previously impractical approaches. We will discuss the approach used by Convey?s de Bruijn graph constructor for short-read, de-novo assembly. Bioinformatics applications that have random access patterns to large memory spaces, such as graph-based algorithms, experience memory performance limitations on cache-based x86 servers. Convey?s highly parallel memory subsystem allows application-specific logic to simultaneously access 8192 individual words in memory, significantly increasing effective memory bandwidth over cache-based memory systems. Many algorithms, such as Velvet and other de Bruijn graph based, short-read, de-novo assemblers, can greatly benefit from this type of memory architecture. Furthermore, small data type operations (four nucleotides can be represented in two bits) make more efficient use of logic gates than the data types dictated by conventional programming models.JGI is comparing the performance of Convey?s graph constructor and Velvet on both synthetic and real data. We will present preliminary results on memory usage and run time metrics for various data sets with different sizes, from small microbial and fungal genomes to very large cow rumen metagenome. For genomes with references we will also present assembly quality comparisons between the two assemblers.

  15. A brick-architecture-based mobile under-vehicle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Page, David; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a mobile scanning system for real-time under-vehicle inspection is presented, which is founded on a "Brick" architecture. In this "Brick" architecture, the inspection system is basically decomposed into bricks of three kinds: sensing, mobility, and computing. These bricks are physically and logically independent and communicate with each other by wireless communication. Each brick is mainly composed by five modules: data acquisition, data processing, data transmission, power, and self-management. These five modules can be further decomposed into submodules where the function and the interface are well-defined. Based on this architecture, the system is built by four bricks: two sensing bricks consisting of a range scanner and a line CCD, one mobility brick, and one computing brick. The sensing bricks capture geometric data and texture data of the under-vehicle scene, while the mobility brick provides positioning data along the motion path. Data of these three modalities are transmitted to the computing brick where they are fused and reconstruct a 3D under-vehicle model for visualization and danger inspection. This system has been successfully used in several military applications and proved to be an effective safer method for national security.

  16. A High-Throughput, Adaptive FFT Architecture for FPGA-Based Space-Borne Data Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Kayla; Zheng, Jason; He, Yutao; Shah, Biren

    2010-01-01

    Historically, computationally-intensive data processing for space-borne instruments has heavily relied on ground-based computing resources. But with recent advances in functional densities of Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs), there has been an increasing desire to shift more processing on-board; therefore relaxing the downlink data bandwidth requirements. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are commonly used building blocks for data processing applications, with a growing need to increase the FFT block size. Many existing FFT architectures have mainly emphasized on low power consumption or resource usage; but as the block size of the FFT grows, the throughput is often compromised first. In addition to power and resource constraints, space-borne digital systems are also limited to a small set of space-qualified memory elements, which typically lag behind the commercially available counterparts in capacity and bandwidth. The bandwidth limitation of the external memory creates a bottleneck for a large, high-throughput FFT design with large block size. In this paper, we present the Multi-Pass Wide Kernel FFT (MPWK-FFT) architecture for a moderately large block size (32K) with considerations to power consumption and resource usage, as well as throughput. We will also show that the architecture can be easily adapted for different FFT block sizes with different throughput and power requirements. The result is completely contained within an FPGA without relying on external memories. Implementation results are summarized.

  17. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends. PMID:23958646

  18. Architecture Framework for Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer based on Performance Simulation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Muhammad

    The challenge of building scalable quantum computer lies in striking appropriate balance between designing a reliable system architecture from large number of faulty computational resources and improving the physical quality of system components. The detailed investigation of performance variation with physics of the components and the system architecture requires adequate performance simulation tool. In this thesis we demonstrate a software tool capable of (1) mapping and scheduling the quantum circuit on a realistic quantum hardware architecture with physical resource constraints, (2) evaluating the performance metrics such as the execution time and the success probability of the algorithm execution, and (3) analyzing the constituents of these metrics and visualizing resource utilization to identify system components which crucially define the overall performance. Using this versatile tool, we explore vast design space for modular quantum computer architecture based on trapped ions. We find that while success probability is uniformly determined by the fidelity of physical quantum operation, the execution time is a function of system resources invested at various layers of design hierarchy. At physical level, the number of lasers performing quantum gates, impact the latency of the fault-tolerant circuit blocks execution. When these blocks are used to construct meaningful arithmetic circuit such as quantum adders, the number of ancilla qubits for complicated non-clifford gates and entanglement resources to establish long-distance communication channels, become major performance limiting factors. Next, in order to factorize large integers, these adders are assembled into modular exponentiation circuit comprising bulk of Shor's algorithm. At this stage, the overall scaling of resource-constraint performance with the size of problem, describes the effectiveness of chosen design. By matching the resource investment with the pace of advancement in hardware technology

  19. Applying representational state transfer (REST) architecture to archetype-based electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The openEHR project and the closely related ISO 13606 standard have defined structures supporting the content of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). However, there is not yet any finalized openEHR specification of a service interface to aid application developers in creating, accessing, and storing the EHR content. The aim of this paper is to explore how the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style can be used as a basis for a platform-independent, HTTP-based openEHR service interface. Associated benefits and tradeoffs of such a design are also explored. Results The main contribution is the formalization of the openEHR storage, retrieval, and version-handling semantics and related services into an implementable HTTP-based service interface. The modular design makes it possible to prototype, test, replicate, distribute, cache, and load-balance the system using ordinary web technology. Other contributions are approaches to query and retrieval of the EHR content that takes caching, logging, and distribution into account. Triggering on EHR change events is also explored. A final contribution is an open source openEHR implementation using the above-mentioned approaches to create LiU EEE, an educational EHR environment intended to help newcomers and developers experiment with and learn about the archetype-based EHR approach and enable rapid prototyping. Conclusions Using REST addressed many architectural concerns in a successful way, but an additional messaging component was needed to address some architectural aspects. Many of our approaches are likely of value to other archetype-based EHR implementations and may contribute to associated service model specifications. PMID:23656624

  20. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  1. Geographic Concentration Of Home-Based Medical Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nengliang; Ritchie, Christine; Camacho, Fabian; Leff, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    The United States faces a shortage of providers who care for homebound patients. About 5,000 primary care providers made 1.7 million home visits to Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2013, accounting for 70 percent of all home-based medical visits. Nine percent of these providers performed 44 percent of visits. However, most homebound people live more than thirty miles from a high-volume provider. PMID:27503964

  2. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  3. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  4. Remotely amplified combined ring-tree dense access network architecture using reflective RSOA-based ONU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro, Jose A.; Bock, Carlos; Polo, Victor; Martinez, Reynaldo I.; Prat, Josep

    2007-06-01

    A highly scalable access architecture achieving high density and featuring resiliency, centralized light-generation control, remote amplification, and colorless optical network unit with reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) for upstream modulation is presented and experimentally demonstrated. It is based on a user-single-fiber completely passive outside plant and provides broadband connections to >1000 users distributed along large distances. It is believed to represent an intermediate step toward metro-access convergence and offers flexible configurations covering high- and low-density population areas.

  5. Orion Flight Test 1 Architecture: Observed Benefits of a Model Based Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Kimberly A.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; McVittie, Thomas I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details how a NASA-led team is using a model-based systems engineering approach to capture, analyze and communicate the end-to-end information system architecture supporting the first unmanned orbital flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Exploration Vehicle. Along with a brief overview of the approach and its products, the paper focuses on the observed program-level benefits, challenges, and lessons learned; all of which may be applied to improve system engineering tasks for characteristically similarly challenges

  6. Validation of Securely Partitioned Systems over Multicore Architectures Based on XtratuM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel, Javier; Tsagkaropoulos, M.; Mylonas, Dimitrios; Balbastre, Patricia; Kollias, Vangelis; Crespo, Alfons

    2013-08-01

    Growing complexity of embedded systems with increased functionality while at the same time pushing for less power consumption, less processor needs, smaller memory footprints and less weight, makes the integration of security and safety an issue in many domains (e.g. automotive, railway, automation control and aerospace). In order to follow these technology tendencies, there is a growing interest in the supporting of mixed criticality for embedded systems based on multicore by adopting virtualisation technology. The present survey is a study of the porting of XtratuM hypervisor over multicore architectures, complemented with the supporting validation methodology toward the verification and validation of the multicore partitioned system.

  7. Readout architecture based on the use of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM, or MMPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s). The first generation of those telescopes, presently running in the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France), uses Hamamatsu H8804-200mod photomultipliers. We present an upgrade of the readout architecture based on the use of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM, or MMPC) which allows to simplify the optical connections w.r.t. the present design and to benefit from the high photo-dectection efficiency of the SiPM. To ensure an effective increase in the muon detection efficiency one has to optimize the first trigger level and find the best compromise between photostatistics and the tails of the dark noise contributions. Several readout architectures, based or not on dedicated ASICs, are discussed and compared in this article.

  8. A Standard-Based and Context-Aware Architecture for Personal Healthcare Smart Gateways.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danilo F S; Gorgônio, Kyller C; Perkusich, Angelo; Almeida, Hyggo O

    2016-10-01

    The rising availability of Personal Health Devices (PHDs) capable of Personal Network Area (PAN) communication and the desire of keeping a high quality of life are the ingredients of the Connected Health vision. In parallel, a growing number of personal and portable devices, like smartphones and tablet computers, are becoming capable of taking the role of health gateway, that is, a data collector for the sensor PHDs. However, as the number of PHDs increase, the number of other peripherals connected in PAN also increases. Therefore, PHDs are now competing for medium access with other devices, decreasing the Quality of Service (QoS) of health applications in the PAN. In this article we present a reference architecture to prioritize PHD connections based on their state and requirements, creating a healthcare Smart Gateway. Healthcare context information is extracted by observing the traffic through the gateway. A standard-based approach was used to identify health traffic based on ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards. A reference implementation was developed showing the relevance of the problem and how the proposed architecture can assist in the prioritization. The reference Smart Gateway solution was integrated with a Connected Health System for the Internet of Things, validating its use in a real case scenario. PMID:27624493

  9. An Area-Based Overlay Architecture for Scalable Integration of Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, Lampros; Lalis, Spyros

    With many different sensor networks being deployed, there will be an increased need to facilitate their uniform and efficient access at a large, perhaps even global, scale. To this end, we present an overlay-based architecture for organizing and querying multiple sensor networks based on their geographical area. The nodes of the system, representing query processors and individual sensor network gateways, are organized in a hierarchy which is used for query forwarding and result delivery. The key features of our system are: (i) support for the dynamic addition and removal of query processors and sensor network gateways; (ii) automatic hierarchy construction and awareness of sensing capabilities based on explicit metadata information; and (iii) efficient query multiplexing and result de-multiplexing within the overlay. We present a first evaluation of the proposed architecture. Results indicate that our design considerably reduces the communication between the nodes of the overlay as well as the actual sensing load at the edges (sensor networks) of the system.

  10. Planar architecture for microstrip interfaced packaging of coplanar-waveguide-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailendra; Giridhar, Malalahalli Sreenivasamurthy; Rao, Cheemalamarri Venkata Narasimha; Bhalke, Sangam; Islam, Rifqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of microstrip (MS) interfaced packaging of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-based radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch in a hermetic metal-ceramic RF package. The switch is integrated along with CPW to MS (CPW-MS) transitions within the package itself. This makes the MS interfaced packaged switch module readily mountable on MS based RF boards and subsystems. The CPW-MS transition for the package was designed as a separate off-chip entity on an alumina substrate and utilizes via hole. The integrated three-dimensional model of the package consisting of the RF MEMS switch and the transitions was simulated using high frequency structure simulator. The realized module shows an insertion loss of 0.2 and 1.1 dB at 100 MHz and 7 GHz, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 60 dB at 100 MHz and 30 dB at 7 GHz. The return loss is better than 15 dB up to 7 GHz. The estimated packaging and transitioning loss is 0.5 dB at 5 GHz. This packaging architecture is a planar solution for the MS interfaced packaging of CPW based RF MEMS switches for designers who do not have access to high-end technologies, such as zero-level packaging, through silicon via or low temperature co-fired ceramics.

  11. Computer-Based Medical Decision Support System based on guidelines, clinical pathways and decision nodes.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    A continuous and dynamic development of medical sciences which is currently taking place all over the world is associated with a considerable increase in the number of scientific reports and papers of importance in enhancing the effectiveness of treatment and quality of medical care. However, it is difficult, or, indeed, impossible, for physicians to regularly follow all recent innovations in medical knowledge and to apply the latest research findings to their daily clinical practice. More and more studies conducted both in Poland and worldwide as well as experience from clinical practice in various countries provide convincing evidence that various systems supporting medical decision-making by physicians or other medical professionals visibly improve the quality of medical care. The use of such systems is already possible and recently has been developing especially dynamically, as the level of knowledge and information and communication technology now permits their effective implementation. Currently, electronic knowledge bases, together with inference procedures, form intelligent medical information systems, which offer many possibilities for the support of medical decision-making, mainly in regard to interactive diagnostic work-up, but also the selection of the most suitable treatment plan (clinical pathway). Regardless of their scale and area of application, these systems are referred to as Computer-Based Medical Decision Support Systems (CBMDSS). PMID:22741924

  12. Voxel-based texture mapping for medical data.

    PubMed

    Weng, T L; Lin, S J; Chang, W Y; Sun, Y N

    2002-01-01

    In computerized image and graphic applications, texture mapping is one of the most commonly used methods to improve the realism or to enhance the visual effect of object rendering without too much increase in computational complexity. The conventional method usually has to transfer three-dimensional (3D) object to the polygonal structure, and is computationally expensive. As the medical data are mostly in voxel format, the polygonal structure is not efficient or requires more complicated mechanism in retrieving the internal information of medical data. In this paper, we propose a new texture mapping method, based on flattening a chain-coded 3D surface, to handle the voxel-based data directly. The method flattens the 3D object surface onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane and then uses 2D metamorphosis to generate the correspondences between object surface and texture image. Therefore, polygon transformation is no longer necessary and texture mapping is handled with inexpensive 2D morphing. More importantly, the internal information of medical data can be easily preserved and utilized further. Experimental results have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:12453508

  13. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  14. Effective domain-dependent reuse in medical knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Dojat, M; Pachet, F

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge reuse is now a critical issue for most developers of medical knowledge-based systems. As a rule, reuse is addressed from an ambitious, knowledge-engineering perspective that focuses on reusable general purpose knowledge modules, concepts, and methods. However, such a general goal fails to take into account the specific aspects of medical practice. From the point of view of the knowledge engineer, whose goal is to capture the specific features and intricacies of a given domain, this approach addresses the wrong level of generality. In this paper, we adopt a more pragmatic viewpoint, introducing the less ambitious goal of "domain-dependent limited reuse" and suggesting effective means of achieving it in practice. In a knowledge representation framework combining objects and production rules, we propose three mechanisms emerging from the combination of object-oriented programming and rule-based programming. We show these mechanisms contribute to achieve limited reuse and to introduce useful limited variations in medical expertise. PMID:8770532

  15. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

  16. A Cloud Computing Based Patient Centric Medical Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Henehan, Nathan; Somashekarappa, Vivek; Pandya, A. S.; Kalva, Hari; Furht, Borko

    This chapter discusses an emerging concept of a cloud computing based Patient Centric Medical Information System framework that will allow various authorized users to securely access patient records from various Care Delivery Organizations (CDOs) such as hospitals, urgent care centers, doctors, laboratories, imaging centers among others, from any location. Such a system must seamlessly integrate all patient records including images such as CT-SCANS and MRI'S which can easily be accessed from any location and reviewed by any authorized user. In such a scenario the storage and transmission of medical records will have be conducted in a totally secure and safe environment with a very high standard of data integrity, protecting patient privacy and complying with all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.

  17. Viscoelastic Properties and Morphology of Mumio-based Medicated Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandraa, Oyunchimeg; Jelínková, Lenka; Roy, Niladri; Sáha, Tomáš; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Nabanita

    2011-07-01

    Novel medicated hydrogels were prepared (by moist heat treatment) with PVA, agar, mumio, mare's milk (MM), seabuckthorn oil (SB oil) and salicylic acid (SA) for wound dressing/healing application. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) show highly porous structure of these hydrogels. The swelling behaviour of the hydrogels in physiological solution displays remarkable liquid absorption property. The knowledge obtained from rheological investigations of these-systems may be highly useful for the characterization of the newly developed topical formulations. In the present study, an oscillation frequency sweep test was used for the evaluation of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and complex viscosity (η*) of five different formulations, over an angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad.s-1. The influence of healing agents and swelling effect on the rheological properties of mumio-based medicated hydrogels was investigated to judge its application on uneven surface of body.

  18. Two DL-based Methods for Auditing Medical Terminological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2005-01-01

    Medical terminological systems (TSs) play an increasingly important role in health care by supporting recording, retrieval and analysis of patient information. As the size and complexity of TSs are growing, the need arises for means to audit them, i.e. verify and maintain (logical) consistency and (semantic) correctness of their contents. In this paper we describe two methods based on description logics (DLs) for the audit of TSs. One method uses non-primitive definitions to detect concepts with equivalent definitions. The other method is characterized by stringent assumptions that are made about concept definitions, in order to detect inconsistent definitions. We discuss the possibility of applying these methods to the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) to demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of these methods. We show that the methods are complementary, and can indeed improve the contents of medical TSs. PMID:16779023

  19. Building the Knowledge Base to Support the Automatic Animation Generation of Chinese Traditional Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gongjin; Bai, Weijing; Yin, Meifang; Zhang, Songmao

    We present a practice of applying the Semantic Web technologies in the domain of Chinese traditional architecture. A knowledge base consisting of one ontology and four rule bases is built to support the automatic generation of animations that demonstrate the construction of various Chinese timber structures based on the user's input. Different Semantic Web formalisms are used, e.g., OWL DL, SWRL and Jess, to capture the domain knowledge, including the wooden components needed for a given building, construction sequence, and the 3D size and position of every piece of wood. Our experience in exploiting the current Semantic Web technologies in real-world application systems indicates their prominent advantages (such as the reasoning facilities and modeling tools) as well as the limitations (such as low efficiency).

  20. Multi-Purpose Avionic Architecture for Vision Based Navigation Systems for EDL and Surface Mobility Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutola, A.; Paltro, D.; Cabalo Perucha, M. P.; Paar, G.; Steiner, J.; Barrio, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Vision Based Navigation (VBNAV) has been identified as a valid technology to support space exploration because it can improve autonomy and safety of space missions. Several mission scenarios can benefit from the VBNAV: Rendezvous & Docking, Fly-Bys, Interplanetary cruise, Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) and Planetary Surface exploration. For some of them VBNAV can improve the accuracy in state estimation as additional relative navigation sensor or as absolute navigation sensor. For some others, like surface mobility and terrain exploration for path identification and planning, VBNAV is mandatory. This paper presents the general avionic architecture of a Vision Based System as defined in the frame of the ESA R&T study “Multi-purpose Vision-based Navigation System Engineering Model - part 1 (VisNav-EM-1)” with special focus on the surface mobility application.

  1. Internet-Based Medical Visit and Diagnosis for Common Medical Problems: Experience of First User Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Shevchik, Grant J.; Paone, Suzanne; Martich, G. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Internet-based medical visits, or “structured e-Visits,” allow patients to report symptoms and seek diagnosis and treatment from their doctor over a secure Web site, without calling or visiting the physician's office. While acceptability of e-Visits has been investigated, outcomes associated with e-Visits, that is, whether patients receiving diagnoses receive appropriate care or need to return to the doctor, remain unexplored. Materials and Methods: The first 156 e-Visit users from a large family medicine practice were surveyed regarding their experience with the e-Visit and e-Visit outcomes. In addition, medical records for patients making e-Visits were reviewed to examine need for follow-up care within 7 days. Results: Interviews were completed with 121 patients (77.6% participation). The most common type of e-Visit was for “other” symptoms or concerns (37%), followed by sinus/cold symptoms (35%). Back pain, urinary symptoms, cough, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and vaginal irritation were each less frequent (<10%). A majority, 61% completed e-Visits with their own physician. The majority of patients (57.0%) reported receipt of a diagnosis without need for follow-up beyond a prescription; 75% of patients thought the e-Visit was as good as or better than an in-person visit, and only 11.6% felt that their concerns or questions were incompletely addressed. In a review of medical records, 16.9% had a follow-up visit within 7 days, mostly for the same condition. Four of these were on the same day as the e-Visit, including one emergency department visit. Conclusions: Outcomes for the e-Visit suggest that it is an appropriate and potentially cost-saving addition to in-person delivery of primary care. PMID:21457013

  2. Evidence-based medicine and the reconfiguration of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Kolker, Emily S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, different parties in the health care field have developed and disseminated clinical practice guidelines as part of evidence-based medicine. These formal tools based on a scientific evaluation of the research literature purport to tell health care professionals how to practice medicine. Because clinical practice guidelines shift the knowledge base in the health care field through standardization, they remain controversial within and outside medicine. In this paper, we evaluate the predictive accuracy of four medical professionalization theories--functionalism, Freidson's theory of professional dominance, deprofessionalization theory, and the theory of countervailing powers--to account for (1) the shift from pathophysiology to epidemiology with guidelines, (2) the creation of practice guidelines, and (3) the effects of clinical practice guidelines on the autonomy of health professionals. In light of the mixed predictive record of professionalization theories, we conclude with a need for "evidence-based sociology" and a recalibration of basic premises underlying professionalization theories. PMID:15779473

  3. Photosensitive-polyimide based method for fabricating various neural electrode architectures

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yasuhiro X.; Furukawa, Shigeto; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Kashino, Makio

    2012-01-01

    An extensive photosensitive-polyimide (PSPI)-based method for designing and fabricating various neural electrode architectures was developed. The method aims to broaden the design flexibility and expand the fabrication capability for neural electrodes to improve the quality of recorded signals and integrate other functions. After characterizing PSPI's properties for micromachining processes, we successfully designed and fabricated various neural electrodes even on a non-flat substrate using only one PSPI as an insulation material and without the time-consuming dry etching processes. The fabricated neural electrodes were an electrocorticogram (ECoG) electrode, a mesh intracortical electrode with a unique lattice-like mesh structure to fixate neural tissue, and a guide cannula electrode with recording microelectrodes placed on the curved surface of a guide cannula as a microdialysis probe. In vivo neural recordings using anesthetized rats demonstrated that these electrodes can be used to record neural activities repeatedly without any breakage and mechanical failures, which potentially promises stable recordings for long periods of time. These successes make us believe that this PSPI-based fabrication is a powerful method, permitting flexible design, and easy optimization of electrode architectures for a variety of electrophysiological experimental research with improved neural recording performance. PMID:22719725

  4. Development of Groundwater Modeling Support System Based on Service-Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Y.; Tsai, J. P.; Hsiao, C. T.; Chang, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater simulation has become an essential step on the groundwater resources management and assessment. There are many stand-alone pre and post processing software packages to alleviate the model simulation loading, but the stand-alone software do not consider centralized management of data and simulation results neither do they provide network sharing function. The model buildings are still implemented independently case to case when using these packages. Hence, it is difficult to share and reuse the data and knowledge (simulation cases) systematically within or across companies. Therefore, this study develops a centralized and network based groundwater model developing system to assist model simulation. The system is based on service-oriented architecture and allows remote user to develop their modeling cases on internet. The data and cases (knowledge) are thus easy to manage centralized. MODFLOW is the modeling engine of the system, which is the most popular groundwater model in the world. Other functions include the database management and variety of model developing assisted web services including auto digitalizing of geology profile map、groundwater missing data recovery assisting、graphic data demonstration and auto generation of MODFLOW input files from database that is the most important function of the system. Since the system architecture is service-oriented, it is scalable and flexible. The system can be easily extended to include the scenarios analysis and knowledge management to facilitate the reuse of groundwater modeling knowledge.

  5. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  6. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The non-linear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  7. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  8. Connection management architecture for multiplex connection of module based personal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong Hee; Choo, Sung-Ho; Park, Hong-Seong; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2005-12-01

    Personal robot is robot that live and helps human from space such as human. Personal robot intends rescue that can use assembling various module according to user's inclination or usage as is different from existent industrial robot that take charge repeated work being fixed. Because mixed module that have various structure to one platform, it acts to decentralized system. Therefore, it need technical development to accommodate these structure by use of network interface of change of distributed environment and various rescue in center concentration Computing environment. Research for middleware is studied vigorously to accommodate this different kinds of systems and heterogeneous network It need technical development to accommodate these structure by use of network interface of change of module based Robot and various rescue in center concentration Robot. Research for robot middleware is studied vigorously to accommodate heterogeneous O/S, network, and Platform. Single network connection between modules improves relativity for network. Personal robot is more important service between modules than network connectivity. Therefore, multiplex connection between modules lowers relativity about network connection, and come fault tolerant between module and raise service QoS. We propose architecture that will provide service independently with connection of network interface to user. The proposed Architecture accommodates various connection structure (ex, duplex connection structure) of selfishness species network etc.. in module based Personal Robot middleware. Module Agent that proposed structure composes network 1:1 connection, routing and multiplex service between modules through Synapse Agent possible connection structure have.

  9. Evaluation of cache-based superscalar and cacheless vector architectures for scientific computations

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Canning, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan; Shalf, John; Skinner, David; Ethier, Stephane; Biswas, Rupak; Djomehri, Jahed; Van der Wijngaart, Rob

    2003-05-01

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications is a well-known problem in high end computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to bridge this gap for many computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX-6 vector processor and the cache-based IBM Power3/4 superscalar architectures across a number of scientific computing areas. First, we present the performance of a microbenchmark suite that examines low-level machine characteristics. Next, we study the behavior of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Finally, we evaluate the performance of several scientific computing codes. Results demonstrate that the SX-6 achieves high performance on a large fraction of our applications and often significantly out performs the cache-based architectures. However, certain applications are not easily amenable to vectorization and would re quire extensive algorithm and implementation reengineering to utilize the SX-6 effectively.

  10. The Emergence of Agent-Based Technology as an Architectural Component of Serious Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Mark; Scolaro, Jackie; Scolaro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of games as an alternative to traditional simulations in the military context has been gathering momentum over the past five years, even though the exploration of their use in the serious sense has been ongoing since the mid-nineties. Much of the focus has been on the aesthetics of the visuals provided by the core game engine as well as the artistry provided by talented development teams to produce not only breathtaking artwork, but highly immersive game play. Consideration of game technology is now so much a part of the modeling and simulation landscape that it is becoming difficult to distinguish traditional simulation solutions from game-based approaches. But games have yet to provide the much needed interactive free play that has been the domain of semi-autonomous forces (SAF). The component-based middleware architecture that game engines provide promises a great deal in terms of options for the integration of agent solutions to support the development of non-player characters that engage the human player without the deterministic nature of scripted behaviors. However, there are a number of hard-learned lessons on the modeling and simulation side of the equation that game developers have yet to learn, such as: correlation of heterogeneous systems, scalability of both terrain and numbers of non-player entities, and the bi-directional nature of simulation to game interaction provided by Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA).

  11. An architecture for integrating distributed and cooperating knowledge-based Air Force decision aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, Richard O.; Tucker, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    MITRE has been developing a Knowledge-Based Battle Management Testbed for evaluating the viability of integrating independently-developed knowledge-based decision aids in the Air Force tactical domain. The primary goal for the testbed architecture is to permit a new system to be added to a testbed with little change to the system's software. Each system that connects to the testbed network declares that it can provide a number of services to other systems. When a system wants to use another system's service, it does not address the server system by name, but instead transmits a request to the testbed network asking for a particular service to be performed. A key component of the testbed architecture is a common database which uses a relational database management system (RDBMS). The RDBMS provides a database update notification service to requesting systems. Normally, each system is expected to monitor data relations of interest to it. Alternatively, a system may broadcast an announcement message to inform other systems that an event of potential interest has occurred. Current research is aimed at dealing with issues resulting from integration efforts, such as dealing with potential mismatches of each system's assumptions about the common database, decentralizing network control, and coordinating multiple agents.

  12. Evaluation of Cache-based Superscalar and Cacheless Vector Architectures for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Carter, Jonathan; Shalf, John; Skinner, David; Ethier, Stephane; Biswas, Rupak; Djomehri, Jahed; VanderWijngaart, Rob

    2003-01-01

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications has become a well-known problem in high performance computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to bridge this gap for a significant number of computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX6 vector processor and the cache-based IBM Power3/4 superscalar architectures across a number of key scientific computing areas. First, we present the performance of a microbenchmark suite that examines a full spectrum of low-level machine characteristics. Next, we study the behavior of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks using some simple optimizations. Finally, we evaluate the perfor- mance of several numerical codes from key scientific computing domains. Overall results demonstrate that the SX6 achieves high performance on a large fraction of our application suite and in many cases significantly outperforms the RISC-based architectures. However, certain classes of applications are not easily amenable to vectorization and would likely require extensive reengineering of both algorithm and implementation to utilize the SX6 effectively.

  13. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visvikis, D.; Lefevre, T.; Lamare, F.; Kontaxakis, G.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  14. Rotorcraft-based emergency medical services in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. W.; Alton, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    There is a pressing need for improved health care in general and emergency health care in particular throughout the Caribbean Basin. The importance of rotorcraft as an integral part of the needed system of emergency medical care in the region was investigated. Many of the larger countries in the region currently have the needed infrastructure to implement a national system of rotorcraft-based emergency medical centers within their borders. By helping to establish a system of rotorcraft based health care centers in strategic locations in the Lesser Antilles, the U.S. can assist the islands of the region by demonstrating the concept and establishing a potential training site for the other larger countries of the region. There is sufficient demand for rotorcraft based emergency health care within the Lesser Antilles to locate one center on the island of Puerto Rico and another one of the southern-most islands. With the use of fixed wing aircraft or long range helicopters, the two rotorcraft based centers could provide the region with rapid and efficient emergency health care. The superior speed and range of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor aircraft make it an attractive possibility for emergency transport and rescue in this region.

  15. A Java-based enterprise system architecture for implementing a continuously supported and entirely Web-based exercise solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru

    2006-04-01

    Since machine-based exercise still uses local facilities, it is affected by time and place. We designed a web-based system architecture based on the Java 2 Enterprise Edition that can accomplish continuously supported machine-based exercise. In this system, exercise programs and machines are loosely coupled and dynamically integrated on the site of exercise via the Internet. We then extended the conventional health promotion model, which contains three types of players (users, exercise trainers, and manufacturers), by adding a new player: exercise program creators. Moreover, we developed a self-describing strategy to accommodate a variety of exercise programs and provide ease of use to users on the web. We illustrate our novel design with examples taken from our feasibility study on a web-based cycle ergometer exercise system. A biosignal-based workload control approach was introduced to ensure that users performed appropriate exercise alone. PMID:16617629

  16. Development of the neural network algorithm projecting system Neural Architecture and its application in combining medical expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeew, Sergey; Eliseev, Vladimir; Tcherkassov, Oleg; Birukow, Valentin; Orbachevskyi, Leonid; Shamsutdinov, Uriy

    1998-04-01

    Some problems of creation of medical expert systems and the ways of their overcoming using artificial neural networks are discussed. The instrumental system for projecting neural network algorithms `Neural Architector', developed by the authors, is described. It allows to perform effective modeling of artificial neural networks and to analyze their work. The example of the application of the `Neural Architector' system in composing an expert system for diagnostics of pulmonological diseases is shown.

  17. Medical Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations: The Relationship-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nate W

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I provide a new account of the basis of medical researchers' ancillary care obligations. Ancillary care in medical research, or medical care that research participants need but that is not required for the validity or safety of a study or to redress research injuries, is a topic that has drawn increasing attention in research ethics over the last ten years. My view, the relationship-based approach, improves on the main existing theory, Richardson and Belsky's 'partial-entrustment model', by avoiding its problematic restriction on the scope of health needs for which researchers could be obligated to provide ancillary care. Instead, it grounds ancillary care obligations in a wide range of morally relevant features of the researcher-participant relationship, including the level of engagement between researchers and participants, and weighs these factors against each other. I argue that the level of engagement, that is, the duration and intensity of interactions, between researchers and participants matters for ancillary care because of its connection to the meaningfulness of a relationship, and I suggest that other morally relevant features can be grounded in researchers' role obligations. PMID:26424512

  18. Corpus-based error detection in a multilingual medical thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roosewelt L; Pacheco, Edson; Cancian, Pindaro S; Nohama, Percy; Schulz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Cross-language document retrieval systems require support by some kind of multilingual thesaurus for semantically indexing documents in different languages. The peculiarities of the medical sublanguage, together with the subjectivism of lexicographers' choices, complicates the thesaurus construction process. It furthermore requires a high degree of communication and interaction between the lexicographers involved. In order to detect errors, a systematic procedure is therefore necessary. We here describe a method which supports the maintenance of the multilingual medical subword repository of the MorphoSaurus system which assigns language-independent semantic identifiers to medical texts. Based on the assumption that the distribution of these semantic identifiers should be similar whenever comparing closely related texts in different languages, our approach identifies those semantic identifiers that vary most in distribution comparing language pairs. The revision of these identifiers and the lexical items related to them revealed multiple errors which were subsequently classified and fixed by the lexicographers. The overall quality improvement of the thesaurus was finally measured using the OHSUMED IR benchmark, resulting in a significant improvement of the retrieval quality for one of the languages tested. PMID:17911773

  19. GPU-based Volume Rendering for Medical Image Visualization.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yang; Gu, Lixu

    2005-01-01

    During the quick advancements of medical image visualization and augmented virtual reality application, the low performance of the volume rendering algorithm is still a "bottle neck". To facilitate the usage of well developed hardware resource, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU)-based volume ray-casting algorithm is proposed in this paper. Running on a normal PC, it performs an interactive rate while keeping the same image quality as the traditional volume rendering algorithm does. Recently, GPU-accelerated direct volume rendering has positioned itself as an efficient tool for the display and visual analysis of volume data. However, for large sized medical image data, it often shows low efficiency for too large memories requested. Furthermore, it always holds a drawback of writing color buffers multi-times per frame. The proposed algorithm improves the situation by implementing ray casting operation completely in GPU. It needs only one slice plane from CPU and one 3Dtexture to store data when GPU calculates the two terminals of the ray and carries out the color blending operation in its pixel programs. So both the rendering speed and the memories consumed are improved, and the algorithm can deal most medical image data on normal PCs in the interactive speed. PMID:17281405

  20. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing. PMID:26414378

  1. Anatomy that must be taught to a medical undergraduate: an interview-based survey in an Indian medical school.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Satheesha; Ramnarayan, K; Somayaji, S N

    2005-07-01

    Confusion still exists about the anatomy to be taught to the medical undergraduate. We did an interview-based survey at the Melaka Manipal Medical College in Manipal, India, to try to evaluate the quantum of anatomy that should be taught to the medical undergraduate. The results suggest that excluding trivia and making anatomy more clinically oriented would be advantageous. A hybrid approach to anatomy including both problem-based learning and discipline-based curricula would be a better option than the regional or systemic approaches. PMID:16032756

  2. Perspective: Competency-based medical education: a defense against the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Mark; Mejicano, George; Gruppen, Larry

    2008-12-01

    Medical education is facing a convergence of challenges that the authors characterize as the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse: teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Rapidly expanding class sizes and new medical schools are coming online as medical student access to teaching patients is becoming increasingly difficult because of the decreasing length and increasing intensity of hospital stays, concerns about patient safety, patients who are stressed for time, teaching physician shortages and needs for increasing productivity from those who remain, and increasing emphasis on translational research. Further, medical education is facing reductions in funding from all sources, just as it is mounting its first major expansion in 40 years. The authors contend that medical education is on the verge of crisis and that little outside assistance is forthcoming. If medical education is to avoid a catastrophic decline, it will need to take steps to reinvent itself and make optimum use of all available resources. Curriculum materials developed nationally, increased reliance on simulation and standardized patient experiences, and adoption of quality-control methods such as competency-based education are suggested as ways to keep medical education vital in an environment that is increasingly preoccupied with fending off the four horsemen. The authors conclude with a call for a national dialogue about how the medical education community can address the problems represented by the four horsemen, and they offer some potential ways to maintain the vitality of medical education in the face of such overwhelming problems. PMID:19202480

  3. Migrating EO/IR sensors to cloud-based infrastructure as service architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglie, Stephen T.; Webster, Steven; May, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    The Night Vision Image Generator (NVIG), a product of US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD, is a visualization tool used widely throughout Army simulation environments to provide fully attributed synthesized, full motion video using physics-based sensor and environmental effects. The NVIG relies heavily on contemporary hardware-based acceleration and GPU processing techniques, which push the envelope of both enterprise and commodity-level hypervisor support for providing virtual machines with direct access to hardware resources. The NVIG has successfully been integrated into fully virtual environments where system architectures leverage cloudbased technologies to various extents in order to streamline infrastructure and service management. This paper details the challenges presented to engineers seeking to migrate GPU-bound processes, such as the NVIG, to virtual machines and, ultimately, Cloud-Based IAS architectures. In addition, it presents the path that led to success for the NVIG. A brief overview of Cloud-Based infrastructure management tool sets is provided, and several virtual desktop solutions are outlined. A discrimination is made between general purpose virtual desktop technologies compared to technologies that expose GPU-specific capabilities, including direct rendering and hard ware-based video encoding. Candidate hypervisor/virtual machine configurations that nominally satisfy the virtualized hardware-level GPU requirements of the NVIG are presented , and each is subsequently reviewed in light of its implications on higher-level Cloud management techniques. Implementation details are included from the hardware level, through the operating system, to the 3D graphics APls required by the NVIG and similar GPU-bound tools.

  4. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

    PubMed Central

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  5. Mobile phone middleware architecture for energy and context awareness in location-based services.

    PubMed

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  6. Architectural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for eighth-grade students in which they created their own architectural structures. Stresses a strong discipline-based introduction using slide shows of famous buildings, large metropolitan cities, and 35,00 years of homes. Reports the lesson spanned two weeks. Includes a diagram, directions, and specifies materials. (CMK)

  7. The Digital Anatomist Distributed Framework and Its Applications to Knowledge-based Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  8. The Digital Anatomist distributed framework and its applications to knowledge-based medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, J F; Rosse, C

    1997-01-01

    The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  9. A Comprehensive Computer-Based Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    David, Sidney S.

    1977-01-01

    A comupter-based medical information system has been developed for patient care and clinical investigation. It is implemented on a large digital computer and employs techniques consistent with general purpose commercially available data management systems. It has been in operation since 1971 and contains the records of approximately 1600 patients. Incoming data are received from patients and clinical staff utilizing specialized forms. A wide diversity of output, including summaries, searches and statistics are provided. The system enhances the quality of care provided to patients, optimizes physician time spent on clinical management, improves many aspects of the supporting research, and is applicable to other areas of medicine.

  10. Teaching medical diagnosis: a rule-based approach.

    PubMed

    Michalowski, W; Rubin, S; Aggarwal, H

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a diagnostic process simulator which teaches medical students to think clinically. This was possible to achieve due to the application of a rule-based approach to represent diagnosis and treatments. Whilst using the simulator, as a result of the student's incorrect and correct decisions, the clinical situation changes accordingly. New diagnostic options result in the ability to choose further clinical and laboratory tests. The simulator is being implemented on Sun workstations and Macintosh computers using Prolog programming language. PMID:8139404

  11. Perceptually lossless wavelet-based compression for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nai-wen; Yu, Tsaifa; Chan, Andrew K.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present a wavelet-based medical image compression scheme so that images displayed on different devices are perceptually lossless. Since visual sensitivity of human varies with different subbands, we apply the perceptual lossless criteria to quantize the wavelet transform coefficients of each subband such that visual distortions are reduced to unnoticeable. Following this, we use a high compression ratio hierarchical tree to code these coefficients. Experimental results indicate that our perceptually lossless coder achieves a compression ratio 2-5 times higher than typical lossless compression schemes while producing perceptually identical image content on the target display device.

  12. Block-based conditional entropy coding for medical image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, Sriperumbudur V.; Nagaraj, Nithin; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a block-based conditional entropy coding scheme for medical image compression using the 2-D integer Haar wavelet transform. The main motivation to pursue conditional entropy coding is that the first-order conditional entropy is always theoretically lesser than the first and second-order entropies. We propose a sub-optimal scan order and an optimum block size to perform conditional entropy coding for various modalities. We also propose that a similar scheme can be used to obtain a sub-optimal scan order and an optimum block size for other wavelets. The proposed approach is motivated by a desire to perform better than JPEG2000 in terms of compression ratio. We hint towards developing a block-based conditional entropy coder, which has the potential to perform better than JPEG2000. Though we don't indicate a method to achieve the first-order conditional entropy coder, the use of conditional adaptive arithmetic coder would achieve arbitrarily close to the theoretical conditional entropy. All the results in this paper are based on the medical image data set of various bit-depths and various modalities.

  13. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  14. IAIMS architecture.

    PubMed

    Hripcsak, G

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  15. Experimental research on transient radiation effects in microprocessors based on SPARC-V8 architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Hongchao, Zheng; Long, Fan; Suge, Yue; Maoxin, Chen; Shougang, Du

    2015-11-01

    An experimental system is developed for the transient radiation effects testing of an anti-radiation hardened processor. Based on this system, the transient radiation effects in a microprocessor based on SPARC-V8 architecture was investigated. The dose-rate-soft-error index parameters of the processor were determined according to the test results, as were the influences on the function and timing parameters of the processor. The power supply balance is affected, which caused the system to reset and be the main source of soft errors. The results showed the circuit recovery time is primarily determined by the internal PLL, while the core power and the output-low-IO ports are more sensitive to the transient dose rate effect. The power-integrity-hardened design is proposed to mitigate the transient radiation effect.

  16. An Ontology-based Architecture for Integration of Clinical Trials Management Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi D.; Martins, Susana B.; O’Connor, Martin; Parrish, David B.; Das, Amar K.

    2007-01-01

    Management of complex clinical trials involves coordinated-use of a myriad of software applications by trial personnel. The applications typically use distinct knowledge representations and generate enormous amount of information during the course of a trial. It becomes vital that the applications exchange trial semantics in order for efficient management of the trials and subsequent analysis of clinical trial data. Existing model-based frameworks do not address the requirements of semantic integration of heterogeneous applications. We have built an ontology-based architecture to support interoperation of clinical trial software applications. Central to our approach is a suite of clinical trial ontologies, which we call Epoch, that define the vocabulary and semantics necessary to represent information on clinical trials. We are continuing to demonstrate and validate our approach with different clinical trials management applications and with growing number of clinical trials. PMID:18693919

  17. Architecture and methods for UAV-based heterogeneous sensor network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Pedro; Caputo, Davide; Gandelli, Alessandro; Grimaccia, Francesco; Mussetta, Marco

    2012-09-01

    Wireless sensor netwoks (WSN) employ miniaturized devices which integrate sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. In this paper an innovative mobile platform for heterogeneous sensor networks is presented, combined with adaptive methods to optimize the communication architecture for novel potential applications even in coastal and marine environment monitoring. In fact, in the near future, WSN data collection could be performed by UAV platforms which can be a sink for ground sensors layer, acting essentially as a mobile gateway. In order to maximize the system performances and the network lifespan, the authors propose a recently developed hybrid technique based on evolutionary algorithms. This procedure is here applied to optimize the communication energy consumption in WSN by selecting the optimal multi-hop routing schemes, with a suitable hybridization of different routing criteria. The proposed approach can be potentially extended and applied to ongoing research projects focused on UAV-based remote sensing of the ocean, sea ice, coastal waters, and large water regions.

  18. The Study on the Architecture of Public knowledge Service Platform Based on Collaborative Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chang Ping; Zhang, Min; Xiang, Fei

    The knowledge service platform is seen as the vital intermediaries in innovation cycle, and for users to locate, exchange and acquire knowledge in a systematic way. It is increasingly recognizing the powerful role that knowledge service platform provide in building a national innovation capacity. The knowledge service platforms in the China's national innovation system, mostly based on the digital libraries, are supported and constructed by diverse departments and systems. These platforms disperse in construction, have respective division and orientation. However, along with the development of information technology and the revolution of innovation model, the requirements for the reconstruction of knowledge service platform in innovation system are brought forward. In this paper, we analyze the resources integration framework of the existing public service platform, and put forward the architecture of the public knowledge service platform based on collaborative innovation; we also discuss its concrete implementation.

  19. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  20. Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of 3-D TSV-Based Power Delivery Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huanyu

    As 3-D technology enters the commercial production stage, it is critical to understand different 3-D power delivery architectures on the stacked ICs and packages with through-silicon vias (TSVs). Appropriate design, modeling, analysis, and optimization approaches of the 3-D power delivery system are of foremost significance and great practical interest to the semiconductor industry in general. Based on fundamental physics of 3-D integration components, the objective of this thesis work is to quantitatively analyze the power delivery for 3D-IC systems, develop appropriate physics-based models and simulation approaches, understand the key issues, and provide potential solutions for design of 3D-IC power delivery architectures. In this work, a hybrid simulation approach is adopted as the major approach along with analytical method to examine 3-D power networks. Combining electromagnetic (EM) tools and circuit simulators, the hybrid approach is able to analyze and model micrometer-scale components as well as centimeter-scale power delivery system with high accuracy and efficiency. The parasitic elements of the components on the power delivery can be precisely modeled by full-wave EM solvers. Stack-up circuit models for the 3-D power delivery networks (PDNs) are constructed through a partition and assembly method. With the efficiency advantage of the SPICE circuit simulation, the overall 3-D system power performance can be analyzed and the 3-D power delivery architectures can be evaluated in a short computing time. The major power delivery issues are the voltage drop (IR drop) and voltage noise. With a baseline of 3-D power delivery architecture, the on-chip PDNs of TSV-based chip stacks are modeled and analyzed for the IR drop and AC noise. The basic design factors are evaluated using the hybrid approach, such as the number of stacked chips, the number of TSVs, and the TSV arrangement. Analytical formulas are also developed to evaluate the IR drop in 3-D chip stack in

  1. Computational architecture for full-color holographic displays based on anisotropic leaky-mode modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Sundeep; Smalley, Daniel; Barabas, James; Bove, V. Michael

    2014-02-01

    The MIT Mark IV holographic display system employs a novel anisotropic leaky-mode spatial light modulator that allows for the simultaneous and superimposed modulation of red, green, and blue light via wavelength-division multiplexing. This WDM-based scheme for full-color display requires that incoming video signals containing holographic fringe information are comprised of non-overlapping spectral bands that fall within the available 200 MHz output bandwidth of commercial GPUs. These bands correspond to independent color channels in the display output and are appropriately band-limited and centered to match the multiplexed passbands and center frequencies in the frequency response of the mode-coupling device. The computational architecture presented in this paper involves the computation of holographic fringe patterns for each color channel and their summation in generating a single video signal for input to the display. In composite, 18 such input signals, each containing holographic fringe information for 26 horizontal-parallax only holographic lines, are generated via three dual-head GPUs for a total of 468 holographic lines in the display output. We present a general scheme for full-color CGH computation for input to Mark IV and furthermore depict the adaptation of the diffraction specific coherent panoramagram approach to fringe computation for the Mark IV architecture.

  2. Experimenting with an Evolving Ground/Space-based Software Architecture to Enable Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A series of ongoing experiments are being conducted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to explore integrated ground and space-based software architectures enabling sensor webs. A sensor web, as defined by Steve Talabac at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC), is a coherent set of distributed nodes interconnected by a communications fabric, that collectively behave as a single, dynamically adaptive, observing system. The nodes can be comprised of satellites, ground instruments, computing nodes etc. Sensor web capability requires autonomous management of constellation resources. This becomes progressively more important as more and more satellites share resource, such as communication channels and ground station,s while automatically coordinating their activities. There have been five ongoing activities which include an effort to standardize a set of middleware. This paper will describe one set of activities using the Earth Observing 1 satellite, which used a variety of ground and flight software along with other satellites and ground sensors to prototype a sensor web. This activity allowed us to explore where the difficulties that occur in the assembly of sensor webs given today s technology. We will present an overview of the software system architecture, some key experiments and lessons learned to facilitate better sensor webs in the future.

  3. Circuit-QED-based scalable architectures for quantum information processing with superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billangeon, P.-M.; Tsai, J. S.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss different ways of generating entanglement in the original picture of circuit QED (XcQED) and several restrictions that arise in the context of a large-scale quantum architecture. To alleviate some of the issues posed by the presence of the nonlinearities inherent to these systems, we introduce a layout for circuit QED, wherein an artificial atom is coupled to a quantized radiation field via its longitudinal degree of freedom (ZcQED). This system is akin to ion traps used in atomic physics, but it relies on fixed coupling between the atom and the resonator. We describe a scalable architecture for processing quantum information with superconducting qubits, which is free from any type of residual interaction between the atomic and photonic degrees of freedom. Tunable interactions can be realized based on sideband transitions, and the system can be operated out of the Lamb-Dicke regime, allowing it to benefit from the possibility of achieving large coupling strengths between atoms and resonators. We also discuss a readout scheme that does not require any extra circuits and allows a qubit-specific measurement of the state of the quantum register inspired by the electron shelving technique. This scheme is quantum nondemolition (QND)-like, and allows for single-shot determination of the qubit states.

  4. Deubiquitinase–based analysis of ubiquitin chain architecture using Ubiquitin Chain Restriction (UbiCRest)

    PubMed Central

    Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a versatile protein modification that regulates virtually all cellular processes. This versatility originates from polyubiquitin chains, which can be linked in eight distinct ways. The combinatorial complexity of eight linkage types in homotypic (one chain type per polymer) and heterotypic (multiple linkage types per polymer) chains poses significant problems for biochemical analysis. Here we describe UbiCRest, in which substrates (ubiquitinated proteins or polyubiquitin chains) are treated with a panel of linkage-specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in parallel reactions, followed by gel-based analysis. UbiCRest can be used to show that a protein is ubiquitinated, to identify which linkage type(s) are present on polyubiquitinated proteins and to assess the architecture of heterotypic polyubiquitin chains. DUBs used in UbiCRest can be obtained commercially; however, we include details for generating a toolkit of purified DUBs and for profiling their linkage preferences in vitro. UbiCRest is a qualitative method that yields insights into ubiquitin chain linkage types and architecture within hours, and it can be performed on western blotting quantities of endogenously ubiquitinated proteins. PMID:25633630

  5. A method of image multi-resolution processing based on FPGA + DSP architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaohan; Zhong, Sheng; Lu, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    In real-time image processing, with the improvement of resolution and frame rate of camera imaging, not only the requirement of processing capacity is improving, but also the requirement of the optimization of process is improving. With regards to the FPGA + DSP architecture image processing system, there are three common methods to overcome the challenge above. The first is using higher performance DSP. For example, DSP with higher core frequency or with more cores can be used. The second is optimizing the processing method, make the algorithm to accomplish the same processing results but spend less time. Last but not least, pre-processing in the FPGA can make the image processing more efficient. A method of multi-resolution pre-processing by FPGA based on FPGA + DSP architecture is proposed here. It takes advantage of built-in first in first out (FIFO) and external synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) to buffer the images which come from image detector, and provides down-sampled images or cut-down images for DSP flexibly and efficiently according to the request parameters sent by DSP. DSP can thus get the degraded image instead of the whole image to process, shortening the processing time and transmission time greatly. The method results in alleviating the burden of image processing of DSP and also solving the problem of single method of image resolution reduction cannot meet the requirements of image processing task of DSP.

  6. Architectural approach for semantic EHR systems development based on Detailed Clinical Models.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan G; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The integrative approach to health information in general and the development of pHealth systems in particular, require an integrated approach of formally modeled system architectures. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) is one of the most promising modeling efforts for clinical concept representation in EHR system architectures. Although the feasibility of DCM modeling methodology has been demonstrated through examples, there is no formal, generic and automatic modeling transformation technique to ensure a semantic lossless transformation of clinical concepts expressed in DCM to either clinical concept representations based on ISO 13606/openEHR Archetypes or HL7 Templates. The objective of this paper is to propose a generic model transformation method and tooling for transforming DCM Clinical Concepts into ISO/EN 13606/openEHR Archetypes or HL7 Template models. The automation of the transformation process is supported by Model Driven-Development (MDD) transformation mechanisms and tools. The availability of processes, techniques and tooling for automatic DCM transformation would enable the development of intelligent, adaptive information systems as demanded for pHealth solutions. PMID:22942049

  7. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  8. Fuzzy integral-based gaze control architecture incorporated with modified-univector field-based navigation for humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jong-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    When a humanoid robot moves in a dynamic environment, a simple process of planning and following a path may not guarantee competent performance for dynamic obstacle avoidance because the robot acquires limited information from the environment using a local vision sensor. Thus, it is essential to update its local map as frequently as possible to obtain more information through gaze control while walking. This paper proposes a fuzzy integral-based gaze control architecture incorporated with the modified-univector field-based navigation for humanoid robots. To determine the gaze direction, four criteria based on local map confidence, waypoint, self-localization, and obstacles, are defined along with their corresponding partial evaluation functions. Using the partial evaluation values and the degree of consideration for criteria, fuzzy integral is applied to each candidate gaze direction for global evaluation. For the effective dynamic obstacle avoidance, partial evaluation functions about self-localization error and surrounding obstacles are also used for generating virtual dynamic obstacle for the modified-univector field method which generates the path and velocity of robot toward the next waypoint. The proposed architecture is verified through the comparison with the conventional weighted sum-based approach with the simulations using a developed simulator for HanSaRam-IX (HSR-IX). PMID:21878418

  9. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  10. Multiple enhanced self-protected spanning trees based architecture for recovery from single failure in metro ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Wentao; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    2008-11-01

    Carriers and service providers are rushing to provide Ethernet-based virtual private network services in metro area network (MAN) as the most cost effective way to address the needs of the enterprise network market. To address the fast recovery from any signal failure issue in the Metro Ethernet, we propose a metro Ethernet architecture based on multiple Enhanced Self-protected Spanning Trees (ESST). The recovery mechanism, named Birthday-based Link Replacing Mechanism (BLRM), in this architecture is able to transform a self-protected spanning tree into another spanning tree after any signal link or node failure. Simulation result demonstrates the effectiveness of the BLRM in achieving fast recovery.

  11. Architecture for Improving Terrestrial Logistics Based on the Web of Things

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Miguel; Jara, Antonio J.; Skarmeta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances for improving supply chain efficiency present three key challenges for managing goods: tracking, tracing and monitoring (TTM), in order to satisfy the requirements for products such as perishable goods where the European Legislations requires them to ship within a prescribed temperature range to ensure freshness and suitability for consumption. The proposed system integrates RFID for tracking and tracing through a distributed architecture developed for heavy goods vehicles, and the sensors embedded in the SunSPOT platform for monitoring the goods transported based on the concept of the Internet of Things. This paper presents how the Internet of Things is integrated for improving terrestrial logistics offering a comprehensive and flexible architecture, with high scalability, according to the specific needs for reaching an item-level continuous monitoring solution. The major contribution from this work is the optimization of the Embedded Web Services based on RESTful (Web of Things) for the access to TTM services at any time during the transportation of goods. Specifically, it has been extended the monitoring patterns such as observe and blockwise transfer for the requirements from the continuous conditional monitoring, and for the transfer of full inventories and partial ones based on conditional queries. In definitive, this work presents an evolution of the previous TTM solutions, which were limited to trailer identification and environment monitoring, to a solution which is able to provide an exhaustive item-level monitoring, required for several use cases. This exhaustive monitoring has required new communication capabilities through the Web of Things, which has been optimized with the use and improvement of a set of communications patterns. PMID:22778657

  12. Architecture for improving terrestrial logistics based on the Web of Things.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel; Jara, Antonio J; Skarmeta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances for improving supply chain efficiency present three key challenges for managing goods: tracking, tracing and monitoring (TTM), in order to satisfy the requirements for products such as perishable goods where the European Legislations requires them to ship within a prescribed temperature range to ensure freshness and suitability for consumption. The proposed system integrates RFID for tracking and tracing through a distributed architecture developed for heavy goods vehicles, and the sensors embedded in the SunSPOT platform for monitoring the goods transported based on the concept of the Internet of Things. This paper presents how the Internet of Things is integrated for improving terrestrial logistics offering a comprehensive and flexible architecture, with high scalability, according to the specific needs for reaching an item-level continuous monitoring solution. The major contribution from this work is the optimization of the Embedded Web Services based on RESTful (Web of Things) for the access to TTM services at any time during the transportation of goods. Specifically, it has been extended the monitoring patterns such as observe and blockwise transfer for the requirements from the continuous conditional monitoring, and for the transfer of full inventories and partial ones based on conditional queries. In definitive, this work presents an evolution of the previous TTM solutions, which were limited to trailer identification and environment monitoring, to a solution which is able to provide an exhaustive item-level monitoring, required for several use cases. This exhaustive monitoring has required new communication capabilities through the Web of Things, which has been optimized with the use and improvement of a set of communications patterns. PMID:22778657

  13. ARCHITECT: The architecture-based technology evaluation and capability tradeoff method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griendling, Kelly A.

    The use of architectures for the design, development, and documentation of system-of-systems engineering has become a common practice in recent years. This practice became mandatory in the defense industry in 2004 when the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Promulgation Memo mandated that all Department of Defense (DoD) architectures must be DoDAF compliant. Despite this mandate, there has been significant confusion and a lack of consistency in the creation and the use of the architecture products. Products are typically created as static documents used for communication and documentation purposes that are difficult to change and do not support engineering design activities and acquisition decision making. At the same time, acquisition guidance has been recently reformed to move from the bottom-up approach of the Requirements Generation System (RGS) to the top-down approach mandated by the Joint Capabilities Integration and Devel- opment System (JCIDS), which requires the use of DoDAF to support acquisition. Defense agencies have had difficulty adjusting to this new policy, and are struggling to determine how to meet new acquisition requirements. This research has developed the Architecture-based Technology Evaluation and Capability Tradeoff (ARCHITECT) Methodology to respond to these challenges and address concerns raised about the defense acquisition process, particularly the time required to implement parts of the process, the need to evaluate solutions across capability and mission areas, and the need to use a rigorous, traceable, repeatable method that utilizes modeling and simulation to better substantiate early-phase acquisition decisions. The objective is to create a capability-based systems engineering methodology for the early phases of design and acquisition (specifically Pre-Milestone A activities) which improves agility in defense acquisition by (1) streamlining the development of key elements of JCIDS and DoDAF, (2) moving the

  14. Compression-based aggregation model for medical web services.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammary, Dhiah; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Many organizations such as hospitals have adopted Cloud Web services in applying their network services to avoid investing heavily computing infrastructure. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the basic communication protocol of Cloud Web services that is XML based protocol. Generally,Web services often suffer congestions and bottlenecks as a result of the high network traffic that is caused by the large XML overhead size. At the same time, the massive load on Cloud Web services in terms of the large demand of client requests has resulted in the same problem. In this paper, two XML-aware aggregation techniques that are based on exploiting the compression concepts are proposed in order to aggregate the medical Web messages and achieve higher message size reduction. PMID:21097152

  15. Effectiveness of audio-based instruction in medical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Bogner, P; Sajid, A W; Ford, D L

    1975-07-01

    An audio-based method of instruction on the topic of diuretic drugs was compared with the lecture method using a random sample of 66 sophomore medical students. A cognitive test given to measure achievement as a result of the two treatments showed that the average score of 80 percent for the audio group was significantly higher (p smaller than 0.25) than the 75 percent for the lecture group. A comparison of the lowest quartile scores in each group revealed that the audio-based group also scored higher 13 points, p smaller than .05) than the lecture group; however, no difference was noted in the upper three quartile scores of the two groups. The amount of time spent studying did not appear to be a factor. A second test given to meausre attitudes toward the audio method showed strong positive views among students. PMID:48549

  16. Computer-Acquired Clinical Laboratory Data Bases in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John W.

    1979-01-01

    A growing number of clinical laboratories use computerized laboratory information systems for data acquisition, data management, and report generation. Although the research potential of the large machine-readable data bases generated by these systems is often mentioned, there has been comparatively little actual use of data bases for research. This presentation will briefly present four research studies using laboratory data bases and discuss the problems which were encountered in acquiring, characterizing, and maintaining these data bases. The use of medical records, pharmacy, financial, and other machine-readable data bases available in many hospitals will be discussed. The problems encountered with the use of coded diagnosis and operations records in combination with laboratory data are of particular concern. Finally, the use of clinical laboratory systems in conjunction with total hospital information systems for the accumulation of research data bases will be illustrated. It is particularly important that the lessons learned to date be incorporated into planning for the use of hospital information systems in research so that the enormous potential of these systems can be realized.

  17. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  18. An optimized web-based approach for collaborative stereoscopic medical visualization

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Mathias; Parsad, Nigel M; Silverstein, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objective Medical visualization tools have traditionally been constrained to tethered imaging workstations or proprietary client viewers, typically part of hospital radiology systems. To improve accessibility to real-time, remote, interactive, stereoscopic visualization and to enable collaboration among multiple viewing locations, we developed an open source approach requiring only a standard web browser with no added client-side software. Materials and Methods Our collaborative, web-based, stereoscopic, visualization system, CoWebViz, has been used successfully for the past 2 years at the University of Chicago to teach immersive virtual anatomy classes. It is a server application that streams server-side visualization applications to client front-ends, comprised solely of a standard web browser with no added software. Results We describe optimization considerations, usability, and performance results, which make CoWebViz practical for broad clinical use. We clarify technical advances including: enhanced threaded architecture, optimized visualization distribution algorithms, a wide range of supported stereoscopic presentation technologies, and the salient theoretical and empirical network parameters that affect our web-based visualization approach. Discussion The implementations demonstrate usability and performance benefits of a simple web-based approach for complex clinical visualization scenarios. Using this approach overcomes technical challenges that require third-party web browser plug-ins, resulting in the most lightweight client. Conclusions Compared to special software and hardware deployments, unmodified web browsers enhance remote user accessibility to interactive medical visualization. Whereas local hardware and software deployments may provide better interactivity than remote applications, our implementation demonstrates that a simplified, stable, client approach using standard web browsers is sufficient for high quality three

  19. The Knowledge Dictionary: A KBMS architecture for the many-to-many coupling of knowledge based-systems to databases

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management and leveraging of organizational knowledge has become the focus of much research in the computer industry. One specific area is the creation of information systems that combine the ability to manage large stores of data, making it available to many users, with the ability to reason and make inferences over bodies of knowledge capturing specific expertise in some problem domain. A Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS) is a system providing management of a large shared knowledge base for (potentially) many knowledge-based systems (KBS). A KBMS architecture for coupling knowledge-based systems to databases has been developed. The architecture is built around a repository known as the Knowledge Dictionary-a multi-level self-describing framework that facilitates the KBS-DBMS integration. Th Knowledge Dictionary architecture allows the following enhancements to be made to be made to the KBS environment: knowledge sharing among multiple KBS applications; knowledge management of semantic integrity over large-scale (declarative) knowledge bases; and, knowledge maintenance as the declarative portion of the shared knowledge base evolves over time. This dissertation discusses the architecture of the Knowledge Dictionary, and the underlying knowledge representation framework, focusing on how it is used to provide knowledge management services to the KBS applications having their declarative knowledge base components stored as databases in the DBMS. The specific service investigated is the management of semantic integrity of the knowledge base.

  20. Delivering a lifelong integrated electronic health record based on a service oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Sfakianakis, Stelios G; Kavlentakis, Georgios; Anthoulakis, Dimitrios N; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2007-11-01

    Efficient access to a citizen's Integrated Electronic Health Record (I-EHR) is considered to be the cornerstone for the support of continuity of care, the reduction of avoidable mistakes, and the provision of tools and methods to support evidence-based medicine. For the past several years, a number of applications and services (including a lifelong I-EHR) have been installed, and enterprise and regional infrastructure has been developed, in HYGEIAnet, the Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) of the island of Crete, Greece. Through this paper, the technological effort toward the delivery of a lifelong I-EHR by means of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) technologies, on top of a service-oriented architecture that reuses already existing middleware components is presented and critical issues are discussed. Certain design and development decisions are exposed and explained, laying this way the ground for coordinated, dynamic navigation to personalized healthcare delivery. PMID:18046939

  1. Self-Propelled Micro-/Nanomotors Based on Controlled Assembled Architectures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiankun; Wu, Zhiguang; Wu, Yingjie; Xuan, Mingjun; He, Qiang

    2016-02-10

    Synthetic micro-/nanomotors (MNMs) are capable of performing self-propelled motion in fluids through harvesting different types of energies into mechanical movement, with potential applications in biomedicine and other fields. To address the challenges in these applications, a promising strategy that combines controlled assembly (bottom-up approaches) with top-down approaches for engineering autonomous, multifunctionalized MNMs is under investigation, beginning in 2012. These MNMs, derived from layer-by-layer assembly or molecular self-assembly, display the advantages of: i) mass production, ii) response to the external stimuli, and iii) access to multifunctionality, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. The advance on how to integrate diverse functional components into different architectures based on controlled assemblies, to realize controlled fabrication, motion control (including the movement speed, direction, and state), and biomedical applications of MNMs, directed by the concept of nanoarchitectonics, are highlighted here. The remaining challenges and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:26421653

  2. Simulation of Si:P spin-based quantum computer architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Yiachung; Fang Angbo

    2008-11-07

    We present realistic simulation for single and double phosphorous donors in a silicon-based quantum computer design by solving a valley-orbit coupled effective-mass equation for describing phosphorous donors in strained silicon quantum well (QW). Using a generalized unrestricted Hartree-Fock method, we solve the two-electron effective-mass equation with quantum well confinement and realistic gate potentials. The effects of QW width, gate voltages, donor separation, and donor position shift on the lowest singlet and triplet energies and their charge distributions for a neighboring donor pair in the quantum computer(QC) architecture are analyzed. The gate tunability are defined and evaluated for a typical QC design. Estimates are obtained for the duration of spin half-swap gate operation.

  3. Secure bidirectional transmission in a WDM-PON architecture employing RSOA-based remodulation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-01-01

    A novel architecture of bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON), based on forward error correcting (FEC) scheme, has been proposed and analyzed theoretically. This configuration is made economical by employing injection locked Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) for direct modulation at transmitter end and reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) as remodulator at receiver end. Reed-Solomon (RS) codec is preferred in the design to comprehend the FEC scheme. The RS (255, 251) codec is realized by field-programmablegate- array (FPGA) with the help of VERILOG programming. Excellent transmission performances of 10 Gbps datasignal over maximum of 20 km SMF in downlink and uplink are obtained by the low bit error rate (BER) values and significant eye diagrams at BER analyzer.

  4. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40,000) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  5. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  6. A newborn screening system based on service-oriented architecture embedded support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kai-Ping; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Weng, Yung-Ching; Wu, Jang-Hung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-10-01

    The clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders are rarely apparent during the neonatal period, and if they are not treated earlier, irreversible damages, such as mental retardation or even death, may occur. Therefore, the practice of newborn screening is essential to prevent permanent disabilities in newborns. In the paper, we design, implement a newborn screening system using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications. By evaluating metabolic substances data collected from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), we can interpret and determine whether a newborn has a metabolic disorder. In addition, National Taiwan University Hospital Information System (NTUHIS) has been developed and implemented to integrate heterogeneous platforms, protocols, databases as well as applications. To expedite adapting the diversities, we deploy Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts to the newborn screening system based on web services. The system can be embedded seamlessly into NTUHIS. PMID:20703618

  7. The upgrade of an educational observatory control system with a PLC-based architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Galeotta, S.; Iafrate, G.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.

    2014-07-01

    A Celestron C14 telescope equipped with a robotic Paramount ME equatorial mount is being used for public outreach at the Basovizza site of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Although the telescope could be fully remotely controlled, the control of the instrumentations and the movement of the main motor of the dome requires the physical presence of an operator. To overcome this limitation the existing control system has been upgraded using a Beckhoff PLC to allow the remote control of the whole instrumentation, including the management of the newly installed weather sensor and the access to the telescope area. Exploiting the decentralization features typical of a PLC based solution, the PLC modules are placed in two different racks, according to the function to be controlled. A web interface is used for the communication between the user and the instrumentation. The architecture of this control system will be presented in detail in this paper.

  8. Mapping Rule-Based And Stochastic Constraints To Connection Architectures: Implication For Hierarchical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael I.; Roysam, Badrinath; Smith, Kurt R.

    1988-10-01

    Essential to the solution of ill posed problems in vision and image processing is the need to use object constraints in the reconstruction. While Bayesian methods have shown the greatest promise, a fundamental difficulty has persisted in that many of the available constraints are in the form of deterministic rules rather than as probability distributions and are thus not readily incorporated as Bayesian priors. In this paper, we propose a general method for mapping a large class of rule-based constraints to their equivalent stochastic Gibbs' distribution representation. This mapping allows us to solve stochastic estimation problems over rule-generated constraint spaces within a Bayesian framework. As part of this approach we derive a method based on Langevin's stochastic differential equation and a regularization technique based on the classical autologistic transfer function that allows us to update every site simultaneously regardless of the neighbourhood structure. This allows us to implement a completely parallel method for generating the constraint sets corresponding to the regular grammar languages on massively parallel networks. We illustrate these ideas by formulating the image reconstruction problem based on a hierarchy of rule-based and stochastic constraints, and derive a fully parallelestimator structure. We also present results computed on the AMT DAP500 massively parallel digital computer, a mesh-connected 32x32 array of processing elements which are configured in a Single-Instruction, Multiple Data stream architecture.

  9. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing SSA Space Based Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblick, D.; Klug, M.; Goldsmith, A.; Flewelling, B.; Jah, M.; Shanks, J.; Piña, R.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of the DARPA program Orbit Outlook (O^2) is to improve the metric tracking and detection performance of the Space Situational Network (SSN) by adding a diverse low-cost network of contributing sensors to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission. In order to accomplish this objective, not only must a sensor be in constant communication with a planning and scheduling system to process tasking requests, there must be an underlying framework to provide useful data products, such as angles only measurements. Existing optical signal processing implementations such as the Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln (OPAL) are capable of converting mission data collections to angles only observations, but may be difficult for many users to obtain, support, and customize for low-cost missions and demonstration programs. The Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture (GOSPA) will ingest raw imagery and telemetry data from a space based electro optical sensor and perform a background removal process to remove anomalous pixels, interpolate over bad pixels, and dominant temporal noise. After background removal, the streak end points and target centroids are located using a corner detection algorithm developed by Air Force Research Laboratory. These identified streak locations are then fused with the corresponding spacecraft telemetry data to determine the Right Ascension and Declination measurements with respect to time. To demonstrate the performance of GOSPA, non-rate tracking collections against a satellite in Geosynchronous Orbit are simulated from a visible optical imaging sensor in a polar Low Earth Orbit. Stars, noise and bad pixels are added to the simulated images based on look angles and sensor parameters. These collections are run through the GOSPA framework to provide angles- only measurements to the Air Force Research Laboratory Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) in which an Initial Orbit Determination is

  10. Optical flow in a smart sensor based on hybrid analog-digital architecture.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system's performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains. PMID:22319283

  11. Caveats: numerical requirements in graph theory based quantitation of tissue architecture.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Marcelpoil, R; Reith, A

    2000-01-01

    Graph theory based methods represent one approach to an objective and reproducible structural analysis of tissue architecture. By these methods, neighborhood relations between a number of objects (e.g., cells) are explored and inherent to these methods are therefore certain requirements as to the number of objects to be included in the analysis. However, the question of how many objects are required to achieve reproducible values in repeated computations of proposed structural features, has previously not been adressed specifically. After digitising HE stained slides and storing them as grey level images, cell nuclei were segmented and their geometrical centre of gravity were computed, serving as the basis for construction of the Voronoi diagram (VD) and its subgraphs. Variations in repeated computations of structural features derived from these graphs were related to the number of cell nuclei included in the analysis. We demonstrate a large variation in the values of the structural features from one computation to another in one and the same section when only a limited number of cells (100-500) are included in the analysis. This variation decreased with increasing number of cells analyzed. The exact number of cells required to achieve reproducible values differ significantly between tissues, but not between separate cases of similar lesions. There are no significant differences between normal and malignantly changed tissues in oral mucosa with respect to how many cells must be included. For graph theory based analysis of tissue architecture, care must be taken to include an adequate number of objects; for some of the structural features we have tested, more than 3000 cells. PMID:11310642

  12. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains. PMID:22319283

  13. Silicon based nano-architectures for high power lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rahul

    Lithium-ion batteries have now become an inseparable part of modern day society as the power source for several portable electronics like cell phones, digital cameras and laptops. Their high energy density compared with other electrochemical battery systems has been their most attractive feature. This has lead to a great interest in developing lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and all-electric vehicles. Eventually such vehicles will help drastically reduce the carbon footprint making the environment cleaner and healthier. In spite of their high energy density, Li-ion batteries are known to have poor power densities. This forms a major limitation in their deployment as a power source on vehicles. Electric vehicles need power sources that can provide both high energy and power densities. This requires the development of anode, cathode and electrolyte materials that would transform the capabilities of existing Li-ion batteries. Among anode materials silicon has received great attention because of its very large theoretical capacity of ˜4200 mAh/g based on the alloy Li22Si5. It should be noted that storage of charge in the anode occurs through the alloying of Li with the host anode material. However, the large specific capacity of silicon also results in a ˜400% volume expansion which could lead to pulverization and delamination reducing the cycle life of the electrode. These failure processes are exacerbated at high rates making it extremely difficult to use silicon for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. The major research thrust supporting this Ph.D. thesis involved exploring silicon based nano-architectures that would provide high energy and power densities over a long cycle life. The key technique used to design different nano-architectures was DC Magnetron sputtering with oblique angle deposition. The main development of this research was a functionally strain graded Carbon-Aluminum-Silicon nanoscoop architecture for high-power Li-ion battery anodes. This

  14. Design and Performance Evaluation of Optical Ethernet Switching Architecture with Liquid Crystal on Silicon-Based Beam-Steering Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Chou, H.-H.; Shiau, Yhi; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2016-07-01

    A non-blocking optical Ethernet switching architecture with liquid crystal on a silicon-based beam-steering switch and optical output buffer strategies are proposed. For preserving service packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, priority and round-robin algorithms are adopted at the optical output buffer in this research. Four methods were used to implement tunable fiber delay modules for the optical output buffers to handle Ethernet packets with variable bit-rates. The results reported are based on the simulations performed to evaluate the proposed switching architecture with traffic analysis under a traffic model captured from a real-core network.

  15. The impact of a value-based insurance design plus health coaching on medication adherence and medical spending.

    PubMed

    Musich, Shirley; Wang, Sara; Hawkins, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate medication adherence, medical services utilization, and combined medical and pharmacy expenditures associated with diabetes and hypertension value-based insurance design (VBID) plus health/disease coaching programs implemented by a large employer. A pre/post participant versus nonparticipant study design was used to measure medication possession ratios (MPRs), inpatient admissions, emergency room utilization, and combined medical and pharmacy expenditures for employees/spouses with diabetes (n = 1090; average 23 months follow-up) and hypertension (n = 3254; average 13 months follow-up) participating in a VBID plus health/disease coaching relative to eligible nonparticipants. Outcome measures were propensity score weighted and regression adjusted to estimate the independent impact of the programs. MPRs for diabetes and hypertension were significantly increased 3 to 4 percentage points for VBID participants, while MPRs for respective nonparticipants decreased by about 10 percentage points. Employer-paid pharmacy expenditures increased significantly for both participants with diabetes and hypertension while out-of-pocket patient co-payments decreased significantly. Medical expenditures for diabetes VBID participants decreased but not significantly. Hypertension participants experienced medical expenditure increases. Medical services utilization of inpatient admissions and emergency room visits underwent minimal change. Thus employer-sponsored diabetes and hypertension VBID plus health/disease coaching programs can be expected to lower patient co-payments and significantly increase medication adherence. Meanwhile, medical spending outcomes indicated that increased diabetes and hypertension pharmacy expenditures were partially offset by medical savings (for diabetes) but not sufficiently to be cost neutral. PMID:25247449

  16. Satisfaction of medical students with simulation based learning

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Sajida; Alhamrani, Asma Y.; Khan, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate medical students’ satisfaction with simulation based learning strategy (SBL). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and November 2013 at the College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All third and fourth year medical students (n=185) both males and females were included. A self-developed questionnaire on the effect of SBL was used. Items included were related to knowledge, skill, environment, resources, and faculty. The questionnaire was validated by an expert reviewer, and the reliability was calculated for all the questionnaire items. Responses were measured on a 5 point Likert-type scale, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: The response rate for this study was 62% (n=115). The alpha coefficient for all items was 0.73. Overall, respondents from both years’ students were satisfied with teaching strategy, use of mannequins, and learning environment. The challenges reported were lack of skill-laboratories facilities, students’ cooperation, allocated time for skill-laboratories, and knowledge of instructor. There was a small, but significant difference between the satisfaction scores among genders (p=0.001). Whereas no difference was identified between the participants’ scores on satisfaction with SBL and year of education (p=0.62). Conclusion: Although there were few challenges, most of the students were satisfied that SBL improved their knowledge retention, skills, and communication. PMID:25987117

  17. A Web services-based distributed system with browser-client architecture to promote tele-audiology assessment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianchu; Givens, Gregg D; Wan, Yongbo

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to extend applications of the Internet and other telecommunication means to the assessment of hearing. The newly developed distributed system consists primarily of an application server and its database, and Web services under browser-server architecture to support remote hearing assessment. A pilot study was conducted: three independent audiologists assessed hearing of 25 subjects using testing approaches with different data communication configurations. Analysis of the results demonstrated the feasibility of replacing conventional "face-to-face" tests with the remote hearing tests using the distributed system. Because of its distributed architecture, the present system supports a new service model and separates technical maintenance and clinical services. Consequently, the system shows great potential to benefit the clinical hearing care profession. Future research is planned to apply this system to medical facilities and for distance applications. PMID:19780690

  18. Terpyridine-based metallo-supramolecular architectures: From structure to function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-batal, Hany

    The research and applications of functional materials continue to grow rapidly in order to match the materials and energy needs of an increasing population. In this regard, perylene is a stable, organic material that possesses a rich chemistry and unique chemical, physical, and electronic properties. The molecular organization into predesigned geometries such as: cages, dendrimers, macrocycles and polymers, can add a profound enhancement to the material functional characteristics. At the heart of metallosupramolecular chemistry, tpy-M-tpy binding is a pivotal tool to construct complex and functional architectures. This dissertation reviews the chemical, structural, physical, and electrochemical properties of perylene with an emphasize on its metallosupramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of perylene-containing bis-, tetra kis-, and hexakis-terpyridine ligands along with their corresponding heteroleptic complexes was achieved. These high molecular weight nano-dendritic architectures were characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, and ESI-MS. These complexes exhibit broad absorption spectra (250-625 nm) and high molar absorption coefficients that are proportional to the number of photoactive units. The synthesis of supramolecular dyes based on motifs connected to perylene-core either in bay- or peri-positions was demonastrated. The structures of these materials were confirmed using a combination of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, ESI-MS, and their electrochemical properties were studied via Cyclic Voltametry. These dyes were utilized as active ingredients for DSSCs, of which the photovoltaic properties were described. Fluorescent cyclic metallosupramolecular architectures were obtained via mediated self-assembly of two aminobisterpyridine containing perylene ligands that were synthesized in a multistep procedure, the chemical structure and purity of both ligands and complexes were assured using a combination of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, and ESI-MS. DOSY was utilized to

  19. Fuselets: an agent based architecture for fusion of heterogeneous information and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerer, Jürgen; Heizmann, Michael; Sander, Jennifer

    2006-04-01

    A new architecture for fusing information and data from heterogeneous sources is proposed. The approach takes criminalistics as a model. In analogy to the work of detectives, who attempt to investigate crimes, software agents are initiated that pursue clues and try to consolidate or to dismiss hypotheses. Like their human pendants, they can, if questions beyond their competences arise, consult expert agents. Within the context of a certain task, region, and time interval, specialized operations are applied to each relevant information source, e.g. IMINT, SIGINT, ACINT,..., HUMINT, data bases etc. in order to establish hit lists of first clues. Each clue is described by its pertaining facts, uncertainties, and dependencies in form of a local degree-of-belief (DoB) distribution in a Bayesian sense. For each clue an agent is initiated which cooperates with other agents and experts. Expert agents support to make use of different information sources. Consultations of experts, capable to access certain information sources, result in changes of the DoB of the pertaining clue. According to the significance of concentration of their DoB distribution clues are abandoned or pursued further to formulate task specific hypotheses. Communications between the agents serve to find out whether different clues belong to the same cause and thus can be put together. At the end of the investigation process, the different hypotheses are evaluated by a jury and a final report is created that constitutes the fusion result. The approach proposed avoids calculating global DoB distributions by adopting a local Bayesian approximation and thus reduces the complexity of the exact problem essentially. Different information sources are transformed into DoB distributions using the maximum entropy paradigm and considering known facts as constraints. Nominal, ordinal and cardinal quantities can be treated within this framework equally. The architecture is scalable by tailoring the number of agents

  20. Evaluating Learning among Undergraduate Medical Students in Schools with Traditional and Problem-Based Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the…

  1. Introducing keytagging, a novel technique for the protection of medical image-based tests.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Óscar J; Alesanco, Álvaro; García, José

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces keytagging, a novel technique to protect medical image-based tests by implementing image authentication, integrity control and location of tampered areas, private captioning with role-based access control, traceability and copyright protection. It relies on the association of tags (binary data strings) to stable, semistable or volatile features of the image, whose access keys (called keytags) depend on both the image and the tag content. Unlike watermarking, this technique can associate information to the most stable features of the image without distortion. Thus, this method preserves the clinical content of the image without the need for assessment, prevents eavesdropping and collusion attacks, and obtains a substantial capacity-robustness tradeoff with simple operations. The evaluation of this technique, involving images of different sizes from various acquisition modalities and image modifications that are typical in the medical context, demonstrates that all the aforementioned security measures can be implemented simultaneously and that the algorithm presents good scalability. In addition to this, keytags can be protected with standard Cryptographic Message Syntax and the keytagging process can be easily combined with JPEG2000 compression since both share the same wavelet transform. This reduces the delays for associating keytags and retrieving the corresponding tags to implement the aforementioned measures to only ≃30 and ≃90ms respectively. As a result, keytags can be seamlessly integrated within DICOM, reducing delays and bandwidth when the image test is updated and shared in secure architectures where different users cooperate, e.g. physicians who interpret the test, clinicians caring for the patient and researchers. PMID:25976077

  2. Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and typology of choice architecture interventions that have been implemented within small-scale micro-environments and evaluated for their effects on four key sets of health behaviours: diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion We argue that the limitations of the evidence base are due not simply to an absence of evidence, but also to a prior lack of definitional and conceptual clarity concerning applications of choice architecture to public health intervention. This has hampered the potential for systematic assessment of existing evidence. By seeking to address this issue, we demonstrate how our definition and typology have enabled systematic identification and preliminary mapping of a large body of available evidence for the effects of choice architecture interventions. We discuss key implications for further primary research, evidence synthesis and conceptual development to support the design and evaluation of such interventions. Summary This conceptual groundwork provides a foundation for future research to investigate the effectiveness of choice architecture interventions within micro-environments for changing health behaviour. The approach we used may also serve as a template for mapping other under-explored fields of enquiry. PMID:24359583

  3. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aghdasi, Hadi S.; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-01-01

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of video-based sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  4. Improving Workplace-Based Learning for Undergraduate Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Madiha; Mahboob, Usman

    2015-01-01

    Workplace-based learning is considered as one of the most effective way of translating medical theory into clinical practice. Although employed traditionally at postgraduate level, this strategy can be used in undergraduate students coming for clerkships in clinical departments. There are many challenges to workplace learning such as, unfavorable physical environment, lack of interest by clinical staff and teachers, and lack of student motivation. Clinical teachers can help bridge this gap and improve workplace learning through individual and collaborative team effort. Knowledge of various educational theories and principles and their application at workplace can enhance student learning and motivation, for which faculty development is much needed. Different teaching and learning activities can be used and tailored according to the clinical setting. Active reflection by students and constructive feedback from the clinicians forms the backbone of effective workplace learning. PMID:26649028

  5. [An algorithm of a wavelet-based medical image quantization].

    PubMed

    Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Peng, Chenglin

    2002-12-01

    The compression of medical image is the key to study tele-medicine & PACS. We have studied the statistical distribution of wavelet subimage coefficients and concluded that the distribution of wavelet subimage coefficients is very much similar to that of Laplacian distribution. Based on the statistical properties of image wavelet decomposition, an image quantization algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, we selected the sample-standard-deviation as the key quantization threshold in every wavelet subimage. The test has proved that, the main advantages of this algorithm are simple computing and the predictability of coefficients in different quantization threshold range. Also, high compression efficiency can be obtained. Therefore, this algorithm can be potentially used in tele-medicine and PACS. PMID:12561372

  6. Medical ultrasound imager based on time delay spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heyser, R C; Hestenes, J D; Rooney, J A; Gammell, P M; Le Croissette, D H

    1989-01-01

    A reflection mode proof-of-concept medical ultrasound imager based on time delay spectrometry has been developed and tested. The system uses a broad band swept-frequency signal operating up to 10 MHz. Signal processing using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) permits extraction of range information. The imager has a higher signal-to-noise ratio than pulse-echo systems which allows high resolution at greater depths. The time delay spectrometry (TDS) spread spectrum operates at lower peak intensities than pulse-echo and permits more control of the spectral content and amplitude of the signal. At present, the system is non-real time which degrades in vivo imaging because of averaging over several cardiac cycles and tissue movement. PMID:2643838

  7. Auto-agent: a behavior-based architecture for mobile navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kaoshing; Ju, Ming-Yi

    1998-10-01

    The design and construction of mobile robots is as much art as a science. In hardware architecture, researchers tend to construct a low-cost and reliable platform which equips with various sensory system for sensing the change of the environment to offer useful information to the navigation system. An autonomous navigation system plays a role in an mobile robot as the brain in human being. It generates action command according to those sensory data from the perception system to direct the mobile robot to go to desired positions or accomplish useful tasks without human intervention in real-world. An important problem in autonomous navigation is the need to cope with the large amount of uncertainty that is inherent of natural environment. Therefore the development of techniques for autonomous navigation in real-world environments constitutes one of the major trends in the current research on robotics. Inspired with the concept of software agents, reactive control and behavior-based control, a modular architecture, called Auto-agent, for mobile navigation is proposed. The main characteristic of Auto-agent is as following: Behavioral agents cooperate by means of communicating with other behavioral agents intermittently to achieve their local goal and the goals of the community as a whole because no one individually has sufficient competence, resources and information to solve the entire problem. Auto-agent gains advantages from the characteristics of distributed system, it offers the possibility to find an acceptable solution with a reasonable time and complexity range. Besides, the modular structure is convenient for an engineer to construct a new behavioral agent and to add it into Auto-agent.

  8. The development of microbatteries based on three-dimensional architectures for autonomous micro devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hong-Seok

    2007-12-01

    The goal of fabricating three-dimensional (3D) microbatteries is to improve upon the performance of 2D microbatteries or thin-film batteries by reconfiguring existing materials in a more advanced architecture. 3D battery architectures offer a new approach for miniaturized power sources. These batteries are designed to have a small areal foot print and yet provide sufficient power and energy density to operate autonomous MEMS devices. The more convenient approaches for fabricating such batteries are based on micromachining techniques such as electrodeposition of high aspect ratio metal rods in an array configuration. Three types of three-dimensional microbatteries were fabricated and characterized: Ni-Zn, zinc-air, and Ag-Zn. These different types of microbatteries use different chemistries but all have the common feature of an out-of-plane array of micro-post electrodes. A 3D Ni-Zn microbattery was fabricated and demonstrated proper charge-discharge behavior for the first few cycles. The development of 3D zinc-air microbattery showed high discharge capability under various discharge conditions. Furthermore, performance of 3D zinc-air microbattery was demonstrated by successfully powering an electronic device. During discharge, the 3D zinc-air microbattery exhibited an electrode reaction which formed hollow ZnO electrodes by the Kirkendall effect. This electrode reaction strongly supports the functionality of the 3D microbattery. The fabrication of the Ag-Zn microbattery was accomplished by Ag electrode formation, separator coating, and Zn sedimentation. Due to imperfections in the separator coating, the 3D Ag-Zn microbattery had electrical shorts.

  9. Plot of virtual surgery based on CT medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Limei; Zhang, Chunbo

    2009-10-01

    Although the CT device can give the doctors a series of 2D medical images, it is difficult to give vivid view for the doctors to acknowledge the decrease part. In order to help the doctors to plot the surgery, the virtual surgery system is researched based on the three-dimensional visualization technique. After the disease part of the patient is scanned by the CT device, the 3D whole view will be set up based on the 3D reconstruction module of the system. TCut a part is the usually used function for doctors in the real surgery. A curve will be created on the 3D space; and some points can be added on the curve automatically or manually. The position of the point can change the shape of the cut curves. The curve can be adjusted by controlling the points. If the result of the cut function is not satisfied, all the operation can be cancelled to restart. The flexible virtual surgery gives more convenience to the real surgery. Contrast to the existing medical image process system, the virtual surgery system is added to the system, and the virtual surgery can be plotted for a lot of times, till the doctors have enough confidence to start the real surgery. Because the virtual surgery system can give more 3D information of the disease part, some difficult surgery can be discussed by the expert doctors in different city via internet. It is a useful function to understand the character of the disease part, thus to decrease the surgery risk.

  10. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  11. ARCHITECTURE OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS BASED ON KEPLER DATA: NUMBER OF PLANETS AND COPLANARITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the underlying architecture of planetary systems by deriving the distribution of planet multiplicity (number of planets) and the distribution of orbital inclinations based on the sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our study included solar-like stars and planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and with radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters 1-6. We created models of planetary systems with different distributions of planet multiplicity and inclinations, simulated observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the properties of the transits of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Specifically, we compared with both the Kepler sample's transit numbers and normalized transit duration ratios in order to determine each model's goodness of fit. We did not include any constraints from radial velocity surveys. Based on our best-fit models, 75%-80% of planetary systems have one or two planets with orbital periods less than 200 days. In addition, over 85% of planets have orbital inclinations less than 3 Degree-Sign (relative to a common reference plane). This high degree of coplanarity is comparable to that seen in our solar system. These results have implications for planet formation and evolution theories. Low inclinations are consistent with planets forming in a protoplanetary disk, followed by evolution without significant and lasting perturbations from other bodies capable of increasing inclinations.

  12. Knowledge base and sensor bus messaging service architecture for critical tsunami warning and decision-support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Wächter, J.; Middleton, S. E.; Zlatev, Z.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Loewe, P.

    2012-04-01

    The intelligent management of large volumes of environmental monitoring data for early tsunami warning requires the deployment of robust and scalable service oriented infrastructure that is supported by an agile knowledge-base for critical decision-support In the TRIDEC project (TRIDEC 2010-2013), a sensor observation service bus of the TRIDEC system is being developed for the advancement of complex tsunami event processing and management. Further, a dedicated TRIDEC system knowledge-base is being implemented to enable on-demand access to semantically rich OGC SWE compliant hydrodynamic observations and operationally oriented meta-information to multiple subscribers. TRIDEC decision support requires a scalable and agile real-time processing architecture which enables fast response to evolving subscribers requirements as the tsunami crisis develops. This is also achieved with the support of intelligent processing services which specialise in multi-level fusion methods with relevance feedback and deep learning. The TRIDEC knowledge base development work coupled with that of the generic sensor bus platform shall be presented to demonstrate advanced decision-support with situation awareness in context of tsunami early warning and crisis management.

  13. A 4 GHz 32 bit direct digital frequency synthesizer based on a novel architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wu; Jianwu, Chen; Danyu, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Fan, Jiang; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) architecture based on nonlinear DAC coarse quantization and the ROM-based piecewise approximation method, which has the advantages of high speed, low power and low hardware resources. By subdividing the sinusoid into a collection of phase segments, the same initial value of each segment is realized by a nonlinear DAC. The ROM is decomposed with a coarse ROM and fine ROM using the piecewise approximation method. Then, the coarse ROM stores the offsets between the initial value of the common segment and the initial value of each line in the same segment. Meanwhile, the fine ROM stores the differences between the line values and the initial value of each line. A ROM compression ratio of 32 can be achieved in the case of 11 bit phase and 9 bit amplitude. Based on the above method, a prototype chip was fabricated using 1.4 μm GaAs HBT technology. The measurement shows an average spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 45 dBc, with the worst SFDR only 40.07 dBc at a 4.0 GHz clock. The chip area is 4.6 × 3.7 mm2 and it consumes 7 W from a -4.9 V power supply.

  14. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  15. Total variation minimization-based multimodality medical image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuelin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Mili, Lamine

    2014-09-01

    Since its recent inception, simultaneous image reconstruction for multimodality fusion has received a great deal of attention due to its superior imaging performance. On the other hand, the compressed sensing (CS)-based image reconstruction methods have undergone a rapid development because of their ability to significantly reduce the amount of raw data. In this work, we combine computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single CS-based reconstruction framework. From a theoretical viewpoint, the CS-based reconstruction methods require prior sparsity knowledge to perform reconstruction. In addition to the conventional data fidelity term, the multimodality imaging information is utilized to improve the reconstruction quality. Prior information in this context is that most of the medical images can be approximated as piecewise constant model, and the discrete gradient transform (DGT), whose norm is the total variation (TV), can serve as a sparse representation. More importantly, the multimodality images from the same object must share structural similarity, which can be captured by DGT. The prior information on similar distributions from the sparse DGTs is employed to improve the CT and MRI image quality synergistically for a CT-MRI scanner platform. Numerical simulation with undersampled CT and MRI datasets is conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed hybrid image reconstruction approach. Our preliminary results confirm that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CT and MRI reconstructions when they are applied separately.

  16. A Model-Based Study of On-Board Data Processing Architecture for Balloon-Borne Aurora Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Chester

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of ISAAC design methodology to a balloon-borne payload electronic system for aurora observation. The methodology is composed of two phases, high level design and low level implementation, the focus of this paper is on the high level design. This paper puts the system architecture in the context of a balloon based application but it can be generalized to any airborne/space-borne application. The system architecture includes a front-end detector, its corresponding data processing unit, and a controller. VisualSim has been used to perform modeling and simulations to explore the entire design space, finding optimal solutions that meet system requirements.

  17. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:25704499

  18. Simulator Building as a Problem-Based Learning Approach for Teaching Students in a Computer Architecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Li-minn; Seng, Kah Phooi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach to support and promote deeper student learning in a computer architecture course. A PBL approach using a simulator building activity was used to teach part of the course. The remainder of the course was taught using a traditional lecture-tutorial approach. Qualitative data was collected…

  19. A polarization-based frequency scanning interferometer and the signal processing acceleration method based on parallel processing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Min Young

    FSI system, one of the most promising optical surface measurement techniques, generally results in superior optical performance comparing with other 3-dimensional measuring methods as its hardware structure is fixed in operation and only the light frequency is scanned in a specific spectral band without vertical scanning of the target surface or the objective lens. FSI system collects a set of images of interference fringe by changing the frequency of light source. After that, it transforms intensity data of acquired image into frequency information, and calculates the height profile of target objects with the help of frequency analysis based on FFT. However, it still suffers from optical noise from target surface and relatively long processing time due to the number of images acquired in frequency scanning phase. First, a polarization-based frequency scanning interferometry (PFSI) is proposed for optical noise robustness. It consists of tunable laser for light source, λ/4 plate in front of reference mirror, λ/4 plate in front of target object, polarizing beam splitter, polarizer in front of image sensor, polarizer in front of the fiber coupled light source, λ/2 plate between PBS and polarizer of the light source. Using the proposed system, we can solve the problem low contrast of acquired fringe image by using polarization technique. Also, we can control light distribution of object beam and reference beam. Second, the signal processing acceleration method is proposed for PFSI, based on parallel processing architecture, which consists of parallel processing hardware and software such as GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) and CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). As a result, the processing time reaches into tact time level of real-time processing. Finally, the proposed system is evaluated in terms of accuracy and processing speed through a series of experiment and the obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed system and method.

  20. Functional architectures based on self-assembly of bio-inspired dipeptides: Structure modulation and its photoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chengjun; Liu, Kai; Li, Junbai; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-01

    Getting inspiration from nature and further developing functional architectures provides an effective way to design innovative materials and systems. Among bio-inspired materials, dipeptides and its self-assembled architectures with functionalities have recently been the subject of intensive studies. However, there is still a great challenge to explore its applications likely due to the lack of effective adaptation of their self-assembled structures as well as a lack of understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms. In this context, taking diphenylalanine (FF, a core recognition motif for molecular self-assembly of the Alzheimer's β-amyloid polypeptides) as a model of bio-inspired dipeptides, recent strategies on modulation of dipeptide-based architectures were introduced with regard to both covalent (architectures modulation by coupling functional groups) and non-covalent ways (controlled architectures by different assembly pathways). Then, applications are highlighted in some newly emerging fields of innovative photoelectronic devices and materials, such as artificial photosynthetic systems for renewable solar energy storage and renewable optical waveguiding materials for optoelectronic devices. At last, the challenges and future perspectives of these bio-inspired dipeptides are also addressed. PMID:26365127

  1. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  2. Tensor-scale-based diffusive filtering of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Punam K.

    2004-05-01

    Medical imaging techniques often suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)/signal-to-contrast ratio (CNR). Filtering is an effective technique commonly used to improve the SNR/CNR. A fundamental difficulty in filtering is its smearing effect on important structures along with the suppression of noise. Anisotropic diffusion attempts to partially arrest smoothing across boundaries, which are recognized by high gradients. Improvements to this approach were demonstrated by bringing local "object scale" into the framework that effects intense filtering inside homogeneous regions while constricting the process inside regions containing fine details. A major drawback of previously used spherical object scale concept is its failure to recognize structural orientation and anisotropy. Therefore, the method failed to smooth along an edge or a thin elongated structure. Recently, the notion of tensor scale (in short, t-scale)-a local morphometric descriptor-has been introduced that provides a unified description of local structure size, orientation, and anisotropy. At any point its t-scale is the parametric representation of the largest ellipse (ellipsoid in 3D) centered at that point and contained inside the same homogeneous region. In this paper, a new anisotropic diffusive filtering method is presented, wherein at any location, along any direction, the degree of filtering is governed by t-scale that restricts filtering across boundaries and fine structures while encouraging smoothing along edges or elongated structures. Results of applications of the proposed method on several phantoms and real medical images are presented and its effectiveness is evaluated by comparing it with both spherical scale-based and ordinary diffusive filtering.

  3. A new approach for the forward and backward substitutions of parallel solution of sparse linear equations based on dataflow architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.C.; Wang, H. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents a new parallel computational method to solve the forward and backward substitutions (F/B) of sparse linear equations. The architectural model is a multiprocessor hypercube, based on the Taged Token Dataflow Architecture (TTDA). Communication overhead is considered. The differences of the operating time-units among the subtraction, multiplication, and division are modelled. A processor scheduling algorithm is also introduced. In the algorithm, a highly sparse operational sequence matrix C is developed. From the C matrix, the minimal completion time, the critical path, and the scheduling of the processors for the proposed parallel F/B can be determined. Detailed explanation of the implementation of the TTDA architecture in the proposed method is provided. A number of power systems have been examined and a number of scenarios have been simulated to test the performance of the proposed method. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Texture based feature extraction methods for content based medical image retrieval systems.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Burhan; Baykara, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    The developments of content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems used for image archiving are continued and one of the important research topics. Although some studies have been presented general image achieving, proposed CBIR systems for archiving of medical images are not very efficient. In presented study, it is examined the retrieval efficiency rate of spatial methods used for feature extraction for medical image retrieval systems. The investigated algorithms in this study depend on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), and Gabor wavelet accepted as spatial methods. In the experiments, the database is built including hundreds of medical images such as brain, lung, sinus, and bone. The results obtained in this study shows that queries based on statistics obtained from GLCM are satisfied. However, it is observed that Gabor Wavelet has been the most effective and accurate method. PMID:25227014

  5. Optimizing transformations of stencil operations for parallel cache-based architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.

    1999-06-28

    This paper describes a new technique for optimizing serial and parallel stencil- and stencil-like operations for cache-based architectures. This technique takes advantage of the semantic knowledge implicity in stencil-like computations. The technique is implemented as a source-to-source program transformation; because of its specificity it could not be expected of a conventional compiler. Empirical results demonstrate a uniform factor of two speedup. The experiments clearly show the benefits of this technique to be a consequence, as intended, of the reduction in cache misses. The test codes are based on a 5-point stencil obtained by the discretization of the Poisson equation and applied to a two-dimensional uniform grid using the Jacobi method as an iterative solver. Results are presented for a 1-D tiling for a single processor, and in parallel using 1-D data partition. For the parallel case both blocking and non-blocking communication are tested. The same scheme of experiments has bee n performed for the 2-D tiling case. However, for the parallel case the 2-D partitioning is not discussed here, so the parallel case handled for 2-D is 2-D tiling with 1-D data partitioning.

  6. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-10-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part "how to design superior electrode architectures". In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. PMID:22912066

  7. Multiprocessor architecture to handle TJ-II VXI-based digitization channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crémy, C.; Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; Dulya, C. M.; Portas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The data acquisition System (DAS) of the TJ-II stellerator provides up to 300 digitization channels integrated in register-based VXI modules designed in CIEMAT Laboratories. The modules are embedded into six 13-slot VXI chassis connected to the TJ-II DAS central computer by means of a dual LAN topology. During normal operation, remote control of the VXI systems and channel setup are accomplished through an Ethernet LAN, while two FDDI rings are dedicated to postdischarge fast data transfer. The former network link is performed by the bus controller whereas the latter one is provided through a FDDI node controller installed in the mainframe, thus creating a multiprocessor architecture. Dedicated software, running on the VxWorks operating system, has been developed to provide handling of the VXI systems including the following facilities: mainframe information readout, channel setup, real time digitization handling, and data transfer. This software, implemented in C++, is distributed over the two CPUs. Interprocessor communication for synchronization purposes is based on a backplane shared memory pool.

  8. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  9. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states. PMID:27230218

  10. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M.; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  11. Fast AdaBoost-Based Face Detection System on a Dynamically Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Jinguo; Zhu, Min; Yang, Jun; Shi, Longxing

    An AdaBoost-based face detection system is proposed, on a Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture (CGRA) named “REMUS-II”. Our work is quite distinguished from previous ones in three aspects. First, a new hardware-software partition method is proposed and the whole face detection system is divided into several parallel tasks implemented on two Reconfigurable Processing Units (RPU) and one micro Processors Unit (µPU) according to their relationships. These tasks communicate with each other by a mailbox mechanism. Second, a strong classifier is treated as a smallest phase of the detection system, and every phase needs to be executed by these tasks in order. A phase of Haar classifier is dynamically mapped onto a Reconfigurable Cell Array (RCA) only when needed, and it's quite different from traditional Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) methods in which all the classifiers are fabricated statically. Third, optimized data and configuration word pre-fetch mechanisms are employed to improve the whole system performance. Implementation results show that our approach under 200MHz clock rate can process up-to 17 frames per second on VGA size images, and the detection rate is over 95%. Our system consumes 194mW, and the die size of fabricated chip is 23mm2 using TSMC 65nm standard cell based technology. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first implementation of the cascade Haar classifier algorithm on a dynamically CGRA platform presented in the literature.

  12. Modular Extracellular Sensor Architecture for Engineering Mammalian Cell-based Devices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Engineering mammalian cell-based devices that monitor and therapeutically modulate human physiology is a promising and emerging frontier in clinical synthetic biology. However, realizing this vision will require new technologies enabling engineered circuitry to sense and respond to physiologically relevant cues. No existing technology enables an engineered cell to sense exclusively extracellular ligands, including proteins and pathogens, without relying upon native cellular receptors or signal transduction pathways that may be subject to crosstalk with native cellular components. To address this need, we here report a technology we term a Modular Extracellular Sensor Architecture (MESA). This self-contained receptor and signal transduction platform is maximally orthogonal to native cellular processes and comprises independent, tunable protein modules that enable performance optimization and straightforward engineering of novel MESA that recognize novel ligands. We demonstrate ligand-inducible activation of MESA signaling, optimization of receptor performance using design-based approaches, and generation of MESA biosensors that produce outputs in the form of either transcriptional regulation or transcription-independent reconstitution of enzymatic activity. This systematic, quantitative platform characterization provides a framework for engineering MESA to recognize novel ligands and for integrating these sensors into diverse mammalian synthetic biology applications. PMID:24611683

  13. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-based parallelization of WRF Kessler cloud microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Wang, Jun; Allen Huang, H.-L.; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, graphics processing units (GPUs) have emerged as a low-cost, low-power and a very high performance alternative to conventional central processing units (CPUs). The latest GPUs offer a speedup of two-to-three orders of magnitude over CPU for various science and engineering applications. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the latest-generation numerical weather prediction model. It has been designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. It proves useful for a broad spectrum of applications for domain scales ranging from meters to hundreds of kilometers. WRF computes an approximate solution to the differential equations which govern the air motion of the whole atmosphere. Kessler microphysics module in WRF is a simple warm cloud scheme that includes water vapor, cloud water and rain. Microphysics processes which are modeled are rain production, fall and evaporation. The accretion and auto-conversion of cloud water processes are also included along with the production of cloud water from condensation. In this paper, we develop an efficient WRF Kessler microphysics scheme which runs on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The GPU-based implementation of Kessler microphysics scheme achieves a significant speedup of 70× over its CPU based single-threaded counterpart. When a 4 GPU system is used, we achieve an overall speedup of 132× as compared to the single thread CPU version.

  14. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  15. Lightweight Filter Architecture for Energy Efficient Mobile Vehicle Localization Based on a Distributed Acoustic Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-01-01

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving vehicle and reject the signal from motionless automobiles around the WSN node. A cascade structure between analog envelope detector and digital exponential smoothing filter presents the velocity vector-sensitive output with low analog circuit and digital computation complexity. The optimal parameters in the exponential smoothing filter are obtained by analytical and mathematical methods for maximum variation over the vehicle speed. For stationary targets, the derived simulation based on the acoustic field parameters demonstrates that the system significantly reduces the communication requirements with low complexity and can be expected to extend the operation time considerably. PMID:23979482

  16. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states. PMID:27230218

  17. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  18. Lightweight filter architecture for energy efficient mobile vehicle localization based on a distributed acoustic sensor network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-01-01

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving vehicle and reject the signal from motionless automobiles around the WSN node. A cascade structure between analog envelope detector and digital exponential smoothing filter presents the velocity vector-sensitive output with low analog circuit and digital computation complexity. The optimal parameters in the exponential smoothing filter are obtained by analytical and mathematical methods for maximum variation over the vehicle speed. For stationary targets, the derived simulation based on the acoustic field parameters demonstrates that the system significantly reduces the communication requirements with low complexity and can be expected to extend the operation time considerably. PMID:23979482

  19. A clinical trial of a knowledge-based medical record.

    PubMed

    Safran, C; Rind, D M; Davis, R B; Sands, D Z; Caraballo, E; Rippel, K; Wang, Q; Rury, C; Makadon, H J; Cotton, D J

    1995-01-01

    To meet the needs of primary care physicians caring for patients with HIV infection, we developed a knowledge-based medical record to allow the on-line patient record to play an active role in the care process. These programs integrate the on-line patient record, rule-based decision support, and full-text information retrieval into a clinical workstation for the practicing clinician. To determine whether use of a knowledge-based medical record was associated with more rapid and complete adherence to practice guidelines and improved quality of care, we performed a controlled clinical trial among physicians and nurse practitioners caring for 349 patients infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV); 191 patients were treated by 65 physicians and nurse practitioners assigned to the intervention group, and 158 patients were treated by 61 physicians and nurse practitioners assigned to the control group. During the 18-month study period, the computer generated 303 alerts in the intervention group and 388 in the control group. The median response time of clinicians to these alerts was 11 days in the intervention group and 52 days in the control group (PJJ0.0001, log-rank test). During the study, the computer generated 432 primary care reminders for the intervention group and 360 reminders for the control group. The median response time of clinicians to these alerts was 114 days in the intervention group and more than 500 days in the control group (PJJ0.0001, log-rank test). Of the 191 patients in the intervention group, 67 (35%) had one or more hospitalizations, compared with 70 (44%) of the 158 patients in the control group (PJ=J0.04, Wilcoxon test stratified for initial CD4 count). There was no difference in survival between the intervention and control groups (P = 0.18, log-rank test). We conclude that our clinical workstation significantly changed physicians' behavior in terms of their response to alerts regarding primary care interventions and that these

  20. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  1. Robust learning-based parsing and annotation of medical radiographs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yimo; Peng, Zhigang; Krishnan, Arun; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning-based algorithm for automatic medical image annotation based on robust aggregation of learned local appearance cues, achieving high accuracy and robustness against severe diseases, imaging artifacts, occlusion, or missing data. The algorithm starts with a number of landmark detectors to collect local appearance cues throughout the image, which are subsequently verified by a group of learned sparse spatial configuration models. In most cases, a decision could already be made at this stage by simply aggregating the verified detections. For the remaining cases, an additional global appearance filtering step is employed to provide complementary information to make the final decision. This approach is evaluated on a large-scale chest radiograph view identification task, demonstrating a very high accuracy ( > 99.9%) for a posteroanterior/anteroposterior (PA-AP) and lateral view position identification task, compared with the recently reported large-scale result of only 98.2% (Luo, , 2006). Our approach also achieved the best accuracies for a three-class and a multiclass radiograph annotation task, when compared with other state of the art algorithms. Our algorithm was used to enhance advanced image visualization workflows by enabling content-sensitive hanging-protocols and auto-invocation of a computer aided detection algorithm for identified PA-AP chest images. Finally, we show that the same methodology could be utilized for several image parsing applications including anatomy/organ region of interest prediction and optimized image visualization. PMID:20876012

  2. Gradient-based enhancement of tubular structures in medical images.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-12-01

    Vesselness filters aim at enhancing tubular structures in medical images. The most popular vesselness filters are based on eigenanalyses of the Hessian matrix computed at different scales. However, Hessian-based methods have well-known limitations, most of them related to the use of second order derivatives. In this paper, we propose an alternative strategy in which ring-like patterns are sought in the local orientation distribution of the gradient. The method takes advantage of symmetry properties of ring-like patterns in the spherical harmonics domain. For bright vessels, gradients not pointing towards the center are filtered out from every local neighborhood in a first step. The opposite criterion is used for dark vessels. Afterwards, structuredness, evenness and uniformness measurements are computed from the power spectrum in spherical harmonics of both the original and the half-zeroed orientation distribution of the gradient. Finally, the features are combined into a single vesselness measurement. Alternatively, a structure tensor that is suitable for vesselness can be estimated before the analysis in spherical harmonics. The two proposed methods are called Ring Pattern Detector (RPD) and Filtered Structure Tensor (FST) respectively. Experimental results with computed tomography angiography data show that the proposed filters perform better compared to the state-of-the-art. PMID:26277023

  3. Architecture for a Web-based clinical information system that keeps the design open and the access closed.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J. J.; Sengupta, S.; Clayton, P. D.; Patel, V. L.; Kushniruk, A.; Huang, X.

    1998-01-01

    We are developing the Patient Clinical Information System (PatCIS) project at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center to provide patients with access to health information, including their own medical records (permitting them to contribute selected aspects to the record), educational materials and automated decision support. The architecture of the system allows for multiple, independent components which make use of central services for managing security and usage logging functions. The design accommodates a variety of data entry, data display and decision support tools and provides facilities for tracking system usage and questionnaires. The user interface minimizes hypertext-related disorientation and cognitive overload; our success in this regard is the subject of on-going evaluation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9929194

  4. Architecture for Knowledge-Based and Federated Search of Online Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Martin; Nguyen, Ken; Lovell, Nigel H

    2005-01-01

    Background It is increasingly difficult for clinicians to keep up-to-date with the rapidly growing biomedical literature. Online evidence retrieval methods are now seen as a core tool to support evidence-based health practice. However, standard search engine technology is not designed to manage the many different types of evidence sources that are available or to handle the very different information needs of various clinical groups, who often work in widely different settings. Objectives The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the design considerations and system architecture of a wrapper-mediator approach to federate search system design, including the use of knowledge-based, meta-search filters, and (2) to analyze the implications of system design choices on performance measurements. Methods A trial was performed to evaluate the technical performance of a federated evidence retrieval system, which provided access to eight distinct online resources, including e-journals, PubMed, and electronic guidelines. The Quick Clinical system architecture utilized a universal query language to reformulate queries internally and utilized meta-search filters to optimize search strategies across resources. We recruited 227 family physicians from across Australia who used the system to retrieve evidence in a routine clinical setting over a 4-week period. The total search time for a query was recorded, along with the duration of individual queries sent to different online resources. Results Clinicians performed 1662 searches over the trial. The average search duration was 4.9 ± 3.2 s (N = 1662 searches). Mean search duration to the individual sources was between 0.05 s and 4.55 s. Average system time (ie, system overhead) was 0.12 s. Conclusions The relatively small system overhead compared to the average time it takes to perform a search for an individual source shows that the system achieves a good trade-off between performance and reliability. Furthermore, despite

  5. Feasibility of performing space surveillance tasks with a proposed space-based optical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Schildknecht, Thomas

    Under ESA contract an industrial consortium including Aboa Space Research Oy (ASRO), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB), and the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), proposed the observation concept, developed a suitable sensor architecture, and assessed the performance of a space-based optical (SBO) telescope in 2005. The goal of the SBO instrumentation was to analyse how the existing knowledge gap in the space debris population in the millimetre and centimetre regime may be closed by means of a passive op-tical instrument. SBO was requested to provide statistical information on the space debris population, in terms of number of objects and size distribution. The SBO was considered to be a cost-efficient instrumentation of 20 cm aperture and 6 deg field-of-view with flexible integration requirements. It should be possible to integrate the SBO easily as a secondary payload on satellites launched into low-Earth orbits (LEO), or into geostationary orbit (GEO). Thus the selected mission concept only allowed for fix-mounted telescopes, and the pointing direction could be requested freely. It was shown in the performance analysis that the statistical information on small-sized space debris can only be collected if the observation ranges are comparatively small. Two of the most promising concepts were to observe objects in LEO from a sensor placed into a sun-synchronous LEO, while objects in GEO should be observed from a GEO satellite. Since 2007 ESA focuses space surveillance and tracking activities in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) preparatory program. Ground-based radars and optical telescopes are stud-ied for the build-up and to maintenance of a catalogue of objects. In this paper we analyse how the SBO architecture could contribute to the space surveillance tasks survey and tracking. We assume that the SBO instrumentation is placed into a circular sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km altitude. We discuss the observation conditions of

  6. A WPS Based Architecture for Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. P.; McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; Doutriaux, C.

    2015-12-01

    Faced with unprecedented growth in the Big Data domain of climate science, NASA has developed the Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) framework. This framework enables scientists to execute trusted and tested analysis operations in a high performance environment close to the massive data stores at NASA. The data is accessed in standard (NetCDF, HDF, etc.) formats in a POSIX file system and processed using trusted climate data analysis tools (ESMF, CDAT, NCO, etc.). The framework is structured as a set of interacting modules allowing maximal flexibility in deployment choices. The current set of module managers include: Staging Manager: Runs the computation locally on the WPS server or remotely using tools such as celery or SLURM. Compute Engine Manager: Runs the computation serially or distributed over nodes using a parallelization framework such as celery or spark. Decomposition Manger: Manages strategies for distributing the data over nodes. Data Manager: Handles the import of domain data from long term storage and manages the in-memory and disk-based caching architectures. Kernel manager: A kernel is an encapsulated computational unit which executes a processor's compute task. Each kernel is implemented in python exploiting existing analysis packages (e.g. CDAT) and is compatible with all CDAS compute engines and decompositions. CDAS services are accessed via a WPS API being developed in collaboration with the ESGF Compute Working Team to support server-side analytics for ESGF. The API can be executed using either direct web service calls, a python script or application, or a javascript-based web application. Client packages in python or javascript contain everything needed to make CDAS requests. The CDAS architecture brings together the tools, data storage, and high-performance computing required for timely analysis of large-scale data sets, where the data resides, to ultimately produce societal benefits. It is is currently deployed at NASA in support of the

  7. Motivation and Context-Based Multi-Robot Architecture for Dynamic Task, Role and Behavior Selections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hwan

    This paper proposes a multi-robot coordination architecture for dynamic task, role and behavior selections. The proposed architecture employs the motivation of task, the utility of role, a probabilistic behavior selection and a team strategy for efficient multi-robot coordination. Multiple robots in a team can coordinate with each other by selecting appropriate task, role and behavior in adversarial and dynamic environment. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is demonstrated in dynamic environment robot soccer by carrying out computer simulation and real environment.

  8. A Sustainable Architecture for Lunar Resource Prospecting from an EML-based Exploration Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Post, K.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction - We present a point of departure architecture for prospecting for Lunar Resources from an Exploration Platform at the Earth - Moon Lagrange points. Included in our study are launch vehicle, cis-lunar transportation architecture, habitat requirements and utilization, lander/rover concepts and sample return. Different transfer design techniques can be explored by mission designers, testing various propulsive systems, maneuvers, rendezvous, and other in-space and surface operations. Understanding the availability of high and low energy trajectory transfer options opens up the possibility of exploring the human and logistics support mission design space and deriving solutions never before contemplated. For sample return missions from the lunar surface, low-energy transfers could be utilized between EML platform and the surface as well as return of samples to EML-based spacecraft. Human Habitation at the Exploration Platform - Telerobotic and telepresence capabilities are considered by the agency to be "grand challenges" for space technology. While human visits to the lunar surface provide optimal opportunities for field geologic exploration, on-orbit telerobotics may provide attractive early opportunities for geologic exploration, resource prospecting, and other precursor activities in advance of human exploration campaigns and ISRU processing. The Exploration Platform provides a perfect port for a small lander which could be refueled and used for multiple missions including sample return. The EVA and robotic capabilities of the EML Exploration Platform allow the lander to be serviced both internally and externally, based on operational requirements. The placement of the platform at an EML point allows the lander to access any site on the lunar surface, thus providing the global lunar surface access that is commonly understood to be required in order to enable a robust lunar exploration program. Designing the sample return lander for low

  9. A Critical Time for Medical Education: The Perils of Competence-Based Reform of the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen; Supri, Salinder

    2012-01-01

    Rapid expansion in scientific knowledge, changes in medical practice, and greater demands from patients and society necessitate reform of the medical curriculum. In recognition of this, medical educators across the world have recommended the adoption of competence-based education. This is intended to increase the rigour and relevance of the…

  10. A Community-Based Approach for Integrating Geriatrics and Gerontology into Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Iveris L.; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences.…

  11. Medical Students' Experiences with Addicted Patients: A Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midmer, Deana; Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Project CREATE was an initiative to strengthen undergraduate medical education in addictions. As part of a needs assessment, forty-six medical students at Ontario's five medical schools completed a bi-weekly, interactive web-based survey about addiction-related learning events. In all, 704 unique events were recorded, for an average of 16.7…

  12. Use of web based systems to support postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Tochel, C; Beggs, K; Haig, A; Roberts, J; Scott, H; Walker, K; Watson, M

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND To meet the demands of delivering the Foundation programme across a geographically diverse country, two web based systems (ePortfolio and eLearning) were developed to promote accessibility to training material and assessment tools on standardised platforms. This study evaluated the use of both tools throughout an entire academic year. METHODS All Scottish Foundation trainees' online learning and assessment data in 2007/08 were analysed, providing a national breakdown of post specialty, completion rates of mandatory assessments (including summary analysis of anonymised scores), and trainees' use of non-mandatory learning tools. Independent verification of competence data was sought from Deaneries. RESULTS There were high levels of engagement with both the ePortfolio (75-97% assessment completion) and eLearning systems (89-98% induction course completion), and the majority of trainees completed all required elements. There was extensive use of ePortfolio beyond mandatory levels for recording of learning events, including almost 20 000 personal learning records submitted by second year trainees. There was evidence that ePortfolio was used to record achievement of clinical competence rather than to track improvements towards competence (median workplace based assessment scores were 'high' or 'very high'). Online learning modules received positive feedback and its flexible format suited the trainees' working environment. External verification of formal assessment data revealed good correlation with locally stored outcomes, both indicating approximately 99% programme completion rates. CONCLUSIONS Core components of the Foundation programme have been delivered successfully to thousands of trainees across Scotland using web based systems to deliver and support education and assessment. There is great potential for further exploration of this carefully managed, rich dataset at individual, regional, and national levels to inform the future of medical education

  13. Predicting Medical Specialty Choice: A Model Based on Students' Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadem, Barbara H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A discriminant analysis of objective and subjective measures from the records of students who graduated from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School over a six-year period was used to generate a model for the prediction of medical specialty choice. (Author/MLW)

  14. ICD-9-CM and CPT Based Medical Registry

    PubMed Central

    Milholland, Arthur V.; Greenfield, Arnie; Conn, Alasdair; Pollizzi, Joseph A.; Stega, Mark

    1980-01-01

    A system for coding medical information (injuries, procedures, external causes, demographic data) accurately and completely, and for retrieving the information efficiently, has been designed and implemented at the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems. Descriptions of the coding scheme and the analysis program are given.

  15. A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC

  16. The P-Mesh: A Commodity-based Scalable Network Architecture for Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitzberg, Bill; Kuszmaul, Chris; Stockdale, Ian; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, John; Wong, Parkson; Tweten, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We designed a new network architecture, the P-Mesh which combines the scalability and fault resilience of a torus with the performance of a switch. We compare the scalability, performance, and cost of the hub, switch, torus, tree, and P-Mesh architectures. The latter three are capable of scaling to thousands of nodes, however, the torus has severe performance limitations with that many processors. The tree and P-Mesh have similar latency, bandwidth, and bisection bandwidth, but the P-Mesh outperforms the switch architecture (a lower bound for tree performance) on 16-node NAB Parallel Benchmark tests by up to 23%, and costs 40% less. Further, the P-Mesh has better fault resilience characteristics. The P-Mesh architecture trades increased management overhead for lower cost, and is a good bridging technology while the price of tree uplinks is expensive.

  17. Architectural Blueprint for Plate Boundary Observatories based on interoperable Data Management Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, D. I.; Häner, R.; Schurr, B.; Oncken, O.; Wächter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data management platforms play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology in many scientific disciplines. Through high quality services they support the establishment of efficient and innovative research environments. Well-designed research environments can facilitate the sustainable utilization, exchange, and re-use of scientific data and functionality by using standardized community models. Together with innovative 3D/4D visualization, these concepts provide added value in improving scientific knowledge-gain, even across the boundaries of disciplines. A project benefiting from the added value is the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC). IPOC is a European-South American network to study earthquakes and deformation at the Chilean continental margin and to monitor the plate boundary system for capturing an anticipated great earthquake in a seismic gap. In contrast to conventional observatories that monitor individual signals only, IPOC captures a large range of different processes through various observation methods (e.g., seismographs, GPS, magneto-telluric sensors, creep-meter, accelerometer, InSAR). For IPOC a conceptual design has been devised that comprises an architectural blueprint for a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on an exclusive use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) including visualization components. Following the principles of event-driven service-oriented architectures, the design enables novel processes by sharing and re-using functionality and information on the basis of innovative data mining and data fusion technologies. This platform can help to improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying plate deformations as well as the natural hazards induced by them. Through the use of standards, this blueprint can not only be facilitated for other plate observing systems (e.g., the European Plate

  18. A neural net based architecture for the segmentation of mixed gray-level and binary pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabatabai, Ali; Troudet, Terry P.

    1991-01-01

    A neural-net-based architecture is proposed to perform segmentation in real time for mixed gray-level and binary pictures. In this approach, the composite picture is divided into 16 x 16 pixel blocks, which are identified as character blocks or image blocks on the basis of a dichotomy measure computed by an adaptive 16 x 16 neural net. For compression purposes, each image block is further divided into 4 x 4 subblocks; a one-bit nonparametric quantizer is used to encode 16 x 16 character and 4 x 4 image blocks; and the binary map and quantizer levels are obtained through a neural net segmentor over each block. The efficiency of the neural segmentation in terms of computational speed, data compression, and quality of the compressed picture is demonstrated. The effect of weight quantization is also discussed. VLSI implementations of such adaptive neural nets in CMOS technology are described and simulated in real time for a maximum block size of 256 pixels.

  19. Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Perenzoni, Matteo; Pancheri, Lucio; Stoppa, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensors for time-resolved imaging. The focus of the paper is on pixel architectures featuring small pixel size (<25 μm) and high fill factor (>20%) as a key enabling technology for the successful implementation of high spatial resolution SPAD-based image sensors. A summary of the main CMOS SPAD implementations, their characteristics and integration challenges, is provided from the perspective of targeting large pixel arrays, where one of the key drivers is the spatial uniformity. The main analog techniques aimed at time-gated photon counting and photon timestamping suitable for compact and low-power pixels are critically discussed. The main features of these solutions are the adoption of analog counting techniques and time-to-analog conversion, in NMOS-only pixels. Reliable quantum-limited single-photon counting, self-referenced analog-to-digital conversion, time gating down to 0.75 ns and timestamping with 368 ps jitter are achieved. PMID:27223284

  20. Automation of Column-based Radiochemical Separations: A Comparison of Fluidic, Robotic, and Hybrid Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Farawila, Anne F.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Owsley, Stanley L.

    2011-09-26

    Two automated systems have been developed to perform column-based radiochemical separation procedures. These new systems are compared with past fluidic column separation architectures, with emphasis on setting up samples and columns in parallel, and using disposable components so that no sample contacts any surface that any other sample has contacted. In the first new approach, a general purpose liquid handling robot has been modified and programmed to perform anion exchange separations using 2 mL column bed columns in 6 mL plastic disposable column bodies. In the second new approach, a fluidic system has been developed to deliver clean reagents through disposable manual valves to six disposable columns, with a mechanized fraction collector that positions four rows of six vials below the columns. The samples are delivered to the columns via a manual 3-port valve from disposable syringes. This second approach, a hybrid of fluidic and mechanized components, is simpler and faster in performing anion exchange procedures for the recovery and purification of plutonium from samples.

  1. Massive spatial data network service architecture based on double-cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Lu

    2009-10-01

    It is the tendency for the development of massive spatial data network service to use cluster to enlarge load capacity of spatial data server. In this paper, we use the OSD (Object-based Storage Device) storage cluster as the shared storage of LVS (Linux Virtual Server) server cluster, and use the servers in the server pool of the LVS server cluster as the storage client of the OSD storage cluster, to build a scalable massive spatial data network service architecture, which uses the high scalability of the LVS server cluster and the OSD storage cluster to avoid the bottlenecks of massive spatial data network service bandwidth and storage I/O throughput. Several load balance scheduling algorithms embedded in the LVS server cluster can satisfy the demand of load balance in many applications. But those algorithms can't optimize load balance of spatial data servers, regardless of the features of spatial data. Spatial data in large scale network service application is generally organized according to the global longitude and latitude, and managed according to the principle "vertical hierarchies and horizontal dividing". According to the features of spatial data, we optimize the scheduling algorithm to enhance the Cache utilization efficiency for single spatial data server.

  2. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  3. Implementation and design of a teleoperation system based on a VMEBUS/68020 pipelined architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    A pipelined control design and architecture for a force-feedback teleoperation system that is being implemented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and which will be integrated with the autonomous portion of the testbed to achieve share control is described. At the local site, the operator sees real-time force/torque displays and moves two 6-degree of freedom (dof) force-reflecting hand-controllers as his hands feel the contact force/torques generated at the remote site where the robots interact with the environment. He also uses a graphical user menu to monitor robot states and specify system options. The teleoperation software is written in the C language and runs on MC68020-based processor boards in the VME chassis, which utilizes a real-time operating system; the hardware is configured to realize a four-stage pipeline configuration. The environment is very flexible, such that the system can easily be configured as a stand-alone facility for performing independent research in human factors, force control, and time-delayed systems.

  4. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  5. Reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongyi; Guo, Lili; Zhong, Zhi; Shan, Mingguang; Zhang, Yabin

    2015-02-01

    A reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture is built to measure static and dynamic quantitative phase in a single shot. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, a pinhole mirror, a reflective mirror and two lenses to build a 4f optical system. The pinhole mirror is used as a low-pass spatial filter to generate reference wave. By tilting the reflective mirror, a small angle is created between the object beam and the reference beam to enable an off-axis interferogram. To reconstruct an interferogram with a few fringes, Kreis Fourier method is used to recovery the specimen phase. Using a plano-convex cylinder lens and an evaporative alcohol drop as the specimens, experiments are run to verify the effectiveness and robustness with this interferometer. Experimental results show that this interferometer has not only simple setup and good anti-interference performance, but also good real-time ability, which makes it suitable for dynamic phase measurement.

  6. Motion-sensor fusion-based gesture recognition and its VLSI architecture design for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenping; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Hu, Siqi; Tang, Eugene Y.; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid proliferation of smartphones and tablets, various embedded sensors are incorporated into these platforms to enable multimodal human-computer interfaces. Gesture recognition, as an intuitive interaction approach, has been extensively explored in the mobile computing community. However, most gesture recognition implementations by now are all user-dependent and only rely on accelerometer. In order to achieve competitive accuracy, users are required to hold the devices in predefined manner during the operation. In this paper, a high-accuracy human gesture recognition system is proposed based on multiple motion sensor fusion. Furthermore, to reduce the energy overhead resulted from frequent sensor sampling and data processing, a high energy-efficient VLSI architecture implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA board is also proposed. Compared with the pure software implementation, approximately 45 times speed-up is achieved while operating at 20 MHz. The experiments show that the average accuracy for 10 gestures achieves 93.98% for user-independent case and 96.14% for user-dependent case when subjects hold the device randomly during completing the specified gestures. Although a few percent lower than the conventional best result, it still provides competitive accuracy acceptable for practical usage. Most importantly, the proposed system allows users to hold the device randomly during operating the predefined gestures, which substantially enhances the user experience.

  7. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites. PMID:26049090

  8. A Data System Architecture for Measurement Based Systems: Precipitation Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is changing focus from single satellite missions to measurement oriented programs. An example of this paradigm shift is the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project. GPM is conceptualized as a rolling-wave of measurement possibilities all focused on the key precipitation parameter. In response to this shift to measurement programs and also integral to the ESE s new strategy for processing and management its data, a measurement based approach is also critical for data processing system that support measurement programs like GPM. This paper provides an overview of the paradigm shift from mission to measurement. It also presents a summary of the ESE s new strategy for its data systems. Building on this background the paper details the architectural, design and implementation aspects of the Precipitation Processing System (PPS). The PPS is an evolution of a single point system developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission to a generic precipitation data system. The paper provides the context within which PPS will support the GPM program.

  9. Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Perenzoni, Matteo; Pancheri, Lucio; Stoppa, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensors for time-resolved imaging. The focus of the paper is on pixel architectures featuring small pixel size (<25 μm) and high fill factor (>20%) as a key enabling technology for the successful implementation of high spatial resolution SPAD-based image sensors. A summary of the main CMOS SPAD implementations, their characteristics and integration challenges, is provided from the perspective of targeting large pixel arrays, where one of the key drivers is the spatial uniformity. The main analog techniques aimed at time-gated photon counting and photon timestamping suitable for compact and low-power pixels are critically discussed. The main features of these solutions are the adoption of analog counting techniques and time-to-analog conversion, in NMOS-only pixels. Reliable quantum-limited single-photon counting, self-referenced analog-to-digital conversion, time gating down to 0.75 ns and timestamping with 368 ps jitter are achieved. PMID:27223284

  10. A Grid-Based Architecture for Coupling Hydro-Meteorological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffers, Michael; Straube, Christian; gentschen Felde, Nils; Clematis, Andrea; Galizia, Antonella; D'Agostino, Daniele; Danovaro, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    Computational hydro-meteorological research (HMR) requires the execution of various meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic, and impact models, either standalone or as well-orchestrated chains (workflows). While the former approach is straightforward, the latter one is not because consecutive models may depend on different execution environments, on organizational constraints, and on separate data formats and semantics to be bridged. Consequently, in order to gain the most benefit from HMR model chains, it is of paramount interest a) to seamlessly couple heterogeneous models; b) to access models and data in various administrative domains; c) to execute models on the most appropriate resources available in right time. In this contribution we present our experience in using a Grid-based computing infrastructure for HMR. In particular we will first explore various coupling mechanisms. We then specify an enabling Grid infrastructure to support dynamic model chains. Using the DRIHM project as an example we report on implementation details, especially in the context of the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). Finally, we apply the architecture for hydro-meteorological disaster management and elaborate on the opportunities the Grid infrastructure approach offers in a worldwide context.

  11. Evidence base for pre-employment medical screening.

    PubMed

    Pachman, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the evidence base for the use of pre-employment/pre-placement medical examinations. The use of pre-employment examinations is often driven more by cultural practices than evidence. There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness in preventing health-related occupational risks. Hypertension screening is highlighted as a common pre-employment practice for which there is no standardized criteria to use to determine fitness for work. There are inherent problems in screening for psychiatric disorders and substance abuse as well as potential for racial bias and other unintended negative effects. This paper questions the economic case for this practice and also expresses concerns about paternalism related to identified risk factors. Health assessments should only be included when appropriate to the task environment and the general use of pre-employment exams and drug screening should be eliminated. Generally, a health assessment by questionnaire should suffice. Occupational health providers should advise against the application of physical or mental standards that are not relevant to fulfilment of the essential job functions. Consensus development regarding best practice, as well as consideration for acquiring outcome data related to pre-employment practice, is recommended. PMID:19649367

  12. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  13. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  14. Iris-based medical analysis by geometric deformation features.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Zhang, D; Li, Naimin; Cai, Yan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanguan

    2013-01-01

    Iris analysis studies the relationship between human health and changes in the anatomy of the iris. Apart from the fact that iris recognition focuses on modeling the overall structure of the iris, iris diagnosis emphasizes the detecting and analyzing of local variations in the characteristics of irises. This paper focuses on studying the geometrical structure changes in irises that are caused by gastrointestinal diseases, and on measuring the observable deformations in the geometrical structures of irises that are related to roundness, diameter and other geometric forms of the pupil and the collarette. Pupil and collarette based features are defined and extracted. A series of experiments are implemented on our experimental pathological iris database, including manual clustering of both normal and pathological iris images, manual classification by non-specialists, manual classification by individuals with a medical background, classification ability verification for the proposed features, and disease recognition by applying the proposed features. The results prove the effectiveness and clinical diagnostic significance of the proposed features and a reliable recognition performance for automatic disease diagnosis. Our research results offer a novel systematic perspective for iridology studies and promote the progress of both theoretical and practical work in iris diagnosis. PMID:23144041

  15. All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and designing of reconfigurable logic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-12-01

    The design of all-optical 2 × 2 Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch is proposed and described in this manuscript. Numerical simulation has been done to achieve the performance of the switch. Using this 2 × 2 TOAD based switch, cross-bar network architecture is designed. A reconfigurable logic unit is also proposed in this manuscript, which can perform 16-Boolean logical operations.

  16. Usalpharma: A Cloud-Based Architecture to Support Quality Assurance Training Processes in Health Area Using Virtual Worlds

    PubMed Central

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; Pérez-Blanco, Jonás Samuel; Martín-Suárez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds. PMID:24778593

  17. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-06-21

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymer is given. PMID:25900042

  18. Multimedia based medical instrumentation course in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Istanbullu, Ayhan; Güler, Inan

    2004-10-01

    Computer assisted instruction in education, including biomedical engineering education, has been explored and changed dramatically for more than two decades. The Internet, with its capacity to transmit synchronous and asynchronous audio, text, and graphics, presents educators with tremendous opportunies for distance education and independent learning. In this work, we have developed a new educational hypermedia for medical instrumentation courses. It is designed to be suitable for biomedical and technical curricula where these courses are scheduled. The courseware provides support for the education of medical instrumentation. The work is presented herein to provide multimedia course material with animations to assist learning some key Medical Instrumentation topics on the World Wide Web. PMID:15527032

  19. Prescription medication abuse and illegitimate internet-based pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Foster, Susan E; Califano, Joseph A

    2011-12-20

    Abuse of controlled prescription medications in the United States exceeds that of all illicit drugs combined except marijuana and has grown considerably in the past decade. Although available through traditional channels, controlled prescription medications can also be purchased on the Internet without a prescription. This issue has gained the attention of federal regulators, law enforcement, and the media, but physician awareness of the problem is scarce. This article describes the nature of the problem and its magnitude, discusses the challenges to federal and private efforts to combat illegitimate online pharmacies, and outlines strategies for physicians to recognize and minimize the unwarranted effects of the availability of these medications on the Internet. PMID:22184692

  20. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.