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1

Warming Arctic, weakening polar vortex and winter cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatiotemporal patterns of air temperature trends (1958-2012) are evaluated using reanalysis datasets and radiosonde data. Our analysis demonstrates large discrepancies between the reanalysis datasets, possibly due to differences in the data assimilation procedures as well as sparseness and inhomogeneity of high-latitude observations. A change of sign in the winter temperature trend from negative to positive in the mid- to late 1980s is documented in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere with a maximum over the Canadian Arctic. This change from cooling to warming tendency is associated with weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex and shift of its center toward the Siberian coast and possibly can be explained by the changes in the dynamics of the Arctic Oscillation. This pattern is likely linked to the observed multi-decadal variability in the Arctic with implications for recently observed winter cooling in Siberia and continental United States. Possible dynamical mechanisms linking the weakening of the polar vortex and weather in mid-latitudes are demonstrated in a number of model frameworks.

Alexeev, Vladimir; Esau, Igor; Outten, Stephen

2014-05-01

2

Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic polar vortex in winter is known to be chemically primed for ozone depletion, yet it does not exhibit the large seasonal ozone decrease that characterizes its southern counterpart. This difference may be due in part to a net flux of ozone-rich air through the Arctic vortex, which can mask ozone loss. But by using a chemically con-served tracer

M. H. Proffitt; J. J. Margitan; K. K. Kelly; M. Loewenstein; J. R. Podolske; K. R. Chan

1990-01-01

3

Weakening of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex by Arctic Sea-Ice Loss  

SciTech Connect

Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea ice, the mechanism that links sea ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of debate. Here, by conducting observational analyses and model experiments, we show how Arctic sea ice loss and cold winters in extra-polar regions are dynamically connected through the polar stratosphere. We find that decreased sea ice cover during early winter months (November-December), especially over the Barents-Kara seas, enhance the upward propagation of planetary-scale waves with wavenumbers of 1 and 2, subsequently weakening the stratospheric polar vortex in mid-winter (January- February). The weakened polar vortex preferentially induces a negative phase of Arctic Oscillation at the surface, resulting in low temperatures in mid-latitudes.

Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Joong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Shim, Taehyoun; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2014-09-02

4

Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic polar vortex in winter is known to be chemically primed for ozone depletion, yet it does not exhibit the large seasonal ozone decrease that characterizes its southern counterpart. This difference may be due in part to a net flux of ozone-rich air through the Arctic vortex, which can mask ozone loss. But by using a chemically conserved tracer as a reference, significant ozone loss can be identified. This loss is found to be correlated with high levels of chlorine monoxide, suggesting that much of the decrease in ozone is caused by anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons.

Proffitt, M. H.; Margitan, J. J.; Kelly, K. K.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.

1990-01-01

5

Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta about 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(sub y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced (sub y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (about 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micron) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

1998-01-01

6

Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta = 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NOy) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NOy at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approx. 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micrometers) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoerberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.

1998-01-01

7

Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta approximately 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NO(y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approximately 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micrometers) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range Transport of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

1998-01-01

8

Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (0-450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NO(y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approximately 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 microns) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of 0 is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

1998-01-01

9

Arctic Vortex  

... within the cloud layer downwind of the obstacle. These turbulence patterns are known as von Karman vortex streets. In these images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), an impressive vortex pattern continues for ...

2013-06-26

10

Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine activation in the Arctic is investigated by examining different parameterizations for uptake coefficients on stratospheric aerosols, high-resolution in-situ measurements and vortex-wide satellite observations. The parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry on liquid aerosols are most sensitive to temperature with the reaction rates doubling for every 1 K increase in temperature. However, differences between the currently available parameterizations are negligible. For Nitric Acid Trihydrate particles (NAT) the major factors of uncertainty are the number density of nucleated particles and different parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry. These two factors induce an uncertainty that covers several orders of magnitude on the reaction rate. Nonetheless, since predicted reaction rates on liquid aerosols always exceed those on NAT, the overall uncertainty for chlorine activation is small. In-situ observations of ClOx from Arctic winters in 2005 and 2010 are used to evaluate the heterogeneous chemistry parameterizations. The conditions for these measurements proved to be very different between those two winters with HCl being the limiting reacting partner for the 2005 measurements and ClONO2 for the 2010 measurements. Modeled levels of chlorine activation are in very good agreement with the in-situ observations and the surface area provided by Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) has only a limited impact on modeled chlorine activation. This indicates that the parameterizations give a good representation of the processes in the atmosphere. Back-trajectories started on the location of the observations in 2005 indicate temperatures on the threshold for PSC formation, hence the surface area is mainly provided by the background aerosol. Still, the model shows additional chlorine activation during this time-frame, providing cautionary evidence for chlorine activation even in the absence of PSCs. Vortex-averaged satellite observations by the MLS instrument also show no definite connection between chlorine activation and PSC formation. The inter -and intra-annual variability of vortex-average HCl and HNO3 based on MLS observations is examined for the Arctic winters 2004/2005 to 2010/2011. These observations show that removal of HCl and HNO3 from the gas-phase are not correlated. HNO3 loss exhibits great inter-annual variability depending on prevailing temperatures while HCl loss is continuous through December without considerable inter- or intra-annual variability. Only the recovery of HCl in late winter depends on the level of denitrification. Hence, the occurrence of HNO3 containing PSC particles does not seem to have a significant effect on the speed of initial chlorine activation on a vortex-wide scale.

Wegner, T.; Grooß, J.-U.; von Hobe, M.; Stroh, F.; Sumi?ska-Ebersoldt, O.; Volk, C. M.; Hösen, E.; Mitev, V.; Shur, G.; Müller, R.

2012-11-01

11

A Possible Explanation on the Dynamical Linkage between Arctic Sea-ice Loss and Stratospheric Polar Vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abrupt retreat of Arctic sea-ice in recent several decades and associated atmospheric circulation changes are debating issue. In particular, what brings a lagged connection between sea-ice and atmospheric circulation remains unclear. In this study, we propose that Arctic sea-ice loss in autumn (October-December) has likely affected stratospheric polar vortex and temperature in winter (January-March). During recent two decades a large-scale wave pattern has emerged in mid-troposphere in autumn, which is characterized by anomalous high centered over Eastern Europe and elongated low along the wave-guide of polar jet. At the same time, stratospheric polar vortex in subsequent winter has weakened substantially. Statistical analysis shows that both of these trends are significantly correlated with the Arctic sea-ice melting in autumn. With a simple linear model experiment, it is shown that the enhanced diabatic heating due to the sea-ice melting can generate a similar large-scale wave as observed. Furthermore, this wave pattern highly projects onto the climatological wave-number 1 stationary wave, driving stronger planetary-scale wave propagation from the troposphere to the stratosphere through constructive wave interference. The resulting stratospheric change might contribute to the weakening of stratospheric polar vortex during last two decades. Although more quantitative investigations are needed, this result suggests that Arctic sea-ice change might play a broader role in global climate change than what is currently thought of.

Kim, B.; Min, S.; Son, S.; Jeong, J.; Kim, S.

2012-12-01

12

Polar Vortex Conditions During the 1995-96 Arctic Winter: MLS CL0 and HNO(sub 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric CLO and HNO(sub 3) during the 1995-96 Arctic winter are presented. The 1995-96 Arctic winter was both colder and more persistently cold than usual, leading to an enhancement in lower stratospheric CLO of greater magnitude, vertical extent, and duration than has been previously observed in the Arctic. Vortex concentrations of HNO(sub 3) in mid-December were large due to diabetic decent. Trajectory calculations indicate that localized severe depletions of gas-phase HNO(sub 3) in mid-February and early March did not arise from intrainment of midlatitude air into the vortex and were therefore probably related to polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation.

Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

1996-01-01

13

Enhancements of the refractory submicron aerosol fraction in the Arctic polar vortex: feature or exception?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements with a four-channel stratospheric condensation particle counter (CPC) were conducted at up to 20 km altitude on board the aircraft M-55 Geophysica from Kiruna, Sweden, in January through March (EUPLEX 2003, RECONCILE 2010) and in December (ESSenCe 2011). During all campaigns air masses from the upper stratosphere and mesosphere were subsiding inside the Arctic winter vortex, thus initializing a transport of refractory aerosol into the lower stratosphere (? < 500 K). The strength and extent of this downward transport varied between the years depending on the dynamical evolution of the vortex. Inside the vortex and at potential temperatures ? ? 450 K around 11 submicron particles per cm3 were generally detected. Up to 8 of these 11 particles per cm3 were found to contain thermo-stable (at 250 °C) residuals with diameters of 10 nm to about 1 ?m. Particle mixing ratios (150 mg-1) and fractions of non-volatile particles (75% of totally detected particles) exhibited highest values in air masses having the lowest content of nitrous oxide (70 nmol mol-1 of N2O). This indicates that refractory aerosol originates from the upper stratosphere or the mesosphere. Derived from the mixing ratio of the simultaneously measured long-lived tracer N2O, an empirical index serves to differentiate probed air masses according to their origin: inside the vortex, the vortex edge region, or outside the vortex. Previously observed high fractions of refractory submicron aerosol in the 2003 Arctic vortex were ascribed to unusually strong subsidence during that winter. However, measurements under perturbed vortex conditions in 2010 and during early winter in December 2011 revealed similarly high values. Thus, the abundance of refractory aerosol in the lower stratosphere within the Arctic vortices appears to be a regular feature rather than the exception. During December, the import from aloft into the lower stratosphere appears to be developing; thereafter the abundance of refractory aerosol inside the vortex reaches its highest levels in March. The correlations of refractory aerosol with N2O suggest that, apart from mean subsidence, diabatic dispersion inside the vortex significantly contributes to the transport of particles to the Arctic lower stratosphere. A measurement-based estimate of the total mass of refractory aerosol inside the vortex is provided for each campaign. Based on the derived increase of particle mass in the lower stratospheric vortex (100-67 hPa pressure altitude) by a factor of 4.5 between early and late winter, we estimate the total mass of mesospheric particles deposited over the winter 2009/2010 in the entire Arctic vortex to range between 77 × 103 and 375 × 106 kg. This estimate is compared with the expected atmospheric influx of meteoritic material (110 ± 55 × 103 kg per day). Such estimates at present still hold considerable uncertainties, which are discussed in this article. Nevertheless, the results enable placing constraints on the shape of the so far unknown size distribution of refractory aerosol within the vortex.

Weigel, R.; Volk, C. M.; Kandler, K.; Hösen, E.; Günther, G.; Vogel, B.; Grooß, J.-U.; Khaykin, S.; Belyaev, G. V.; Borrmann, S.

2014-11-01

14

Ozone depletion in filaments of the Arctic Polar Vortex observed during the first Global Hawk UAS science mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important potential uses of the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in scientific research is to study stratospheric ozone (O3) depletion in polar regions. Manned flights involve remote and hazardous duty, which pose great risks to pilots, crew, and scientists. Arctic ozone depletion observed in the spring of 2010 by satellites, manned aircraft campaigns, ground-base stations was less severe than that observed this year (2011). The Global Hawk UAS flight on 23 April 2010 was the first to observe ozone-depleted air with a UAS platform. Temperatures in the polar vortex were cold enough for Type II Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) to form for a short period (days) at 50 hPa in 2010, and cold temperatures existed for almost 2 months for Type I PSC formation. Based on the NOAA Unmanned aircraft systems Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) ozone versus nitrous oxide tracer correlation plot (below), there is 21% less ozone in air from a polar filament sampled on 7 April 2010 compared to the Arctic air sampled later on 23 April 2010. The NOAA UAS Fast Ozone Instrument showed a similar pattern with respect to N2O. Age-of-air values derived from on board SF6 observations were about 5 years in the filament versus about 3 years outside the filament in the subsequent polar flight. The Global Hawk UAS flights were part of the Global Hawk Pacific Experiment (GloPac), which demonstrated flights up to 28.6 hr duration, altitudes as high as 19.8 km and a maximum range of 9200 nm while carrying a payload of in situ and remote instrumentation for atmospheric chemical and aerosol tracers. This first science mission of the NASA Global Hawk UAS demonstrated its huge potential for stratospheric ozone research over remote and hazardous polar areas.

Elkins, J. W.; Hintsa, E. J.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Moore, F. L.; Gao, R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Patrick, L.; Johnson, B. J.; Ray, E. A.; Nance, D.; Fahey, D. W.; Newman, P. A.

2011-12-01

15

Chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic polar vortex in the winter of 1991- 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ measurements of chlorine monoxide, bromine monoxide, and ozone are extrapolated globally, with the use of meteorological tracers, to infer the loss rates for ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) in the winter of 1991-1992. The analysis indicates removal of 15 to 20 percent of ambient ozone because of elevated concentrations of chlorine monoxide and bromine monoxide. Observations during AASE II define rates of removal of chlorine monoxide attributable to reaction with nitrogen dioxide (produced by photolysis of nitric acid) and to production of hydrochloric acid. Ozone loss ceased in March as concentrations of chlorine monoxide declined. Ozone losses could approach 50 percent if regeneration of nitrogen dioxide were inhibited by irreversible removal of nitrogen oxides (denitrification), as presently observed in the Antarctic, or without denitrification if inorganic chlorine concentrations were to double.

Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Proffitt, M. H.

1993-01-01

16

Titan's Winter Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

2008-01-01

17

The Arctic Vortex in March 2011: A Dynamical Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the record ozone loss observed in March 2011, dynamical conditions in the Arctic stratosphere were unusual but not unprecedented. Weak planetary wave driving in February preceded cold anomalies in t he polar lower stratosphere in March and a relatively late breakup of the Arctic vortex in April. La Nina conditions and the westerly phas e of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) were observed in March 201 1. Though these conditions are generally associated with a stronger vortex in mid-winter, the respective cold anomalies do not persist t hrough March. Therefore, the La Nina and QBO-westerly conditions cannot explain the observed cold anomalies in March 2011. In contrast, po sitive sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific may ha ve contributed to the unusually weak tropospheric wave driving and s trong Arctic vortex in late winter 2011.

Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Newman, Paul A.; Garfinkel,Chaim I.

2011-01-01

18

Quantifying Subsidence in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying the subsidence of the polar winter stratospheric vortex is essential to the analysis of ozone depletion, as chemical destruction often occurs against a large, altitude-dependent background ozone concentration. Using N2O measurements made during SOLVE on a variety of platforms (ER-2, in-situ balloon and remote balloon), the 1999-2000 Arctic winter subsidence is determined from N2O-potential temperature correlations along several N2O isopleths. The subsidence rates are compared to those determined in other winters, and comparison is also made with results from the SLIMCAT stratospheric chemical transport model.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Ray, Eric A.; Sen, Bhaswar; Margitan, James J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

19

Properties of circularly polarized vortex beams.  

PubMed

The properties of circularly polarized vortex beams in cylindrical polarization bases are studied. A circularly polarized vortex beam is decomposed into radial and azimuthal polarization. With the proper combination of vortex charge and the handedness of the circular polarization, a focal field with an extremely strong longitudinal component as well as a flat-topped profile can be obtained. The cylindrical decomposition also sheds light on the connections between orbital angular momentum and the spin of the light beams. PMID:16599194

Zhan, Qiwen

2006-04-01

20

Synoptic Evolution of the Arctic Vortex During Elevated Stratopause Events: WACCM vs. Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the Arctic polar vortex is diagnosed during 15 elevated stratopause (ES) events using 40 years of output from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). For each event, stratopause height maxima are interpreted in the context of the structure of the Arctic vortex. The WACCM results are compared to the 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013 ES events observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Arctic vortex in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) version 5 analyses. The stratopause first reforms at high altitudes over confined geographic regions before it becomes elevated over the entire polar cap. Thus, defining the day that the stratopause reformed using polar cap averaged temperatures results in a later date than if polar maps of stratopause height are used. Even once an ES event has started based on polar cap mean temperatures, the ES is not at a uniform altitude over the polar cap. Complex patterns change rapidly from day-to-day. ES events simulated by WACCM are zonally asymmetric 33% of the time due to large amplitude planetary waves in the upper stratosphere. This frequency agrees with observations in that the 2012 ES event was zonally asymmetric. For the 66% of ES events that are zonally symmetric in a monthly mean following each event, there are significant periods when zonal symmetry is violated and the vortex structure tilts westward with height over 270o in longitude.

Harvey, V.; Collins, R. L.; Randall, C. E.

2013-12-01

21

Microphysical properties of synoptic-scale polar stratospheric clouds: in situ measurements of unexpectedly large HNO3-containing particles in the Arctic vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2010 and December 2011, synoptic-scale polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) fields were probed during seven flights of the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interaction) and the ESSenCe (ESSenCe: ESA Sounder Campaign) projects. Particle size distributions in a diameter range between 0.46 and 40?m were recorded by four different optical in situ instruments. Three of these particle instruments are based on the detection of forward-scattered light by single particles. The fourth instrument is a grayscale optical array imaging probe. Optical particle diameters of up to 35?m were detected with particle number densities and total particle volumes exceeding previous Arctic measurements. Also, gas-phase and particle-bound NOy was measured, as well as water vapor concentrations. The optical characteristics of the clouds were measured by the remote sensing lidar MAL (Miniature Aerosol Lidar) and by the in situ backscatter sonde MAS (Multiwavelength Aerosol Scatterometer), showing the synoptic scale of the encountered PSCs. The particle mode below 2?m in size diameter has been identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS) droplets. The PSC particles in the size range above 2?m in diameter are considered to consist of nitric acid hydrates, and the particles' high HNO3 content was confirmed by the NOy instrument. Assuming a particle composition of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the optically measured size distributions result in particle-phase HNO3 mixing ratios exceeding available stratospheric values. Therefore the measurement uncertainties concerning probable overestimations of measured particle sizes and volumes are discussed in detail. We hypothesize that either a strong asphericity or an alternate particle composition (e.g., water ice coated with NAT) could explain our observations. In particular, with respect to the denitrification by sedimentation of large HNO3-containing particles, generally considered to be NAT, our new measurements raise questions concerning composition, shape and nucleation pathways. Answering these would improve the numerical simulation of PSC microphysical processes like cloud particle formation, growth and denitrification, which is necessary for better predictions of future polar ozone losses, especially under changing global climate conditions. Generally, it seems that the occurrence of large NAT particles - sometimes termed "NAT rocks" - are a regular feature of synoptic-scale PSCs in the Arctic.

Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Schlager, H.; Luo, B.; Frey, W.; Klingebiel, M.; Weigel, R.; Ebert, M.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Woiwode, W.; Oelhaf, H.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stratmann, G.; Grooß, J.-U.; Günther, G.; Vogel, B.; Müller, R.; Krämer, M.; Meyer, J.; Cairo, F.

2014-10-01

22

Observations of filamentary structures near the vortex edge in the Arctic winter lower stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRISTA-NF (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers) instrument is an airborne infrared limb sounder operated aboard the Russian research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The instrument successfully participated in a large Arctic aircraft campaign within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) project in Kiruna (Sweden) from January to March 2010. This paper concentrates on the measurements taken during one flight of the campaign, which took place on 2 March in the vicinity of the polar vortex. We present two-dimensional cross-sections of derived volume mixing ratios for the trace gases CFC-11, O3, and ClONO2 with an unprecedented vertical resolution of about 500 to 600 m for a large part of the observed altitude range (? 6-19 km) and a dense horizontal sampling along flight direction of ? 15 km. The trace gas distributions show several structures, for example a part of the polar vortex and a vortex filament, which can be identified by means of O3-CFC-11 tracer-tracer correlations. The observations made during this flight are interpreted using the chemistry and transport model CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere). Comparisons of the observations with the model results are used to assess the performance of the model with respect to advection, mixing, and the chemistry in the polar vortex. These comparisons confirm the capability of CLaMS to reproduce even very small-scale structures in the atmosphere, which partly have a vertical extent of only 1 km. Based on the good agreement between simulation and observation, we use artificial (passive) tracers, which represent different air mass origins (e.g. vortex, tropics), to further analyse the CRISTA-NF observations in terms of the composition of air mass origins. These passive tracers clearly illustrate the observation of filamentary structures that include tropical air masses. A characteristic of the Arctic winter 2009/10 was a sudden stratospheric warming in December that led to a split of the polar vortex. The vortex re-established at the end of December. Our passive tracer simulations suggest that large parts of the re-established vortex consisted to about 45% of high- and mid-latitude air.

Kalicinsky, C.; Grooß, J.-U.; Günther, G.; Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Höfer, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Knieling, P.; Olschewski, F.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2013-11-01

23

Microphysical properties of synoptic scale polar stratospheric clouds: in situ measurements of unexpectedly large HNO3 containing particles in the Arctic vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2010 and December 2011 synoptic scale PSC fields were probed during seven flights of the high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interaction.) and the ESSenCe (ESSenCe: ESA Sounder Campaign) projects. Particle size distributions in a diameter range between 0.46 ?m and 40 ?m were recorded simultaneously by up to four different optical in situ instruments. Three of these particle instruments are based on the detection of forward scattered light by single particles. The fourth instrument is a grey scale optical array imaging probe. Optical particle diameters of up to 35 ?m were detected with particle number densities and total particle volumes exceeding previous Arctic measurements. Also, gas phase and particle bound NOy were measured, as well as water vapor concentrations, and other variables. Two remote sensing particle instruments, the Miniature Aerosol Lidar (MAL) and the backscatter sonde (MAS, Multiwavelenght Aerosol Scatterometer) showed the synoptic scale of the encountered PSCs. The particle mode below 2 ?m in size diameter has been identified as supercooled ternary solution droplets (STS). The PSC particles in the size range above 2 ?m in diameter are considered to consist of nitric acid hydrates or ice, and the particles' high HNO3 content was confirmed by the NOy instrument. Assuming a particle composition of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the optically measured size distributions result in particle-phase HNO3 mixing ratios exceeding available stratospheric values. In particular, with respect to the denitrification by sedimentation of large HNO3-contaning particles, generally considered as NAT, our new measurements raise questions concerning composition, shape and nucleation pathways. Measurement uncertainties are discussed concerning probable overestimations of measured particle sizes and volumes. We hypothesize that either a strong asphericity or the particle composition (e.g. water-ice coated with NAT) could explain our observations.

Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Schlager, H.; Luo, B.; Frey, W.; Klingebiel, M.; Weigel, R.; Ebert, M.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Woiwode, W.; Oelhaf, H.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stratmann, G.; Grooß, J.-U.; Günther, G.; Vogel, B.; Müller, R.; Krämer, M.; Meyer, J.; Cairo, F.

2014-05-01

24

On the Origin of Polar Vortex Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of the multi-year HALOE CH4 data set, together with some comparisons of forward with back trajectory calculations which we have carried out, has motivated us to reexamine the question of polar vortex descent. Three-dimensional diabatic trajectory calculations have been carried out for the seven month fall to spring period in both the northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH) polar stratosphere for the years 1992-1999. These computations are compared to fixed descent computations where the parcels were fixed at their latitude-longitude locations and allowed to descend without circulating. The forward trajectory computed descent is always less than the fixed descent due to horizontal parcel motions and variations in heating rates with latitude and longitude. Although the forward calculations estimate the maximum amount of descent that can occur, they do not necessarily indicate the actual origin of springtime vortex air. This is because more equator-ward air can be entrained within the vortex during its formation. To examine the origin of the springtime vortex air, the trajectory model was run backward for seven months from spring to fall. The back trajectories show a complex distribution of parcels in which one population originates in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere and experiences considerable descent in the polar regions, while the remaining parcels originate at lower altitudes of the middle and lower stratosphere and are mixed into the polar regions during vortex formation without experiencing as much vertical transport. The amount of descent experienced by the first population shows little variability from year to year, while the computed descent and mixing of the remaining parcels show considerable interannual variability due to the varying polar meteorology. Because of this complex parcel distribution it is not meaningful to speak of a net amount of descent experienced over the entire winter period. Since the back trajectories indicate that much of the air can come from lower altitudes than would be implied by the forward calculations, using a comparison between pre-winter and post-winter tracer profiles to estimate the amount of descent over this period will give erroneous descent amounts. In order to evaluate the computed descent, spring methane amounts were computed by mapping HALOE fall observations onto the final latitude-altitude locations of the back trajectories. These locations indicate the origin of the spring vortex air. The agreement between the computed means and the spring HALOE means is generally within 0.1-0.2 ppmv in the NH and 0.1-0.4 ppmv in the SH.

Rosenfield, J. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

25

Volcanoes, Polar Clouds and Arctic Ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations and model calculations show 5 to 10% local column ozone loss in some tropical and mid latitude locations, following El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo eruptions. The rapid deepening of the Antarctic ozone hole in the early 1980s has also been partially attributed to chemistry on volcanic aerosols from a number of large eruptions. Here the effects of volcanoes on Arctic polar processes are explored. Large polar stratospheric cloud particles that cause denitrification cannot form in a volcanically perturbed environment. Denitrification can increase Arctic ozone loss by up to 30% in a future colder climate. However, we show that enhanced chemical processing on volcanic aerosols can increase Arctic ozone loss in a cold year by about 60% independent of denitrification. A coupled chemistry-microphysics model is used to show that widespread distribution of volcanic aerosols in 2000 could have caused severe springtime ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere. While, volcanic aerosols can strongly affect the current Arctic column ozone abundance in a cold year, denitrification effects on ozone can only become important in a much colder lower stratosphere.

Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

26

Polar Stratospheric Descent of NO(y) and CO and Arctic Denitrification During Winter 1992-1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations inside the November 1994 Antarctic stratospheric vortex and inside the April 1993 remnant Arctic stratospheric vortex by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer are reported. In both instances, elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRS) of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. A peak Antarctic CO VMR of 60 ppbv (where 1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit Volume) was measured at a potential temperature of 710 K (about 27 km), about 1 km below the altitude of a pocket of elevated NO(y) (total reactive nitrogen) at a deep minimum in N2O (<5 ppbv). The Arctic observations also show a region of elevated vortex CO with a peak VMR of 90 ppbv it 630-670 K (-25 km) but no corresponding enhancement in NO(sub y) perhaps because of stronger dynamical activity in the northern hemisphere polar winter and/or interannual variability in the production of mesospheric or lower thermospheric NO. By comparing vortex and extravortex observations of NO(y) obtained at the same N2O VMR, Arctic vortex denitrification of 5 +/- 2 ppbv at 470 K (at approximately 18 km) is inferred. We show that our conclusion of substantial Arctic winter 1992-1993 denitrification is robust by comparing our extravortex observations with previous polar measurements obtained over a wide range of winter conditions. Correlations of NO(y) with N2O measured at the same potential temperature by ATMOS in the Arctic vortex and at midlatitudes on board the ER-2 aircraft several weeks later lie along the same mixing line. The result demonstrates the consistency of the two data sets and confirms that the ER-2 sampled fragments of the denitrified Arctic vortex following its breakup. An analysis of the ATMOS Arctic measurements of total hydrogen shows no evidence for significant dehydration inside the vortex.

Rinsland, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Gunson, M. R.; Solomon, S.; Zander, R.; Mahieu, E.; Goldman, A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Irion, F. W.; Chang, A. Y.

1999-01-01

27

Ozone depletion in the Arctic vortex at Alert during February 1989  

SciTech Connect

Evidence for an apparent chemical depletion of ozone was observed in the Arctic polar vortex during February 1989 in the form of a depleted layer in the ozone mixing ratio altitude profile. The measurements of the distribution of ozone partial pressure in the polar vortex were conducted with ECC ozonesondes which covered the altitude range from 1 to 30 km. These balloon measurements demonstrated a depleted layer in the profile at altitudes from 18 to 24 km. The meteorological ozonesonde balloon ascents took place from January 24 to February 22, 1989 from Alert, Canada at 82.5 N. A comparison of the late February ozone profiles with the late January ozone profiles indicates that the depletion was due to a process which may have occurred while the polar air was partially in sunlight. The depleted layer was similar to that observed from the South Pole base in the Antarctic inside the ozone hole in mid-September. The depletion may have commenced at high altitudes above 22 km and moved downwards during February in a manner similar to the process in September in the Antarctic. Polar stratospheric clouds were previously observed in mid-January over the altitude regime from 16 to 24 km.

Evans, W.F.J. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada))

1990-02-01

28

Influence of projected Arctic sea ice loss on polar stratospheric ozone and circulation in spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of projected Arctic sea ice loss on the stratosphere is investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a state-of-the-art coupled chemistry climate model. Two 91-year simulations are conducted: one with a repeating seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice for the late twentieth-century, taken from the fully coupled WACCM historical run; the other with Arctic sea ice for the late twenty-first century, obtained from the fully coupled WACCM RCP8.5 run. In response to Arctic sea ice loss, polar cap stratospheric ozone decreases by 13 DU (34 DU at the North Pole) in spring, confirming the results of Scinocca et al (2009 Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L24701). The ozone loss is dynamically initiated in March by a suppression of upward-propagating planetary waves, possibly related to the destructive interference between the forced wave number 1 and its climatology. The diminished upward wave propagation, in turn, weakens the Brewer-Dobson circulation at high latitudes, strengthens the polar vortex, and cools the polar stratosphere. The ozone reduction persists until the polar vortex breaks down in late spring.

Sun, Lantao; Deser, Clara; Polvani, Lorenzo; Tomas, Robert

2014-08-01

29

N2O as an indicator of Arctic vortex dynamics: Correlations with O3 over Thule, Greenland in February and March, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have recovered vertical profiles of stratospheric N2O from spectra observed using a ground-based mm-wave spectrometer during the Arctic spring. The measurements were made from Thule, Greenland (76.3 deg N, 68.4 deg W) on nine occasions from late February to late March, 1992 as part of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Correlative Measurements Program and the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE). During late February Thule was under inside edge of the Arctic vortex and mixing ratio profiles measured in that period are substantially reduced from typical high-latitude summer values. By late March the polar vortex had moved well away from Thule and N2O mixing ratios were greatly increased, coinciding with a basic change in circulation that brought in air from the Aleutian high. The motion of the vortex is also illustrated in the change in potential vorticity above Thule. A correlation with ozone balloonsonde data from Thule is made and compared to similar analyses of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) measurements. Within the sensitivity of our analysis, the correlation of N2O and O3 shows no evidence of ozone depletion within the vortex during this period; however, there is a distinct difference in the correlation inside and outside the vortex.

Emmons, L. K.; Reeves, J. M.; Shindell, D. T.; De Zafra, R. L.

1994-01-01

30

Denitrification observed inside the Arctic vortex in February 1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balloon-borne in situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen (NOy) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were made from Kiruna (68°N, 21°E), Sweden on February 11, 1995. Ten hours later, N2O was again measured by an infrared spectrometer flown on another balloon launched from Kiruna. Both observations were made inside the polar vortex between 380 K (˜14 km) and at least 675 K (˜26 km). In the winter of 1994-1995, temperatures at 475 K (˜19 km) inside the vortex were extremely low, sometimes lower than ice frost point, especially from mid-December to mid-January. The NOy profiles obtained during both the ascent and descent revealed layered structures between 15 and 20 km with mixing ratios ranging from 2.7 to 9.3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The observed N2O profiles indicate significant downward transport of air due to diabatic cooling in the winter. To quantify the degree of irreversible removal of NOy (denitrification) between 12 and 28 km, the unperturbed values of NOy (i.e., NOy*) were estimated from the observed N2O values using the NOy - N2O relationship obtained at midlatitudes by the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy ATLAS mission and in situ aircraft and balloon-borne measurements. The largest denitrification was observed at 19±0.5 km, where the NOy values were lower than the? values by ˜10 ppbv, corresponding to a 70% removal of NOy. In spite of the large uncertainty in ? the NOy values generally agreed well with the ? values at ˜14 km as well as between 23 and 28 km. The relationship between NOy and N2O measured between 23 and 28 km agreed with that measured above 40 km at northern midlatitudes in fall, indicating that the air masses sampled at 23-28 km over Kiruna were transported from the midlatitude upper stratosphere followed by the descent inside the vortex.

Sugita, T.; Kondo, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Schmidt, U.; Engel, A.; Oelhaf, H.; Wetzel, G.; Koike, M.; Newman, P. A.

1998-01-01

31

Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion - Duration: 0:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturnâ??s moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to exec...

32

Dynamical connection between tropospheric blockings and stratospheric polar vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical connection between Northern Hemisphere blocking events and the variability of the stratospheric polar vortex strength is studied. The analysis is based on the composite time evolution of the energy of baroclinic planetary waves during regional blocking occurrence. During Euro-Atlantic blocking events, an in phase forcing of stationary zonal wavenumber 1 occurs. The enhanced wave amplitude is associated with a stratospheric polar vortex deceleration, which may result, at times, in Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events of displacement type. Pacific blocking composites reveal an in phase forcing of stationary zonal wavenumber 2. In most cases, the amplification of the wavenumber 2 does not reduce the vortex strength, being even accompanied by a mean vortex acceleration. However, if the amplification of wavenumber 2 is preceded by an amplification of wavenumber 1, the initial vortex deceleration forced by wavenumber 1 may be continued by wavenumber 2, and a SSW event of splitting type may occur.

Castanheira, J. M.; Barriopedro, D.

2010-07-01

33

Interannual variability of the North Polar Vortex in the lower stratosphere during the UARS Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern winters since the 1991 launch of UARS are compared to earlier years (1978-1991) with respect to the potential for formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and for isolation of the north polar vortex. Daily NMC temperature minima at 465 K late in the 1993-94 winter and again in December 1994 were the lowest values experienced at those times of year (since 1978). Northern PV gradients were unusually strong in 1991-92 prior to late January and throughout the winter in both 1992-93 and 1994-95. Of all northern winters since 1978, 1994-95 with its early extended cold spell and persistently strong PV gradients most resembled the Antarctic winter lower stratosphere. Even so, temperatures were never as low, nor was the polar vortex as large, as during a typical southern winter. Judged by daily temperature minima and PV gradients at 465 K, meteorological conditions in the Arctic winter lower stratosphere during the UARS period were more conducive to vortex ozone loss by heterogeneous chemistry than in most previous winters since 1978-79.

Zurek, R. W.; Manney, G. L.; Miller, A. J.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

34

The 2009-2010 Arctic polar stratospheric cloud season: a CALIPSO perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceborne lidar measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) are used to provide a vortex-wide perspective of the 2009-2010 Arctic polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) season to complement more focused measurements from the European Union RECONCILE (reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) field campaign. The 2009-2010 Arctic winter was unusually cold at stratospheric levels, especially from mid-December 2009 until the end of January 2010, and was one of only a few winters from the past 52 years with synoptic-scale regions of temperatures below the frost point. More PSCs were observed by CALIPSO during the 2009-2010 Arctic winter than in the previous three Arctic seasons combined. In particular, there were significantly more observations of high number density nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) mixtures (referred to as Mix 2-enh) and ice PSCs. We found that the 2009-2010 season could roughly be divided into four periods with distinctly different PSC optical characteristics. The early season (15-30 December 2009) was characterized by patchy, tenuous PSCs, primarily low number density liquid/NAT mixtures. The second phase of the season (31 December 2009-14 January 2010) was characterized by frequent mountain wave ice clouds that nucleated widespread NAT particles throughout the vortex, including Mix 2-enh. The third phase of the season (15-21 January 2010) was characterized by synoptic-scale temperatures below the frost point which led to a rare outbreak of widespread ice clouds. The fourth phase of the season (22-28 January) was characterized by a major stratospheric warming that distorted the vortex, displacing the cold pool from the vortex center. This final phase was dominated by supercooled ternary solution (STS) PSCs, although NAT particles may have been present in low number densities, but were masked by the more abundant STS droplets at colder temperatures. We also found distinct variations in the relative proportion of PSCs in each composition class with altitude over the course of the 2009-2010 Arctic season. Lower number density liquid/NAT mixtures were most frequently observed in the lower altitude regions of the clouds (below ∼18-20 km), which is consistent with CALIPSO observations in the Antarctic. Higher number density liquid/NAT mixtures, especially Mix 2-enh, were most frequently observed at altitudes above 18-20 km, primarily downstream of wave ice clouds. This pattern is consistent with the conceptual model whereby low number density, large NAT particles are precipitated from higher number density NAT clouds (i.e. mother clouds) that are nucleated downstream of mountain wave ice clouds.

Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Dörnbrack, A.; Thomason, L. W.

2010-10-01

35

On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres. The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in he SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

1994-01-01

36

Intercomparison of ATMOS, SAGE II, and ER2 observations in Arctic vortex and extra-vortex air masses during spring 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared measured abundances of NOy, O3, H2O, CH4, HCl, and N2O from ATMOS and aerosol from SAGE II from inside and outside the Arctic vortex with in situ observations from the SPADE aircraft campaign in April\\/May 1993. When the distinction between vortex and extra-vortex air is taken into account, SPADE measurements of NOy, O3, H2O, CH4, HCl, and

H. A. Michelsen; G. L. Manney; C. R. Webster; R. D. May; M. R. Gunson; D. Baumgardner; K. K. Kelly; M. Loewenstein; J. R. Podolske; M. H. Proffitt; S. C. Wofsy; G. K. Yue

1999-01-01

37

Transport into the south polar vortex in early spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of transport on the springtime decline in ozone in the southern polar vortex was investiated using data on long-lived gas tracers (N2O, CH4, CCl4, CH3CCl3, CO, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) obtained by the ER-2 aircraft in the period between August 23 and September 22 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. It was found that, while the concentrations of long-lived trace gases remained relatively constant for fixed potential temperature and latitude, the ozone mixing ratio over the same period declined by more than 50 percent inside the polar vortex near 18-km altitude. These data indicate a substantial photochemical sink of ozone. The evidence of the zero or negative time tendencies for long-lived trace gases and the meridional and vertical gradients of ozone imply that transport is supplying ozone to the polar region during springtime.

Hartmann, D. L.; Heidt, L. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Vedder, J.

1989-01-01

38

Tight focusing of axially symmetric polarized vortex beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight focusing of axially symmetric polarized vortex beams is studied numerically based on vector diffraction theory. The mathematical expressions for the focused fields are derived. Simulation results show that the focused fields and phase distributions at focus are largely influenced by both the polarization order and topological charge of the incident beams. Moreover, focal spots with flat-topped or tightly-focused patterns can be flexibly achieved by carefully choosing the polarization order and the topological charge, which confirms the potential of such beams in wide applications, such as optical tweezers, laser printing, lithography, and material processing.

Zhou, Zhe-Hai; Guo, Yang-Kuan; Zhu, Lian-Qing

2014-04-01

39

Transport into the south polar vortex in early spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the mean circulation and diffusive transport of ozone and other species into the Antarctic polar vortex during the spring of 1987 are made using data from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Measurements of long-lived tracers of tropospheric origin remained relatively constant at the levels of the maximum rate of decline of ozone during September. At lower levels in the stratosphere some evidence exists to support intrusions of tropospheric or low latitude air. Given the distribution in latitude and height of these tracers measured from the ER-2 aircraft, it can be inferred that the Lagrangian or diabatic mean circulation was zero or downward over Antarctica during the period of the ozone decline. The observation of a decline in ozone therefore requires a photochemical sink for ozone. The magnitude of the required photochemical sink must be sufficient to offset the transport of ozone into the polar region and produce the observed decline. Quasi-isentropic mixing and downward motion are coupled and are difficult to estimate from a single tracer. The full suite of measured tracers and auxiliary information are brought together to provide an estimate of the rate at which air is cycled through the polar vortex during spring. Estimates of large scale transport of potential vorticity and ozone from previous years are generally consistent with the data from the airborne experiment in suggesting a relatively slow rate of mass flow through the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere during September.

Hartmann, D.; Heidt, L. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.; Starr, Walter L.; Vedder, James F.

1988-01-01

40

Spatial changes in the stratospheric aerosol associated with the north polar vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late January and early February 1983, observations made by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite system showed that aerosol extinction profiles measured within the northern polar vortex differed significantly above 18 km from those measured outside the vortex. Values of the calculated optical depths above 18 km for February 1, 1983, are lower by approximately one order of magnitude within the polar vortex than those outside. Similar differences were found in the aerosol back-scattering profiles obtained using an airborne lidar system when crossing the polar vortex. Since potential vorticity at a constant altitude is not conserved across the polar vortex, horizontal adiabatic transport does not occur.

Mccormick, M. P.; Trepte, C. R.; Kent, G. S.

1983-01-01

41

Measuring ozone inside the polar vortex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ozone profiles with and without the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III satellite data were compared to measurements taken from ground and air stations in the South Pole and surrounding Antarctic. Results indicate that the satellite information helps produce a much more accurate estimate of the region's ozone distribution.

Ivanka Stajner

42

An objective determination of the polar vortex using Erte's potential vorticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed objective criteria for choosing the location of the northern hemisphere polar vortex boundary region and the onset and breakup dates of the vortex. By determining the distribution of Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv) on equivalent latitudes, we define the vortex edge as the location of maximum gradient of Epv constrained by the location of the maximum wind jet

Eric R. Nash; Paul A. Newman; Joan E. Rosenfield; Mark R. Schoeberl

1996-01-01

43

The 2009-2010 Arctic polar stratospheric cloud season: a CALIPSO perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceborne lidar measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) are used to provide a vortex-wide perspective of the 2009-2010 Arctic PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) season to complement more focused measurements from the European Union RECONCILE (reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) field campaign. The 2009-2010 Arctic winter was unusually cold at stratospheric levels from mid-December 2009 until the end of January 2010, and was one of only a few winters from the past fifty-two years with synoptic-scale regions of temperatures below the frost point. More PSCs were observed by CALIPSO during the 2009-2010 Arctic winter than in the previous three Arctic seasons combined. In particular, there were significantly more observations of high number density NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) mixtures (referred to as Mix 2-enh) and ice PSCs. We found that the 2009-2010 season could roughly be divided into four periods with distinctly different PSC optical characteristics. The early season (15-30 December 2009) was characterized by patchy, tenuous PSCs, primarily low number density liquid/NAT mixtures. No ice clouds were observed by CALIPSO during this early phase, suggesting that these early season NAT clouds were formed through a non-ice nucleation mechanism. The second phase of the season (31 December 2009-14 January 2010) was characterized by frequent mountain wave ice clouds that nucleated widespread NAT particles throughout the vortex, including Mix 2-enh. The third phase of the season (15-21 January 2010) was characterized by synoptic-scale temperatures below the frost point which led to a rare outbreak of widespread ice clouds. The fourth phase of the season (22-28 January) was characterized by a major stratospheric warming that distorted the vortex, displacing the cold pool from the vortex center. This final phase was dominated by STS (supercooled ternary solution) PSCs, although NAT particles may have been present in low number densities, but were masked by the more abundant STS droplets at colder temperatures. We also found distinct variations in the relative proportion of PSCs in each composition class with altitude over the course of the 2009-2010 Arctic season. Lower number density liquid/NAT mixtures were most frequently observed in the lower altitude regions of the clouds (below ~18-20 km), which is consistent with CALIPSO observations in the Antarctic. Higher number density liquid/NAT mixtures, especially Mix 2-enh, were most frequently observed at altitudes above 18-20 km, primarily downstream of wave ice clouds. This pattern is consistent with the conceptual model whereby low number density, large NAT particles are precipitated from higher number density NAT clouds (i.e. mother clouds) that are nucleated downstream of mountain wave ice clouds.

Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Dörnbrack, A.; Thomason, L. W.

2011-03-01

44

Stratospheric polar vortex as a possible reason for temporal variations of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray effects on the lower atmosphere circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible reasons for the temporal instability of long-term effects of solar activity (SA) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) variations on the lower atmosphere circulation were studied. It was shown that the detected earlier ?60-year oscillations of the amplitude and sign of SA/GCR effects on the troposphere pressure at high and middle latitudes (Veretenenko and Ogurtsov, Adv.Space Res., 2012) are closely related to the state of a cyclonic vortex forming in the polar stratosphere. The intensity of the vortex was found to reveal a roughly 60-year periodicity affecting the evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and the character of SA/GCR effects. An intensification of both Arctic anticyclones and mid-latitudinal cyclones associated with an increase of GCR fluxes at minima of the 11-year solar cycles is observed in the epochs of a strong polar vortex. In the epochs of a weak polar vortex SA/GCR effects on the development of baric systems at middle and high latitudes were found to change the sign. The results obtained provide evidence that the mechanism of solar activity and cosmic ray influences on the lower atmosphere circulation involves changes in the evolution of the stratospheric polar vortex.

Veretenenko, S.; Ogurtsov, M.

2014-12-01

45

Diurnal variations of reactive chlorine and nitrogen oxides observed by MIPAS-B inside the January 2010 Arctic vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The winter 2009/2010 was characterized by a strong Arctic vortex with extremely cold mid-winter temperatures in the lower stratosphere associated with an intense activation of reactive chlorine compounds (ClOx) from reservoir species. Stratospheric limb emission spectra were recorded during a flight of the balloon version of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B) from Kiruna (Sweden) on 24 January 2010 inside the Arctic vortex. Several fast limb sequences of spectra (in time steps of about 10 min) were measured from nighttime photochemical equilibrium to local noon allowing the retrieval of chlorine- and nitrogen-containing species which change rapidly their concentration around the terminator between night and day. Mixing ratios of species like ClO, NO2, and N2O5 show significant changes around sunrise, which are temporally delayed due to polar stratospheric clouds reducing the direct radiative flux from the sun. ClO variations were derived for the first time from MIPAS-B spectra. Daytime ClO values of up to 1.6 ppbv are visible in a broad chlorine activated layer below 26 km correlated with low values (below 0.1 ppbv) of the chlorine reservoir species ClONO2. Observations are compared and discussed with calculations performed with the 3-dimensional Chemistry Climate Model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). Mixing ratios of the species ClO, NO2, and N2O5 are well reproduced by the model during night and noon. However, the onset of ClO production and NO2 loss around the terminator in the model is not consistent with the measurements. The MIPAS-B observations along with Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation model calculations suggest that polar stratospheric clouds lead to a delayed start followed by a faster increase of the photodissoziation of ClOOCl and NO2 near the morning terminator since stratospheric clouds alter the direct and the diffuse flux of solar radiation. These effects are not considered in the EMAC model simulations which assume a cloudless atmosphere.

Wetzel, G.; Oelhaf, H.; Kirner, O.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Ruhnke, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Kleinert, A.; Maucher, G.; Nordmeyer, H.; Orphal, J.

2012-07-01

46

Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.

2001-01-01

47

OMAE 1996 -- Proceedings of the 15. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering. Volume 4: Arctic/polar technology  

SciTech Connect

Volume 4 contains papers on the following topics: arctic/polar technology and development; ice properties; ice engineering; applied ice mechanics; ice-structure interaction; arctic structures and operations; frozen soil properties; and Russian Arctic development. In addition to the regular topics covered in OMAE conferences, there has been a special workshop as part of this year`s conference. In keeping with issues of current interest, there is a workshop on development of oil resources in the Russian Arctic. Over two days, papers dealing with development of oil and gas resources in the Russian Arctic are presented. Volume 4 contains papers from this workshop. Some of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Nixon, W.A. [ed.] [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Iowa Inst. of Hydraulic Research; Sodhi, D.S. [ed.] [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Kennedy, K.P. [ed.] [Canmar/Amoco Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yamaguchi, H. [ed.] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Bugno, W. [ed.] [Chevron, San Ramon, CA (United States)

1996-12-01

48

Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace gases measured by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during three Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) space-shuttle missions, in March/April 1992 (AT-1), April 1993 (AT-2), and November 1994 (AT-3) have been mapped into equivalent latitude/potential temperature (EqL/?) coordinates. The asymmetry of the spring vortices results in coverage of subtropical to polar EqLs. EqL/? fields of long-lived tracers in spring in both hemispheres show the net effects of descent at high EqL throughout the winter, reflecting strong descent in the upper stratosphere, decreasing descent at lower altitudes, and evidence of greater descent at the edge of the lower stratospheric vortex than in the vortex center; these results are consistent with trajectory calculations examining the history of the air measured by ATMOS in the month prior to each mission. EqL/? tracer fields, the derived fields CH4-CH4* (CH4* is the expected CH4 calculated from a prescribed relationship with N2O for fall) and NOy-NOy* (analogous to CH4*), and parcel histories all indicate regions of strong mixing in the 1994 Southern Hemisphere (SH) spring vortex above 500 K, with the strongest mixing confined to the vortex edge region between 500 and 700 K, and mixing throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring vortex in 1993 below about 850 K. Parcel histories indicate mixing of extravortex air with air near the vortex edge below 500 K in the SH but not with air in the vortex core; they show extravortex air mixing well into the vortex above ˜450 K in the NH and into the vortex edge region below. The effects of severe denitrification are apparent in EqL/? HNO3 in the SH lower stratospheric spring vortex. The morphology of HNO3 in the Arctic spring lower stratospheric vortex is consistent with the effects of descent. EqL/? fields of ATMOS NOy-NOy* show decreases consistent with the effects of mixing throughout the NH lower stratospheric vortex. The EqL/?-mapped ATMOS data thus indicate no significant denitrification during the 1992-1993 NH winter. Examination of H2O+2CH4 shows that dehydration in SH spring 1994 extended up to ˜600 K; it also suggests the possibility of a small amount of dehydration in the NH 1993 spring vortex below ˜465 K. Ozone depletion is evident in the spring vortices in both hemispheres. Differences in autumn EqL/? tracer fields between the missions reflect the fact that each succeeding mission took place ˜2 weeks later in the season, when the vortex had developed further. There was greater average descent and greater isolation of air in the developing vortex during each succeeding mission, consistent with progressively larger downward excursions of long-lived tracer contours observed in the upper stratosphere at high EqL.

Manney, G. L.; Michelsen, H. A.; Santee, M. L.; Gunson, M. R.; Irion, F. W.; Roche, A. E.; Livesey, N. J.

1999-08-01

49

Spin-transfer force acting on vortex induced by current gradient in a planar polarizer geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a new mechanism of changing the magnetic vortex gyrotropic motion in a permalloy/nonmagnet bi-layers system. In this system, a spin current characterized by an in-plane polarizer is injected from the nonmagnetic layer to the permalloy disk. We introduce current density gradient to the spin current, and find that the interplay between the planar polarizer and current gradient can change the damping of the vortex motion. This change originates from a spin-transfer force acting on the vortex. The influence of the spin-transfer force on the vortex motion is dependent on the direction of the planar polarizer, the orientation of the current density gradient, and the vortex state.

Liu, Yan; Li, Huanan; Hu, Yong; Du, An

2013-09-01

50

Spatial changes in the stratospheric aerosol associated with the north polar vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late January and early February 1983, observations made by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite system showed that aerosol extinction profiles measured within the northern polar vortex differed significantly above 18 km from those measured outside the vortex. Values of the calculated optical depths above 18 km for February 1, 1983, are lower by approximately one order of

M. P. McCormick; C. R. Trepte; G. S. Kent

1983-01-01

51

Profile observations of long-lived trace gases in the Arctic vortex  

SciTech Connect

Five sets of vertical profiles of long-lived trace gases were measured in the stratosphere at high northern latitudes (68{degree}N) during three field campaigns of the CHEOPS-Project. Large whole air samples were collected by means of balloon-borne cryogenic samplers analyzed for their content of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CFCl{sub 3}, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, C{sub 2}F{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}, CCl{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl and CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}. The measured polar profiles well be compared with mean vertical distributions derived from a series of observations at midlatitudes (44{degree}N). The difference indicates a pronounced effect of subsidence in the Arctic winter stratosphere with a net downward shift of the Arctic vertical profile by about 7 km over the time period from November until February. Owing to this efficient downward transport, the abundance of chlorine in the form of reservoir and reactive species, is increased in the lower Arctic stratosphere to about twice that observed at mid-latitudes.

Schmidt, U.; Bauer, R.; Khedim, A.; Klein, E.; Kulessa, G.; Schiller, C. (Forschungszentrum Juelich (West Germany))

1991-04-01

52

Autocatalytic release of bromine from Arctic snow pack during polar sunrise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements and modeling studies strongly suggest that spring time depletion of ozone in the Arctic planetary boundary layer (PBL) is due to catalytic destruction by bromine atoms. However, the source of the bromine is uncertain. In this note, we propose that the source of the bromine at polar sunrise is the snow pack on the ice covering Arctic ocean and

T. Tang; J. C. McConnell

1996-01-01

53

Determination of magnetic vortex polarity from a single Lorentz Fresnel image.  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale confinement of the magnetization in a magnetic element often results in the creation of a vortex structure. The vortex equilibrium state is characterized by the curling of the in-plane magnetization (chirality) and an out-of-plane core magnetization. The polarity of the vortex core can point up or down, independent of the chirality, and, thus, magnetic elements with a vortex core are interesting as four-state logic elements. We present an easy-to-use, quantitative method for the determination of both chirality and polarity from a single Fresnel image. This method offers direct evidence of the three-dimensional structure of a magnetic vortex and has significant advantages over the more complex methods currently in use.

Phatak, C.; Tanase, M.; Petford-Long, A. K.; De Graef, M.; Materials Science Division; Carnegie Mellon Univ.

2009-01-01

54

Anthropogenic Impacts on Polar Bear Biology and the Arctic Ecosystem.  

E-print Network

Despite its relative distance from most populated regions of the world, the Arctic has been significantly impacted by anthropogenic contamination and climate change. The entire Arctic ecosystem has been affected, with upper trophic level predators...

Jordan, John E.

2013-12-16

55

Measurement of the vortex core in sub-100 nm Fe dots using polarized neutron scattering  

E-print Network

OFFPRINT Measurement of the vortex core in sub-100 nm Fe dots using polarized neutron scattering neutron scattering Igor V. Roshchin1,2 , Chang-Peng Li2(a) , Harry Suhl2 , Xavier Batlle3 , S. Roy2(b diffraction and scattering Abstract ­ We use polarized neutron scattering to obtain quantitative information

Roshchin, Igor V.

56

Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Selected Populations of Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar bears depend on sea ice for survival. Climate warming in the Arctic has caused significant declines in total cover and thickness of sea ice in the polar basin and progressively earlier breakup in some areas. Inuit hunters in the areas of four polar bear populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic (including Western Hudson Bay) have reported seeing more bears

IAN STIRLING; CLAIRE L. PARKINSON

2006-01-01

57

Control of magnetic vortex chirality and polarization in indented and notched nanomagnetic disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic vortex dynamics in nanoscale structures is currently a topic of intensive research not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for their potential use in future generation spintronics and magnetic random access memories. We propose a method, where one can independently control the magnetic vortex polarization and chirality states by a combination of fine-tuning the applied magnetic field and breaking the geometrical symmetry of the magnetic nanostructure. Numerical simulations corroborate our proposal of achieving vortex switchability for the two different geometries we investigate: the indented disk and notched disk structures. Our results suggest that the notched disk structure offers more robust vortex dynamics and better switching characteristics, which makes this geometry ideal for use as a vortex-based magnetic memory device.

El-Mezeini, Ahmed M.; Flack, Tim J.; Welland, Mark E.

2014-12-01

58

On the nature and location of the proposed twin vortex systems in Saturn's polar upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twin vortices in Saturn's northern and southern polar ionospheres have been proposed as the drivers of the ˜10.7 h periodicities in the magnetosphere. We critically analyze this model from an atmospheric perspective, identifying two broad problems: first, the difficulty in reconciling a ˜10.7 h periodicity with the strongly subcorotational flows that are observed in the polar ionosphere; second, the very large energy requirement for sustaining the vortices against Joule dissipation. We propose a model in which the twin vortex originates neither in the plasma nor in the thermosphere but deeper in the atmosphere, around 750 km altitude. At this altitude the gas is expected to be close to corotation, and Joule dissipation is low. A twin vortex system at this altitude blowing laterally across the Hall conductance gradient at the main auroral oval generates field-aligned currents which are qualitatively similar to those driven by a plasma vortex or thermospheric vortex at higher altitudes.

Smith, C. G. A.

2014-07-01

59

The polar mesospheric cloud mass in the Arctic summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We infer the polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) mass throughout the Arctic summer using results from two sets of satellite observations and a microphysical model. Solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV) PMC observations in July 1999 indicate a burst of activity persisting for ˜8 days after a space shuttle launch and averaging 262 ± 52 t near 4.7 local time. This mass is consistent with the propellant mass available from the shuttle's main engines and accounts for 22% of the total SBUV PMC mass over the season between 65° and 75°N. This is the first evidence that PMCs formed by space shuttle water exhaust can contribute significantly to both the number of observed PMCs and the total PMC mass in a season. In another approach, 11 years of observations by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) indicate that on average 90 ± 12 t of water ice is present near local midnight between 65° and 75°N. Using simultaneous HALOE water vapor observations, we find that a one-dimensional microphysical model reproduces the start and end of the PMC season but overpredicts the ice mass by about a factor of 1.8 when compared with the observations. This overprediction is within the time-dependent variability of ice formation and the uncertainties of temperature, water vapor, and vertical winds used to initialize the model.

Stevens, Michael H.; Englert, Christoph R.; Deland, Matthew T.; Hervig, Mark

2005-02-01

60

Assessment of the Breakup of the Antarctic Polar Vortex in Two New Chemistry-Climate Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful simulation of the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex depends on the representation of tropospheric stationary waves at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. This paper assesses the vortex breakup in two new chemistry-climate models (CCMs). The stratospheric version of the UK Chemistry and Aerosols model is able to reproduce the observed timing of the vortex breakup. Version 2 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS V2) model is typical of CCMs in that the Antarctic polar vortex breaks up too late; at 10 hPa, the mean transition to easterlies at 60 S is delayed by 12-13 days as compared with the ERA-40 and National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalyses. The two models' skill in simulating planetary wave driving during the October-November period accounts for differences in their simulation of the vortex breakup, with GEOS V2 unable to simulate the magnitude and tilt of geopotential height anomalies in the troposphere and thus underestimating the wave driving. In the GEOS V2 CCM the delayed breakup of the Antarctic vortex biases polar temperatures and trace gas distributions in the upper stratosphere in November and December.

Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Li, F.; Morgenstern, O.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

2010-01-01

61

Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the Arctic winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous in situ measurements of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) in the Arctic winter vortex showed large HCl losses, of up to 1 part per billion by volume (ppbv), which were correlated with high ClO levels of up to 1.4 ppbv. Air parcel trajectory analysis identified that this conversion of inorganic chlorine occurred at air temperatures of less

C. R. Webster; R. D. May; D. W. Toohey; L. M. Avallone; J. G. Anderson; P. Newman; L. Lait; M. R. Schoeberl; J. W. Elkins; K. R. Chan

1993-01-01

62

The possible biotic origin of polar sunrise Arctic "bromine explosion"  

E-print Network

The Arctic phenomenon of the sunrise bromine explosion in atmospheric boundary layer is likely to belong to the group of the global atmosphere and climate factors. The global atmosphere and climate factors are identified as the most crucial and fundamental processes in Earth atmosphere and climate evolution. They affect normal climate and are able to control climate changes over geological time scales. This study deals with the hypothesis of the microbial origin of natural Arctic bromine emissions. Most of Arctic surface is permafrost. Some of the Arctic permafrost is very old. It contains huge amounts of viable ancient microbial life forms survived over geological times. The erosion of permafrost is a hypothetical precursor to bromine injection to Arctic troposphere. The controlled experiment has been suggested. GOME satellite data from 1996 to 2000 has been discussed. Bromine biosphere atmosphere ascertaining would require the interdisciplinary research of experimental findings and observations in extreme A...

Iudin, M

2008-01-01

63

Mixing of Minor Species Across the Polar Vortex Boundary at the Time of Polar Vortex Breakup Observed by Satellite Sensor ILAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) onboard the ADEOS satellite made measurements of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, and aerosol extinction in both the Arctic and the Antarctic polar stratosphere from November 1996 to June 1997. Although ILAS measured only narrow geographic latitude area due to its measurement principle (solar occultation) and the satellite's orbit (sun-synchronous), it could cover

H. Nakajima; N. Kawamoto; H. Kanzawa; Y. Sasano

2001-01-01

64

Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

2012-01-01

65

Onset, extent, and duration of dehydration in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite observations of water vapor and aerosol extinction along with temperature trajectory calculations are analyzed for the Southern Hemisphere winter of 1992 in order to determine the onset, extent, and duration of dehydration within the polar vortex. Our investigation uses measurements of water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and aerosol extinction from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer

Elizabeth M. Stone; Azadeh Tabazadeh; Eric Jensen; Hugh C. Pumphrey; Michelle L. Santee; John L. Mergenthaler

2001-01-01

66

Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

2006-01-01

67

Instantaneous three-dimensional thermal structure of the South Polar Vortex of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus thermal radiation spectrum exhibits the signature of CO2 absorption bands. By means of inversion techniques, those bands enable the retrieval of atmospheric temperature profiles. We have analyzed VIRTIS-M-IR night-side data obtaining high-resolution thermal maps of the Venus south polar region between 55 and 85 km altitudes. This analysis is specific to three Venus Express orbits where the vortex presents different dynamical configurations. The cold collar is clearly distinguishable centered at ?62 km (?100 mbar) altitude level. On average, the cold collar is more than 15 K colder than the pole, but its specific temperature varies with time. In the three orbits under investigation the South Polar Vortex appears as a vertically extended hot region close to the pole and squeezed by the cold collar between altitudes 55 and 67 km but spreading equatorwards at about 74 km. Both the instantaneous temperature maps and their zonal averages show that the top altitude limit of the thermal signature from the vortex is at ?80 km altitude, at least on the night-side of the planet. The upper part of the atmosphere (67-85 km) is more homogeneous and has long-scale horizontal temperature differences of about 25 K over horizontal distances of ?2000 km. The lower part (55-67 km) shows more fine-scale structure, creating the vortex morphology, with thermal differences of up to about 50 K over the same altitude range and ?500 km horizontal distances. This lower part of the atmosphere is highly affected by the upper cloud deck, leading to stronger local temperature variations and larger uncertainties in the retrieval. From the temperature maps, we also study the vertical stability of different atmospheric layers for the three vortex configurations. The static stability is always positive (ST > 0) in the considered altitude range (55-85 km) and in the whole polar vortex. The cold collar is the most vertically stable structure at polar latitudes, while the vortex and sub-polar latitudes show lower stability values. Furthermore, the hot filaments present within the vortex exhibit lower stability values than their surroundings. The layer between 62 and 67 km resulted to be the most stable. These results are in good agreement with conclusions from previous radio occultation analyses.

Garate-Lopez, I.; García Muñoz, A.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

2015-01-01

68

Nonlinear magnetic vortex dynamics in a circular nanodot excited by spin-polarized current  

PubMed Central

We investigate analytically and numerically nonlinear vortex spin torque oscillator dynamics in a circular magnetic nanodot induced by a spin-polarized current perpendicular to the dot plane. We use a generalized nonlinear Thiele equation including spin-torque term by Slonczewski for describing the nanosize vortex core transient and steady orbit motions and analyze nonlinear contributions to all forces in this equation. Blue shift of the nano-oscillator frequency increasing the current is explained by a combination of the exchange, magnetostatic, and Zeeman energy contributions to the frequency nonlinear coefficient. Applicability and limitations of the standard nonlinear nano-oscillator model are discussed. PMID:25147490

2014-01-01

69

Arctic Research and Writing: A Lasting Legacy of the International Polar Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, senior-level physics students joined thousands of scientists from over 60 nations to examine a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics as part of the International Polar Year (IPY). Through a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded research project, these students applied physics concepts to the study of Arctic

Englert, Karl; Coon, Brian; Hinckley, Matt; Pruis, Matt

2009-01-01

70

Analysis of lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds during January 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present analyses of lidar backscatter and depolarization ratios for polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) observed during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment. The backscatter and depolarization ratios are available at one visible and one infrared wavelength. Water ice PSCs were identified at low ambient temperatures based upon their relatively large backscattering and depolarization ratios. The remaining clouds fall into four

Owen B. Toon; Azadeh Tabazadeh; Edward V. Browell; Joseph Jordan

2000-01-01

71

Potential Arctic sea ice refuge for sustaining a remnant polar bear population (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar bears depend on sea ice as a platform from which they capture seals. Sea ice availability must be spatially and temporally adequate for birth and weaning of seal pups, and to maximize seal hunting opportunities for polar bears. Projected declines in the spatial and temporal extent of summer and autumn sea ice could potentially limit the ability of polar bears to build up body stores sufficient to maintain reproductive fitness. General circulation models, however, suggest that summer and autumn sea ice may persist in the shelf waters of the Canadian Archipelago and northern Greenland adjacent to the Arctic basin. While winter-formed ice is important, a primary mechanism for sea ice accumulation in this region is by mechanical thickening of the sea ice facilitated by convergent forces from the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift Stream. Collectively these areas could provide a polar bear refugium when other regions have lost the sea ice necessary to support viable populations. The potential for a polar bear refugium, however, must include other resource considerations. Projected declines of sea ice in the Northwest Passage may expose polar bears to hazards related to increase shipping and other commerce. Increasing global demands and limited opportunities elsewhere make the Arctic an increasingly attractive area for petroleum exploration. The Canadian Archipelago coincides with the Sverdrup basin, where petroleum accumulations have already been discovered but as yet are undeveloped. The Lincoln Sea Basin offshore of northern Greenland has the geological possibility of significant petroleum accumulations, and northeastern Greenland is one of the most prospective areas in the Arctic for undiscovered oil. Activities associated with commerce and petroleum development could reduce the potential viability of the region as a polar bear refugium. Hence, if the goal is a sustainable (albeit reduced) polar bear population, important considerations include commerce, hydrocarbon extraction and polar bear habitat.

Durner, G. M.; Amstrup, S. C.; Douglas, D. C.; Gautier, D. L.

2010-12-01

72

Polar vortex evolution during the 2002 Antarctic major warming as observed by the Odin satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002 the Antarctic polar vortex split in two under the influence of a sudden warming. During this event, the Odin satellite was able to measure both ozone (O3) and chlorine monoxide (ClO), a key constituent responsible for the so-called ``ozone hole'', together with nitrous oxide (N2O), a dynamical tracer, and nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), tracers

P. Ricaud; F. Lefèvre; G. Berthet; D. Murtagh; E. J. Llewellyn; G. Mégie; E. Kyrölä; G. W. Leppelmeier; H. Auvinen; C. Boonne; S. Brohede; D. A. Degenstein; J. de La Noë; E. Dupuy; L. El Amraoui; P. Eriksson; W. F. J. Evans; U. Frisk; R. L. Gattinger; F. Girod; S. Hassinen; A. Hauchecorne; C. Jimenez; E. Kyrö; N. Lautié; E. Le Flochmoën; N. D. Lloyd; J. C. McConnell; I. C. McDade; L. Nordh; M. Olberg; A. Pazmino; S. V. Petelina; A. Sandqvist; A. Seppälä; C. E. Sioris; B. H. Solheim; J. Stegman; K. Strong; P. Taalas; J. Urban; C. von Savigny; F. von Scheele; G. Witt

2005-01-01

73

Polar vortex evolution during the 2002 Antarctic major warming as observed by the Odin satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002 the Antarctic polar vortex split in two under the influence of a sudden warming. During this event, the Odin satellite was able to measure both ozone (O3) and chlorine monoxide (ClO), a key constituent responsible for the so-called “ozone hole”, together with nitrous oxide (N2O), a dynamical tracer, and nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), tracers

P. Ricaud; F. Lefèvre; G. Berthet; D. Murtagh; E. J. Llewellyn; G. Mégie; E. Kyrölä; G. W. Leppelmeier; H. Auvinen; C. Boonne; S. Brohede; D. A. Degenstein; J. de La Noë; E. Dupuy; L. El Amraoui; P. Eriksson; W. F. J. Evans; U. Frisk; R. L. Gattinger; F. Girod; C. S. Haley; S. Hassinen; A. Hauchecorne; C. Jimenez; E. Kyrö; N. Lautié; E. Le Flochmoën; N. D. Lloyd; J. C. McConnell; I. C. McDade; L. Nordh; M. Olberg; A. Pazmino; S. V. Petelina; A. Sandqvist; A. Seppälä; C. E. Sioris; B. H. Solheim; J. Stegman; K. Strong; P. Taalas; J. Urban; C. von Savigny; F. von Scheele; G. Witt

2005-01-01

74

The Arctic polar stratospheric cloud aerosol - Aircraft measurements of reactive nitrogen, total water, and particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ aircraft measurements in the lower stratosphere are used to investigate the reactive nitrogen, NO(y), total water, and particle components of the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) aerosol in the Arctic. The results are compared to findings from the Antarctic derived using similar measurements and interpretive techniques. The Arctic data show that particle volume well above background values is present at temperatures above the frostpoint, confirming the result from the Antarctic that the observed PSCs are not water ice particles. NO(y) measurements inside a PSC are enhanced above ambient values consistent with anisokinetic sampling of particles containing NO(y). In the Arctic data over long segments of several flights, calculations show saturation with respect to nitric acid trihydrate without significant PSC particle growth above background.

Kawa, S. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.

1992-01-01

75

Full vector measurements of converging terahertz beams with linear, circular, and cylindrical vortex polarization.  

PubMed

The complete vector information of converging terahertz (THz) beams with linear, circular, and cylindrical vortex polarization are precisely measured by using a THz digital holographic imaging system. The transverse (Ex, Ey) and longitudinal (Ez) polarization components of the THz fields around the focal point are separately obtained utilizing the detection crystals with different crystalline orientations. The measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical expectations. This imaging technique provides an effective way for revealing the vector diffraction properties of the THz electro-magnetic waves. PMID:25322037

Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Xie, Zhenwei; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Cui, Ye; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

2014-10-01

76

IHY-IPY conference report from Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this unique circumpolar conference hosted January 23-29, 2008 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Kuiper Belt, and the solar wind termination shock now crossed by both Voyager spacecraft. Many of the science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. U.S. remote contributions came from the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Arizona, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Convening during the first week of 2008 Arctic sunrise at Barrow, this conference served as a prelude that year to international Sun-Earth Day celebrations for IHY, while also commemorating Barrow scientific and native cultural support for the first International Polar Year 1882-1883. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The conference proceedings are Internet accessible via the home page at http://polargateways2008.org/.

Cooper, John; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan; Thompson, Barbara; Sheehan, Glenn; Smith, Roger; Sandahl, Ingrid

77

Vortex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a tornado in a bottle to observe a spiraling, funnel-shaped vortex. A simple connector device allows water to drain from a 2-liter bottle into a second bottle. Learners can observe the whirling water and then repeat the process by inverting the bottle. Use this activity to talk about surface tension, pressure, gravity, friction, angular momentum, and centripetal force.

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

78

Generation of Vortex Beams with Strong Longitudinally Polarized Magnetic Field by Using a Metasurface  

E-print Network

A novel method of generation and synthesis of azimuthally E-polarized vortex beams is presented. Along the axis of propagation such beams have a strong longitudinally polarized magnetic field where ideally there is no electric field. We show how these beams can be constructed through the interference of Laguerre-Gaussian beams carrying orbital angular momentum. As an example, we present a metasurface made of double-split ring slot pairs and report a good agreement between simulated and analytical results. Both a high magnetic-to-electric-field contrast ratio and a magnetic field enhancement are achieved. We also investigate the metasurface physical constraints to convert a linearly polarized beam into an azimuthally E- polarized beam and characterize the performance of magnetic field enhancement and electric field suppression of a realistic metasurface. These findings are potentially useful for novel optical spectroscopy related to magnetic dipolar transitions and for optical manipulation of particles with sp...

Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo

2014-01-01

79

Three-dimensional thermal structure of the South Polar Vortex of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed thermal infrared images provided by the VIRTIS-M instrument aboard Venus Express (VEX) to obtain high resolution thermal maps of the Venus south polar region between 55 and 85 km altitudes. The maps investigate three different dynamical configurations of the polar vortex including its classical dipolar shape, a regularly oval shape and a transition shape between the different configurations of the vortex. We apply the atmospheric model described by García Muñoz et al. (2013) and a variant of the retrieval algorithm detailed in Grassi et al. (2008) to obtain maps of temperature over the Venus south polar region in the quoted altitude range. These maps are discussed in terms of cloud motions and relative vorticity distribution obtained previously (Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). Temperature maps retrieved at 55 - 63 km show the same structures that are observed in the ~5 µm radiance images. This altitude range coincides with the optimal expected values of the cloud top altitude at polar latitudes and magnitudes derived from the analysis of ~5 µm images are measured at this altitude range. We also study the imprint of the vortex on the thermal field above the cloud level which extends up to 80 km. From the temperature maps, we also study the vertical stability of different atmospheric layers. The cold collar is clearly the most statically stable structure at polar latitudes, while the vortex and subpolar latitudes show lower stability values. Furthermore, the hot filaments present within the vortex at 55-63 km exhibit lower values of static stability than their immediate surroundings.ReferencesGarate-Lopez et al. Nat. Geosci. 6, 254-257 (2013).García Muñoz et al. Planet. Space Sci. 81, 65-73 (2013).Grassi, D. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1-12 (2008).AcknowledgementsWe thank ESA for supporting Venus Express, ASI, CNES and the other national space agencies supporting VIRTIS on VEX and their principal investigators G. Piccioni and P. Drossart. This work was supported by projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICI-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-765-13 and by UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55. IGL and AGM acknowledge ESA/RSSD for hospitality and access to ‘The Grid’ computing resources.

Hueso, Ricardo; Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

2014-11-01

80

The 4-Day Wave and Transport of UARS Tracers in the Austral Polar Vortex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite tracer data and isentropic transport calculations using U.K. Meteorological Office winds initialized with these data show evidence of eastward-traveling waves in the polar upper stratosphere in late austral winter 1992. Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) H2O from prototype iterative retrievals shows a 4-day wave signal at levels from 1.5 to 0.1 hPa; a 4-day wave signal was not obvious in production retrievals of MLS H2O. At 1800 K, the 4-day wave signal in MLS H2O has a double-peaked structure in latitude, which is reproduced in isentropic transport calculations. The time evolution, amplitude, and phase of the 4-day wave in the transport calculations agree well with observations at high latitudes; the position and shape of the polar vortex and of H2O drawn up around the vortex are reproduced by the transport calculations. Spectral analyses of the Cryogen Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) CH4 are dominated by more slowly eastward-moving waves (6-10 days), but a weak 4-day wave signature is also present between 1.5 and 4 hPa. Transport calculations initialized with CH4 show similar eastward-traveling signals, good agreement with the phase of the observed signals, and overall agreement with the observed position of the vortex. The qualitative success of the transport calculations in reproducing the phase and overall time evolution of high-latitude eastward-traveling waves in the polar upper stratosphere indicates that the winds used for the transport calculations are generally reliable, and that the eastward-traveling waves identified in the MLS H2O and CLAES CH4 originate to a large extent from horizontal transport processes. Examination of the vertical structure of potential vorticity shows periods when at the highest levels studied (around 1800 K), the 4-day wave is responsible for the main motion of the vortex, whereas at lower levels (at and below 1400 K) the vortex motion is characterized by a slower eastward progression, and the 4-day wave signal contributes to motions that are confined inside the vortex.

Manney, G. L.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Roche, A. E.

1998-12-01

81

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively

Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon; Derek C. G. Muir; Ray E. Schweinsburg

1988-01-01

82

Lower Stratospheric Temperature Differences Between Meteorological Analyses in two cold Arctic Winters and their Impact on Polar Processing Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative intercomparison of six meteorological analyses is presented for the cold 1999-2000 and 1995-1996 Arctic winters. The impacts of using different analyzed temperatures in calculations of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation potential, and of different winds in idealized trajectory-based temperature histories, are substantial. The area with temperatures below a PSC formation threshold commonly varies by approximately 25% among the analyses, with differences of over 50% at some times/locations. Freie University at Berlin analyses are often colder than others at T is less than or approximately 205 K. Biases between analyses vary from year to year; in January 2000. U.K. Met Office analyses were coldest and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses warmest. while NCEP analyses were usually coldest in 1995-1996 and Met Office or NCEP[National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (REAN) warmest. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperatures agreed better with other analyses in 1999-2000, after improvements in the assimilation model. than in 1995-1996. Case-studies of temperature histories show substantial differences using Met Office, NCEP, REAN and NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) analyses. In January 2000 (when a large cold region was centered in the polar vortex), qualitatively similar results were obtained for all analyses. However, in February 2000 (a much warmer period) and in January and February 1996 (comparably cold to January 2000 but with large cold regions near the polar vortex edge), distributions of "potential PSC lifetimes" and total time spent below a PSC formation threshold varied significantly among the analyses. Largest peaks in "PSC lifetime" distributions in January 2000 were at 4-6 and 11-14 days. while in the 1996 periods, they were at 1-3 days. Thus different meteorological conditions in comparably cold winters had a large impact on expectations for PSC formation and on the discrepancies between different meteorological analyses. Met Office. NCEP, REAN, ECMWF and DAO analyses are commonly used for trajectory calculations and in chemical transport models; the choice of which analysis to use can strongly influence the results of such studies.

Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Santee, Michelle L.; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard; Gelman, Melvyn E.; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

83

Spatial variation of ozone depletion rates in the springtime Antarctic polar vortex.  

PubMed

An area-mapping technique, designed to filter out synoptic perturbations of the Antarctic polar vortex such as distortion or displacement away from the pole, was applied to the Nimbus-7 TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. This procedure reveals the detailed morphology of the temporal evolution of column O3. The results for the austral spring of 1987 suggest the existence of a relatively stable collar region enclosing an interior that is undergoing large variations. There is tentative evidence for quasi-periodic (15 to 20 days) O3 fluctuations in the collar and for upwelling of tropospheric air in late spring. A simplified photochemical model of O3 loss and the temporal evolution of the area-mapped polar O3 are used to constrain the chlorine monoxide (ClO) concentrations in the springtime Antarctic vortex. The concentrations required to account for the observed loss of O3 are higher than those previously reported by Anderson et al. but are comparable to their recently revised values. However, the O3 loss rates could be larger than deduced here because of underestimates of total O3 by TOMS near the terminator. This uncertainty, together with the uncertainties associated with measurements acquired during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, suggests that in early spring, closer to the vortex center, there may be even larger ClO concentrations than have yet been detected. PMID:11538181

Yung, Y L; Allen, M; Crisp, D; Zurek, R W; Sander, S P

1990-05-11

84

The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009  

PubMed Central

Background The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and promoting synergy and strategic direction of Arctic human health research and health promotion. Results As of 31 March, 2009, the official end of the IPY, AHHI represented a total of 38 proposals, including 21 individual Expressions of Intent (EoI), and 9 full proposals (FP), submitted to the IPY Joint Committee for review and approval from lead investigators from the US, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Russian Federation. In addition, there were 10 National Initiatives (NI-projects undertaken during IPY beyond the IPY Joint Committee review process). Individual project details can be viewed at www.arctichealth.org. The AHHI currently monitors the progress of 28 individual active human health projects in the following thematic areas: health network expansion (5 projects), infectious disease research (7 projects), environmental health research (7 projects), behavioral and mental health research (4 projects), and outreach education and communication (5 projects). Conclusions While some projects have been completed, others will continue well beyond the IPY. The IPY 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. PMID:23971017

Parkinson, Alan J.

2013-01-01

85

Observational constraints on the tropospheric and near-surface winter signature of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex  

E-print Network

will concentrate on the main winter months - January and February - since 206 then the strongest anomalies can be expected, unaffected by the build-up and dissolution 207 processes of the polar vortex. We therefore focus on the low-frequency processes in NH 208... of anomalously strong and weak polar 296 vortex conditions can be tested by simple composite analysis for a number of very strong 297 versus a number of very weak polar vortices (defined by PVI exceeding +/- one standard 298 deviation). If the two composites...

Graf, Hans-F.; Zanchettin, Davide; Timmreck, Claudia; Bittner, Matthias

2014-03-07

86

Polarity reversal of a magnetic vortex core by a unipolar, non-resonant in-plane pulsed magnetic field.  

SciTech Connect

We report the polarity reversal of a magnetic vortex core using a nonresonant in-plane pulsed magnetic field of arbitrary waveform studied using time-resolved x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The imaging and simulations show that a 5 mT pulse, higher than the critical field for nonlinear effects, effectively leads to the randomization of the vortex core polarity. The micromagnetic simulations further show that the onset of stochastic core polarity randomization does not necessarily coincide with the critical reversal field, leading to a field window for predictable core reversal.

Keavney, D. J.; Cheng, X. M.; Buchanan, K. S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( XSD); (Colorado State Univ.)

2009-06-24

87

Arctic Forecasts Available from Polar Bear Exhibit as an Example of Formal/Informal Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subset of the general population enjoys and frequents informal education venues, offering an opportunity for lifelong learning that also enhances and supports formal education efforts. The Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) at The Ohio State University collaborated with the Columbus Zoo & Aquarium (CZA) in the development of their Polar Frontier exhibit, from its initial planning to the Grand Opening of the exhibit, through the present. Of course, the addition to the Zoo of polar bears and Arctic fox in the Polar Frontier has been very popular, with almost a 7% increase in visitors in 2010 when the exhibit opened. The CZA and BPRC are now investigating ways to increase the climate literacy impact of the exhibit, and to increase engagement with the topics through follow-on activities. For example, individuals or classes anywhere in the world can check forecasts from the Polar Weather and Research Forecasting model and compare them to observed conditions-- allowing deep investigation into changes in the Arctic. In addition, opportunities exist to adapt the Zoo School experience (affecting several Central Ohio school districts) and/or to enable regular participation through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and other forms of digital communication. BPRC's sustained engagement with the CZA is an example of a trusted and meaningful partnership where open dialogue exists about providing the best learning experience for visitors. This presentation will share some of the lessons learned from this unique partnership, and strategies that are adopted to move it forward.

Landis, C. E.; Cervenec, J.

2012-12-01

88

Polar Desert Adaptations of a High Arctic Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae) possess metabolic adaptations that allow them to grow successfully in polar desert microenvironments. Net photosynthesis (net carbon uptake) continues to be positive during drought until the leaf water stress declines to the range of -21 to -29 bars, which is considerably below the nonstress range of 0 to -10 bars. The plants can survive leaf

J. A. Teeri

1973-01-01

89

Vulnerability of Polar Oceans to Anthropogenic Acidification: Comparison of Arctic and Antarctic Seasonal Cycles  

PubMed Central

Polar oceans are chemically sensitive to anthropogenic acidification due to their relatively low alkalinity and correspondingly weak carbonate buffering capacity. Here, we compare unique CO2 system observations covering complete annual cycles at an Arctic (Amundsen Gulf) and Antarctic site (Prydz Bay). The Arctic site experiences greater seasonal warming (10 vs 3°C), and freshening (3 vs 2), has lower alkalinity (2220 vs 2320??mol/kg), and lower summer pH (8.15 vs 8.5), than the Antarctic site. Despite a larger uptake of inorganic carbon by summer photosynthesis, the Arctic carbon system exhibits smaller seasonal changes than the more alkaline Antarctic system. In addition, the excess surface nutrients in the Antarctic may allow mitigation of acidification, via CO2 removal by enhanced summer production driven by iron inputs from glacial and sea-ice melting. These differences suggest that the Arctic system is more vulnerable to anthropogenic change due to lower alkalinity, enhanced warming, and nutrient limitation. PMID:23903871

Shadwick, E. H.; Trull, T. W.; Thomas, H.; Gibson, J. A. E.

2013-01-01

90

Imaging polarimetry of the fogbow: polarization characteristics of white rainbows measured in the high Arctic.  

PubMed

The knowledge on the optics of fogbows is scarce, and their polarization characteristics have never been measured to our knowledge. To fill this gap we measured the polarization features of 16 fogbows during the Beringia 2005 Arctic polar research expedition by imaging polarimetry in the red, green and blue spectral ranges. We present here the first polarization patterns of the fogbow. In the patterns of the degree of linear polarization p, fogbows and their supernumerary bows are best visible in the red spectral range due to the least dilution of fogbow light by light scattered in air. In the patterns of the angle of polarization ? fogbows are practically not discernible because their ?-pattern is the same as that of the sky: the direction of polarization is perpendicular to the plane of scattering and is parallel to the arc of the bow, independently of the wavelength. Fogbows and their supernumeraries were best seen in the patterns of the polarized radiance. In these patterns the angular distance ? between the peaks of the primary and the first supernumerary and the angular width ? of the primary bow were determined along different radii from the center of the bow. ? ranged between 6.08° and 13.41°, while ? changed from 5.25° to 19.47°. Certain fogbows were relatively homogeneous, meaning small variations of ? and ? along their bows. Other fogbows were heterogeneous, possessing quite variable ?- and ?-values along their bows. This variability could be a consequence of the characteristics of the high Arctic with open waters within the ice shield resulting in the spatiotemporal change of the droplet size within the fog. PMID:22016248

Horváth, Gábor; Hegedüs, Ramón; Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Åkesson, Susanne

2011-10-01

91

Polar desert adaptations of a high arctic plant species.  

PubMed

Plants of Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae) possess metabolic adaptations that allow them to grow successfully in polar desert microenvironments. Net photosynthesis (net carbon uptake) continues to be positive during drought until the leaf water stress declines to the range of -21 to -29 bars, which is considerably below the nonstress range of 0 to -10 bars. The plants can survive leaf water stresses of at least -44 bars in the field and leaf water stresses of -55 bars in a growth chamber. PMID:17739145

Teeri, J A

1973-02-01

92

Ozone profile measurements within, at the edge of, and outside the Antarctic polar vortex in the spring of 1988  

SciTech Connect

Ozone and temperature were measured during 38 balloon soundings at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78{degree}S), in the spring of 1988. Because of the motion of the Antarctic polar vortex, measurements were obtained within, at the edge of, and outside the vortex. Although the polar vortex did not remain over McMurdo as it did in 1986 and 1987, it was overhead long enough to establish that ozone depletion was less extensive and ended earlier than in either 1986 or 1987. In the vortex the ozone mixing ratio at 18 km decayed with an exponential half-life of 29 days compared to 25 and 12 days in 1986 and 1987. While ozone partial pressure in the 16-18 km layer decayed to values as low as 10 nbar in 1986 and 3 nbar in 1987, ozone partial pressure dropped to only 60-70 nbar in 1988 in the depleted region, a reduction of 30 to 50%. Even with these differences in degree of ozone depletion there were similarities to previous measurements. Ozone depletion was caused by a sink between 12 and 20 km, and primary depletion was episodic, occurring in periods of <10 days. Measurements at the edge of the vortex displayed the ozone layering observed in 1986 and 1987 and suggest the exchange of ozone rich and poor air across the vortex wall in the 12-20 km layer. Outside the vortex, vertical profiles displayed a region of high ozone and constant temperature above 20 km.

Deshler, T.; Hofmann, D.J.; Hereford, J.V. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (USA))

1990-06-20

93

Troposphere-Stratosphere Dynamic Coupling Under Strong and Weak Polar Vortex Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropospheric and stratospheric wave-like anomalies of spherical zonal wave number (ZWN) 1 is studied by applying Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). A lag-correlation technique is used with 10-day lowpass filtered daily time series of 50- and 500-hPa geopotential heights. Generally stratospheric circulation is determined by ultralong tropospheric planetary waves. During winter seasons characterized either by any anomalously strong or weak polar winter vortex different propagation characteristics for waves of ZWN 1 are observed. The non-linear perspective of the results have implications for medium range weather forecast and climate sensitivity experiments.

Perlwitz, Judith; Graf, Hans-F.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

94

Onset, extent, and duration of dehydration in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite observations of water vapor and aerosol extinction along with temperature trajectory calculations are analyzed for the Southern Hemisphere winter of 1992 in order to determine the onset, extent, and duration of dehydration within the polar vortex. Our investigation uses measurements of water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and aerosol extinction from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES), both on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Evidence of persistent ice cloud formation, supported by temperature statistics obtained from air parcel trajectories, suggests that the onset of the dehydration process occurs between late June and early July. By late August-early September water vapor depleted areas within the vortex no longer coincide with high aerosol extinctions, indicating that severe dehydration has occurred with the irreversible removal of water vapor over vast areas. Areas with depleted levels of water vapor, below the prewinter values, persist well into November. Evidence for dehydration is found on potential temperature surfaces from 420 K (the lower limit of the MLS measurements) to 520 K (approximately 16 to 22 km). The horizontal extent of the dehydrated area at 465 K encompasses up to 35% of the total vortex area equatorward of 80°S. A comparison of CLAES aerosol extinction measurements and model calculations of aerosol extinction suggests an average ice particle number concentration and size of 10-2-10-3 cm-3 and 10-30 ?m, respectively. We show that the difference between the timing of the onset of dehydration found here and that in a recent analysis of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM) observations can be explained by the latitudinal sampling pattern of the POAM instrument.

Stone, Elizabeth M.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Jensen, Eric; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Mergenthaler, John L.

2001-10-01

95

Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation.  

PubMed

Plasmonic metasurfaces have recently attracted much attention due to their ability to abruptly change the phase of light, allowing subwavelength optical elements for polarization and wavefront control. However, most previously demonstrated metasurface designs suffer from low coupling efficiency and are based on metallic resonators, leading to ohmic loss. Here, we present an alternative approach to plasmonic metasurfaces by replacing the metallic resonators with high-refractive-index silicon cut-wires in combination with a silver ground plane. We experimentally demonstrate that this meta-reflectarray can be used to realize linear polarization conversion with more than 98% conversion efficiency over a 200 nm bandwidth in the short-wavelength infrared band. We also demonstrate optical vortex beam generation using a meta-reflectarray with an azimuthally varied phase profile. The vortex beam generation is shown to have high efficiency over a wavelength range from 1500 to 1600 nm. The use of dielectric resonators in place of their plasmonic counterparts could pave the way for ultraefficient metasurface-based devices at high frequencies. PMID:24547692

Yang, Yuanmu; Wang, Wenyi; Moitra, Parikshit; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

2014-03-12

96

Changes in the polarization and coherence of a stochastic electromagnetic vortex beam propagating through a misaligned optical system with aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical expression for the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix of a stochastic electromagnetic vortex beam passing through a misaligned optical system with aperture is derived. Some analyses are illustrated by numerical examples relating to changes in the spectral degree of polarization and the spectral degree of coherence for a stochastic electromagnetic vortex beam passing through such an optical system. It was found that the topological charge, the radius of the aperture and the displacement have different influences on the changes in the spectral degree of polarization and the spectral degree of coherence.

Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

2014-10-01

97

Saturn's North Polar Vortex Revealed by Cassini/VIMS: Zonal Wind Structure and Constraints on Cloud Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first high-spatial resolution, near-nadir imagery and movies of Saturn's north polar region that reveal the wind structure of a north polar vortex. Obtained by Cassini/VIMS on June 15, 2008 from high over Saturn's polar region (sub-spacecraft latitude of 65 degrees N. lat) at an altitude of 0.42 million km during the long polar night, these 210-per-pixel images of the polar region north of 73 degrees N. latitude show several concentric cloud rings and hundreds of individual cloud features in silhouette against the 5-micron background thermal glow of Saturn's deep atmosphere. In contrast to the clear eye of the south polar vortex, the north polar vortex sports a central cloud feature about 650-km in diameter. Zonal winds reach a maximum of 150 m/s near 88 degrees N. latitude (planetocentric) - comparable to the south polar vortex maximum of 190 m/s near 88 degrees S. latitude - and fall off nearly monotonically to 10 m/s near 80 degrees N. latitude. At slightly greater distance from the pole, inside the north polar hexagon in the 75-77 degree N. latitude region, zonal winds increase dramatically to 130 m/s, as silhouetted clouds are seen speeding aroud the "race track” of the hexagonal feature. VIMS 5-micron thermal observations over a 1.6-year period from October 29, 2006 to June 15, 2008 are consistent with the polar hexagon structure itself remaining fixed in the Voyager-era radio rotation rate (Desch and Kaiser, Geophys. Res. Lett, 8, 253-256, 1981) to within an accuracy of 3 seconds per rotational period. This agrees with the stationary nature of the wave in this rotation system found by Godfrey (Icarus 76, 335-356, 1988), but is inconsistent with rotation rates found during the current Cassini era.

Baines, Kevin H.; Momary, T. W.; Fletcher, L. N.; Buratti, B. J.; Roos-Serote, M.; Showman, A. P.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

2008-09-01

98

Storm tracks in Arctic System Reanalysis - new view of polar cyclone activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the analysis of cyclone activity over the 10-yr period (2000-2010) based on storm tracks derived from the recently released Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR), Interim version. Storm tracking was performed for ASR high resolution 3-hourly SLP fields using numerical tracking algorithm of IORAS. Results provide a novel vision of cyclone activity in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions with much more detailed structure of the storm tracks compared to global reanalyses. Compared to the modern era global reanalyses ASR exhibits considerably higher number of cyclones in high latitudes with short lived and relatively shallow transients primarily contributing to the difference. The major differences amounting to several tens of percent were identified in summer season. Besides differences in cyclone life cycle characteristics (cyclone depth, propagation velocity, deepening rates), we also considered frequencies of cyclone generation and found local generation regions which are not captured by global reanalyses. Special consideration is given to the small cyclone of mesoscale nature identified in the North European basin. These short-lived mesoscale transients are hardly detectable in global reanalyses, however ASR is capable of identifying them. Short-term interannual variability in regional patterns of cyclone activity over the Arctic were considered in a view of their comparability with those implied by the alternative products and of their potential links to the variations in the Arctic sea ice cover and associated changes in surface diabatic heating of the atmosphere.

Tilinina, N.; Gulev, S.; Bromwich, D. H.

2013-12-01

99

Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, S.E.; Boltunov, A.N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

2003-01-01

100

4, 62836319, 2004 Polar stratospheric  

E-print Network

of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10-3 km-1 at 1022 nm, a wavelength, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a framework for assessing potential impacts of offshore oil and gas development to other polar bear populations around the Arctic.

Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

2014-01-01

102

The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A latest Cretaceous (68 to 65 million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Dinosaur eggshell fragments, belonging to hadrosaurids and non-avian theropods, indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes. Palaeobotanical data suggest that these polar dinosaurs lived in a temperate climate (mean annual temperature about 10°C), but the climate was apparently too cold for amphibians and ectothermic reptiles. The high diversity of Late Maastrichtian dinosaurs in high latitudes, where ectotherms are absent, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact.

Godefroit, Pascal; Golovneva, Lina; Shchepetov, Sergei; Garcia, Géraldine; Alekseev, Pavel

2009-04-01

103

Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kisuna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various tirnes during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Kuiper Belt, and the solar wind termination shock now crossed by both Voyager spacecraft. Barrow participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice and Point Barrow. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow township and North Slope Borough communities, partly through several interviews with local host Earl Finkler on Barrow's KBRW Radio, and through the NASA Digital Learning Network (DLN) "live from the top of the world" at Barrow. The Goddard robotic rover "Nunuq of the North" became a local celebrity. The complete science program and photo library, eventually also including video recordings of all main presentations, will be available at the new polargateways2008.gsfc.nasa.gov web site (old version: polargateways2008.org) with links to educational materials from the conference already accessible at sunearthday.nasa.gov/polarsunrise.

Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Sandahl, Ingrid; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Sheehan, Glenn W.; Smith, Roger W.; Lewis, Elaine M.; Cline, Troy D.; Haines-Stiles, Geoff

2008-01-01

104

Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kiruna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Kuiper Belt, and the solar wind termination shock now crossed by both Voyager spacecraft. Barrow participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice and Point Barrow. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow township and North Slope Borough communities, partly through several interviews with local host Earl Finkler on Barrow's KBRW Radio, and through the NASA Digital Learning Network (DLN) "live from the top of the world" at Barrow. The Goddard robotic rover "Nanuq of the North" became a local celebrity. The complete science program and photo library, eventually also including video recordings of all main presentations, will be available at the new polargateways2008.gsfc.nasa.gov web site (old version: polargateways2008.org) with links to educational materials from the conference already accessible at sunearthday.nasa.gov/polarsunrise.

Cooper, J. F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Cline, T. D.; Lewis, E. M.; Haines-Stiles, G.

2008-12-01

105

The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and simple theoretical arguments suggest that the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar vortex is stronger in winters following major volcanic eruptions. However, recent studies show that climate models forced by prescribed volcanic aerosol fields fail to reproduce this effect. We investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, including the strength of the NH polar vortex, in ensemble simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The model is forced by four different prescribed forcing sets representing the radiative properties of stratospheric aerosol following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo: two forcing sets are based on observations, and are commonly used in climate model simulations, and two forcing sets are constructed based on coupled aerosol-climate model simulations. For all forcings, we find that simulated temperature and zonal wind anomalies in the NH high latitudes are not directly impacted by anomalous volcanic aerosol heating. Instead, high-latitude effects result from enhancements in stratospheric residual circulation, which in turn result, at least in part, from enhanced stratospheric wave activity. High-latitude effects are therefore much less robust than would be expected if they were the direct result of aerosol heating. Both observation-based forcing sets result in insignificant changes in vortex strength. For the model-based forcing sets, the vortex response is found to be sensitive to the structure of the forcing, with one forcing set leading to significant strengthening of the polar vortex in rough agreement with observation-based expectations. Differences in the dynamical response to the forcing sets imply that reproducing the polar vortex responses to past eruptions, or predicting the response to future eruptions, depends on accurate representation of the space-time structure of the volcanic aerosol forcing.

Toohey, M.; Krüger, K.; Bittner, M.; Timmreck, C.; Schmidt, H.

2014-12-01

106

Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark- recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

Stapleton, Seth P.; LaRue, Michelle A.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Garshelis, David L.; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd C.

2014-01-01

107

Polar Bears from Space: Assessing Satellite Imagery as a Tool to Track Arctic Wildlife  

PubMed Central

Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark–recapture models. This estimate (: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92–105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (: 102; 95% CI: 69–152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics. PMID:25006979

Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd

2014-01-01

108

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

1988-09-01

109

Arctic microbial ecosystems and impacts of extreme warming during the International Polar Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a contribution to the International Polar Year program MERGE (Microbiological and Ecological Responses to Global Environmental change in polar regions), studies were conducted on the terrestrial and aquatic microbial ecosystems of northern Canada (details at: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/merge/). The habitats included permafrost soils, saline coldwater springs, supraglacial lakes on ice shelves, epishelf lakes in fjords, deep meromictic lakes, and shallow lakes, ponds and streams. Microbiological samples from each habitat were analysed by HPLC pigment assays, light and fluorescence microscopy, and DNA sequencing. The results show a remarkably diverse microflora of viruses, Archaea (including ammonium oxidisers and methanotrophs), Bacteria (including filamentous sulfur-oxidisers in a saline spring and benthic mats of Cyanobacteria in many waterbodies), and protists (including microbial eukaryotes in snowbanks and ciliates in ice-dammed lakes). In summer 2008, we recorded extreme warming at Ward Hunt Island and vicinity, the northern limit of the Canadian high Arctic, with air temperatures up to 20.5 °C. This was accompanied by pronounced changes in microbial habitats: deepening of the permafrost active layer; loss of perennial lake ice and sea ice; loss of ice-dammed freshwater lakes; and 23% loss of total ice shelf area, including complete break-up and loss of the Markham Ice Shelf cryo-ecosystem. These observations underscore the vulnerability of Arctic microbial ecosystems to ongoing climate change.

Vincent, Warwick F.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Lovejoy, Connie; Greer, Charles W.; Laurion, Isabelle; Suttle, Curtis A.; Corbeil, Jacques; Mueller, Derek R.

2009-11-01

110

Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern1 Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-Sea2  

E-print Network

Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern1 Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-Sea2 Roughness3 Chaim I. Garfinkel Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Johns Hopkins Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate11 Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated air-sea roughness

Garfinkel, Chaim I.

111

Polar stratospheric clouds in the 1998-2003 Antarctic vortex: Microphysical modeling and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Microphysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and evolution in the Antarctic vortex. The model is applied to individual air parcel trajectories driven by UK Met Office (UKMO) wind and temperature fields. The IMPACT model calculates the parcel microphysics, including the formation and sedimentation of ice, nitric acid

C. M. Benson; K. Drdla; G. E. Nedoluha; E. P. Shettle; J. Alfred; K. W. Hoppel

2006-01-01

112

Polar stratospheric clouds in the 1998–2003 Antarctic vortex: Microphysical modeling and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Microphysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and evolution in the Antarctic vortex. The model is applied to individual air parcel trajectories driven by UK Met Office (UKMO) wind and temperature fields. The IMPACT model calculates the parcel microphysics, including the formation and sedimentation of ice, nitric acid

C. M. Benson; K. Drdla; G. E. Nedoluha; E. P. Shettle; J. Alfred; K. W. Hoppel

2006-01-01

113

Polar Vortex Conditions during the 1995-96 Artic Winter: Meteorology and MLS Ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1995-96 northern hemisphere (NH) 205 winter stratosphere was colder than in any of the previous 17 winters, with lower stratospheric temperatures continuously below the type 1 (primarily HN03) polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) threshold for over 2 1/2 months. Upper tropospheric ridges in late Feb and early Mar 1996 led to the lowest observed NH lower stratospheric temperatures, and the latest observed NH temperatures below the type 2 (water ice) PSC threshold. Consistent with the unusual cold and chemical processing on PSCS, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS observed a greater decrease in lower stratospheric ozone (03) in 1995-96 than in any of the previous 4 NH winters. 03 decreased throughout the vortex over an altitude range nearly as large as that typical of the southern hemisphere (SH). The decrease between late Dec 1995 and early Mar 1996 was about 2/3 of that over the equivalent SH period. As in other NH winters, temperatures in 1996 rose above the PSC threshold before the spring equinox, ending chemical processing in the NH vortex much earlier than is usual in the SH. A downward trend in column 03 above 100 hPa during Jan and Feb 1996 appears to be related to the lower stratospheric 03 depletion.

Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

1996-01-01

114

Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

Kirk, C.M.; Amstrup, S.; Swor, R.; Holcomb, D.; O'Hara, T. M.

2010-01-01

115

Strain-induced polarity switching of magnetic vortex in Fe1-xGax alloys with different compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain-induced polarity switching of magnetic vortex in the Fe1-xGax nanodots with different compositions is demonstrated by a real-space phase-field model, which explicitly includes the cross-coupling between magnetization and mechanical strain. The composition of Fe1-xGax nanodots has significant influence on the critical shear strain that induces the polarity switching of magnetization vortex. The critical shear strain in the Fe71Ga29 nanodot is one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Fe19Ga81 nanodot, which makes the polarity switching much easier under a mechanical shear strain. In addition, we elucidate that both the magnetostrictive coefficient and exchange stiffness that changes with compositions play the decisive role in the critical behavior; the higher magnetostrictive coefficient (or lower exchange stiffness) decreases critical shear strain.

Li, Gui-ping; Wang, Jie; Shimada, Takahiro; Fang, Hui; Kitamura, Takayuki

2014-05-01

116

Steady vortex gyrotropic motion driven by an out-of-plane spin-polarized current in a confined nanocontact structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the steady vortex gyrotropic motion in a Permalloy nanodot driven by an out-of-plane spin-polarized current which is injected through a nanocontact. First, we calculated the current density range in which the vortex steady motion can exist. It is found that both the nanocontact dimensions and dot aspect ratios have influence on it. Then the orbital radius and oscillation frequency of the steady motion in the plane of current density and nanocontact radius were diagramed. It indicated that smaller nanocontact corresponds to wider frequency range.

Liu, Yan; Li, Huanan; Hu, Yong; Du, An

2015-01-01

117

Effect of polar day on plasma profiles of melatonin, testosterone, and estradiol in high-Arctic Lapland Longspurs.  

PubMed

In polar habitats, continuous daylight (polar day) can prevail for many weeks or months around the summer solstice. In the laboratory, continuous light conditions impair or disrupt circadian rhythms in many animals. To determine whether circadian rhythms are disrupted under natural polar day conditions in a species that is only a summer resident in polar regions we analyzed diel rhythms in plasma concentrations of melatonin, testosterone (T), and 17-beta estradiol (E(2)) during the summer solstice in Arctic-breeding Lapland Longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus). We compared these profiles to those of conspecifics housed in outdoor aviaries at a mid-latitude site in Seattle, Washington, during spring, summer, fall, and winter. Under polar day conditions plasma melatonin concentrations of Lapland Longspurs were strongly suppressed, but still showed a significant diel rhythm. Likewise, plasma T in males, and E(2) in females, showed significant diel changes in Arctic birds. Lapland Longspurs housed at mid-latitude in Seattle showed high-amplitude melatonin cycles at all times of the year, and the duration of the nightly melatonin secretion was positively correlated with the duration of the dark phase. We found no diel changes in plasma T in Seattle males in May, but Seattle females showed significant day/night differences in plasma E(2) in May. The data suggest that even under polar day conditions diel rhythms can persist. The maintenance of hormone rhythms could provide a physiological basis to reports of rhythmic behavior in many birds during the Arctic summer. PMID:11944971

Hau, Michaela; Romero, L Michael; Brawn, Jeff D; Van't Hof, Thomas J

2002-03-01

118

Late Cretaceous Extreme Polar Warmth recorded by Vertebrate Fossils from the High Canadian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertebrate fossil assemblage from Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Turonian, ~92 to 86 Ma) rocks on Axel Heiberg Island in the High Canadian Arctic reflects what was once a diverse community of freshwater fishes and reptiles. Paleomagnetic data indicate a paleolatitude of ~71° N for the site; the fossils are from non-migratory fauna, so they can provide insight into Late Cretaceous polar climate. The fossil assemblage includes large (> 2.4 m long) champsosaurs (extinct crocodilelike reptiles). The presence of large champsosaurs suggests a mean annual temperature > 14 °C (and perhaps as great as 25 °C). Here we summarize findings and analyses following the discovery of the fossil-bearing strata in 1996. Examination of larger fish elements, isolated teeth and SEM studies of microstructures indicates the presence of lepisosteids, amiids and teleosts (Friedman et al., 2003) Interestingly, the only other known occurrence of amiids and lepisosteids, fossil or recent, are from intervals of extreme warmth during the Tertiary. Turtles present in the assemblage include Boreralochelys axelheibergensis, a generically indeterminate eucryptodire and a trioychid (Brinkman and Tarduno, 2005). The level of turtle diversity is also comparable to mid-latitude assemblages with a mean annual paleotemperature of at least 14 °C. A large portion of the champsosaur fossil assemblage is comprised of elements from subadults. This dominance of subadults is similar to that seen from low latitude sites. Because of the sensitivity of juveniles to ice formation, the make-up of the Arctic champsosaur population further indicates that the Late Cretaceous saw an interval of extreme warmth and low seasonality. We note the temporal coincidence of these fossils with volcanism at large igneous provinces (including high Arctic volcanism) and suggest that a pulse in volcanic carbon dioxide emissions helped cause the global warmth.

Vandermark, D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Brinkman, D.

2006-12-01

119

ARCTIC  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. The numbers of brant (Branta bernicla) in the Pacific Flyway are relatively small compared to other populations of arctic geese and have declined from historic levels. Little information is available on brant from Banks Island, although the size of the island and its location in the western Canadian Arctic make it a potentially important nesting area for this species. In 1992–93, we documented the distribution of nesting brant on the southern half of Banks Island through aerial surveys and carried out ground studies at the colonies to document nesting chronology and reproductive parameters. Ten colonies were found in 1992 (n = 159 nests) and 42 colonies (including seven colonies that had been active in 1992) and five solitary nests were found in 1993 (n = 514 nests). Two-thirds (67%) of the nesting locations supported 10 or fewer nests. Most colonies (36 of 45) were located on small islands (mean = 248 m2) in inland lakes or large ponds, and the remaining colonies (n = 9) were located on the mainland near active snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca) nests. In 1993, when June temperatures were milder and snow melted sooner than in 1992, mean date of clutch initiation was significantly earlier (12 June vs. 20 June in 1992; p < 0.001) and mean clutch size was significantly larger (3.8 vs. 3.5 in 1992; p = 0.02). An index of productivity for the 21 414 km2 area surveyed in both years was much higher in 1993 (1339 young) than in the very late spring of 1992 (347 young). The number of adult brant on the survey area was similar in both years, and the lower productivity in 1992 was due primarily to fewer pairs ’ nesting that year. Smaller clutch size and lower nesting success may also have lowered productivity in 1992, but their effects appeared to be secondary. No correlation was found between colony size and clutch size, mean number of goslings hatched, or the percentage of nests that proved successful.

Richard C. Cotter; James E. Hines

2000-01-01

120

Leveraging scientific credibility about Arctic sea ice trends in a polarized political environment.  

PubMed

This work argues that, in a polarized environment, scientists can minimize the likelihood that the audience's biased processing will lead to rejection of their message if they not only eschew advocacy but also, convey that they are sharers of knowledge faithful to science's way of knowing and respectful of the audience's intelligence; the sources on which they rely are well-regarded by both conservatives and liberals; and the message explains how the scientist arrived at the offered conclusion, is conveyed in a visual form that involves the audience in drawing its own conclusions, and capsulizes key inferences in an illustrative analogy. A pilot experiment raises the possibility that such a leveraging-involving-visualizing-analogizing message structure can increase acceptance of the scientific claims about the downward cross-decade trend in Arctic sea ice extent and elicit inferences consistent with the scientific consensus on climate change among conservatives exposed to misleadingly selective data in a partisan news source. PMID:25225380

Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Hardy, Bruce W

2014-09-16

121

Particle size distributions in Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, growth and freezing of sulfuric acid droplets, and implications for cloud formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper uses particle size and volume measurements obtained with the forward scattering spectrometer probe model 300 during January and February 1989 in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment to investigate processes important in the formation and growth of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. It is suggested on the basis of comparisons of the observations with expected sulfuric acid droplet deliquescence that in the Arctic a major fraction of the sulfuric acid droplets remain liquid until temperatures at least as low as 193 K. It is proposed that homogeneous freezing of the sulfuric acid droplets might occur near 190 K and might play a role in the formation of PSCs.

Dye, James E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Kelly, K. K.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.; Gary, B. L.

1992-01-01

122

The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

2010-01-01

123

Observational evidence for chemical ozone depletion over the Arctic in winter 1991-92  

Microsoft Academic Search

LONG-TERM depletion of ozone has been observed since the early 1980s in the Antarctic polar vortex, and more recently at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres, with most of the ozone loss occurring in the lower stratosphere1. Insufficient measurements of ozone exist, however, to determine decadal trends in ozone concentration in the Arctic winter. Several studies of ozone concentrations in the Arctic

Peter von der Gathen; Markus Rex; Neil R. P. Harris; Diana Lucic; Bjørn M. Knudsen; Geir O. Braathen; Hugo de Backer; Rolf Fabian; Hans Fast; Manuel Gil; Esko Kyrö; Ib Steen Mikkelsen; Markku Rummukainen; Johannes Stähelin; Costas Varotsos

1995-01-01

124

The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-Up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding stratospheric ozone loss to the point of accurately predicting ozone in the future requires correctly distinguishing chemical from transport-induced changes in ozone. For example, evaluating the impact of chlorine reduction in controlling stratospheric ozone loss requires estimating the amount of ozone lost in chemical reactions in the polar winter and spring. The Northern Hemisphere winter polar region is a particularly crucial and interesting area because it appears that the Northern vortex may currently be poised near the threshold of extreme ozone destruction such as that which now occurs annually in the Antarctic ozone "hole." In this presentation we explore the interaction of ozone transport and chemistry through the Northern late summer and fall seasons as the vortex circulation becomes established. This phase of the seasonal cycle determines the starting point for heterogeneous processes and chlorine-driven loss that take control in the winter vortex. Using a combination of profile data from POAM, HALOE, and in situ measurements, we show that relatively low ozone at high latitudes in the middle stratosphere is associated with vortex airmasses and that these ozone abundances evolve photochemically from characteristically higher values at the end of the summer. The zonal variance of ozone mixing ratio also increases greatly at this time consistent with increasing wave-driven transport. Comparison with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to generalize the findings from the limited set of observations and quantify the relative roles of transport and chemistry in determining the ozone mixing ratio distributions.

Kawa, S.R.; Douglass, A. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Sen, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

125

Denitrification in the Arctic mid-winter 2004/2005 observed by airborne submillimeter radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present measurements of unusually low mixing ratios of HNO3 in the exceptionally cold Arctic vortex of late-January and early-February 2005. The measurements were obtained by the airborne submillimeter radiometer ASUR during the polar aura validation experiment (PAVE). The distribution of HNO3 inside the vortex reaches minima below 4 ppbv around 22 km altitude and maxima above 13 ppbv around 16 km altitude, with a considerable spatial variability.

Kleinbohl, Armin; Bremer, Holger; Kullmann, Harry; Kuttippurath, Jayanarayanan; Browell, Edward V.; Canty, Timothy; Salawitch, Ross J.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Nothol, Justus

2005-01-01

126

Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard  

PubMed Central

Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic ?-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations. PMID:20074323

2010-01-01

127

The role of stationary and transient planetary waves in the maintenance of stratospheric polar vortex regimes in Northern Hemisphere winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 1958–2002 NCEP\\/NCAR reanalysis data, we investigate stationary and transient planetary wave propagation and its role\\u000a in wave-mean flow interaction which influences the state of the polar vortex (PV) in the stratosphere in Northern Hemisphere\\u000a (NH) winter. This is done by analyzing the Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux and its divergence. We find that the stationary and transient\\u000a waves propagate upward and

Qian Li; Hans-F. Graf; Xuefeng Cui

2011-01-01

128

Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 in comparison: Denitrification and polar stratospheric cloud formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and denitrification, the permanent removal of nitric acid (HNO3) by sedimenting HNO3 containing PSC particles, play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. The two recent Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were both quite unique. The Arctic winter 2010/2011 was one of the coldest winter on record leading to the strongest depletion of ozone ever measured. Though the Arctic winter 2009/2010 was rather warm in the climatological sense it was distuinguished by a exceptionally cold stratosphere from mid December 2009 to mid January 2010 leading to prolonged PSC formation and strong denitrification. For investigating PSC formation during these two Arctic winter we apply ground-based measurements performed with the Esrange and the IRF lidar in the area of Kiruna, Northern Sweden (69° N 21° E) and space-borne lidar measurements from the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) Satellite together with microphysical box model simulations. To investigate denitrification during these two Arctic winter we apply measurements from the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR) as well as measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura (Aura/MLS). Though denitrification in 2009/2010 was until then the strongest in the entire Odin/SMR measurement period it was excelled by the 2010/2011 winter where denitrification was nearly as severe as in the Antarctic. PSC occurrance during both winter was also quite different. While PSCs were present during the Arctic winter 2010/2011 over nearly four months, from mid December to end of March, they were not as persistent as the ones that occurred during the shorter (one month) cold period during the Arctic winter 2009/2010.

Khosrawi, F.; Urban, J.; Pitts, M. C.; Voelger, P.; Achtert, P.; Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Murtagh, D.

2012-04-01

129

Simultaneous control of vortex polarity and chirality in thickness-modulated [Co/Pd]n/Ti/Ni80Fe20 disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous vortex chirality and polarity control are observed in thickness-modulated [Co/Pd]n/Ti/Ni80Fe20 disks using magnetic force microscopy by applying a proper sequence of in-plane and out-of-plane reset fields. The thickness modulation in the NiFe layer introduces an additional shape anisotropy, which defines the vortex chirality during the in-plane reset field, while the [Co/Pd]n underlayer produces a large out-of-plane stray field, which stabilizes the vortex polarity in the NiFe layer. Micromagnetic simulations are compared with experiment results.

Shimon, G.; Ravichandar, V.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Ross, C. A.

2014-10-01

130

Lunar tide in the thermosphere and weakening of the northern polar vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar tide and its variability are beginning to be realized as elements of ionosphere-thermosphere weather. Herein we demonstrate that an enhancement in M2 amplitude at 110 km in the dynamo region is related to the timing and intensity of stratospheric polar vortex weakening (PVW). Timing of the PVW, which typically occurs during January-February, changes on the order of 4-7 d/yr between 2002 and 2013 and the M2 enhancement changes with it, with a time delay of order 2.8 days. The M2 temperature amplitude at 110 km as determined from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) measurements on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft increases linearly from about 20 K to 29 K as the westward zonal mean zonal wind increases from about 10 m s-1 to 80 m s-1 at 70°N and 48 km altitude in accord with PVW events from year to year according to Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. These relationships point to a level of predictability regarding impacts of the lunar tide on thermosphere and ionosphere densities, winds, and plasma drifts.

Zhang, Xiaoli; Forbes, Jeffrey M.

2014-12-01

131

Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

2011-12-01

132

Integrating Access to Arctic Environmental Change and Human Health Research for the International Polar Year and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each day, people in the communities of the Arctic face challenges to their health and well-being from changing climatic and environmental conditions and increasing levels of pollution to emerging infectious diseases. For this reason, it is critical that Arctic researchers and residents have access to timely, accurate, and relevant information addressing their unique concerns. To meet this need, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) have developed the Arctic Health website, www.arctichealth.org. The website provides an easy-to-use one-stop shop for information on the diverse health-related aspects of the Arctic region. It is organized around relevant topics, including climate change and environmental health, traditional healing and telehealth/telemedicine. The Arctic Health website provides links to the most reliable resources available from local, state, and international agencies, universities, and professional organizations. Two major goals of the site are to create a comprehensive, accessible repository for various media and a listing of research projects, past and present that relate to climate change and human health in the Arctic. To increase the site's relevance, the project has established and continues to create collaborations with researchers, communities, and other organizations to supply publications not available elsewhere, including gray literature, streaming video of traditional healers, and oral histories. These collaborations will also help ensure a database with a comprehensive list of research projects being done in the Arctic, from the international to the local level. Finding ways to negotiate the legal, cultural and national concerns of data sharing are a continuing job for the management team. All of this helps to create a system that will eventually track and ensure that data and reports from the research database translate to the publications database. As part of these efforts, the site is hosting the Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI), the human health focus of the International Polar Year activities. AHHI will coordinate research in the areas of infectious disease; the effects of anthropogenic pollution, UV radiation, and climate variability on human health; and telehealth innovations. A major goal of AHHI is the better integration of the findings of Arctic health research through outreach programs and public education.

Garrett, C. L.

2006-12-01

133

Examining diapirs as a nutrient source for plants in a High Arctic polar desert.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar deserts cover a quarter of ice-free land in the Canadian Arctic, yet little is known about the key ecological processes that take place. This understudied ecosystem is becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate change and growth of the natural resource industry. In polar deserts, below ground soil masses called diapirs occur in some patterned ground features such as frost boils. Diapirs are formed above permafrost soil where increases in moisture and temperature stimulate biological activity when thawing occurs to create an organic rich, Bhy horizon. Vascular plants are scarce (< 5% cover) and nutrients for survival are likely supplied by diapirs but this interaction is poorly understood. To determine if diapirs are an important nutrient source, nitrogen and phosphorous were traced from the diapir Bhy to vascular plants using ?15N and ?18O stable isotope signatures. Recent developments have shown that the oxygen isotopes of orthophosphate (18OP) can be used to trace plant-available phosphorous. At a polar desert site at Alexandra Fjord, Canada, diapir (n=12) and non-diapir (n=12) frost boils were identified in 12 blocks with a field-portable vis-NIR (visible and near infrared spectrometer) device. Soil cores and Salix arctica plant tissue were collected from each frost boil for stable isotope analysis. The ?15N of Salix arctica plant tissue (n=144) shows a significant relationship between block location and diapir presence (p=0.003). There was a consistent pattern in average ?15N in plant tissue parts with increasing concentration from leaf, stem to root in all frost boils. There was no significant difference in total plant ?15N between diapir and non-diapir frost boils but ?15N in soil cores will be measured to determine if these signatures are attributed to the Bhy horizon or biological nitrogen fixation. These results highlight the potential for stable isotopes to be used as a nutrient tracer in polar desert ecosystems and further analysis of phosphorous stable isotopes will provide a clearer picture of the role of diapirs as a nutrient source.

Hardy, Sarah; Siciliano, Steven

2014-05-01

134

Pythium polare, a new heterothallic oomycete causing brown discolouration of Sanionia uncinata in the Arctic and Antarctic.  

PubMed

Pythium polare sp. nov. is a new heterothallic oomycete species isolated from fresh water and moss from various locations in both the Arctic and Antarctic. This water mould is able to infect stems and leaves of Sanionia moss (Sanionia uncinata). Pythium polare causes brown discolouration in in vitro inoculation tests at 5 °C after 5 weeks of inoculation. It is characterized by globose sporangia with various lengths of discharge tubes releasing zoospores and aplerotic oospores with usually one to five antheridia. The sexual structures are only produced in a dual culture of antheridial and oogonial isolates. Phylogenetic analysis, based on ITS sequencing, places all isolated strains of P. polare in a unique new clade, hence it is considered a novel species. Pythium canariense and Pythium violae are the most closely related species of P. polare based both on morphology and the phylogenetic analysis. PMID:22749162

Tojo, Motoaki; van West, Pieter; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Kida, Kenichi; Fujii, Hirokazu; Hakoda, Akiho; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Mühlhauser, Hermann A; Van Den Berg, Albert H; Küpper, Frithjof C; Herrero, María L; Klemsdal, Sonja S; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Kanda, Hiroshi

2012-07-01

135

Leveraging scientific credibility about Arctic sea ice trends in a polarized political environment  

PubMed Central

This work argues that, in a polarized environment, scientists can minimize the likelihood that the audience’s biased processing will lead to rejection of their message if they not only eschew advocacy but also, convey that they are sharers of knowledge faithful to science’s way of knowing and respectful of the audience’s intelligence; the sources on which they rely are well-regarded by both conservatives and liberals; and the message explains how the scientist arrived at the offered conclusion, is conveyed in a visual form that involves the audience in drawing its own conclusions, and capsulizes key inferences in an illustrative analogy. A pilot experiment raises the possibility that such a leveraging–involving–visualizing–analogizing message structure can increase acceptance of the scientific claims about the downward cross-decade trend in Arctic sea ice extent and elicit inferences consistent with the scientific consensus on climate change among conservatives exposed to misleadingly selective data in a partisan news source. PMID:25225380

Hall Jamieson, Kathleen; Hardy, Bruce W.

2014-01-01

136

Polar front associated variation in prokaryotic community structure in Arctic shelf seafloor  

PubMed Central

Spatial variations in composition of marine microbial communities and its causes have largely been disclosed in studies comprising rather large environmental and spatial differences. In the present study, we explored if a moderate but temporally permanent climatic division within a contiguous arctic shelf seafloor was traceable in the diversity patterns of its bacterial and archaeal communities. Soft bottom sediment samples were collected at 10 geographical locations, spanning spatial distances of up to 640 km, transecting the oceanic polar front in the Barents Sea. The northern sampling sites were generally colder, less saline, shallower, and showed higher concentrations of freshly sedimented phytopigments compared to the southern study locations. Sampling sites depicted low variation in relative abundances of taxa at class level, with persistent numerical dominance by lineages of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria (57–66% of bacterial sequence reads). The Archaea, which constituted 0.7–1.8% of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers in the sediment, were overwhelmingly (85.8%) affiliated with the Thaumarchaeota. Beta-diversity analyses showed the environmental variations throughout the sampling range to have a stronger impact on the structuring of both the bacterial and archaeal communities than spatial effects. While bacterial communities were significantly influenced by the combined effect of several weakly selective environmental differences, including temperature, archaeal communities appeared to be more uniquely structured by the level of freshly sedimented phytopigments.

Nguyen, Tan T.; Landfald, Bjarne

2015-01-01

137

Arctic Ocean Ice and Climate: Perspectives on a Century of Polar Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Ocean ice-climate system has attracted scientific attention since the early 19th century, but systematic research awaited the First IPY and its successors, and the stimulus they provided. These contributions are reviewed and attention is then focused on our present understanding of surface energy exchanges on the Arctic ice. The complexities introduced by snow cover, summer melt ponds, and

R. G. Barry

1983-01-01

138

Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus) EST libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to

Melody S. Clark; Michael A. S. Thorne; Jelena Pura?; Gordana Grubor-Lajši?; Michael Kube; Richard Reinhardt; M Roger Worland

2007-01-01

139

Closing the loop - Approaches to monitoring the state of the Arctic Mediterranean during the International Polar Year 2007-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 4th International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY), it has become increasingly obvious that we need to prepare for a new era in the Arctic. IPY occurred during the time of the largest retreat of Arctic sea ice since satellite observations started in 1979. This minimum in September sea ice coverage was accompanied by other signs of a changing Arctic, including the unexpectedly rapid transpolar drift of the Tara schooner, a general thinning of Arctic sea ice and a double-dip minimum of the Arctic Oscillation at the end of 2009. Thanks to the lucky timing of the IPY, those recent phenomena are well documented as they have been scrutinized by the international research community, taking advantage of the dedicated observing systems that were deployed during IPY. However, understanding changes in the Arctic System likely requires monitoring over decades, not years. Many IPY projects have contributed to the pilot phase of a future, sustained, observing system for the Arctic. We now know that many of the technical challenges can be overcome. The Norwegian projects iAOOS-Norway, POLEWARD and MEOP were significant ocean monitoring/research contributions during the IPY. A large variety of techniques were used in these programs, ranging from oceanographic cruises to animal-borne platforms, autonomous gliders, helicopter surveys, surface drifters and current meter arrays. Our research approach was interdisciplinary from the outset, merging ocean dynamics, hydrography, biology, sea ice studies, as well as forecasting. The datasets are tremendously rich, and they will surely yield numerous findings in the years to come. Here, we present a status report at the end of the official period for IPY. Highlights of the research include: a quantification of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Nordic Seas (“ the loop”) in thermal space, based on a set of up to 15-year-long series of current measurements; a detailed map of the surface circulation as well as characterization of eddy dispersion based on drifter data; transport monitoring of Atlantic Water using gliders; a view of the water mass exchanges in the Norwegian Atlantic Current from both Eulerian and Lagrangian data; an integrated physical-biological view of the ice-influenced ecosystem in the East Greenland Current, showing for instance nutrient-limited primary production as a consequence of decreasing ice cover for larger regions of the Arctic Ocean. Our sea ice studies show that the albedo of snow on ice is lower when snow cover is thinner and suggest that reductions in sea ice thickness, without changes in sea ice extent, will have a significant impact on the arctic atmosphere. We present up-to-date freshwater transport numbers for the East Greenland Current in the Fram Strait, as well as the first map of the annual cycle of freshwater layer thickness in the East Greenland Current along the east coast of Greenland, from data obtained by CTDs mounted on seals that traveled back and forth across the Nordic Seas. We have taken advantage of the real-time transmission of some of these platforms and demonstrate the use of ice-tethered profilers in validating satellite products of sea ice motion, as well as the use of Seagliders in validating ocean forecasts, and we present a sea ice drift product - significantly improved both in space and time - for use in operational ice-forecasting applications. We consider real-time acquisition of data from the ocean interior to be a vital component of a sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System, and we conclude by presenting an outline for an observing system for the European sector of the Arctic Ocean.

Mauritzen, C.; Hansen, E.; Andersson, M.; Berx, B.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Burud, I.; Christensen, K. H.; Debernard, J.; de Steur, L.; Dodd, P.; Gerland, S.; Godøy, Ø.; Hansen, B.; Hudson, S.; Høydalsvik, F.; Ingvaldsen, R.; Isachsen, P. E.; Kasajima, Y.; Koszalka, I.; Kovacs, K. M.; Køltzow, M.; LaCasce, J.; Lee, C. M.; Lavergne, T.; Lydersen, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Nilsen, F.; Nøst, O. A.; Orvik, K. A.; Reigstad, M.; Schyberg, H.; Seuthe, L.; Skagseth, Ø.; Skarðhamar, J.; Skogseth, R.; Sperrevik, A.; Svensen, C.; Søiland, H.; Teigen, S. H.; Tverberg, V.; Wexels Riser, C.

2011-07-01

140

Quantifying the chemical ozone loss in the polar vortex during the fifteen winters from 1988-89 to 2002-2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several of the winters during the 1990s are characterised by substantial ozone loss in the north polar vortex. The Arctic sonde network built during the last decade makes it possible to quantify this loss throughout the winter. The ozone mixing ratio based on ozonesonde data from a number of stations is studied as function of time at several isentropic levels (400, 435, 475 and 525 K). Data from 16 stations between 60 and 83°N have been used in the study. The ozone data are corrected for the diabatic descent that takes place during the winter. Diabatic descent has been calculated with the Cambridge SLIMCAT model. The model calculated descent has been checked against high-precision tracer measurements. This comparison shows good agreement between modelled and measured descent around 475K. A tracer-tracer correlation (N2O vs CFC-11) also shows that the amount of mixing across the vortex edge at 475K was negligible during mid-winter (late Jan. to early March) of 2000. This means that the observed ozone loss, after the effect of diabatic descent has been accounted for, represents the chemical ozone loss. Results for the 475 K level show that the degree of chemically-induced ozone loss varies a lot from year to year. It is clear from the comparison between the ozone loss and the PSC area that the winters with the biggest ozone loss are the winters that have been cold most of the time from early January and into March. A cold spell, where T drops below TNAT at the end of the winter will of course cause substantial ozone loss, but it will not be enough to cause the same accumulated loss as the most severe winters. The three winters with the most severe loss are 1994-95, 1995-96 and 1999-00. All these winters had PSC temperatures from early December and through most of the winter. Two winters with late cold spells were 1993-94 and 1996-97, but these winters had much less PSCs during the early winter. Whereas the accumulated loss for the three severe winters was around 70% at 475 K, the 1993-94 and 1996-97 winters experienced a loss of 38 and 47%, respectively.

Braathen, G.; Mueller, M.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Chipperfield, M.; von der Gathen, P.; Kyro, E.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Dorokhov, V.; Fast, H.; Parrondo, C.

2003-04-01

141

ArtArctic Science: a polarTREC effort to educate about Antarctica through art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal scientific education is as important as ever for raising awarness about Antarctic issues, but some people resistance to learning about scienctific issues demands novel approaches for reaching people who are not in the classroom. ArtArctic Science is an interactive exhibit of photography and paintings presented at the Overture Center for the Arts, in Madison, WI by Monona Grove High School students and a science teacher that attempts to educate the general audience about Antarctic science. The exhibit explores art as a form of perceiving and understanding the world around us, and as a way of igniting the spark of curiosity that can lead to scientific inquiries. Antarctica has inspired explorers and scientists for over 100 years, and we add our work to efforts that share scientific results with common people. Antarctica offers stunning views of amazing geometric ice structures complemented and contrasted by the organisms that inhabit it that fascinate most everyone. We probe these scenes through photography and paintings knowing that there is more in each image than what the eye can 'see'. We invite the viewer to discover these secrets by engaging the observer in a mimicking of the scientific method (observation, questioning, finding an explanation, revising the explanation). Each art piece has a question and a scientific explanation hidden under a wooden lid. The observer is invited to explore the scene, involve itself with the scientific query, come up with an answer, and compare his or her idea with the hidden explanation. The exhibit is inspired by an Antarctic PolarTREC expedition in which our science teacher participated as a member of a scientific research team. In this presentation we share the knowledge acquired through this experience in hopes that it will help others attempting a similar Project.

Botella, J.; Racette, B.

2013-12-01

142

Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise Conference 2008, Barrow, Alaska: IHY-IPY Outreach on Exploration of Polar and Icy Worlds in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this circumpolar video conference hosted January 23-29, 2808 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. This conference was planned as an IHY-IPY event science outreach event bringing together scientists and educational specialists for the first week of sunrise at subzero Arctic temperatures in Barrow. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Kuiper Belt. On-site participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa and Titan by being in the Barrow tundra and sea ice environment and by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice environment and to Point Barrow, closest geographic point in the U.S. to the North Pole. Many science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The Sun- Earth Day team from Goddard, and a videographer from the Passport to Knowledge project, carried out extensive educational interviews with many participants and native Inupiaq Eskimo residents of Barrow. Video and podcast recordings of selected interviews are available at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2008/multimedidpodcasts.php. Excerpts from these and other interviews will be included in a new high definition video documentary called "From the Sun to the Stars: The New Science of Heliophysics" from Passport to Knowledge that will later broadcast on NASA TV and other educational networks. Full conference proceedings are accessible at http://polargateways2008.org/.

Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Sheehan, Glenn W.; Smith, Roger W.; Sandahl, Ingrid; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chernouss, Sergey; Thompson, Barbara J.; Peticolas, Laura; Moore, Marla H.; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lewis, Elaine M.

2008-01-01

143

Fine and coarse modes of dicarboxylic acids in the Arctic aerosols collected during the Polar Sunrise Experiment 1997  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine (<1 ?m) and coarse (>1 ?m) aerosol particles were collected at Alert, Canada (82°27'N, 62°30'W), during the Arctic spring as part of the Polar Sunrise Experiment 1997 and were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11) using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). More than 80% of total diacids were detected in the fine fraction, suggesting the production by gas-to-particle conversion in the Arctic. In both fractions, oxalic acid was the dominant diacid species followed by succinic and malonic acids. Shorter chain diacids (C2-C5) showed the concentration maximum on 5-7 April; however, longer chain diacids (Arctic marine boundary layer.

Narukawa, M.; Kawamura, K.; Anlauf, K. G.; Barrie, L. A.

2003-09-01

144

Optimal control of vortex core polarity by resonant microwave pulses Benjamin Pigeau,1  

E-print Network

microwave magnetic field because the sense of the core rotation is linked by a right-hand rule to its, 2011) Abstract In a vortex-state magnetic nano-disk1­3, the static magnetization is curling­14 for potential application in magnetic storage devices15. Here we demonstrate coherent control of p by single

Boyer, Edmond

145

Subsidence, Mixing and Denitrification of Polar Vortex Air Measured During Polaris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the correlation between CH(sub 4) and N(sub 2)O as measured during the POLARIS campaign in spring 1997 to estimate the degree of mixing between descended air masses from the vortex and air masses from mid-latitudes.

Rex, M.; Salawitch, R.; Toon, G.; Sen, B.; Margitan, J.; Osterman, G.; Blavier, J.; Gao, R.; Del Negro, L.; Donnelly, S.; Keim, E.; Neuman, J.; Fahey, D.; Webster, C.; Scott, D.; Herman, B.; May, R.; Moyer, L.; Gunson, M.; Irion, F.; Chang, A.; Rinsland, R.; Bui, P.; Loewenstein, M.

1998-01-01

146

The Structure of Saturn's South Polar Vortex Determined by Cassini VIMS: Constraints on Winds and Horizontal and Vertical Cloud Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new imagery and quantitative results for wind and cloud structures in the south polar region of Saturn, obtained by Cassini/VIMS. A hurricane-like vortex feature is well observed in images obtained on October 11, 2006 and May 11, 2007, with a deep "eye" of cloud-free skies extending about 1 bar deeper than the surrounding ring of clouds. Winds measured in both reflected sunlight and in thermal radiation show comparable speeds throughout the region, suggesting little vertical wind shear over the 0.5-3-bar altitude range. Discrete clouds at 88 degrees S. planetographic latitude observed near the 0.5-2-bar level whip around the pole at speeds approaching 200 m/s. At greater latitudes, near the "eye" of the system, winds are much slower: about 45 m/s at 89.5 degrees S. latitude. From 88 degrees to 76 degrees S. latitude, the zonal wind structure as a function of radius/latitude is close to that expected for flows which maintain constant angular momentum. The picture that emerges is that this system is a giant polar vortex, spanning more than 15,000 km in diameter and at least 40 km in depth. Two distinct types of reflective, discrete clouds are observed interspersed throughout the region: bright clouds at continuum wavelengths from 0.6 to 2.7 microns characterized in our preliminary modeling as having imaginary indices of refraction near 0.002 at 0.7 micron, and spectrally dark clouds with twice that value. This suggests that two types of discrete clouds, colored by two distinct chemical compositions, reside in the south polar region. This is perhaps indicative of upwellings of materials from two distinct altitude regions in the depths of the south pole.

Baines, K. H.; Momary, T. W.; Temma, T.; Roos-Serote, M.; Showman, A. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Scienceteam, T. C.

2007-12-01

147

Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers and Total Production of N2O and CH4 in Arctic Polar Desert Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea are abundant in Arctic desert soils and appear to be responsible for the majority of ammonia oxidation activity in these cold and dry ecosystems. We used DNA microarrays to characterize the microbial community consisting of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and methane-oxidizing Bacteria in three polar deserts from Ellesmere Island, Canada. Patterns of net greenhouse gas production, including production and consumption of CO2, CH4, and N2O were compared with community relative richness and abundance in a structural equation model that tested causal hypotheses relating edaphic factors to the biological community and net gas production. We extracted and amplified DNA sequences from soils collected at three polar deserts on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian high Arctic, and characterized the community structure using DNA microarrays. The functional genes Archaeal AmoA and pMMO were used to compare patterns of biological community structure to the observed patterns of net greenhouse gas production from those soils, as measured in situ. Edaphic factors including water content, bulk density, pH, and nutrient levels such as nitrate, ammonia, and extractable organic carbon were also measured for each soil sample, resulting in a highly multivariate dataset. Both concentration and net production of the three greenhouse gases were correlated, suggesting underlying causal factors. Edaphic factors such as soil moisture and pH had important, direct effects on the community composition of both functional groups of microorganisms, and pH further had a direct effect on N2O production. The structural relationship between the examined microbial communities and net production of both N2O and CH4 was strong and consistent between varying model structures and matrices, providing high confidence that this model relationship accurately reflects processes occurring in Arctic desert soils.

Brummell, Martin; Robert, Stan; Bodrossy, Levente; Abell, Guy; Siciliano, Steven

2014-05-01

148

Three-Dimensional, Spin-Resolved Structure of Magnetic Vortex and Antivortex States in Patterned Co Films Using Scanning Ion Microscopy with Polarization Analysis  

E-print Network

role in the dy- namics of microscopic magnets [17,18]. Using magnetic force microscopy [6], Lorentz electron microscopy with polarization analysis [13], the presence of magnetic vortices in patternedThree-Dimensional, Spin-Resolved Structure of Magnetic Vortex and Antivortex States in Patterned Co

Rau, Carl

149

Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: glaucous gulls and polar bears.  

PubMed

The brominated flame retardants have been subject of a particular environmental focus in the Arctic. The present study investigated the congener patterns and levels of total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs in plasma samples of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Norwegian Arctic. The analyses revealed the presence of total HBCD (0.07-1.24 ng/g wet wt) and brominated biphenyl 101 (< 0.13-0.72 ng/g wet wt) in glaucous gull samples whereas these compounds were generally found at nondetectable or transient concentrations in polar bears. Sum (sigma) concentrations of the 12 PBDEs monitored in glaucous gulls (range: 8.23-67.5 ng/g wet wt) surpassed largely those of polar bears (range: 2.65-9.72 ng/g wet wt). Two higher brominated PBDEs, BDE183 and BDE209, were detected, and thus bioaccumulated to a limited degree, in glaucous gulls with concentrations ranging from < 0.03 to 0.43 ng/g wet wt and from < 0.05 to 0.33 ng/g wet wt, respectively. In polar bear plasma, BDE183 was < 0.04 ng/g wet wt for all animals, and BDE209 was only detected in 7% of the samples at concentrations up to 0.10 ng/g wet wt. Of the 15 MeO-PBDEs analyzed in plasma samples, 3-MeO-BDE47 was consistently dominant in glaucous gulls (sigmaMeO-PBDE: 0.30-4.30 ng/g wet wt) and polar bears (sigmaMeO-PBDE up to 0.17 ng/g wet wt), followed by 4'-MeO-BDE49 and 6-MeO-BDE47. The 3-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 6-OH-BDE47 congeners were also detected in glaucous gulls (sigmaOH-PBDE up to 1.05 ng/g wet wt), although in polar bears 4'-OH-BDE49 was the only congener quantifiable in 13% of the samples. The presence of MeO- and OH-PBDEs in plasma of both species suggests possible dietary uptake from naturally occurring sources (e.g., marine sponges and green algae), but also metabolically derived biotransformation of PBDEs such as BDE47 could be a contributing factor. Our findings suggest that there are dissimilar biochemical mechanisms involved in PCB and PBDE metabolism and accumulation/elimination and/or OH-PBDE accumulation and retention in glaucous gulls and polar bears. PMID:16173559

Verreault, Jonathan; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Chu, Shaogang; Muir, Derek C G; Andersen, Magnus; Hamaed, Ahmad; Letcher, Robert J

2005-08-15

150

Arctic technology and policy  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include: legal regime of the arctic, including national and international legal frameworks that govern arctic resource development; environmental policy and socio-economic issues, focusing on the political and economic considerations of LNG transport in icebound waterways; risk and safety assessment for arctic offshore projects, drilling systems for the arctic; arctic offshore technology, including island, steel, and concrete structures; icebreaking technology, focusing on the current state of the art and indicating future research areas; arctic oceanography, summarizing characteristics of ice from field experiments pertaining to the design of structures, ships, and pipelines; arctic seismic exploration, detailing signal processes for underwater communication in the context of arctic geology and geophysics; ice morphology, providing information about ice shapes, particularly critical to the determination of overall strength of ice masses; remote sensing; modeling of arctic ice fields, including information about the design and construction of offshore facilities in polar areas; and engineering properties of ice, providing theoretical and experimental studies.

Dyer, I.; Chryssostomidis, C.

1984-01-01

151

The Arctic is no longer put on ice: evaluation of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) as a monitoring species of oil pollution in cold waters.  

PubMed

The withdrawing Arctic ice edge will facilitate future sea transport and exploration activities in the area, which calls for the establishment of relevant cold water monitoring species. The present study presents first results of field baseline levels for core oil pollution biomarkers in Polar cod (Boreogadussaida) sampled from pristine, Arctic waters. Furthermore, biomarker response levels were characterized in controlled laboratory exposure experiments running over 2 weeks. Fish exposed to a simulated petrogenic spill (1ppm dispersed, crude oil) exhibited elevated hepatic EROD activity, bile PAH-metabolites, and hepatic DNA-adducts, whereas male individuals exposed to simulated produced water (30ppb nonylphenol) exhibited a strong induction of plasma vitellogenin. In conclusion, the results demonstrated low and robust biomarker baseline levels that were clearly different from exposure responses. In combination with its high abundance and circumpolar distribution, the Polar cod seems well qualified for oil pollution monitoring in Arctic waters. PMID:20003991

Jonsson, Henrik; Sundt, Rolf C; Aas, Endre; Sanni, Steinar

2010-03-01

152

The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.  

PubMed

On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

Parkinson, Alan J

2008-01-01

153

High Bacterial Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in Water Tracks over Permafrost in the High Arctic Polar Desert  

PubMed Central

In this study we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N). Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relative abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost. PMID:23967218

Steven, Blaire; Lionard, Marie; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Vincent, Warwick F.

2013-01-01

154

The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Frontiers in Polar Social Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on documenting and understanding the nature of environmental changes observed by indigenous residents of the Arctic. Common themes include increasing variability and unpredictability of the weather and seasonal climatic patterns, as well as changes in the sea ice and the health of wildlife. Nine papers focus on these changes,…

Krupnik, Igor, Ed.; Jolly, Dyanna, Ed.

155

Environmental constraints on the growth, photosynthesis and reproductive development of Dryas octopetala at a high Arctic polar semi-desert, Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities exist in high Arctic polar semidesert communities for colonisation of unvegetated ground by long-lived clonal plants such as Dryas octopetala. This can be achieved by lateral spread of vegetative ramets, or by sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether these two means of proliferation show differential sensitivity to contrasting components of

P. A. Wookey; C. H. Robinson; A. N. Parsons; J. M. Welker; T. V. Callaghan; J. A. Lee

1995-01-01

156

Observational Evidence Against Mountain-Wave Generation of Ice Nuclei as a Prerequisite for the Formation of Three Solid Nitric Acid Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed in the Arctic in Early December 1999  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of recently published papers suggest that mountain-wave activity in the stratosphere, producing ice particles when temperatures drop below the ice frost point, may be the primary source of large NAT particles. In this paper we use measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites to map out regions of ice clouds produced by stratospheric mountain-wave activity inside the Arctic vortex. Lidar observations from three DC-8 flights in early December 1999 show the presence of solid nitric acid (Type Ia or NAT) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). By using back trajectories and superimposing the position maps on the AVHRR cloud imagery products, we show that these observed NAT clouds could not have originated at locations of high-amplitude mountain-wave activity. We also show that mountain-wave PSC climatology data and Mountain Wave Forecast Model 2.0 (MWFM-2) raw hemispheric ray and grid box averaged hemispheric wave temperature amplitude hindcast data from the same time period are in agreement with the AVHRR data. Our results show that ice cloud formation in mountain waves cannot explain how at least three large scale NAT clouds were formed in the stratosphere in early December 1999.

Pagan, Kathy L.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Hervig, Mark E.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Browell, Edward V.; Legg, Marion J.; Foschi, Patricia G.

2004-01-01

157

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

158

Small-scale transport structures in the Arctic winter 2009/2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRISTA-NF (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers) instrument is an airborne infrared limb sounder operated aboard the Russian research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The instrument successfully participated in a large Arctic aircraft campaign within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) project from January to March 2010 in Kiruna, Sweden. This paper concentrates on the measurements during one flight of the campaign, which took place on 2 March in the vicinity of the polar vortex. We present two-dimensional cross-sections of volume mixing ratios for the trace gases CFC-11, O3, and ClONO2 with an unprecedented vertical resolution of about 500 to 600 m for a large part of the observed altitude range and a dense horizontal sampling along flight direction of ? 15 km. The trace gas distributions show several structures like the polar vortex and filaments composed of air masses of different origin. The situation during the analysed flight is simulated by the chemistry and transport model CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) and compared with the measurements to assess the performance of the model with respect to advection, mixing, and the chemistry in the polar vortex. These comparisons confirm the capability of CLaMS to reproduce even very small-scale structures in the atmosphere. Based on the good agreement between simulation and observation, we use a model concept utilising artificial tracers to further analyse the CRISTA-NF observations in terms of air mass origin. A characteristic of the Arctic winter 2009/10 was a sudden stratospheric warming in early December that led to a split of the polar vortex. The vortex re-established at the end of December. Our passive tracer simulations suggest that large parts of the re-established vortex consisted to about 45% of high- and mid-latitude air.

Kalicinsky, C.; Grooß, J.-U.; Günther, G.; Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Höfer, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Knieling, P.; Olschewski, F.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2013-04-01

159

Distribution and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in the polar mixed layer of seven pan-arctic shelf seas and the interior basins.  

PubMed

Assessment of the Arctic as a global repository of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and of uptake processes in the base of its marine food chain hinges on reliable information of PCB distribution in surface seawater, yet there is a scarcity of quality-assured PCB measurements in this key compartment. Here, surface seawater PCB concentrations and congener fingerprints are evaluated for all seven pan-Arctic shelf seas and for the interior basins. Particulate and dissolved PCBs were collected via trace-clean protocols on three basin-wide expeditions (AO-01, Beringia-2005, and ISSS-08). Concentrations of the sum of 13 abundant congeners (?13PCB) were 0.13-21 pg/L, with higher concentrations in the shelf seas and lower concentrations in the Central Arctic Basin. Trichlorinated PCBs constituted about half of the total loadings in the Eastern Arctic (Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas) and in the Central Basin, indicating an atmospheric source. In contrast, hexachlorinated PCBs were more abundant than tri-PCBs in the western sector, suggesting a role also for waterborne transport from regions of heavy PCB consumption in North America and Europe. Finally, the inventory of ?13PCB in the polar mixed layer of the entire Arctic Ocean was 0.39 ton, which implies that only 0.0008% of historical PCB emissions are now residing in Arctic surface waters. PMID:21222432

Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

2011-02-15

160

Future Arctic temperature and ozone: The role of stratospheric composition changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

multidecadal simulations with the European Centre/Hamburg-Modular Earth Submodel System Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, the role of changing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on Arctic springtime ozone was examined. The focus is on potential changes in the meteorological conditions relevant for Arctic ozone depletion. It is found that with rising GHG levels the lower Arctic stratosphere will cool significantly in early winter, while no significant temperature signal is identified later in winter or spring. A seasonal shift of the lowest polar minimum temperatures from late to early winter in the second part of the 21st century occurs. However, Arctic lower stratosphere temperatures do not seem to decline to new record minima. The future Arctic lower stratosphere vortex will have a longer lifetime, as a result of an earlier formation in autumn. No extended vortex persistence is found in spring due to enhanced dynamical warming by tropospheric wave forcing. Because of the dominant early winter cooling, largest accumulated polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) areas (APSC) are projected for the middle of the 21st century. A further increase of APSC toward the end of the 21st century is prevented by increased dynamical polar warming. EMAC suggests that in the near future, there is a chance of low Arctic springtime ozone in individual years; however, there is no indication of a formation of regular Arctic ozone holes. Toward the end of the 21st century, when ODSs will be close to the 1960 levels, further rising GHG levels will cause increased Arctic springtime ozone.

Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie; Grunow, Katja; Romanowsky, Erik; Oberländer, Sophie; Abalichin, Janna; Kubin, Anne

2014-03-01

161

Energetic particle induced inter-annual variability of ozone inside the Antarctic polar vortex observed in satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements from 2002-2011 by three independent satellite instruments, namely MIPAS, SABER, and SMR on board the ENVISAT, TIMED, and Odin satellites are used to investigate the inter-annual variability of stratospheric and mesospheric O3 volume mixing ratio (vmr) inside the Antarctic polar vortex due to solar and geomagnetic activity. In this study, we individually analysed the relative O3 vmr variations between maximum and minimum conditions of a number of solar and geomagnetic indices (F10.7 cm solar radio flux, Ap index, ? 2 MeV electron flux). The indices are 26 day averages centred at 1 April, 1 May, and 1 June while O3 is based on 26 day running means from 1 April-1 November at altitudes from 20-70 km. During solar quiet time from 2005-2010, the composite of all three instruments reveals an apparent negative O3 feedback associated to the geomagnetic activity (Ap index) around 1 April, on average reaching amplitudes between -5 and -10% of the respective O3 background. The O3 response exceeds the significance level of 95% and propagates downwards throughout the polar winter from the stratopause down to ∼ 25 km. These observed results are in good qualitative agreement with the O3 vmr pattern simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model, which includes particle impact ionisation.

Fytterer, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Nieder, H.; Pérot, K.; Sinnhuber, M.; Stiller, G.; Urban, J.

2014-12-01

162

Lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988 - Signature of small, solid particles above the frost point  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents recent (January 1988) Arctic airborne lidar data which suggest that Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of small solid particles with radii on the order of 0.5 micron. PSCs were observed remotely in the 21-24 km altitude range north of Greenland during a round-trip flight from Andenes, Norway on January 29, 1988, aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility P-3 Orion aircraft. Synoptic analyses at the 30-mb level show local temperatures of 191-193 K, which are well above the estimated frost point temperature of 185 K; this suggests that the PSCs were probably of the binary HNO3-H2O (Type I) class.

Poole, L. R.; Osborn, M. T.; Hunt, W. H.

1988-01-01

163

Spectroscopic measurement of bromine oxide and ozone in the high Arctic during Polar Sunrise Experiment 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromine oxide (BrO) is proposed to be an important agent for tropospheric ozone depletion, as observed in the high Arctic during springtime. In this paper we report measurements of bromine oxide and ozone by Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LPDOAS), 8.6-km light path), performed in April 1992 in Alert (82.3°N, 62.2°W). BrO mixing ratios were found between the detection

M. Hausmann; U. Platt

1994-01-01

164

Arctic region Antarctica What are the differences between the two polar regions?  

E-print Network

% Kernel 95% Kernel �� �� �� �� 26 Narwhals tagged in Canada and Greenland 1993-2001 67° 67° 72° 72° 77° 77 in the microscopic structure of the ice, allowing microorganisms to inhabit it. ­ High porosity ­ Higher fraction/m3 maximum Why? #12;Photosynthesis in permanent ice cover English (1961) Arctic Inst. N.Amer., Sci

165

Polar stratospheric clouds in the 1998-2003 Antarctic vortex: Microphysical modeling and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Microphysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and evolution in the Antarctic vortex. The model is applied to individual air parcel trajectories driven by UK Met Office (UKMO) wind and temperature fields. The IMPACT model calculates the parcel microphysics, including the formation and sedimentation of ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT), and supercooled ternary solution (STS) aerosols. Model results are validated by comparison with data obtained by the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III solar occultation instrument and are examined for 6 years of POAM data (1998-2003). Comparisons of POAM water vapor and aerosol extinction measurements to the model results help to constrain three microphysical parameters influencing the formation and growth of both type I and type II PSCs. Principally, measurements of aerosol extinction prove to be valuable in differentiating model runs; the relationship of aerosol extinction to temperature is determined by the various particle types as they form and grow. Comparison of IMPACT calculations of this relationship to POAM measurements suggests that the initial fraction of nuclei available for heterogeneous NAT freezing is approximately 0.02% of all aerosols. Constraints are also placed on the accommodation coefficient of ice and the NAT-ice lattice compatibility. However, these two parameters have similar effects on the extinction-temperature relationship, and thus a range of values are permissible for each.

Benson, C. M.; Drdla, K.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Alfred, J.; Hoppel, K. W.

2006-09-01

166

The Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is about the Arctic tundra biome; the plants and animals found there; and the amount of sunlight, temperatures, seasons and permafrost. Examples of Arctic ecosystem interactions, food chains, and biological adaptations to the Arctic Coastal Plain are given. There are photographs of wolves, caribou, arctic hares, minks, lemmings, arctic foxes, polar bears, seals, walruses, ptarmigans, hawks, and owls. Definitions of ecosystem terms can be found by clicking on the term within the tutorial.

167

An NOy Algorithm for Arctic Winter 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NOy, total reactive nitrogen, and the long-lived tracer N2O, nitrous oxide, were measured by both in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Arctic winter 1999-2000 SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The correlation function NOy:N2O observed before the winter Arctic vortex forms, which is known as NOy(sup), is an important reference relationship for conditions in the evolving vortex. NOy(sup) can, with suitable care, be used to quantify vortex denitrification by sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles when NOy data is taken throughout the winter. Observed NOy values less than the reference value can be interpreted in terms of semi-permanent removal of active nitrogen by condensation and sedimentation processes. In this paper we present a segmented function representing NOy(sup) applicable over the full range of altitudes sampled during SOLVE. We also assess the range of application of this function and some of its limitations.

Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Podolske, J. R.; Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Hurst, D. F.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

168

POLAR-UVI and other Coordinated Observations of a Traveling Convection Vortex Event Observed on 24 July 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated analysis of data from the POLAR UVI instrument, ground magnetometers, incoherent scatter radar, solar wind monitors IMP-8 and WIND, and DMSP satellite is focused on a traveling convection vortex (TCV) event on 24 July 1966. Starting at 10:48 UT, ground magnetometers in Greenland and eastern Canada measure pulsations consistent with the passing overhead of a series of alternating TCV field-aligned current pairs. Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar measures strong modulation of the strength and direction of ionospheric plasma flow, The magnetometer pulsations grow in magnitude over the next hour, peaking in intensity at 11:39 UT, at which time the UVI instrument measures a localized intensification of auroral emissions over central and western Greenland. Subsequent images show the intensification grow in strength and propagate westward (tailward) until approximately 11:58 UT at which time the emissions fade. These observations are consistent with the westward passage of two pairs of moderately intense TCVs over central Greenland followed by a third very intense TCV pair. The intensification of auroral emissions at 11:39 UT is associated with the trailing vortex of the third TCV pair, thought to be the result of an upward field-aligned current. Measurements of the solar wind suggest that a pressure change may be responsible for triggering the first two pairs of TCVS, and that a subsequent sudden change in orientation of the IMF may have produced the intensification of the third TCV pair and the associated aurora] brightening. DMSP particle data indicate that the TCVs occur on field lines which map to the boundary plasma sheet or outer edge of the low latitude boundary layer.

Clauer, C. R.; Baker, J. B.; Ridley, A. J.; Sitar, R. J.; Papitashvili, V. O.; Cumnock, J.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

1997-01-01

169

A Proposed Arctic Ocean Field Program During the International Polar Year 2007-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean represents a glaring void of measurements appropriate for monitoring and understanding the climate changes currently occurring in the Arctic region. We propose a field program in the central Arctic Ocean to develop and improve methods for the long-term monitoring of the Arctic atmosphere, ice, and ocean and the interactions among them, and to study physical processes crucial to the regional climate change. The approach will include developing and evaluating methods by which long-term satellite-, surface-, and ocean-based measurements of the thermodynamic and kinematic properties of the atmosphere, ice, and ocean can be integrated to measure key parameters with accuracies necessary to detect climatic change, to attribute responsibility to the processes causing this change, and to evaluate the role of anthropogenic sources in this change. Key measurements include the atmospheric circulation above and within the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud macro and microphysical properties, atmospheric aerosols and chemical constituents, all components of the energy budget of the pack ice including the oceanic heat flux, and the pack ice mass balance. Many of the techniques to be developed will likely use in-situ surface and ocean-based measurements to evaluate and improve the accuracy of the satellite-based measurements. These measurements will generally integrate existing technology, though some will require technological development as well. Many physical processes over the pack ice are different than those over the circumpolar land areas where SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) intensive observing sites are being established. Observations at the land sites are largely influenced by processes forced by coastal gradients or by orography, and are much less influenced by the oceanic heat source omnipresent over the Arctic Ocean. The proposed pack ice field program will make measurements specific to processes important for climate models and that are unique to the pack ice environment. The long-term utility of such process studies comes from improving numerical models through improved parameterizations, using the detailed process observations for validating numerical models, and enhancing the conceptual understanding of the pack-ice environment. We propose that this ocean deployment be undertaken with support of at least one icebreaker and that the deployment ideally last a year. The successes of recent field programs demonstrate the logistical viability of such a project. This proposed field program is an appropriate contribution to IPY2007 because it will provide 1) short-term, detailed measurements at a point in a crucial but data-sparse region of the Arctic during the IPY, 2) a long-term legacy by developing long-term measurement methodologies and model improvements, and 3) a direct and substantial benefit to the ongoing SEARCH and CliC (Climate and Cryosphere) programs.

Persson, O. P.

2004-05-01

170

Cassini ISS Observations Of The Early Stages Of The Formation Of Titan's South Polar Hood And Vortex In 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern spring equinox on Titan occurred on August 11, 2009. In March of 2012 the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on the Cassini spacecraft saw the first evidence for the formation of a polar hood in the atmosphere above Titan’s south pole. Views of the limb showed an optical thickening primarily at about 360 km altitude across a few degrees of latitude centered on the pole. Images of Titan in front of Saturn provide a nearly direct measure of the line-of-sight optical depth as a function of latitude and altitude from about 250 km and higher. Two or more distinct layers are seen, both near the pole and at other latitudes. The highest of these, near 360 km altitude, hosts the embryonic polar hood. On June 27, 2012 ISS observed the pole from high latitude. These images show a distinct and unusual cloudy patch, elongated and not centered on the pole and with an elevated perimeter. The morphology and color indicate an unfamiliar (for Titan) composition and dynamical regime. The interior of the feature consists of concentrations of cloud/haze organized on spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Its morphology is reminiscent of the open cellular convection sometimes seen in the atmospheric boundary layer over Earth’s oceans under conditions of large-scale subsidence. Unlike Earth, where such convection is forced by large surface heat fluxes or the onset of drizzle, convection at 360 km on Titan is more likely to be driven from above by radiative cooling. During the 9 hours we observed Titan, this feature completed a little over one rotation around the pole, providing direct evidence for a polar vortex rotating at a rate roughly consistent with angular-momentum-conserving flow for air displaced from the equator. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

West, Robert A.; Del Genio, A.; Perry, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Porco, C.; Ovanessian, A.

2012-10-01

171

Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.  

PubMed

The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%. PMID:17164851

Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

2007-01-01

172

Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

2001-04-01

173

The polar bear in the room: diseases of poverty in the Arctic  

PubMed Central

In the face of global warming, budgetary austerity and impoverished Arctic residents, the nations of the circumpolar region are presented with a number of difficult choices regarding the provision of health care to the far-flung and isolated regions of their northernmost provinces. Complicating that picture is the reality of neglected tropical diseases in areas far from their perceived normal equatorial range as well as endemic food-borne diseases, including protozoan and helminth parasites, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and vaccine-preventable illnesses. This paper discusses the problems of caring for the health and well-being of indigenous populations suffering from extreme poverty, isolation and discrimination in the circumpolar region. After presenting difficulties as supported by the extant literature, the paper continues by suggesting solutions that include novel telenursing applications, targeted distance-educational programs and local community-based health care assistant (HCA) vocational training. These programs will provide cost-effective care that increases life-spans, improves quality of life and provides opportunities to distressed populations in isolated rural communities of the Far North. The toolkit presented in the paper is intended to spur discussion on community health programs that could be adopted to provide proper and humane care for marginalized Arctic populations in an extreme and rapidly changing environment. PMID:23984296

Nelson, Chris

2013-01-01

174

The polar bear in the room: diseases of poverty in the Arctic.  

PubMed

In the face of global warming, budgetary austerity and impoverished Arctic residents, the nations of the circumpolar region are presented with a number of difficult choices regarding the provision of health care to the far-flung and isolated regions of their northernmost provinces. Complicating that picture is the reality of neglected tropical diseases in areas far from their perceived normal equatorial range as well as endemic food-borne diseases, including protozoan and helminth parasites, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and vaccine-preventable illnesses. This paper discusses the problems of caring for the health and well-being of indigenous populations suffering from extreme poverty, isolation and discrimination in the circumpolar region. After presenting difficulties as supported by the extant literature, the paper continues by suggesting solutions that include novel telenursing applications, targeted distance-educational programs and local community-based health care assistant (HCA) vocational training. These programs will provide cost-effective care that increases life-spans, improves quality of life and provides opportunities to distressed populations in isolated rural communities of the Far North. The toolkit presented in the paper is intended to spur discussion on community health programs that could be adopted to provide proper and humane care for marginalized Arctic populations in an extreme and rapidly changing environment. PMID:23984296

Nelson, Chris

2013-01-01

175

Balloon borne observations of PSCs, Frost Point, ozone and nitric acid in the north polar vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new balloon borne instrument called a backscattersonde has been used to study Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) at Alert, NWT (82°N, 61.5°W) during January and February of 1989. These measurements were supplemented with frost point, ozone and nitric acid vapor soundings. Type I PSCs were observed at temperatures and pressures generally consistent with present vapor pressure models of HNOâ\\/HâO condensate,

James M. Rosen; S. J. Oltmans; W. F. Evans

1989-01-01

176

Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the Arctic environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate if polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide, which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of nitric oxide as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of ATP versus generation of heat (thermogenesis).

Welch, Andreanna J.; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

2014-01-01

177

Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the arctic environment.  

PubMed

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate whether polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide (NO), which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of NO as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of adenosine triphosphate versus generation of heat (thermogenesis). PMID:24504087

Welch, Andreanna J; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D; Lindqvist, Charlotte

2014-02-01

178

Polar Bears Exhibit Genome-Wide Signatures of Bioenergetic Adaptation to Life in the Arctic Environment  

PubMed Central

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate whether polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide (NO), which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of NO as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of adenosine triphosphate versus generation of heat (thermogenesis). PMID:24504087

Welch, Andreanna J.; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

2014-01-01

179

Such Low Temperatures in the Arctic Region: How Can the Polar Bears Call It Home?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on polar bears that integrates language arts and science. Teaches the characteristics of organisms and how distinct environments support distinct organisms. Uses both mathematics and science skills and targets students at the K-4 grade level. (YDS)

Pringle, Rose M.

2002-01-01

180

Geographical distribution and identification of methyl sulphone PCB and DDE metabolites in pooled polar bear ( Ursus maritimus) adipose tissue from western hemisphere Arctic and Subarctic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical distribution of methyl sulphone (MeSO2-) PCB and DDE metabolites is unknown for any species in any region. In this study, pooled male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) adipose samples from 12 arctic and subarctic regions from the Bering Sea to the Greenland Sea were analyzed for PCBs, DDE, and their MeSO2-metabolites. Each adipose pool contained from three to 27

Robert J. Letcher; Ross J. Norstrom

1995-01-01

181

GPS scintillation effects associated with polar cap patches, auroral arcs and blobs in European Arctic sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both polar cap patches and auroral arcs are associated with irregularities that can affect the propagation of radio waves and thus disrupt the navigation system in the high latitudes. But which is the worst case remains unanswered. This study focuses on the direct comparison of the relative scintillation effects associated with different phenomena in high latitudes. The All Sky Camera located at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard observed six polar cap patches on January 13, 2013. The patches exited into the nightside auroral region in response to the ongoing substorms and then they are termed blobs. The collocated GPS scintillation monitor is used to study the scintillations produced by these different phenomena which are frequently observed at high latitudes. The amplitude scintillation index (S_4) was very low during this period, while the phase scintillation index (sigma_phi) indicated a disturbed ionospheric condition but responded differently to these three types of phenomena. Comparisons of the associated scintillation effects indicate that the blobs are the most violent scintillation source. Moreover, polar cap patches produce scintillation more effectively than auroral arcs do. Five of the six polar cap patches were observed to produce significant scintillations either on the edges or on the center of the patches, which imply most of the polar cap patches are associated with strong small scale irregularities. All of the scintillations produced by the pure auroral arcs were below 0.2 rad in this period. This study highlights the compound effects of the particle precipitations (auroral arcs) and high density plasma islands (patches) in developing the small scale irregularities. From the space weather forecasting perspective, particular attention is to be paid to polar cap patches exiting the polar cap at night in the European sector.

Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran; Miloch, Wojciech

2014-05-01

182

Multi-Instrument Analysis of a Traveling Convection Vortex Event on July 24, 1996 Coordinated with the Polar UVI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the analysis of a coordinated set of observations from the POLAR Ultraviolet Imager (UVI), ground magnetometers, incoherent scatter radar, solar wind monitors, DMSP and GOES satellites, focused on a traveling convection vortex (TCV) event on 24th July 1996. Starting at approximately 10:48 UT, around magnetometers in Greenland and northern Canada observe pulsations consistent with the passing overhead of a series of alternating TCV filed-aligned current pairs. Azimuthal scans by the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar located near Kangerlussuaq (formerly Sondrestrom), Greenland, at this time show strong modulation in the strength and direction of ionospheric plasma flow. The magnetometer pulsations grow in magnitude over the next hour, peaking in intensity at 11:39 UT, at which time images form the UVI instrument show a localized intensification of auroral emissions over central and western Greenland. Subsequent images show the intensification grow in strength and propagate westward (tailward) until approximately 11:58 UT at which time the intensification fades. These observations are consistent with the westward passage of two pairs of moderately intense TCVs over central Greenland followed by a third very intense TCV pair. The intensification of auroral emissions at 11:39 UT is associated with the trailing vortex of the third TCV pair, thought to be the result of an upward field aligned current. The modulated flow observed by the radar is the result of the strong electric fields associated with the impulsive TCV related field aligned current systems as they pass through the field of view of the radar. Measurements of the solar wind from the V;IND and IMP-8 spacecraft suggest that a pressure change may be responsible for triggering the first two pairs of TCVS, and that a subsequent sudden change in the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field may have produced the intensification of the third TCV pair and the associated auroral brightening. Magnetometer data from the GOES satellite located over the eastern United States at geostationary orbit is consistent with a series of field-aligned moving tailward past the satellite. DMSP particle data indicated that the TCVs occur on field lines which map to the boundary plasma sheet (BPS).

Sitar, R. J.; Clauer, C. R.; Baker, J. B.; Ridley, A. J.; Cumnock, J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

1998-01-01

183

POLAR-PALOOZA Polar Researchers and Arctic Residents Engage, Inform and Inspire Diverse Public Audiences by sharing Polar Science and Global Connections during the International Polar Year, using a New Model of Informal Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Please note that the POLAR-PALOOZA initiative described in this Abstract is-as of 9/7/2006-"pending" for possible support from NSF and NASA as part of this year's IPY solicitation. Subject to decisions expected by 9/30, this presentation would either be withdrawn, or amplified with specific participants, locations and dates.) Despite the success of well-regarded movies like "March of the Penguins", the polar regions remain a great unknown for most people. Public knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic, and the critical role of the Poles in the entire Earth system, is nonexistent, incomplete or burdened with misperceptions. The International Polar Years of 2007-2009-and associated "I*Y" science years such as IHY, IYPE and eGY-present a unique opportunity to change this. The people who can best effect this change are those who know the Poles best, through living or working there. Based on innovative but proven models, POLAR-PALOOZA will use three complementary strategies to engage, inform and inspire large public audiences. (1) A national tour, under the working title "Stories from a Changing Planet", will include in-person presentations at science centers, museums, libraries and schools across North America, including Canada and Mexico. The presentations will be augmented by High Definition Video taped on location at the Poles, audio and video podcasts, and special education and outreach activities for targeted audiences. "Stories from a Changing Planet" will provide diverse audiences with an exciting opportunity to meet and interact directly with polar experts, and to appreciate why the Poles and the research done there are directly relevant to their lives. (2) The "HiDef Video Science Story Capture Corps" is a team of professional videographers, using the latest generation of low-cost, high-quality cameras, deployed to both Poles. They will document the work of multiple researchers and projects, rather than focusing on one topic for a single broadcast program. The resulting HD footage will be cataloged, archived and made available as public domain material, accessible to government research agencies for media releases, to the researchers and their home universities, and to science centers and museums. (3) POLAR- PALOOZA will edit short video and audio podcasts from this archive, and distribute them non-exclusively through an open network of websites, including iTunes, YouTube, Google, Yahoo, and the official IPY, US-IPY, NSF and NASA websites. Project design targets underserved groups and regions, and has developed a detailed strategy by which to reach out to under-served minorities and mid-sized and smaller communities over the entire two years of IPY. A balanced cadre of researchers, both male and female, young and old, ethnically-diverse and representing the many disciplines engaged in polar research, has already been identified, and over twenty five scientists, engineers, artists and journalists have committed to participating. The project's Advisors include members of the National Academy's Polar Research Board, and the two U.S. representatives to the international IPY Education and Outreach Committee.

Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

2006-12-01

184

Zero-Field Vortex-Induced Hall Effect and Polar Kerr Effect in Chiral p-Wave Superconductors near Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate polar Kerr effect and Ohmic conductivity induced by vortex dynamics in a chiral p-wave superconducting thin film near Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition without explicitly applying magnetic field. Due to the broken time reversal symmetry in the superconducting state and the breaking of Galilean invariance by forces originated from impurities, a conductivity tensor with nonzero off-diagonal element is expected. We generalize the dynamical theory developed by Ambegaokar, Halperin, Nelson, and Siggia to obtain a matrix dielectric function describing vortex screening, which is further related to the conductivity tensor. Polar Kerr effect due to the nonzero Hall conductivity is studied. The corresponding Kerr angle is shown to be proportional to the imaginary part of off-diagonal component of the dielectric function in certain parameter regime. While the frequency and temperature dependence of dissipation in chiral p-wave context behave similarly to those of s-wave results, the Kerr angle exhibits some novel features near the KT transition. As a result, Kerr angle measurement in experiment can provide a probe of vortex dynamics described in this work.

Chung, C. K.; Kato, Y.

2014-04-01

185

feeding rhythm during the Arctic polar day and night [14], and the emperor  

E-print Network

. Importantly, circadian arrhythmia in reindeer does not mean complete arrhythmia. Indeed, as Lu et al. [1.J., Gerkema, M.P., Folkow, L., Blix, A.S., and Stokkan, K.A. (2005). Circadian organization in reindeer). Where clocks are redundant: weak circadian mechanisms in reindeer living under polar photic conditions

Ghazanfar, Asif

186

IMMOBILIZATION OF POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) WITH TELAZOL#{174} IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, 213 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were immobilized with Telazol#{174} on the sea ice of the eastern Beaufort Sea during April and May, and 106 along the western coast of Hudson Bay near Churchill, Manitoba (Canada) in September. No animals died from handling. The efficacy of this drug at different seasons and the physiological responses of the immobilized bears

I. Stirling; C. Spencer; D. Andriashek

1989-01-01

187

Investigation of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Solid Particle Formation Mechanisms Using ILAS and AVHRR Observations in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of denitrification and ice clouds in the Arctic lower stratosphere in February 1997 are used with Lagrangian microphysical box model calculations to evaluate nucleation mechanisms of solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. The occurrences of ice clouds are not correlated in time and space with the locations of back trajectories of denitrified air masses, indicating that ice particle surfaces are not always a prerequisite for the formation of solid PSCs that lead to denitrification. In contrast, the model calculations incorporating a pseudoheterogeneous freezing process occurring at the vapor-liquid interface can quantitatively explain most of the observed denitrification when the nucleation activation free energy for nitric acid dihydrate formation is raised by only approx.10% relative to the current published values. Once nucleated, the conversion of nitric acid dihydrate to the stable trihydrate phase brings the computed levels of denitrification closer to the measurements. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0320 Atmospheric Composition and SblctureC: loud physics and chemistry; 0340 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere-composition and chemistry

Irie, H.; Pagan, K. L.; Tabazadeh, A.; Legg, M. J.; Sugita, T.

2004-01-01

188

The Arctic Crossroads: Environmental Challenges for Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic region – a northern polar region of the Earth occupies an area down from the Arctic Pole and comprises the Arctic Ocean, northern parts around the Northern Pole.[1] It consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean surrounded by permafrost. The Arctic is known for its rich reserves of natural resources – oil, gas minerals, fresh water, fish, the economic

Irina Krasnova

2012-01-01

189

Interhemispheric Differences in Polar Stratospheric HNO_3, H_2O, CIO, and O_3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous global measurements of nitric acid (HNO_3), water (H_2O), chlorine monoxide (CIO), and ozone (O_3) in the stratosphere have been obtained over complete annual cycles in both hemispheres by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. A sizeable decrease in gas-phase HNO_3 was evident in the lower stratospheric vortex over Antarctica by early June 1992, followed by a significant reduction in gas-phase H_2O after mid-July. By mid-August, near the time of peak CIO, abundances of gas-phase HNO_3 and H_2O were extremely low. The concentrations of HNO_3 and H_2O over Antarctica remained depressed into November, well after temperatures in the lower stratosphere had risen above the evaporation threshold for polar stratospheric clouds, implying that denitrification and dehydration had occurred. No large decreases in either gas-phase HNO_3 or H_2O were observed in the 1992-1993 Arctic winter vortex. Although CIO was enhanced over the Arctic as it was over the Antarctic, Arctic O_3 depletion was substantially smaller than that over Antarctica. A major factor currently limiting the formation of an Arctic ozone "hole" is the lack of denitrification in the northern polar vortex, but future cooling of the lower stratosphere could lead to more intense denitrification and consequently larger losses of Arctic ozone.

Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Manney, G. L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Harwood, R. S.; Peckham, G. E.

1995-02-01

190

Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO, and O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous global measurements of nitric acid (HNO3), water (H2O), chlorine monoxide (ClO), and ozone (O3) in the stratosphere have been obtained over complete annual cycles in both hemispheres by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. A sizeable decrease in gas-phase HNO3 was evident in the lower stratospheric vortex over Antarctica by early June 1992, followed by a significant reduction in gas-phase H2O after mid-July. By mid-August, near the time of peak ClO, abundances of gas-phase HNO3 and H2O were extremely low. The concentrations of HNO3 and H2O over Antarctica remained depressed into November, well after temperatures in the lower stratosphere had risen above the evaporation threshold for polar stratospheric clouds, implying that denitrification and dehydration had occurred. No large decreases in either gas-phase HNO3 or H2O were observed in the 1992-1993 Arctic winter vortex. Although ClO was enhanced over the Arctic as it was over the Antarctic, Arctic O3 depletion was substantially smaller than that over Antarctica. A major factor currently limiting the formation of an Arctic ozone 'hole' is the lack of denitrification in the northern polar vortex, but future cooling of the lower stratosphere could lead to more intense denitrification and consequently larger losses of Arctic ozone.

Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Manney, G. L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Harwood, R. S.; Peckham, G. E.

1995-01-01

191

International Polar Year - Back to the Future (IPY-BTF): Re-Sampling Sites More Than 25 Years Old to Assess Change in Arctic Ecosystem Structure and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of long-term monitoring, revisiting, re-sampling and analyzing environmental change that has occurred at Arctic research sites established several decades ago represents a largely untapped change detection capacity. The primary objective of this three-year International Polar Year (IPY) project (214) coordinated through the Circumarctic Environmental Observatories Network (CEON) is to determine how key structural and functional characteristics of high latitude arctic terrestrial ecosystems have changed over the past 25 or more years and assess if such trajectories of change are likely to continue in the future. Key activities include: 1. Establishing a focused international BTF coordination and information portal, including an interactive web-based information system. 2. Rescuing data and re-establishing and re-sampling BTF sites across the Arctic. 3. Coordination of two international BTF syntheses. One synthesis will focus on the production of a special issue with site-based papers and the second will develop a cross-site synthesis. 4.Archiving data for open access at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). 5. Educating the next generation of scientist by providing an opportunity for students to resample historical research sites and gain hands on research experience under the mentorship of senior researchers. We welcome additional partnerships with arctic researchers actively resampling old research sites - this poster outlines how such participation can be initiated.

Johnson, D. R.; Tweedie, C. E.; Villarreal, S.; Lara, M.; Callaghan, T.

2008-12-01

192

Mark-Recapture and Stochastic Population Models for Polar Bears of the High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mark-recapture data and population viability analysis (PVA) to estimate demographic parameters, abundance, and harvest risks for two adjacent populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) inhabiting Lancaster Sound and Norwegian Bay, Canada. Analyses were based on data from 1871 bears that were uniquely marked during the period 1972 - 97. Our best-fitting mark-recapture model specified sex and age effects

MITCHELL K. TAYLOR; JEFF LAAKE; PHILIP D. McLOUGHLIN; H. DEAN CLUFF; FRANÇOIS MESSIER

2008-01-01

193

Comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in Arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in Arctic marine wildlife. The present study examined the in vitro depletion of major PFOS precursors, N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top Arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat (Rattus rattus) serving as a general mammalian model and positive control. Rat assays showed that N-EtFOSA (38 nM or 150 ng mL(-1)) to FOSA metabolism was >90% complete after 10 min, and at a rate of 23 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Examining all species in a full 90 min incubation assay, there was >95% N-EtFOSA depletion for the rat active control and polar bear microsomes, ?65% for ringed seals, and negligible depletion of N-EtFOSA for beluga whale. Concomitantly, the corresponding in vitro formation of FOSA from N-EtFOSA was also quantitatively rat?polar bear>ringed seal>beluga whale. A lack of enzymatic ability and/or a rate too slow to be detected likely explains the lack of N-EtFOSA to FOSA transformation for beluga whale. In the same assays, the depletion of the FOSA metabolite was insignificant (p>0.01) and with no concomitant formation of PFOS metabolite. This suggests that, in part, a source of FOSA is the biotransformation of accumulated N-EtFOSA in free-ranging Arctic ringed seal and polar bear. PMID:25048910

Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; McKinney, Melissa A; Tomy, Gregg T; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

2014-10-01

194

What Controls the Temperature of the Arctic Stratosphere during the Spring?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the mechanisms that control the temperature of the polar lower stratosphere during spring is key to understanding ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex. Spring ozone loss rates are directly tied to polar stratospheric temperatures by the formation of polar stratospheric clouds, and the conversion of chlorine species to reactive forms on these cloud particle surfaces. In this paper, we study those factors that control temperatures in the polar lower stratosphere. We use the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/NCAR reanalysis data covering the last two decades to investigate how planetary wave driving of the stratosphere is connected to polar temperatures. In particular, we show that planetary waves forced in the troposphere in mid- to late winter (January-February) are principally responsible for the mean polar temperature during the March period. These planetary waves are forced by both thermal and orographic processes in the troposphere, and propagate into the stratosphere in the mid and high latitudes. Strong mid-winter planetary wave forcing leads to a warmer Arctic lower stratosphere in early spring, while weak mid-winter forcing leads to cooler Arctic temperatures.

Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

195

Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to: (1) improve our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically non-existent.

Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

2014-04-01

196

Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1) mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

2014-11-01

197

Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems. PMID:24500172

Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

2014-03-22

198

Polar Mesospheric Clouds and Rocket Exhaust in the Arctic Middle Atmosphere: Lidar Observations and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and rocket exhaust by ground-based lidar at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Chatanika, Alaska (65°N, 147°W). The PMC observations have been made in late summer over several years in years when space shuttle launches both did and did not occur. The rocket exhaust observations have been made in late winter and spring on three nights when Black Brandt XII (two) and X (one) rockets were launched at PFRR. The PMCs are observed at altitudes between 80 and 86 km during visual displays. The rocket exhaust is observed at altitudes between 66 and 82 km, with the strongest echoes from the cloud at the higher altitudes. The aerosol backscatter ratios of the clouds and exhaust have magnitudes from 0.1 to 100. We consider the areal extent, seasonal evolution, and environmental conditions of the PMCs as observed by satellites (i.e., EOS-Aura/OMI, NOAA/SBUV, and EOS-Aura/MLS). We analyze the structure of the PMCs in different years in terms of current microphysical models and analyze the characteristics of the clouds in terms of the influence of space shuttle exhaust. We consider the formation of the rocket exhaust in terms of the combustion products of the rocket fuel and the environmental conditions measured by satellites (i.e., UARS/MLS). We compare and contrast the structure of the PMCs and rocket exhaust and discuss them as indicators of atmospheric conditions.

Collins, R. L.; Deland, M. T.; Lieberman, R. S.; Walker, G. W.

2010-12-01

199

A Composite View of Ozone Evolution in the 1995-1996 Northern Winter Polar Vortex Developed from Airborne Lidar and Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The processes which contribute to the ozone evolution in the high latitude northern lower stratosphere are evaluated using a three dimensional model simulation and ozone observations. The model uses winds and temperatures from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. The simulation results are compared with ozone observations from three platforms: the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which was flown on the NASA DC-8 as part of the Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment; the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS); the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM II) solar occultation instrument. Time series for the different data sets are consistent with each other, and diverge from model time series during December and January. The model ozone in December and January is shown to be much less sensitive to the model photochemistry than to the model vertical transport, which depends on the model vertical motion as well as the model vertical gradient. We evaluate the dependence of model ozone evolution on the model ozone gradient by comparing simulations with different initial conditions for ozone. The modeled ozone throughout December and January most closely resembles observed ozone when the vertical profiles between 12 and 20 km within the polar vortex closely match December DIAL observations. We make a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty in the vertical advection using diabatic trajectory calculations. The net transport uncertainty is significant, and should be accounted for when comparing observations with model ozone. The observed and modeled ozone time series during December and January are consistent when these transport uncertainties are taken into account.

Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Browell, E. V.

2000-01-01

200

Early Triassic magnetic polarity time scale—integration of magnetostratigraphy, ammonite zonation and sequence stratigraphy from stratotype sections (Canadian Arctic Archipelago)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratotypes defining the stages of the Early Triassic (Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian and Spathian) are located on Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in the northern Canadian Arctic. Ammonite-rich horizons are within a clastic outer shelf-to-slope facies of thick progradational wedges of mudstones and siltstones. Three sections were sampled for magnetostratigraphy and interpreted for transgressive and regressive pulses of sedimentation. Using the ammonite zonation as a guide, the transgressive-regressive cycles and magnetostratigraphies have been correlated among the sections and to the published Triassic sequence stratigraphy time scale, thus enabling definition of the magnetic polarity pattern for the upper Griesbachian to Smithian stages in multiple sections. The magnetic polarity and associated sequence stratigraphy pattern for the lower Griesbachian and for the Spathian were derived from single sections. The Griesbachian and Dienerian stages each have two pairs of normal- and reversed-polarity chrons; the Smithian is predominantly of normal polarity, and the Spathian is predominantly of reversed polarity. This magnetic polarity time scale may help to resolve age correlations of North American redbed facies and to define the Permian-Triassic boundary. After correction for variable structural orientations, the mean directions of magnetization from the three sites converge at 296° declination, 57° inclination ( k = 60, ? 95 = 16.5° ; equivalent pole = 41°N, 161°E; paleolatitude = 38°N), which is consistent with the pole derived from nearby Early Permian volcanics and supports a postulated post-Early Triassic, pre-Tertiary counterclockwise rotation of this region with respect to cratonic North America.

Ogg, James G.; Steiner, Maureen B.

1991-10-01

201

Unraveling the empirical relationship between Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole it has been recognized that cold temperatures play a key role in fostering strong ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere. Compact negative correlations between total winter ozone loss and vortex area exposed to temperatures below certain threshold values have been demonstrated (e.g. Harris et al., 2010; Rex et al., 2006; Rex et al., 2004). The most commonly used threshold is the NAT equilibrium temperature, but other choices have been suggested, such as the temperature when the rate of chlorine activation on liquid aerosols exceeds a certain limit. Interestingly, both thresholds relate to critical temperatures in the context of heterogeneous chlorine activation, and Harris et al., 2010, stated that original activation (i.e. the activation in early winter) is the most important factor influencing ozone loss. But at least two other key processes - catalytic ozone loss and denitrification - depend directly on temperature, and temperature also controls the stability and therefore the persistence of the polar vortex. Here, we investigate such "vortex area" correlations for a number of different temperature thresholds, as well as direct correlations with vortex mean temperature and with the date of the final warming. We also carry out sensitivity studies using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) to investigate the response of ozone loss to temperature modifications for particle formation and growth, surface reaction probabilities and gas phase reactivity separately. Rex et al., Arctic ozone loss and climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04116, 2004. Rex et al., Arctic winter 2005: Implications for stratospheric ozone loss and climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23808, 2006. Harris et al., A closer look at Arctic ozone loss and polar stratospheric clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8499-8510, 2010.

von Hobe, Marc; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Müller, Rolf

2014-05-01

202

Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the following websites to answer questions about the rapid disappearance of polar bears in the Arctic region. Polar Bear picture Polar Bear Tracker 1: What region in the world has the fewest polar bears? 2: Using the internet as a resource, provide some reasons as to why this region is suffering from the most polar bear differences? Polar Bears Change Diet 1: Why are polar bears having to change their diets? 2: List some other factors (besides diet) in the ...

Thomas, Mr.

2010-09-27

203

Effects of environmental variation and spatial distance on Bacteria, Archaea and viruses in sub-polar and arctic waters  

PubMed Central

We investigated the influence of environmental parameters and spatial distance on bacterial, archaeal and viral community composition from 13 sites along a 3200-km long voyage from Halifax to Kugluktuk (Canada) through the Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. Variation partitioning was used to disentangle the effects of environmental parameters, spatial distance and spatially correlated environmental parameters on prokaryotic and viral communities. Viral and prokaryotic community composition were related in the Labrador Sea, but were independent of each other in Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. In oceans, the dominant dispersal mechanism for prokaryotes and viruses is the movement of water masses, thus, dispersal for both groups is passive and similar. Nevertheless, spatial distance explained 7–19% of the variation in viral community composition in the Arctic Archipelago, but was not a significant predictor of bacterial or archaeal community composition in either sampling area, suggesting a decoupling of the processes regulating community composition within these taxonomic groups. According to the metacommunity theory, patterns in bacterial and archaeal community composition suggest a role for species sorting, while patterns of virus community composition are consistent with species sorting in the Labrador Sea and suggest a potential role of mass effects in the Arctic Archipelago. Given that, a specific prokaryotic taxon may be infected by multiple viruses with high reproductive potential, our results suggest that viral community composition was subject to a high turnover relative to prokaryotic community composition in the Arctic Archipelago. PMID:23552622

Winter, Christian; Matthews, Blake; Suttle, Curtis A

2013-01-01

204

A CCM simulation of the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex in the years 1980-2004 under the CCMVal scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in breakup time of the Antarctic polar vortex in the years 1980-2004 are examined using the output of chemistry climate model (CCM) calculations, data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis, and data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA40). The CCM used in this study is from the Center for Climate System Research/National Institute for Environmental Studies (CCSR/NIES). The CCM calculations are performed with the two ensemble members for REF1 scenario of the chemistry climate model validation (CCMVal) and the one ensemble member for the REF2 scenario. CCM simulates the development of the ozone hole from 1982 to 2000, as observed with a total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), although the year-to-year variation is different from the observation owing to the internal variability of CCM and the ozone decreasing trends of CCM ozone in the two ensemble members of REF1 are underestimated. The trends in temperature and zonal mean zonal wind are analyzed and compared with the observations. There is consistency among the trends in zonal mean temperature, zonal mean zonal wind, and total ozone, but they differ among the ensemble members and observations. The diabatic heating rates and Eliassen-Palm flux fields are investigated in order to explain the differences. A delay trend in the breakup time of the Antarctic polar vortex is obtained for the period of 1980-1999 in the NCEP/NCAR and ERA40 data. A similar trend is also obtained from the CCM simulations, with statistical significance in one ensemble member of REF1 and REF2. Because the trends of the observations in the EP flux from the troposphere and its deposition in the lower stratosphere are consistent with an advanced breakup date of the polar vortex and because the trends of the CCM simulations are very small, it is likely that the Antarctic ozone depletion had some effect on the delay during the period 1980-1999. From 2000 to 2004, the NCEP/NCAR data show a large variation in breakup time, which makes the delay trend much less important. It is likely that the large variation in wave flux masked the effects of the ozone loss during that period. The two ensemble members of the REF1 simulation do not show such a dramatic change in the trend for the period 2000-2004, whereas REF2 shows a change in the trend for that period.

Akiyoshi, H.; Zhou, L. B.; Yamashita, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Yoshiki, M.; Nagashima, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kurokawa, J.; Takigawa, M.; Imamura, T.

2009-02-01

205

Inter-annual variation of gravity waves in the arctic and antarctic winter middle atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of polar winter stratospheric gravity waves using the UARS MLS measurements. The data analysis over a 6+years period (1991-1997) give a clear picture of stratospheric gravity waves at high latitudes during Arctic and Antarctic winters. Inter-annual variations of these GWs show that when the vortexes are shifted off the pole toward the Atlantic (e.g. late winter 1993, 1996 and 1997), the GWs are stronger over the southern Greenland-Scandinavia region, and extend further to the lower latitudes; when the vortexes are more pole-centered (e.g. late winter 1992, 1994 and 1995), GWs occurs more pole-ward. Preliminary statistical analysis using simultaneous observations from CLAES/ISAMS show that the frequency of PSC occurrence is significantly higher by 10-20% in GW active regions, which may suggest a GW contribution to PSC formation in the polar regions.

Jiang, J. H.; Wu, D. L.

206

Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-Breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in January 2009 was the strongest and most prolonged on record. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations are used to provide an overview of dynamics and transport during the 2009 SSW, and to compare with the intense, long-lasting SSW in January 2006. The Arctic polar vortex split during the 2009 SSW, whereas the 2006 SSW was a vortex displacement event. Winds reversed to easterly more rapidly and reverted to westerly more slowly in 2009 than in 2006. More mixing of trace gases out of the vortex during the decay of the vortex fragments, and less before the fulfillment of major SSW criteria, was seen in 2009 than in 2006; persistent well-defined fragments of vortex and anticyclone air were more prevalent in 2009. The 2009 SSW had a more profound impact on the lower stratosphere than any previously observed SSW, with no significant recovery of the vortex in that region. The stratopause breakdown and subsequent reformation at very high altitude, accompanied by enhanced descent into a rapidly strengthening upper stratospheric vortex, were similar in 2009 and 2006. Many differences between 2006 and 2009 appear to be related to the different character of the SSWs in the two years.

Manney, Gloria L.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Krueger, Kirstin; Santee, Michelle L.; Pawson, Steven; Lee, Jae N.; Daffer, William H.; Fuller, Ryan A.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

2009-01-01

207

The Impact of Inertia-gravity Waves Upon The Leakage of The Antarctic Polar Vortex Edge Using 3d-trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the STRATEOLE-project the KNMI trajectory model was used to investigate the effect of inertia-gravity waves upon the leakage of the Antarctic polar vortex in late austral winter and spring. The trajectory computations were per- formed using wind data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Fore- casts (ECMWF) for August to November 1998. Thousands of air parcel trajectories were integrated 4 months forward in time in an isentropic mode as well in a 3D mode. In the absence of inertia-gravity waves no or very little mass exchange is observed in August and September (0.34%/week) while October and November give somewhat higher leakage rates (1.85%/week). An analytic inertia-gravity wave wind field was superimposed on the ECMWF wind field for trajectories starting in August at the 450K isentropic level. The inertia-gravity waves give rise to additional quasi-horizontal leak- age of about 0.5%/week or less and comparable vertical exchange rates, depending on the wave parameters. Inertia-gravity waves do also have a significant impact on the mixing of air parcels in the vortex edge region itself, in agreement with previous re- sults. Overall our results show that despite large scale mixing little ozone depleted air leaks from the ozone hole into the midlatitude stratosphere. However, small scale displacements due to inertia-gravity waves, can give rise to (additional) leakage.

Oellers, M. C.; Velthoven, P. F. J. Van; Kelder, H.; Kamp, L. P. J.

208

Effect of Polar Day on Plasma Profiles of Melatonin, Testosterone, and Estradiol in High-Arctic Lapland Longspurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polar habitats, continuous daylight (polar day) can prevail for many weeks or months around the summer solstice. In the laboratory, continuous light conditions impair or disrupt circadian rhythms in many animals. To determine whether circadian rhythms are disrupted under natural polar day conditions in a species that is only a summer resident in polar regions we analyzed diel rhythms

Michaela Hau; L. Michael Romero; Jeff D. Brawn; Thomas J. Van't Hof

2002-01-01

209

Why unprecedented ozone loss in the Arctic in 2011? Is it related to climate change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unprecedented ozone loss occurred in the Arctic in spring 2011. The details of the event are revisited from the twice-daily total ozone and NO2 column measurements of the eight SAOZ/NDACC (Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénithale/Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) stations in the Arctic. It is shown that the total ozone depletion in the polar vortex reached 38% (approx. 170 DU) by the end of March, which is larger than the 30% of the previous record in 1996. Aside from the long extension of the cold stratospheric NAT PSC period, the amplitude of the event is shown to be resulting from a record daily total ozone loss rate of 0.7% d-1 after mid-February, never seen before in the Arctic but similar to that observed in the Antarctic over the last 20 yr. This high loss rate is attributed to the absence of NOx in the vortex until the final warming, in contrast to all previous winters where, as shown by the early increase of NO2 diurnal increase, partial renoxification occurs by import of NOx or HNO3 from the outside after minor warming episodes, leading to partial chlorine deactivation. The cause of the absence of renoxification and thus of high loss rate, is attributed to a vortex strength similar to that of the Antarctic but never seen before in the Arctic. The total ozone reduction on 20 March was identical to that of the 2002 Antarctic winter, which ended around 20 September, and a 15-day extension of the cold period would have been enough to reach the mean yearly amplitude of the Antarctic ozone hole. However there is no sign of trend since 1994, either in PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) volume (volume of air cold enough to allow formation of PSCs), early winter denitrification, late vortex renoxification, and vortex strength or in total ozone loss. The unprecedented large Arctic ozone loss in 2011 appears to result from an extreme meteorological event and there is no indication of possible strengthening related to climate change.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Pazmino, A.; Adams, C.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Kivi, R.; Stebel, K.; Zhao, X.; van Roozendael, M.

2013-05-01

210

Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Marine mammals are indicator species of the Arctic ecosystem and an integral component of the traditional Inuit diet. The potential neurotoxic effects of increased mercury (Hg) in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are not clear. We assessed the risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity to these species by comparing their brain Hg concentrations with threshold concentrations for toxic endpoints detected in laboratory animals and field observations: clinical symptoms (>6.75mg/kg wet weight (ww)), neuropathological signs (>4mg/kg ww), neurochemical changes (>0.4mg/kg ww), and neurobehavioral changes (>0.1mg/kg ww). The total Hg (THg) concentrations in the cerebellum and frontal lobe of ringed seals and polar bears were <0.5mg/kg ww, whereas the average concentration in beluga whale brain was >3mg/kg ww. Our results suggest that brain THg levels in polar bears are below levels that induce neurobehavioral effects as reported in the literature, while THg concentrations in ringed seals are within the range that elicit neurobehavioral effects and individual ringed seals exceed the threshold for neurochemical changes. The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed. High brain selenium (Se):Hg molar ratios were observed in all three species, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg-associated neurotoxicity. This assessment was limited by several factors that influence neurotoxic effects in animals, including: animal species; form of Hg in the brain; and interactions with modifiers of Hg-associated toxicity, such as Se. Comparing brain Hg concentrations in wildlife with concentrations of appropriate laboratory studies can be used as a tool for risk characterization of the neurotoxic effects of Hg in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:24958011

Krey, Anke; Ostertag, Sonja K; Chan, Hing Man

2014-06-21

211

Extensive sampling of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Northwest Passage (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) reveals population differentiation across multiple spatial and temporal scales.  

PubMed

As global warming accelerates the melting of Arctic sea ice, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) must adapt to a rapidly changing landscape. This process will necessarily alter the species distribution together with population dynamics and structure. Detailed knowledge of these changes is crucial to delineating conservation priorities. Here, we sampled 361 polar bears from across the center of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago spanning the Gulf of Boothia (GB) and M'Clintock Channel (MC). We use DNA microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences to quantify genetic differentiation, estimate gene flow, and infer population history. Two populations, roughly coincident with GB and MC, are significantly differentiated at both nuclear (F ST = 0.01) and mitochondrial (?ST = 0.47; F ST = 0.29) loci, allowing Bayesian clustering analyses to assign individuals to either group. Our data imply that the causes of the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic patterns differ. Analysis of mtDNA reveals the matrilineal structure dates at least to the Holocene, and is common to individuals throughout the species' range. These mtDNA differences probably reflect both genetic drift and historical colonization dynamics. In contrast, the differentiation inferred from microsatellites is only on the scale of hundreds of years, possibly reflecting contemporary impediments to gene flow. Taken together, our data suggest that gene flow is insufficient to homogenize the GB and MC populations and support the designation of GB and MC as separate polar bear conservation units. Our study also provide a striking example of how nuclear DNA and mtDNA capture different aspects of a species demographic history. PMID:24102001

Campagna, Leonardo; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Saunders, Brenda L; Atkinson, Stephen N; Weber, Diana S; Dyck, Markus G; Boag, Peter T; Lougheed, Stephen C

2013-09-01

212

Arctic Expedition of the Frozen Five: an Alternative way of Education and Outreach During the International Polar Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2007, a group of international students of the geosciences will embark on a two month expedition across the wilderness of Svalbard. The journey will involve traversing up to 1000 km of high Arctic glaciers between 76° an 80°N, reaching both the southernmost and northernmost capes of Spitsbergen, Svalbard's largest island. We expect to be frequently camping at -30°C,

K. Senger; M. Björkman; H. Garny; L. Girard; J. Lichteneger

2006-01-01

213

Life in a temperate Polar sea: a unique taphonomic window on the structure of a Late Cretaceous Arctic marine ecosystem.  

PubMed

As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, Arctic Canada, that offers a snapshot of a ca 75 Myr ago marine palaeoecosystem adapted to such conditions. Thick siliceous biogenic sediments and glaucony sands reveal remarkably persistent high primary productivity along a high-latitude Late Cretaceous coastline. Abundant fossil faeces demonstrate that this planktonic bounty supported benthic invertebrates and large, possibly seasonal, vertebrates in short food chains. These ancient organisms filled trophic roles comparable to those of extant Arctic species, but there were fundamental differences in resource dynamics. Whereas most of the modern Arctic is oligotrophic and structured by resources from melting sea ice, we suggest that forested terrestrial landscapes helped support the ancient marine community through high levels of terrigenous organic input. PMID:18713718

Chin, Karen; Bloch, John; Sweet, Arthur; Tweet, Justin; Eberle, Jaelyn; Cumbaa, Stephen; Witkowski, Jakub; Harwood, David

2008-12-01

214

Life in a temperate Polar sea: a unique taphonomic window on the structure of a Late Cretaceous Arctic marine ecosystem  

PubMed Central

As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, Arctic Canada, that offers a snapshot of a ca 75?Myr ago marine palaeoecosystem adapted to such conditions. Thick siliceous biogenic sediments and glaucony sands reveal remarkably persistent high primary productivity along a high-latitude Late Cretaceous coastline. Abundant fossil faeces demonstrate that this planktonic bounty supported benthic invertebrates and large, possibly seasonal, vertebrates in short food chains. These ancient organisms filled trophic roles comparable to those of extant Arctic species, but there were fundamental differences in resource dynamics. Whereas most of the modern Arctic is oligotrophic and structured by resources from melting sea ice, we suggest that forested terrestrial landscapes helped support the ancient marine community through high levels of terrigenous organic input. PMID:18713718

Chin, Karen; Bloch, John; Sweet, Arthur; Tweet, Justin; Eberle, Jaelyn; Cumbaa, Stephen; Witkowski, Jakub; Harwood, David

2008-01-01

215

Observations of stratospheric source gas profiles during the Arctic winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An international campaign was performed at ESRANGE rocket base, near Kiruna, Sweden (68 N) from January 4 to February 15 in order to investigate the Chemistry of Ozone in the Polar Stratosphere (CHEOPS). Within the framework of this campaign two sets of large stratospheric air samples were collected by means of a balloon borne cryogenic air sampler. The two balloons were launched on February 1, and February 10, 1988. At present the samples are analyzed in our laboratory for their contents of several long lived trace gases such as CH4, N2O, H2, CO2, CO and the major halocarbons CH3Cl, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CCl4, CH3CCl3, and C2F3Cl3. The vertical profiles derived from these samples will be presented and compared with previous observations made in February 1987. The data will be discussed in view of the dynamical evolution of the Arctic polar vortex during this winter.

Schmidt, U.; Bauer, R.; Kulessa, G.; Klein, E.; Schubert, B.

1988-01-01

216

Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: Air Parcel Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 is given. Effects of Pinatubo aerosol on stratospheric ozone at mid-latitudes, in situ measurements of ClO and ClO/HCl ratio, balloon-borne measurements of ClO, NO, and O3 in a volcanic cloud, and new observations of the NO(y)/N2O correlation in the lower stratosphere are discussed. Among other topics addressed are the following: in situ tracer correlations of methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone as observed aboard the DC-8, in situ measurements of changes in stratospheric aerosol and the N2O-aerosol relationship inside and outside of the polar vortex, measurements of halogenated organic compounds near the tropical tropopause, and airborne brightness measurements of the polar winter troposphere.

1993-01-01

217

QBO Influence on Polar Stratospheric Variability in the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quasi-biennial oscillation modulates the strength of both the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheric vortices. Model and observational studies have found that the phase and characteristics of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) contribute to the high degree of variability in the Arctic stratosphere in winter. While the Antarctic stratosphere is less variable, recent work has shown that Southern Hemisphere planetary wave driving increases in response to "warm pool" El Nino events that are coincident with the easterly phase of the QBO. These events hasten the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) is now capable of generating a realistic QBO, due a new parameterization of gravity wave drag. In this presentation, we will use this new model capability to assess the influence of the QBO on polar stratospheric variability. Using simulations of the recent past, we will compare the modeled relationship between QBO phase and mid-winter vortex strength with the observed Holton-Tan relation, in both hemispheres. We will use simulations of the 21 St century to estimate future trends in the relationship between QBO phase and vortex strength. In addition, we will evaluate the combined influence of the QBO and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the timing of the breakup of the polar stratospheric vortices in the GEOS CCM. We will compare the influence of these two natural phenomena with trends in the vortex breakup associated with ozone recovery and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

Hurwitz, M. M.; Oman, L. D.; Li, F.; Slong, I.-S.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.

2010-01-01

218

Contamination of food by crude oil affects food selection and growth performance, but not appetite, in an Arctic fish the polar cod (Boreogadus saida)  

SciTech Connect

The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is recognized as a key species in Arctic marine food webs and it may, therefore, be important for the transfer of xenobiotics from lower trophic levels to its main predators, birds and sea mammals. The present work examines the effects of foods contaminated with 200 or 400 ppm crude oil on food selection patterns and appetite-growth relationship in polar cod using X-radiography. It is shown that sexually mature polar cod consumed mixtures of uncontaminated and oil-contaminated foods, and did not show a reduced overall appetite as compared with fish provided with uncontaminated food only. Food selection was, however, influenced by both sex and individual appetite. Male fish selected uncontaminated food when appetite was low, whereas females ingested contaminated and uncontaminated foods equally, irrespective of appetite level. The ingestion of oil-contaminated food led to a significant depression in growth performance in both male and female fish. Food contaminated with oil at a concentration of 500 ppm was completely rejected by both sexes. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Christiansen, J.S. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Troms (Norway); George, S.G. [Univ. of Stirling, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1995-04-01

219

Vortex rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how

Karim Shariff; Anthony Leonard

1992-01-01

220

From polar night to midnight sun: photoperiod, seal predation, and the diel vertical migrations of polar cod ( Boreogadus saida ) under landfast ice in the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winter\\/spring vertical distributions of polar cod, copepods, and ringed seal were monitored at a 230-m station in ice-covered\\u000a Franklin Bay. In daytime, polar cod of all sizes (7–95 g) formed a dense aggregation in the deep inverse thermocline (160–230 m,\\u000a ?1.0 to 0°C). From December (polar night) to April (18-h daylight), small polar cod <25 g migrated into the isothermal cold\\u000a intermediate

Delphine Benoit; Yvan Simard; Jacques Gagné; Maxime Geoffroy; Louis Fortier

2010-01-01

221

Why unprecedented ozone loss in the Arctic in 2011? Is it related to climatic change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unprecedented ozone loss occurred in the Arctic in spring 2011. The details of the event are re-visited from the twice-daily total ozone and NO2 columns measurements of the eight SAOZ/NDACC (Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénitale/Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) stations in the Arctic. It is shown that the total ozone depletion in the polar vortex reached 38% (approx. 170 DU) by the end of March that is larger than the 30% of the previous record in 1996. Asides from the long extension of the cold stratospheric NAT PSC period, the amplitude of the event is shown to be resulting from a record daily total ozone loss rate of 0.7% day-1 after mid-February, never seen before in the Arctic but similar to that observed in the Antarctic over the last 20 yr. This high loss rate is attributed to the absence of NOx in the vortex until the final warming, in contrast to all previous winters where, as shown by the early increase of NO2 diurnal increase, partial renoxification is occurring by import of NOx or HNO3 from the outside after minor warming episodes, leading to partial chlorine deactivation. The cause of the absence of renoxification and thus of high loss rate, is attributed to a vortex strength similar to that of the Antarctic but never seen before in the Arctic. The total ozone reduction on 20 March was identical to that of the 2002 Antarctic winter, which ended around 20 September, and a 15-day extension of the cold period would have been enough to reach the mean yearly amplitude of the Antarctic ozone hole. However there is no sign of trend since 1994, neither in PSC volume, early winter denitrification, late vortex renoxification, and vortex strength nor in total ozone loss. The unprecedented large Arctic ozone loss in 2011 appears to resulting from an extreme meteorological event and there is no indication of possible strengthening related to climate change.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Pazmino, A.; Adams, C.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Kivi, R.; Stebel, K.; Zhao, X.; van Rozendael, M.

2013-01-01

222

New view of Arctic cyclone activity from the Arctic system reanalysis  

E-print Network

New view of Arctic cyclone activity from the Arctic system reanalysis Natalia Tilinina1,2 , Sergey Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA Abstract Arctic cyclone activity for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), ASR shows a considerably higher number of cyclones

Howat, Ian M.

223

In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter Arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: An indicator of the age of stratospheric air  

SciTech Connect

The authors report measurements of the vertical distribution of the carbon dioxide mixing ratio in the lower and middle stratosphere. They were performed during a series of balloon flights over midlatitudes (44{degree}N) during different seasons and over high latitudes (68{degree}N) during winter in the time period from 1982 until 1990. CO{sub 2} was gas chromatographically determined in air samples collected by means of cryogenic whole-air samplers. The annual increase of the CO{sub 2} content of the mid-stratospheric air is comparable to the temporal CO{sub 2} trend in the troposphere. However, the stratospheric concentrations are lagging the tropospheric ones by a mean delay time of 5.6 {plus minus} 1.1 years. This delay time may be interpreted as the age of stratospheric air masses. It is determined by the efficiency of the transport processes that mix tropospheric air into the stratosphere. The CO{sub 2} observations during the last decade suggest that these processes have varied systematically with a time period of 3 to 5 years. A rather low age of 2.3 {plus minus} 0.3 years was derived from the most recent observations over midlatitudes in summer 1989 as well as in the Arctic region during the CHEOPS III Campaign in winter 1989/90.

Schmidt, U.; Khedim, A. (Forschungszentrum Juelich (West Germany))

1991-04-01

224

Non-stochastic colonization by pioneer plants after deglaciation in a polar oasis of the Canadian High Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial plant colonization is critical in determining subsequent ecosystem development. In a High-Arctic oasis showing atypical “directional primary succession”, we quantified the microhabitat characteristics associated with colonization by pioneer vascular plants of a bare moraine. The study moraine, formed during the Little Ice Age, is located within the proglacial area at the southern front of Arklio Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada. We established two line-transects on this moraine to quantify microhabitats for vascular species. Microsites favorable for plants were concave depressions, probably increasing the likelihood of colonization. At microsites distant from stable boulders, which probably protect seeds/seedlings from wind desiccation, plant colonization was less likely. Furthermore, favorable microhabitat properties differed depending on topographical location within the moraine, suggesting that, even within a single moraine, microhabitats favorable for plant colonization are heterogeneously-distributed. This moraine was characterized by two major pioneer species, Epilobium latifolium and Salix arctica. Their species-specific microhabitat requirements highlight the importance of biotic factors in colonization processes. Favorable sites for plants are generally distributed at random in harsh environments. However, we showed that initial plant colonization is a deterministic process rather than random, indicating the possibility of non-stochastic processes even during the early phase of ecosystem development in High-Arctic ecosystems.

Mori, Akira S.; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

2013-09-01

225

Surviving in the Arctic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image is of two polar bears cuddled together on a piece of Arctic sea ice, surrounded by ocean water and thin layers of sea ice. This image allows for a deeper understanding of the endangered species and highlights the need for USGS research to help in their protection. ...

2009-12-11

226

Arctic Story Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has three story puzzles learners can solve to learn about life in the Arctic. Through this story-sequencing activity, learners will explore how life for polar bears and the native Inuit people is being affected by climate change. Activity includes three puzzles as PDF files.

History, American M.

2007-01-01

227

Polar stratospheric cloud climatology based on Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II observations from 1978 to 1989  

SciTech Connect

The probability of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) occurrence in the Antarctic and Arctic has been estimated using Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II aerosol extinction data from 1978 to 1989. Antarctic PSCs are typically observed by SAM II from mid-May to early November, with a maximum zonal average probability of about 0.6 at 18-20 km in August. The typical Arctic PSC season extends only from late November to early March, with a peak zonal average probability of about 0.1 in early February at 20-22 km. There is considerable year-to-year variability in Arctic PSC sightings because of changes in the dynamics of the northern polar vortex. Year-to-year variability in Antarctic sightings is most prominent in the number of late season clouds. Maximum PSC sighting probabilities in both polar regions occur in the region from 90 deg W through the Greenwich meridian to 90 deg E, where temperatures are coldest on average. Arctic sighting probabilities approach zero outside this region, but clouds have been sighted in the Antarctic at all longitudes during most months. Inferred PSC formation temperatures remain constant throughout the Arctic winter and are similar to those in early Antarctic winter. PSC formation temperatures in the Antarctic drop markedly in the 15 to 20-km region by September, a pattern consistent with the irreversible loss of HNO3 and H2O vapor in sedimenting PSC particles.

Poole, L.R.; Pitts, M.C. [NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, VA (United States)

1994-06-01

228

Polar stratospheric cloud climatology based on Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II observations from 1978 to 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probability of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) occurrence in the Antarctic and Arctic has been estimated using Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II aerosol extinction data from 1978 to 1989. Antarctic PSCs are typically observed by SAM II from mid-May to early November, with a maximum zonal average probability of about 0.6 at 18-20 km in August. The typical Arctic PSC season extends only from late November to early March, with a peak zonal average probability of about 0.1 in early February at 20-22 km. There is considerable year-to-year variability in Arctic PSC sightings because of changes in the dynamics of the northern polar vortex. Year-to-year variability in Antarctic sightings is most prominent in the number of late season clouds. Maximum PSC sighting probabilities in both polar regions occur in the region from 90 deg W through the Greenwich meridian to 90 deg E, where temperatures are coldest on average. Arctic sighting probabilities approach zero outside this region, but clouds have been sighted in the Antarctic at all longitudes during most months. Inferred PSC formation temperatures remain constant throughout the Arctic winter and are similar to those in early Antarctic winter. PSC formation temperatures in the Antarctic drop markedly in the 15 to 20-km region by September, a pattern consistent with the irreversible loss of HNO3 and H2O vapor in sedimenting PSC particles.

Poole, Lamont R.; Pitts, Michael C.

1994-01-01

229

Rapid development of arctic cyclone in June 2008 simulated by the cloud resolving global model NICAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we conducted a numerical simulation of a rapid development of an arctic cyclone (AC) that appeared in June 2008 using a cloud resolving global model, Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). We investigated the three dimensional structure and intensification mechanism of the simulated AC that developed to the minimum sea level pressure of 971 hPa in the model. According to the result, the AC indicates a barotropic structure with a warm core in the lower stratosphere and a cold core in the troposphere. The development of the AC is accompanied by an intense mesoscale cyclone (MC) showing baroclinic structure with a marked local arctic front. The upper level warm core of the AC is formed by an adiabatic heating associated with the downdraft in the lower stratosphere. The rapid development of the AC is caused by the combination of the intensification of the upper level warm core and the merging with the baroclinically growing MC in the lower level. The merging of the AC and MC and the vertical vortex coupling with the upper air polar vortex are the most important mechanisms for the rapid development of the arctic cyclone.

Aizawa, Takuro; Tanaka, H. L.; Satoh, Masaki

2014-11-01

230

Implications of the Circumpolar Genetic Structure of Polar Bears for Their Conservation in a Rapidly Warming Arctic  

PubMed Central

We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1–3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will allow polar nations to proactively adjust conservation actions to continuing decline in sea-ice habitat. PMID:25562525

Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Boltunov, Andrei; Regehr, Eric V.; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Sage, George K.; Hope, Andrew G.; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L.

2015-01-01

231

Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming arctic.  

PubMed

We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1-3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will allow polar nations to proactively adjust conservation actions to continuing decline in sea-ice habitat. PMID:25562525

Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Obbard, Martyn E; Boltunov, Andrei; Regehr, Eric V; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N; Sage, George K; Hope, Andrew G; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T; Amstrup, Steven C; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L

2015-01-01

232

Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1–3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will allow polar nations to proactively adjust conservation actions to continuing decline in sea-ice habitat.

Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Regehr, Eric V.; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Sage, George K.; Hope, Andrew G.; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L.

2015-01-01

233

Mapping Arctic circumpolar albedo at 250-m spatial resolution during International Polar Year by fusion of MODIS/TERRA land bands B1-B7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time series of spatially-enhanced MODIS surface albedo for the Arctic circumpolar zone (9,000km × 9,000km) are generated as the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) contribution to the Canadian component of the International Polar Year (IPY) Program. The imagery is obtained by a fusion of MODIS bands B1-B2 observed at 250-meter spatial resolution with bands B3-B7 observed at 500-meter spatial resolution to satisfy the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements for spatial resolution of satellite products for climate. The fusion method employed an adaptive regression and normalization to preserve the image radiometric properties. A new cloud and cloud shadow detection method and clear-sky compositing scheme were employed for the 250m multi-spectral data. Unlike standard MODIS products divided into separate thematic categories, this new product is spatially continuous over the entire circumpolar area and includes all surface types: land, ocean, snow/ice. New bi-directional reflectance distribution model based on POLDER multiangular observations is employed. This model accounts better for the hot-spot effect and makes distinction between surfaces covered by a canopy and surfaces with specular reflection, such as water and snow/ice. By the end of the IPY in 2009, a decade long (2000-2009) time series of these data at 10-day intervals will be available to document the state and variability of the Arctic region at high spatial and temporal resolution. This study is conducted at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), Earth Sciences Sector of the Department of Natural Resources Canada as part of the Project J35 of the Program on "Enhancing Resilience in a Changing Climate" and the "Climate Change and Ecosystem Impact" Project supported by the Canadian Space Agency through the Government Related Initiatives Program (GRIP). The MODIS data were acquired through the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Trishchenko, Alexander; Luo, Yi; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Park, William; Wang, Shusen

234

Live from the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

Haines-Stiles, G.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

2003-12-01

235

Vulcanized vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate vortex configurations with the “vulcanization” term inspired by the renormalization of ??4 theory in the canonical ?-deformed noncommutativity. We focus on the classical limit of the theory described by a single parameter which is the ratio of the vulcanization and the noncommutativity parameters. We perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.

Cho, Inyong; Lee, Youngone

2009-01-01

236

Arctic Intersection  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009. The two ships are taking part in a multi-year, multi-agency Arctic survey that will help define the Arctic continental shelf....

2010-02-19

237

Arctic Research and Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, senior-level physics students joined thousands of scientists from over 60 nations to examine a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics as part of the International Polar Year (IPY). Through a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded research project, these students applied physics concepts to the study of Arctic sea ice. They participated in an authentic proposal writing contest focused on dramatic changes observed in the Arctic environment and developed a research question to examine why these changes are occurring. This article describes their participation in this exciting hands-on project.

Coon, Brian; Englert, Karl; Hinckley, Matt; Pruis, Matt

2009-01-01

238

Tracking Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the USGS Alaska Science Center, track the movements of a polar bear as it migrates across the changing Arctic sea ice and compare the paths of four different polar bears.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

239

Polar Bear  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

Amstrup, S.D.; DeMaster

1988-01-01

240

Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2002/2003 determined with Match  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Match technique was used to determine chemically induced ozone loss inside the stratospheric vortex during the Arctic winter 2002/2003. From end of November 2002, which is the earliest start of a Match campaign ever, until end of March 2003 approximately 800 ozonesondes were launched from 34 stations in the Arctic and mid latitudes. Ozone loss rates were quantified from the beginning of December until mid-March in the vertical region of 400-550 K potential temperature. In accordance with the occurrence of a large area of conditions favourable for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds in December ozone destruction rates varied between 10-15 ppbv/day depending on height. Maximum loss rates around 35 ppbv/day were reached during late January. Afterwards ozone loss rates decreased until mid-March when the final warming of the vortex began. In the period from 2 December 2002 to 16 March 2003 the accumulated ozone loss reduced the partial ozone column of 400-500 K potential temperature by 56±4 DU. This value is in good agreement with that inferred from the empirical relation of ozone loss against the volume of potential polar stratospheric clouds within the northern hemisphere. The sensitivity of the results on recent improvements of the approach has been tested.

Streibel, M.; Rex, M.; von der Gathen, P.; Lehmann, R.; Harris, N. R. P.; Braathen, G. O.; Reimer, E.; Deckelmann, H.; Chipperfield, M.; Millard, G.; Allaart, M.; Andersen, S. B.; Claude, H.; Davies, J.; de Backer, H.; Dier, H.; Dorokov, V.; Fast, H.; Gerding, M.; Kyrö, E.; Litynska, Z.; Moore, D.; Moran, E.; Nagai, T.; Nakane, H.; Parrondo, C.; Skrivankova, P.; Stübi, R.; Vaughan, G.; Viatte, P.; Yushkov, V.

2006-07-01

241

Nucleation of a vortex-antivortex pair in the presence of an immobile magnetic vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that under the action of a rotating magnetic field an immobile vortex, contrary to general belief, can nucleate a vortex-antivortex pair and switch its polarity. Two different kinds of OOMMF micromagnetic modeling are used: (i) the original vortex is pinned by the highly anisotropic easy-axis impurity at the disk center and (ii) the vortex is pinned by artificially fixing the magnetization inside the vortex core in the planar vortex distribution. In both types of simulations a dip creation with a consequent vortex-antivortex pair nucleation is observed. Polarity switching occurs in the former case only. Our analytical approach is based on the transformation to the rotating frame of reference, both in the real space and in the magnetization space, and on the observation that the physical reason for the dip creation is softening of the dipole magnon mode due to magnetic field rotation.

Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri; Sheka, Denis D.

2009-09-01

242

Organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the South Polar Skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.  

PubMed

Different organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) at Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the Arctic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (Larus marinus). The skuas had 8% and 29% of the SigmaOC levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were very low in skuas compared to northern gulls, but the mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level was 1.7 times higher than in great black-backed gulls and one-third of the glaucous gull level. Mirex levels in skuas were among the highest reported in birds, the mean level being 3 and 26 times higher than those in glaucous gull and great black-backed gulls, respectively. In skuas, the mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by about 30% during a 2-week period, and mirex increased by nearly 60%. In glacuous gulls, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by 10-20%. For HCB, mirex, and oxychlordane, only a relatively small proportion of the increase in skuas could be explained by changes in lipid pools and the levels at first sampling, compared to glaucous gulls. Thus, skuas were probably accumulating these compounds when present in Antarctica. p,p'-DDE and PCB levels, in contrast, seemed much more stable in the skuas. Relatively high levels of mirex and HCB in south polar skuas are concerning with regard to potential adverse effects. PMID:16683630

Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Henden, John A; Varpe, Oystein; Janssen, Kirstin; Skaare, Janneche U

2006-04-15

243

Generation of cylindrical vector vortex beams by two cascaded metasurfaces  

E-print Network

We present a simple and efficient method to generate any cylindrical vector vortex (CVV) beams based on two cascaded metasurfaces. The metasurface works as a space-variant Panchratnam-Berry phase element and can produce any desirable vortex phase and vector polarization. The first metasurface is used to switch the sign of topological charges associated with vortex, and the second metasurface is applied to manipulate the local polarization. This method allows us to simultaneously manipulate polarization and phase of the CVV beams.

Yi, Xunong; Zhang, Zhiyou; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Chen, Shizhen; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

2014-01-01

244

Arctic chemical ozone depletion during the 1994-1995 winter deduced from POAM II satellite observations and the REPROBUS three-dimensional model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical ozone depletion during the unusually cold 1994-1995 Arctic winter is quantified using ozone profile measurements from the space-based Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM II) instrument and the REPROBUS three-dimensional chemistry transport model. The model is first used to determine the dynamical component of the observed variations, allowing the chemical component to be quantified from the observations. This technique has been previously used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based total column measurements. In the present study, it has been adapted to the POAM II vertical profile measurements in order to document the vertical evolution of ozone chemical loss throughout the winter both inside and outside the polar vortex. The cumulative ozone loss thus obtained inside the vortex at the end of the winter is found to reach a maximum of 51% (with respect to the REPROBUS dynamics-only prediction) at the 430 K potential temperature level. The largest ozone depletion rates were observed in late January when record low temperatures were reported, and the vortex was largely displaced towards midlatitudes. The maximum depletion rate was 1.4%/d occurring at the 470 K potential temperature level. Smaller but significant chemical ozone depletion was also found outside the vortex, where cumulative ozone losses of 19% were observed in the lower stratosphere. Finally, comparison of chemical ozone loss inferred from the POAM measurements with that obtained from the REPROBUS model indicates that the model underestimates cumulative ozone loss inside the vortex (by ˜30% in the lower stratosphere).

Deniel, C.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Pommereau, J. P.; LefèVre, F.

1998-08-01

245

Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations  

PubMed Central

Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

2014-01-01

246

The Influence of Stratospheric Vortex Displacements and Splits on Surface Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong link exists between stratospheric variability and anomalous weather patterns at the Earth's surface. Specifically, during extreme variability of the Arctic polar vortex termed a 'weak vortex event', anomalies can descend from the upper stratosphere to the surface on timescales of weeks. Subsequently the outbreak of cold-air events have been noted in high Northern Latitudes, as well as a quadrapole pattern in surface temperature over the Atlantic and western European sectors and it is currently not understood why certain events descend to the surface while others do not. In this study we compare a new classification technique of weak vortex events, based on the distribution of potential vorticity, with that of an existing technique and demonstrate that the subdivision of such events into vortex displacements and vortex splits has important implications for tropospheric weather patterns on weekly-monthly timescales. Using reanalysis data we find that vortex splitting events are correlated with surface weather and lead to positive temperature anomalies over eastern North-America of more than 1.5K, and negative anomalies over Eurasia of up to -3K. Associated with this is an increase in high-latitude blocking in both the Atlantic and Pacific sectors and a decrease in European blocking. The corresponding signals are weaker during displacement events, although ultimately they are shown to be related to cold-air outbreaks over North America. Owing to the predictability and importance of stratosphere-troposphere coupling for medium-range weather forecasts, our findings suggest the need for forecasting systems to correctly identify the type of stratospheric variability, otherwise surface responses cannot be accurately reproduced.

Mitchell, Dann; Gray, Lesley; Anstey, James; Baldwin, Mark; Charlton-Perez, Andrew

2014-05-01

247

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Polar Bears from Eastern Russia, North America, Greenland, and Svalbard: Biomonitoring of Arctic Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Adipose tissue samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were obtained by necropsy or biopsy between the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1993 from Wrangel Island in Russia, most\\u000a of the range of the bear in North America, eastern Greenland, and Svalbard. Samples were divided into 16 regions corresponding\\u000a as much as possible to known stocks or management

R. J. Norstrom; S. E. Belikov; E. W. Born; G. W. Garner; B. Malone; S. Olpinski; M. A. Ramsay; S. Schliebe; I. Stirling; M. S. Stishov; M. K. Taylor; Ø. Wiig

1998-01-01

248

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

249

Lidar observations of stratospheric ozone and aerosol above the Canadian High Arctic during the 1994-95 winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter reports on lidar observations of arctic stratospheric ozone and aerosol made from late December 1994 to mid-March 1995. These observations were conducted at Eureka (80°N,86.42°W) in the Canadian arctic. Based on NMC potential vorticity data and aerosol observations, the lower stratosphere over Eureka was seen to be clearly within the Polar Vortex for most of the observation period. The intravortex observations showed that in the stratosphere below the 500 K potential temperature level average ozone mixing ratios decreased on the order of 15% from early January to mid-February with an additional 15% decrease observed from mid February to mid-March. These trends are consistent with the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone made during the same time periods.

Donovan, D. P.; Bird, J. C.; Whiteway, J. A.; Duck, T. J.; Pal, S. R.; Carswell, A. I.

250

Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

Brigham, L. W.

2010-12-01

251

Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications  

E-print Network

175 Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications Geophysical Is the Trajectory of Arctic Sea Ice? Harry L. Stern and Ronald W. Lindsay Polar Science Center, Applied Physics space of the Arctic sea ice thickness distribution, in which each dimension or component is the time

Lindsay, Ron

252

Quantification of ozone loss and chemical perturbations in the Arctic stratosphere by the Satellite-Match analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative chemical ozone loss rates in the Arctic polar vortex from 1994 to 2000 were analyzed by the Satellite-Match approach using the ozone profile data obtained by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and POAM III. The polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) probability was calculated from ILAS and POAM II/III aerosol extinction data, and the relationship between ozone loss and existence of PSC was discussed. ILAS provided vertical profiles of several minor species. By the same analysis method as used for ozone, quantitative changes of N_2O and HNO_3 concentrations in the air parcel were calculated for the 1996/97 winter using the ILAS data. The result regarding ClONO_2, which is added to a target gas for retrieval in the current version, will be also described.

Terao, Y.

2003-04-01

253

Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II) aerosol measurements during the 1989 AASE (Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition)  

SciTech Connect

The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II) satellite experiment measures 14 daily 1.0-{mu}m aerosol extinction profiles in the high northern latitudes. These SAM II data were used to spot the locations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and provide an overview of the vertical structure of the upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE). Contour plots of aerosol extinction vs. longitude and altitude are shown for 24 days during AASE which summarize these measurements. PSC sightings occurred during the first week of January and from January 18 through February 2, 1989. Although SAM II measured a higher than average number of PSCs in January 1989 as compared to the previous 10 years, the number of PSCs sighted during the entire 1989 winter season is only slightly above average. Also discussed is the vertical gradient in aerosol extinction which occurs as the SAM II measurement locations cross the polar vortex.

Osborn, M.T.; Pitts, M.C.; Powell, K.A. (ST Systems Corporation, Hampton, VA (USA)); McCormick, M.P. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-03-01

254

Thickness and surface-properties of different sea-ice regimes within the Arctic Trans Polar Drift: Data from summers 2001, 2004 and 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale sea-ice thickness and surface property data were obtained in three summers and in three different sea-ice regimes in the Arctic Trans-Polar Drift (TPD) by means of helicopter electromagnetic sounding. Distribution functions P of sea-ice thickness and of the height, spacing, and density of sails were analyzed to characterize ice regimes of different ages and deformations. Results suggest that modal ice thickness is affected by the age of a sea-ice regime and that the degree of deformation is represented by the shape of P. Mean thickness changes with both age and deformation. Standard error calculations showed that representative mean and modal thickness could be obtained with transect lengths of 15 km and 50 km, respectively, in less deformed ice regimes such as those around the North Pole. In heavier deformed ice regimes closer to Greenland, 100 km transects were necessary for mean thickness determination and a representative modal thickness could not be obtained at all. Mean sail height did not differ between ice regimes, whereas sail density increased with the degree of deformation. Furthermore, the fraction of level ice, open melt ponds, and open water along the transects were determined. Although overall ice thickness in the central TPD was 50% thinner in 2007 than in 2001, first-year ice (FYI) was not significantly thinner in 2007 than FYI in 2001, with a decrease of only 0.3 m. Thinner FYI in 2007 only occurred close to the sea-ice edge, where open water covered more than 10% of the surface. Melt pond coverage retrieved from laser measurements was 15% in both the 2004 MYI regime and the 2007 FYI regime.

Rabenstein, L.; Hendricks, S.; Martin, T.; Pfaffhuber, A.; Haas, C.

2010-12-01

255

Arctic Refuge  

... was set aside so that the oil and gas reserves beneath the tundra could be studied. Drilling remains a topic of contention, and an energy ... including coastal lagoons, barrier islands, arctic tundra, and mountainous terrain. Of all these, the arctic tundra is the ...

2014-05-15

256

ATMOS Measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and Total Reactive Nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic Stratosphere: Dehydration and Denitrification in the Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous stratospheric volume mixing ratios (VMR's) measured inside and outside the Antarctic vortex by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument in November 1994 reveal previously unobserved features in the distributions of total reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) and total hydrogen (H2O + 2CH4). Maximum removal of NO(y) due to sedimentation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) inside the vortex occurred at a potential temperature (Theta) of 500-525 K (approximately 20 km), where values were 5 times smaller than measurements outside. Maximum loss of H2O + 2CH4 due to PSC's occurred in the vortex at 425-450 K, approximately 3 km lower than the peak NO(y) loss. At that level, H2O + 2CH4 VMR's inside the vortex were approximately 70% of corresponding values outside. The Antarctic and April 1993 Arctic measurements by ATMOS show no significant differences in H2O + 2CH4 VMR's outside the vortices in the two hemispheres. Elevated NO(y) VMRs were measured inside the vortex near 700 K. Recent model calculations indicate that this feature results from downward transport of elevated NO(y) produced in the thermosphere and mesosphere.

Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Newchurch, M. J.; Zander, R.; Abbas, M. M.; Abrams, M. C.; Manney, G. L.; Michelsen, H. A.; Chang, A. Y.; Goldman, A.

1996-01-01

257

Microbial Community Structure in Lake and Wetland Sediments from a High Arctic Polar Desert Revealed by Targeted Transcriptomics  

PubMed Central

While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake. PMID:24594936

Stoeva, Magdalena K.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Chételat, John; Hintelmann, Holger; Pelletier, Philip; Poulain, Alexandre J.

2014-01-01

258

Microbial community structure in lake and wetland sediments from a high Arctic polar desert revealed by targeted transcriptomics.  

PubMed

While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake. PMID:24594936

Stoeva, Magdalena K; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Chételat, John; Hintelmann, Holger; Pelletier, Philip; Poulain, Alexandre J

2014-01-01

259

Unusually strong nitric oxide descent in the Arctic middle atmosphere in early 2013 as observed by Odin/SMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle atmosphere has been affected by an exceptionally strong midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) during the Arctic winter 2012/2013. These unusual meteorological conditions led to a breakdown of the polar vortex, followed by the reformation of a strong upper stratospheric vortex associated with particularly efficient descent of air. Measurements by the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR), on board the Odin satellite, show that very large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), produced by Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), could thus enter the polar stratosphere in early 2013. The mechanism referring to the downward transport of EPP generated-NOx during winter is generally called the EPP indirect effect. SMR observed up to 20 times more NO in the upper stratosphere than the average NO measured at the same latitude, pressure and time during three previous winters where no mixing between mesospheric and stratospheric air was noticeable. This event turned out to be an unprecedently strong case of this effect. Our study is based on a comparison with the Arctic winter 2008/2009, when a similar situation was observed and which was so far considered as a record-breaking winter for this kind of events. This outstanding situation is the result of the combination between a relatively high geomagnetic activity and an unusually high dynamical activity, which makes this case a prime example to study the EPP impacts on the atmospheric composition.

Pérot, K.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D. P.

2014-02-01

260

Unusually strong nitric oxide descent in the Arctic middle atmosphere in early 2013 as observed by Odin/SMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle atmosphere was affected by an exceptionally strong midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) during the Arctic winter 2012/2013. These unusual meteorological conditions led to a breakdown of the polar vortex, followed by the reformation of a strong upper stratospheric vortex associated with particularly efficient descent of air. Measurements by the submillimetre radiometer (SMR), on board the Odin satellite, show that very large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), could thus enter the polar stratosphere in early 2013. The mechanism referring to the downward transport of EPP-generated NOx during winter is generally called the EPP indirect effect. SMR observed up to 20 times more NO in the upper stratosphere than the average NO measured at the same latitude, pressure and time during three previous winters where no mixing between mesospheric and stratospheric air was noticeable. This event turned out to be the strongest in the aeronomy-only period of SMR (2007-present). Our study is based on a comparison with the Arctic winter 2008/2009, when a similar situation was observed. This outstanding situation is the result of the combination of a relatively high geomagnetic activity and an unusually high dynamical activity, which makes this case a prime example to study the EPP impacts on the atmospheric composition.

Pérot, K.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D. P.

2014-08-01

261

Canada's Polar Environments: Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Arctic lands of Canada, which have been divided into three ecozones: the Arctic Cordillera, which encompasses the northeastern fringe of Nunavut and northern Labrador and is defined by the Arctic Cordillera Mountain Range; the Northern Arctic, which is a polar desert that comprises the non-mountainous portions of the Arctic Islands as well as the northernmost areas of Quebec; and the Southern Arctic, which covers much of the northern mainland of Canada, from the Richardson Mountains in the Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. The site discusses topography, glacial features, freeze/thaw features, geology, and permafrost and soils. The discussion of glaciers includes their origin and classification as well as glaciers, past and present, their retreat and glacial cores. A section called cool facts contrasts the North Magnetic Pole with the geographic North Pole, discusses polar wandering, and tells of the smoking hills where the ground is burning.

262

Super Interglacials and persistent warmth paced Arctic Climate Evolution over the Past 3.6 Myr: Lake El'gygytgyn, Western Beringia, a new polar lens focused on high latitude environmental change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pliocene-Pleistocene climate evolution of the Arctic must have modulated the glacial history of Greenland and the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Yet what is known from the terrestrial stratigraphy of Arctic climate change comes from sites that are spatially and temporally fragmented. In 2009, International Continental Deep drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn (67o30' N, 172 o 05' E) recovered lacustrine sediments dating back to 3.58 Ma that now provide the first time-continuous Pliocene-Pleistocene Arctic paleoclimate record of alternating glacial-interglacial change. The warmest/wettest Pliocene interval of the lake record occurs from ~3.58-3.34 Ma and is dominated by exceptional tree pollen implying July temperatures nearly 7-8o C warmer than today with nearly ~3 times the annual precipitation. Atmospheric CO2 levels are estimated to have been 360 to 400 ppm implying exceptionally high climate sensitivity and polar amplification. In fact, pollen spectra and modern analog analysis show an unbroken persistence of summers much warmer and wetter than the last interglacial, MIS 5e until nearly 2.2 Ma. Extreme warmth in the Mid Pliocene Arctic occurs at the same time ANDRILL results suggest the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was non-existent. Modeling sensitivity experiments using 300 and 400 ppm CO2 are consistent with sustained forests at Lake El'gygytgyn during this interval and restricted glacial ice over Greenland in both cold and warm boreal summer orbits especially for the PRISM interval. This has implications for reinterpreting the M2 isotopic shift in the North Atlantic suggesting that most of the ice advance at that time was in Antarctica. Using physical, chemical, and biological proxies we find pronounced glacial episodes commenced ~2.6 Ma ago, but the full range of typical Pleistocene glacial/interglacial change wasn't established until ~1.8 Ma ago. Greenland must have also responded to numerous "super interglacials" during the Quaternary record, with maximum summer temperatures and annual precipitation, especially during MIS 9,11 and 31, at Lake El'gygytgyn exceeding that documented for MIS 5e. The correspondence of many of these super-interglacials with retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (Naish et al. 2009) could coincide with intervals when the Greenland Ice was reduced in size. The climate record from Lake El'gygytgyn, especially the history of past interglacials, provides a fresh means of testing the evolving magnitude of polar amplification over time, and the sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to extreme warmth in the rest of the Arctic.

Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel

2013-04-01

263

Is There an Arctic Ozone Hole?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone observations from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments during March 1997 revealed an extensive region of low column densities in the Arctic region centered near the north pole. Values were below 250 Dobson units for nearly a two week period during this period, and were correlated with the position of the northern lower stratospheric polar vortex. The March 1997 average total ozone column densities were more than 30% lower than the average of column densities observed during the 1979-1982 March period. Both the northern spring seasons of 1998 and 1999 have shown much higher levels of total ozone. In this presentation, we will discuss the causes of the low total ozone values in 1997 and contrast those low values with the higher 1998 and 1999 observations. The reason for my travel to the University of Valparaiso is to give this seminar and provide information to my colleagues on our work here at GSFC. The benefit to NASA is to interact with my Univ. of Valparaiso colleagues, gain their insights and input into this research, and establish collaborations with the current research efforts at the University.

Newman, Paul A.

1999-01-01

264

Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous ground-based and satellite observations of polar sea ice offer substantial evidence of a reduction in the areal extent and thickness of the Arctic ice cover. During the 2005 Healy-Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition 2005 a trans-Arctic survey of the physical properties of the polar ice pack was conducted. The observational program consisted of four broad classes of snow and ice activities:

B. C. Elder; D. K. Perovich; T. C. Grenfell; J. Harbeck; B. Light; K. K. Everhart

2006-01-01

265

Water vapour variability and trends in the Arctic stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapour in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a radiatively and chemically important trace gas. Stratospheric water vapour also affects ozone chemistry through odd-hydrogen chemistry and formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Both transport and chemistry contribute to the extratropical lower stratospheric water vapour distribution and trends. The main sources of stratospheric water vapour are intrusion through the tropical tropopause and production from oxidation of methane. Accurate observations of UTLS water vapour are difficult to obtain due to the strong gradient in the water vapour profile over the tropopause. However, modelling the stratospheric water vapour distribution is challenging and accurate measurements are needed for model validation. Trends in Arctic water vapour will be analysed and explained in terms of contribution from different processes (transport and chemistry), using observations and chemistry transport model (CTM) simulations. Accurate water vapour soundings from Sodankylä will be used to study water vapour within the Arctic polar vortex, including process studies on formation of PSCs and dehydration. Water vapour profiles measured during the LAPBIAT atmospheric sounding campaign in Sodankylä in January 2010 indicated formation of ice clouds and dehydration. Effects on ozone chemistry will also be studied. Global middle atmospheric simulations have been performed with the FinROSE-ctm using ERA-Interim winds and temperatures. The FinROSE-ctm is a global middle atmosphere model that produces the distribution of 30 long-lived species and tracers and 14 short-lived species. The chemistry describes around 110 gas phase reactions, 37 photodissociation processes and the main heterogeneous reactions related to aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds.

Thölix, Laura; Kivi, Rigel; Backman, Leif; Karpechko, Alexey

2014-05-01

266

Ozone loss rates in the Arctic winter stratosphere during 1994-2000 derived from POAM II/III and ILAS observations: Implications for relationships among ozone loss, PSC occurrence, and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative chemical ozone loss rates at the 475 K isentropic surface inside the Arctic polar vortex are evaluated for six winters (January through March) using a satellite-based Match technique. Satellite observational data are taken from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II for 1994-1996, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for 1997, and the POAM III for 1999-2000. The largest ozone loss rates were observed in the end of January 1995 (˜50 ± 20 ppbv d-1), February 1996 (˜40-50 ± 15 ppbv d-1), February 1997 (˜40 ± 8 ppbv d-1), January 2000 (˜60 ± 30 ppbv d-1), and early March 2000 (˜40 ± 10 ppbv d-1). The probability of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) existence is estimated using aerosol extinction coefficient data from POAM II/III and ILAS. Ozone loss and the PSC probability are strongly correlated and an absolute increase of 10% in the PSC probability is found to amplify the chemical ozone loss rate during Arctic winter by approximately 25 ± 6 ppbv per day or 3.2 ± 0.7 ppbv per sunlit hour. Relationships between average Arctic winter ozone loss rates and various PSC- and temperature-related indices are investigated, including the area of polar vortex that is colder than the threshold temperature for PSC existence (APSC), the PSC formation potential (PFP), and the potential for activation of chlorine (PACl). Of these three, PACl provides the best proxy representation of interannual variability in Arctic ozone loss at the 475 K level. Large ozone loss occurred primarily for air masses that experienced low temperatures between 187 K and 195 K within the previous 10 days and the ozone loss rates clearly increase with decreasing the minimum temperature. The particularly large ozone losses of ˜9 ± 3 ppbv per sunlit hour in February 1996 and January 2000 were associated with low minimum temperatures of 187-189 K, simultaneously with high PSC probabilities.

Terao, Yukio; Sugita, Takafumi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

2012-03-01

267

Arctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite seemingly inhospitable conditions, the Arctic environment has a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the life that thrives in this region in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

268

Arctic house  

E-print Network

Currently available housing in the Arctic is limited to solutions that have been adapted from designs for less severe climates. This thesis has developed a new manner of residential construction designed specifically for ...

Turkel, Joel A. (Joel Abram), 1969-

1999-01-01

269

Arctic oil and gas recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most difficult natural conditions for prospecting, exploration and working of oil and gas fields are characteristic for the regions beyond the Polar Circle in North America, in the Canadian part of the Bofort Sea and on the Arctic islands. In the last 4-5 years, major reserves of oil and gas have been revealed in this region. The development of

Cooke

1983-01-01

270

A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is modulated, in part, by atmospheric aerosols that affect the distribution of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere. Aerosols affect the surface-atmosphere radiation balance directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and indirectly through interactions with cloud particles. Better quantification of the radiative forcing by different types of aerosol is needed to improve predictions of future climate. During April 2009, the airborne campaign Pan-Arctic Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PAM-ARCMIP) was conducted. The mission was organized by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research of Germany and utilized their research aircraft, Polar-5. The goal was to obtain a snapshot of surface and atmospheric conditions over the central Arctic prior to the onset of the melt season. Characterizing aerosols was one objective of the campaign. Standard Sun photometric procedures were adopted to quantify aerosol optical depth AOD, providing a three-dimensional view of the aerosol, which was primarily haze from anthropogenic sources. Independent, in situ measurements of particle size distribution and light extinction, derived from airborne lidar, are used to corroborate inferences made using the AOD results. During April 2009, from the European to the Alaskan Arctic, from sub-Arctic latitudes to near the pole, the atmosphere was variably hazy with total column AOD at 500 nm ranging from ˜0.12 to >0.35, values that are anomalously high compared with previous years. The haze, transported primarily from Eurasian industrial regions, was concentrated within and just above the surface-based temperature inversion layer. Extinction, as measured using an onboard lidar system, was also greatest at low levels, where particles tended to be slightly larger than at upper levels. Black carbon (BC) (soot) was observed at all levels sampled, but at moderate to low concentrations compared with historical records. BC was highest near the North Pole, suggesting there had been an accumulation of soot within the Arctic vortex. Few, optically thick elevated aerosol layers were observed along the flight track, although independent lidar observations reveal evidence of the passage of volcanic plumes, which may have contributed to abnormally high values of AOD above 4 km. Enhanced opacity at higher altitudes during the campaign is attributed to an accumulation of industrial pollutants in the upper troposphere in combination with volcanic aerosol resulting from the March-April 2009 eruptions of Mount Redoubt in Alaska. The presence of Arctic haze during April 2009 is estimated to have reduced the net shortwave irradiance by ˜2-5 W m-2, resulting in a slight cooling of the surface.

Stone, R. S.; Herber, A.; Vitale, V.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Schnell, R. C.; Dutton, E. G.; Liu, P. S. K.; Li, S.-M.; Dethloff, K.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.

2010-07-01

271

Arctic energy technologies workshop: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this ''Arctic Energy Technologies Workshop'' were threefold: To acquaint participants with the current US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Arctic and Offshore Research Program. To obtain information on Arctic oil and gas development problem areas, and on current and planned research. To provide an opportunity for technical information exchange among engineers, geologists, geophysicists, physical scientists, oceanographers, statisticians, analysts, and other participants engaged in similar research areas. The first section of the proceedings is the keynote address ''Current Arctic Offshore Technology'', presented by Kenneth Croasdale, of K.R. Croasdale and Associates, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The second section of the proceedings includes 14 technical papers presented in two sessions at the Workshop: Sea Ice Research, and Seafloor/Soils Research. The third section of the proceedings includes the summaries of four work-group discussion sessions from the second day of the meeting: (1) Arctic Offshore Structures, (2) Arctic Offshore Pipelines, (3) Subice Development Systems, and (4) Polar-Capable Ice Vessels. The work groups addressed state-of-the-art, technical issues, R and D needs, and environmental concerns in these four areas. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1985-04-01

272

Vortex Resonance in Coupled Ferromagnetic Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in nanolithography and thin film growth techniques offer the unique opportunity to prepare a variety of laterally confined nanostructured magnets. Of particular interest are lithographically patterned micron and submicron disk-shaped particle arrays. The magnetic ground state in confined geometries consists of a curling spin configuration, known as a vortex state. Studies of vortex dynamics have mainly focused on circular or elliptical dots at remanence. In this work, we investigate the dynamic response of vortex gyration in interacting systems where two circular dots are statically exchange coupled. The induced coupling due to the interacting area forces the disks to have antiparallel chirality of magnetization. Apart from different vortex polarity combinations, various frequency modes were observed as a function of external magnetic field and contact length. Moreover, due to the induced configurational anisotropy in the system, vortex resonance in the two disks was found to be strongly dependent on the orientation of the static magnetic field.

Jain, Shikha; Schultheiss, Helmut; Pearson, John; Fradin, Frank; Bader, Samuel; Novosad, Valentyn

2012-02-01

273

Arctic Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed in 1996, the Arctic Council represents a unique forum for cooperation between eight national governments and the indigenous peoples of the region. The member states of the Council include Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and the United States, along with six representatives that speak on behalf of various indigenous groups. Most of the Council's activities are centered around a primary mandate, which is to serve as a regional forum for sustainable development. The What's New area is a good way to find out about the most recent activities, as it contains recent official statements from senior-level officials in the Council, along with announcements about upcoming events. The activities section is equally worth a look and serves the function of an online archive of current project information for such activities as the Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program and the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Initiative.

274

Arctic Meltdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996, US entrepreneur and explorer Gary Comer took his small boat through the Northwest Passage in 19 days, a route that had once been ice, but was now easily navigated open water. This radio broadcast weighs up the extent and implications of the imminent Arctic ice breakup. The broadcast discusses the Historical Limit line in Greenland, which denotes glacier recession; Inuit observations of climate changes that are challenging their culture; the acceleration of global warming on Arctic sea ice; the problems increased Arctic shipping and melting permafrost are creating for infrastructure; the long-term outlook for global sea levels; and the possibility for the complete melting of Greenland. The broadcast is 28 minutes and 11 seconds in length and is available in real audio format.

2011-11-29

275

Arctic Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This network of Canadian agencies brings together scientists and managers in the natural, human health and social sciences with their partners in Inuit organizations, northern communities, federal and provincial agencies and the private sector to study the impacts of climate change in the coastal Canadian Arctic. Over 90 ArcticNet researchers from 23 Canadian universities and 5 Federal departments collaborate with research teams in the USA, Japan, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Poland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Russia, Greenland and France. The site contains information about the background and structure of the organization as well as news and events and information about research, education and training, media and publications, and the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which is a combination research vessel and ice breaker. Shortcut links lead to a photograph gallery and information about Schools on Board, an outreach program to interest Canadian secondary school children in Arctic studies.

276

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Materials available here include information for visitors, refuge history and culture, information on the refuge's oil and gas resources. There is also extensive information on wild lands and wildlife, including caribou, bears, moose, wolves, and muskoxen, among others. Caribou calving maps, caribou movements, polar bear and muskox locations, snow geese fall use areas, and fish locations are available on maps. Habitat details are described, including a section on ice wedges and other permafrost features.

277

Comparison of Arctic Ozone Loss Observations during the 2004-2005 Winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic lower stratosphere during the 2004-2005 winter was exceptionally cold, with high potential for polar stratospheric cloud formation and prime conditions for ozone loss. Previous model simulations have shown that ozone in the University of Leeds' SLIMCAT global three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) agrees quite well with Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations made during the earlier 2002-2003 winter. For the first time, 2004-2005 Arctic ozone loss calculations using Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS), Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and POAM III observations will be compared to simulations from the improved SLIMCAT CTM. The meteorological conditions during the 2004-2005 winter were different from 2002-2003 in that 2004-2005 temperatures remained low through early March, unlike conditions in 2002-2003 where two stratospheric warming events caused an increase in temperatures after December. Comparisons between observed and modeled chemical species and dynamical tracers such as O3, H2O, ClONO2, HCl, CH4, and N2O will be shown. In addition, we will compare estimates of ozone loss using different analysis techniques, such as the CTM passive subtraction, tracer correlation, and vortex average. Finally, POAM III, ACE-FTS, and EOS MLS measure stratospheric ozone with vertical resolutions of 1 km, 3-4 km, and 4-5 km, respectively. This work will examine the sensitivity of ozone loss inferences to the vertical resolution of the ozone profiles.

Singleton, C. S.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Feng, W.; Manney, G. L.; Hoppel, K. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; MacKenzie, I.

2005-12-01

278

MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for ?13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

2012-12-01

279

Vortex transmutation.  

PubMed

Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials. PMID:16197074

Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

2005-09-16

280

Generation of cylindrical vector vortex beams by two cascaded metasurfaces.  

PubMed

We present a simple and efficient method to generate any cylindrical vector vortex (CVV) beams based on two cascaded metasurfaces. The metasurface works as a space-variant Panchratnam-Berry phase element and can produce any desirable vortex phase and vector polarization. The first metasurface is used to switch the sign of topological charges associated with vortex, and the second metasurface is applied to manipulate the local polarization. This method allows us to simultaneously manipulate polarization and phase of the CVV beams. PMID:25090534

Yi, Xunong; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Chen, Shizhen; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

2014-07-14

281

Study Of The Fundamental Physical Principles in Atmospheric Modeling Based On Identification Of Atmosphere - Climate Control Factors: Bromine Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise  

E-print Network

We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena of the Arctic bromine explosion and their role in the functioning of the biotic Earth. We rationalize the empirical expression of the bromine influx into atmospheric boundary layer and calculate total amounts of the tropospheric BrO and Bry of the Arctic origin. Based on the quantities and partitioning of the reactive bromine species, we estimate the biogeochemical parametric constraint on the surface ozone field of the springtime NH. The constraint expresses strong relationship between atmosphere-climate control factors of the Earth's life and of external energy source. Physical atmosphere can be seen as a complex network of maximum complexity. Henceforth, we analyze the network context of the Arctic bromine pollution. We suggest that demonstrated attitudinal approach to the distributed surface flux would be successfully used in the innovative atmospheric modeling. The analysis is illustrated by GEM model results which stay in a good agreement with the observational data and support the original idea of the global NH effect of bromine chemistry.

M. Iudin

2010-07-09

282

Where Does the Arctic Begin? End?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article points out that there is no one official definition for the Arctic. Then the author identifies definitions ranging from geography to climate to culture and more. Maps and other visuals illustrate the definitions. The author suggests that defining the Arctic can be an example for K-Grade 5 students of the nature and challenges of classification systems. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-01-01

283

Arctic UTLS composition measured by the MARSCHALS instrument during the PREMIEREX and ESSENCE campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the results obtained by the MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instrument during Premier-Ex (March 2010, Kiruna, Sweden) and ESSenCe 2011 (December 2011, Kiruna, Sweden) aircraft Arctic campaigns is presented. The two campaigns were part of the activities conducted as preparatory studies for PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimeter-wave Emitted Radiation), one of the three candidate core missions of ESA Earth Explorer 7. The primary objective of PREMIER is to gain a better understanding of the processes that are linking atmospheric chemistry and dynamics with climate. PREMIER will achieve this by observing the Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) - a region of particular importance in the study of climate change - with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. PREMIER combines the complementary capabilities of two limb-sounders in the infrared and millimeter-wave spectral regions and MARSCHALS was developed as an airborne demonstrator of the PREMIER millimeter-wave spectrometer. In the frame of the two Arctic campaigns, MARSCHALS sampled the Arctic UTLS retrieving vertical profiles of its main atmospheric targets (T, H2O, O3, HNO3, N2O, CO). The obtained vertical profiles have been used to investigate chemical and dynamical processes taking place in the Arctic atmosphere. In particular, we found the presence of filaments of vortex air during the Premier-Ex campaign and of re-nitrification or HNO3 redistribution due to sedimentation followed by evaporation of Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) particles during the ESSenCe campaign. Furthermore, the results of the comparisonbetween MARSCHALS and MIPAS-STR products as well as the state of the atmosphere during the ESSenCe campaign simulated by theCLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) and EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) models will be presented.

Cortesi, Ugo; Castelli, Elisa; Del Bianco, Samuele; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Gerber, Daniel; Kerridge, Brian; Oelhaf, Hermann; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Vogel, Baerbel; Sinnhuber, Bjoern-Martin; Ruhnke, Roland

2013-04-01

284

Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears: Polar Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our presenters provide an overview of the geography of the Arctic and Antarctic regions and featured resources from the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine, a resource for elementary educators. This cyberzine focuses on strategies and content to integrate science and literacy through the study of the polar regions. Recorded on May 27, 2008, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears: Integrating Science and Literacy, Seminar 1: Polar Geography, NSDL featured our experts from The Ohio State University, Jessica Fries-Gaither, Project Director for Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears and Elementary Resource Specialist at the Ohio Resource Center and Dr. Carol Landis, Education Coordinator at the Byrd Polar Research Center.

Payo, Robert

285

Vortex centrifugal bubbling reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex centrifugal bubbling apparatus is considered as a basis for a new type of multiphase vortex centrifugal bubbling reactor. In this device, a highly dispersed gas–liquid mixture is produced in the field of centrifugal forces inside the vortex chamber. The operation of the vortex centrifugal bubbling apparatus is based on the rotation of liquid by the tangential entry of

A. O. Kuzmin; M. Kh. Pravdina; A. I. Yavorsky; N. I. Yavorsky; V. N. Parmon

2005-01-01

286

Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

2002-12-01

287

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic.

Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

2011-12-01

288

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.

2012-12-01

289

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

Creek, K. R.; Fox, S. E.

2013-12-01

290

Peeking through a frosty window: molecular insights into the ecology of Arctic soil fungi  

E-print Network

Peeking through a frosty window: molecular insights into the ecology of Arctic soil fungi Ina: Arctic Biodiversity Climate change Cold adaptation Community structure Edaphic factors Fungi Mycorrhiza Polar regions Stress tolerance Tundra a b s t r a c t Fungi are ubiquitous in Arctic soils, where

Taylor, Lee

291

Proceedings of the eighth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering. 1989  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on arctic and polar technology. The topics covered are: Ice properties; Ice mechanics and dynamics; Spray ice technology; Ice forces; Ice accretion; Standards on arctic developments; The Barents Sea; and Arctic structures and drilling.

Sinha, N.K. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Sodhi, D.S. (Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (USA)); Chung, J.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA))

1989-01-01

292

Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) from July 1 to Sep. 23, 2010, the last Chinese campaign in Arctic Ocean contributing to the fourth International Polar Year (IPY), conducted comprehensive scientific studies on ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction and the marine ecosystem's response to climatic change in Arctic. This paper presents an overview on sea ice (ice concentration, floe size, melt

S. F. Ackley; H. Xie; R. Lei; W. Huang

2010-01-01

293

Intense Vortex Motion on the Beta Plane: Development of the Beta Gyres  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical theory is presented for the self-induced translation of an intense vortex relative to a uniform background flow on the plane. The equivalent barotropic approximation is used to formulate the initial value problem within a polar coordinate frame translating with the vortex center. A contour dynamical model of the vortex is melded with the regular beta-plane model of the

Georgi G. Sutyrin; Glenn R. Flierl

1994-01-01

294

Scientists measure Arctic Ozone Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible ozone hole has opened in the Arctic stratosphere, according to research published in the November 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Scientists report that ozone values in the northern polar region set record low levels during the spring of 1997. They speculate that the record ozone depletion may have been caused by a fundamental shift in polar climatology and an unusual springtime cooling trend of the lower Arctic stratosphere.Long-term records of total ozone from both the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument and from groundbased observations show a continuing decrease over the last several years, according to the papers. Chlorine gases, particularly the radical CIO, have been conclusively identified as the cause of the ozone depletion.

Showstack, Randy

295

Dynamics of a vortex dipole across a magnetic phase boundary in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a vortex dipole in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in which magnetic phases are spatially distributed is investigated. When a vortex dipole travels from the ferromagnetic phase to the polar phase, or vice versa, it penetrates the phase boundary and transforms into one of the various spin vortex dipoles, such as a leapfrogging ferromagnetic-core vortex dipole and a half-quantum vortex dipole. Topological connections of spin wave functions across the phase boundary are discussed.

Kaneda, Tomoya; Saito, Hiroki

2014-11-01

296

Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 5 August to 30 September 2005 Healy Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition a trans-Arctic survey of the physical properties of the polar ice pack was conducted. The observational program consisted of four broad classes of snow and ice characterization activities: observations made while the ship was in transit, ice station measurements, helicopter survey flights, and the deployment of autonomous ice

Donald K. Perovich; Thomas C. Grenfell; Bonnie Light; Bruce C. Elder; Jeremy Harbeck; Christopher Polashenski; Walter B. Tucker; Casey Stelmach

2009-01-01

297

Polar Explorers - Issue 18, February 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue of the free online magazine, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears, explores the historical and current exploration of the Arctic and Antarctica and provides resources that help elementary teachers incorporate a study of polar explorers into their curriculum.

The Ohio State University

298

Polar Science Is Cool!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

Weeks, Sophie

2012-01-01

299

ALASKAN POLAR BEAR DENNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Information on 35 overwinter maternity dens of Alaskan polar bears (Ursus maritimnus Phipps) and on 101 female polar bears with cubs, recently emerged from dens, was obtained by aerial and ground surveys, interviews with Arctic coast residents, and literature review. Pregnant females form snow dens in October and November and give birth in December and January. Females and cubs

Jack W. Lentfer; Richard J. Hensel

300

Microscopic theory of vortex dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to vortex dynamics is outlined, a new form being obtained for the pair potential forces on a vortex. A microscopic calculation of the vortex inertial mass is presented. Quantum effects on vortex lattice melting are briefly discussed.

Gaitonde, D. M.; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

1994-12-01

301

Three-dimensional inverse energy transfer induced by vortex reconnections.  

PubMed

In low-temperature superfluid helium, viscosity is zero and vorticity takes the form of discrete vortex filaments of fixed circulation and atomic thickness. We present numerical evidence of three-dimensional inverse energy transfer from small length scales to large length scales in superfluid turbulence generated by a flow of vortex rings. We argue that the effect arises from the anisotropy of the flow, which favors vortex reconnections of vortex loops of the same polarity, and that it has been indirectly observed in the laboratory. The effect opens questions about analogies with related processes in ordinary turbulence. PMID:24580315

Baggaley, Andrew W; Barenghi, Carlo F; Sergeev, Yuri A

2014-01-01

302

Toxicity of Polar Bear Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACCORDING to information from the Eskimos, and records from Arctic travellers, bad effects may follow the consumption, by men and dogs, of the livers of polar bear, bearded seal, Greenland fox and Eskimo huskies, whereas livers of other Arctic mammals can usually be eaten without injury.

Kaare Rodahl

1949-01-01

303

Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this episode of the Podcast of Life, host Ari Daniel Shapiro relates two close calls with polar bears. Listen as Heather Cray recalls how, dumped by a storm on a small Arctic island without a shotgun, she got an unexpected wake-up call. And when researcher Steve Amstrup accidentally crashed through the roof of a polar bearâs den, no one could predict what happened next. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

304

Propagation of a vortex Airy beam in chiral medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analytical expression for the propagation of a vortex Airy beam through ABCD optical systems is derived. As an example, the propagation of the beam in chiral medium is discussed. It is shown that the vortex will destroy the center lobe of the Airy beam at a critical position which is different for the left circularly polarized (LCP) and the right circularly polarized (RCP) vortex Airy beam. The intensity distribution exhibits novel features due to the existence of the vortex. In addition, the intensity distributions of the LCP beam and the RCP beam are more sensitive to the chirality parameter in far-zone than that in near-zone. The transverse shift of the center lobe of a vortex Airy beam during propagation is affected by the chiral parameter.

Liu, Xiayin; Zhao, Daomu

2014-06-01

305

Generating and analyzing non-diffracting vector vortex beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally generate non-diffracting vector vortex beams by using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and an azimuthal birefringent plate (q-plate). The SLM generates scalar Bessel beams and the q-plate converts them to vector vortex beams. Both single order Bessel beam and superposition cases are studied. The polarization and the azimuthal modes of the generated beams are analyzed. The results of modal decompositions on polarization components are in good agreement with theory. We demonstrate that the generated beams have cylindrical polarization and carry polarization dependent Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM).

Li, Yanming; Dudley, Angela; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Escuti, Michael J.; Forbes, Andrew

2013-09-01

306

Cyclonic Vortices in Polar Airmasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclonic vortices in polar airmasses are investigated to determine their storm-scale and mesoscale structures and the nature of the environments conducive to their formation. Case studies of polar low outbreaks show that the environments conducive to the development of strong polar lows include deep outflow of arctic air over open water and a broad closed-low aloft. Once favorable environmental conditions

Steven Businger

1986-01-01

307

Arctic chlorine activation and ozone depletion: Comparison of chemistry transport models with satellite observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate simulation of Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion has been an issue for two decades. However, there are still notable quantitative discrepancies between the models and observations. We show results from the SLIMCAT and CLaMS 3D chemistry-transport models that differ in some aspects of simulated chlorine activation and descent in the polar vortex. Consequently, the estimates of accumulated ozone depletion in the polar vortex for these two models in cold Arctic winters still largely disagree. As shown recently by Santee et al. (JGR, 2008) using MLS and ACE data, the extent of chlorine activation for the cold Arctic winter of 2004/2005 within the basic SLIMCAT model is overestimated with the likely consequence of too much simulated ozone depletion. In contrast, the CLaMS simulation for the same winter shows too little chlorine activation compared to observations, and therefore likely too little loss. For SLIMCAT the version used by Santee et al. has been updated to replace the equilibrium treatment of NAT PSCs with a Lagrangian microphysical scheme. This leads to smaller regions of NAT particles and less denitrification, in better agreement with observations. The impact of this on the modeled extent of chlorine activation will be discussed. For CLaMS we have changed the parameterization of heterogeneous reactions on liquid aerosols from Carslaw et al. to that of Shi et al. (2001), with which chlorine activation on liquid aerosol becomes more efficient. In turn, the simulated chlorine activation agrees better with the observations. The impact of these model changes on chlorine activation and ozone loss will be assessed and remaining model-observation discrepancies will be discussed in terms of different model formulations. We will also show the impact of recent lab measurements of Cl2O2 absorption cross sections by von Hobe et al. (2009) on the simulated ozone depletion. References: von Hobe, M., F. Stroh, H. Beckers, T. Benter, and H. Willner, The UV/Vis absorption spectrum of matrix isolated dichlorine peroxide, ClOOCl, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , doi:10.1039/B814373K, 2009. Santee M. L., I. A. MacKenzie, G. L. Manney, M. P. Chipperfield, P. F. Bernath, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, J. W. Waters, A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008. Shi, Q., J. Jayne, C. Kolb, D. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, Kinetic model for reaction of ClONO2 with H2O and HCl and HOCl with HCl in sulfuric acid solutions, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 24259-24274, 2001.

Grooß, J.-U.; Wegner, T.; Müller, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Feng, W.; Santee, M. L.

2009-04-01

308

Northern Hemisphere mid-winter vortex-displacement and vortex-split stratospheric sudden warmings: Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigate the connection between the equatorial Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and different types of the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter major stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs), i.e., vortex-displacement and vortex-split SSWs. The MJO-SSW relationship for vortex-split SSWs is stronger than that for vortex-displacement SSWs, as a result of the stronger and more coherent eastward propagating MJOs before vortex-split SSWs than those before vortex-displacement SSWs. Composite analysis indicates that both the intensity and propagation features of MJO may influence the MJO-related circulation pattern at high latitudes and the type of SSWs. A pronounced Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) dependence is found for vortex-displacement and vortex-split SSWs, with vortex-displacement (-split) SSWs occurring preferentially in easterly (westerly) QBO phases. The lagged composites suggest that the MJO-related anomalies in the Arctic are very likely initiated when the MJO-related convection is active over the equatorial Indian Ocean (around the MJO phase 3). Further analysis suggests that the QBO may modulate the MJO-related wave disturbances via its influence on the upper tropospheric subtropical jet. As a result, the MJO-related circulation pattern in the Arctic tends to be wave number-one/wave number-two ~25-30 days following phase 3 (i.e., approximately phases 7-8, when the MJO-related convection is active over the western Pacific) during easterly/westerly QBO phases, which resembles the circulation pattern associated with vortex-displacement/vortex-split SSWs.

Liu, Chuanxi; Tian, Baijun; Li, King-Fai; Manney, Gloria L.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Yung, Yuk L.; Waliser, Duane E.

2014-11-01

309

The atmospheric vortex engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical energy is produced when heat is carried upward by convection in the atmosphere. An atmospheric vortex engine (AVE) uses an artificially created anchored tornado like vortex to capture the mechanical energy produced during upward heat convection. The vortex is created by admitting warm or humid air tangentially into the base of a circular wall. The heat source can be

Louis M. Michaud

2009-01-01

310

Comparisons of polar processing diagnostics from 34 years of the ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive comparison of polar processing diagnostics derived from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim). We use diagnostics that focus on meteorological conditions related to stratospheric chemical ozone loss based on temperatures, polar vortex dynamics, and air parcel trajectories to evaluate the effects these reanalyses might have on polar processing studies. Our results show that the agreement between MERRA and ERA-Interim changes significantly over the 34 years from 1979 through 2013 in both hemispheres, and in many cases improves. By comparing our diagnostics during five time periods when an increasing number of higher quality observations were brought into these reanalyses, we show how changes in the data assimilation systems (DAS) of MERRA and ERA-Interim affected their meteorological data. Many of our stratospheric temperature diagnostics show a convergence toward significantly better agreement, in both hemispheres, after 2001 when Aqua and GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) radiances were introduced into the DAS. Other diagnostics, such as the winter mean volume of air with temperatures below polar stratospheric cloud formation thresholds (VPSC) and some diagnostics of polar vortex size and strength, do not show improved agreement between the two reanalyses in recent years when data inputs into the DAS were more comprehensive. The polar processing diagnostics calculated from MERRA and ERA-Interim agree much better than those calculated from earlier reanalysis datasets. We still, however, see fairly large relative biases in many of the diagnostics in years prior to 2002, raising the possibility that the choice of one reanalysis over another could significantly influence the results of polar processing studies. After 2002, we see overall good agreement among the diagnostics, which demonstrates that the ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalyses are equally appropriate choices for polar processing studies of recent Arctic and Antarctic winters.

Lawrence, Z. D.; Manney, G. L.; Minschwaner, K.; Santee, M. L.; Lambert, A.

2014-12-01

311

Arctic Summer Ice Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open water, temporal change) using spaceborne SAR data obtained during the summer of 1998, and compare these results with an ocean and ice model of summer melt. Additional information is contained in the original.

Holt, Benjamin

1999-01-01

312

Canada's Polar Environments: Marine Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the three ecozones in the marine waters of polar Canada: The Arctic Archipelago Marine Ecozone, the Arctic Basin, and the Northwest Atlantic Ecozone. The features section describes the physical characteristics of the deep Arctic Basin and shallow Continental Shelf water settings and the major currents responsible for water movement in the Arctic, as well as three features (leads, polynyas, tides) that have important effects on Arctic life. Information is also provided about icebergs, ice islands, ice shelves, sea ice, and the polar ice cap. Information about icebergs in the Davis Straight, frost flowers, iceblink, water sky, the Northwest Passage and open water at the North Pole is offered in the cool facts section.

313

Arctic and Antarctic Birds: Unit Outlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article assembles free resources from the Arctic and Antarctic Birds issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for Grades K-2 and 3-5.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica; Shiverdecker, Terry

314

Arctic Asteroid!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) news service provides this report on the composition of the meteor that put on a brilliant sky show before landing in Western Canada this January. The fragments of the meteorite fell into a frozen lake, so they were not recovered for study until the lake began to thaw this April. Analyses of the pieces that were recovered suggest that the fallen object had a relatively rare composition and was "...about seven meters across and 200 to 250 metric tons. This wasn't your average meteoroid -- it was basically a C-class asteroid detonating in the atmosphere over the Arctic!" says Dr. Peter Brown of the University of Western Ontario. Visit the site for the full report.

315

Estimation of polar low characteristics for the Nordic Seas for 1995-2008 using satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the scientific research confirmed the fact of the global warming. The Arctic climate is warming even more rapidly. Powerful storm polar lows having wind speeds of about 25 m/c are known to be the cause of hazardous weather. Polar lows present themselves as the atmospheric phenomena the horizontal dimensions of which do not exceed 1,000 km, appear and which exist from 12 to 24 hours. The wave fall and low temperatures can lead to increased probability of vessel icing the intensity of which increases with the high wind speed and large wave height. Study of the mesoscale processes, such as polar lows in the Arctic has become especially relevant due to the sharp sea ice decreasing in the Arctic Ocean and Arctic seas in recent years. Only the use of satellite data allows obtaining regular and spacious information about the polar lows. Early detection and evaluation of the characteristics of the polar lows is an extremely important task to ensure the safety of navigation, fishing and oil industry in the Arctic region. With new open areas dangerous polar lows can arise over them. So early detection of the polar lows, studying their characteristics, tracking their movement and prediction presents one the most important problems of the modern science. The present-day meteorological observational network has severe limitations in detecting all, especially small mesoscale cyclones, so there is a strong need for new and/or improved methods to detect and monitor polar lows. Satellite remote sensing seems to be the most feasible tool for early detection and monitoring of the polar lows. Several remote sensing sensors are capable to detect a polar low but each of them suffers from various deficiencies. In the work, satellite passive microwave data have been intensively exploited aiming at obtaining the fields of geophysical parameters inside the polar lows. DMSP Special Sensor Microwave/Imager - SSM/I data were used in the research. The polar lows have been identified on satellite passive microwave imagery by fields of means of analysis of atmospheric water vapour fields using a new approach. This approach consists of two stages. During the first stage the total atmospheric water vapor fields are calculated from passive microwave measurements using precise retrieval Neural Network Algorithms (Bobylev et al., 2010). During the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, and polar lows are identified and tracked. Based on this approach, were estimated polar low characteristics in the Nordic seas for the period of 1995 - 2008. All polar lows have been identified for this period on SSM/I imagery. Other satellite data, such as QuikSCAT SeaWinds, NOAA AVHRR were used as additional information for polar low parameter retrieval and analysis.

Smirnova, Julia; Chapron, Bertrand; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Leonid Bobylev, Mr

316

Airborne brightness temperature measurements of the polar winter troposphere as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment 2 and the effect of brightness temperature variations on the diabatic heating in the lower stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we report radiometric measurements of tropospheric brightness temperatures obtained during the AASE 2 experiment. These measurements represent the first attempt to characterize effective radiative temperatures as seen from above the troposphere during the Arctic winter. The reported measurements include brightness temperatures at 6.7 and 10.5 microns as seen from the NASA DC-8 aircraft flying at about 11 km altitude. We also present radiative transfer calculations to estimate the effect of tropospheric brightness temperature on the lower stratospheric heating rates. Because of the recent massive eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, we also discuss the effects of a volcanic aerosol layer. It is concluded that small particles like the volcanic aerosol or polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) type 1 do not affect stratospheric heating rates by much; on the other hand, larger particles, PSCs types 2 and 3, may have significant effects on heating rates and consequently on dynamics of the lower stratosphere. The dynamical effects of local stratospheric temperature variations are briefly discussed.

Valero, Francisco P. J.; Platnick, Steven; Kinne, Stefan; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony

1993-01-01

317

Modified Lagrangian-mean diagnostics of the stratospheric polar vortices: 2. Nitrous oxide and seasonal barrier migration in the cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer and SKYHI general circulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrangian-mean transport and mixing properties associated with the life cycle of the stratospheric polar vortices are analyzed using nitrous oxide (N2O) as a tracer, both observed by the cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer (CLAES) and simulated by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SKYHI general circulation model. Based on the modified Lagrangian-mean (MLM) diagnostic formalism, the area equivalent latitude-potential temperature cross sections are constructed for the N2O mixing ratio and the squared equivalent length, a Lagrangian equivalence of the eddy diffusion coefficient Kyy. The robustness of the analysis is tested and confirmed by subsampling the SKYHI tracer field at a CLAES-equivalent resolution and comparing the resultwith the full-resolution analysis. The seasonal and interhemispheric variabilities of the MLM cross sections are examined in detail. Both CLAES and SKYHI identify two major barriers to horizontal mixing (minimal equivalent length) in both hemispheres: a perennial subtropical barrier and an annual polar barrier. The polar barrier splits from the subtropical barrier in fall, migrates poleward in winter, and disappears at the demise of the polar vortex. The barriers are in general collocated with a tracer edge (concentrated gradients), but larger gradients do not necessarily translate to a greater barrier. For example, at the Arctic vortex edge, where the tracer gradients are greater than at the Antarctic vortex edge, the barrier is actually weaker. A significant difference is found in the structure of the barriers between the two northern hemisphere winters examined.

Nakamura, Noboru; Ma, Jun

1997-11-01

318

http://psc.apl.washington.edu/ArcticChange09.html Ocean 506B/497B -3 credit graduate course  

E-print Network

The Changing Arctic Ocean: an interdisciplinary perspective after IPY (International Polar Year 2007­2009) · Recent years show unprecedented change in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. · What is currently known about are to develop: ­ an understanding of how the Arctic Ocean system works ­ an understanding of observed

Washington at Seattle, University of

319

Trends in long-term gaseous mercury observations in the Arctic and effects of temperature and other atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements at Alert, Canada, from 1995 to 2007 were analyzed for statistical time trends and for correlations with meteorological and climate data. A significant decreasing trend in annual GEM concentration is reported at Alert, with an estimated slope of -0.0086 ng m-3 yr-1 (-0.6% yr-1) over this 13-year period. It is shown that there has been a shift in the month of minimum mean GEM concentration from May to April due to a change in the timing of springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs). These AMDEs are found to decrease with increasing local temperature within each month, both at Alert and at Amderma, Russia. These results support the temperature dependence suggested by previous experimental results and theoretical kinetic calculations on both bromine generation and mercury oxidation and highlight the potential for changes in Arctic mercury chemistry with climate. A correlation between total monthly AMDEs at Alert and the Polar/Eurasian Teleconnection Index was observed only in March, perhaps due to higher GEM inputs in early spring in those years with a weak polar vortex. A correlation of AMDEs at Alert with wind direction supports the origin of mercury depletion events over the Arctic Ocean, in agreement with a previous trajectory study of ozone depletion events. Interannual variability in total monthly depletion event frequency at Alert does not appear to correlate significantly with total or first-year northern hemispheric sea ice area or with other major teleconnection patterns. Nor do AMDEs at either Alert or Amderma correlate with local wind speed, as might be expected if depletion events are sustained by stable, low-turbulence atmospheric conditions. The data presented here - both the change in timing of depletion events and their relationship with temperature - can be used as additional constraints to improve the ability of models to predict the cycling and deposition of mercury in the Arctic.

Cole, A. S.; Steffen, A.

2010-05-01

320

Effects of temperature and other atmospheric conditions on long-term gaseous mercury observations in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements at Alert, Canada, from 1995 to 2007 were analyzed for statistical time trends and for correlations with meteorological and climate data. A significant decreasing trend in annual GEM concentration is reported at Alert, with an estimated slope of -0.0086 ng m-3 yr-1 (-0.6% yr-1) over this 13-year period. It is shown that there has been a shift in the month of minimum mean GEM concentration from May to April due to a change in the timing of springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs). These AMDEs are found to decrease with increasing local temperature within each month, both at Alert and at Amderma, Russia. These results agree with the temperature dependence suggested by previous experimental results and theoretical kinetic calculations and highlight the potential for changes in Arctic mercury chemistry with climate. A correlation between total monthly AMDEs at Alert and the Polar/Eurasian Teleconnection Index was observed only in March, perhaps due to higher GEM inputs in early spring in those years with a weak polar vortex. A correlation of AMDEs at Alert with wind direction supports the origin of mercury depletion events over the Arctic Ocean, in agreement with a previous trajectory study of ozone depletion events. Interannual variability in total monthly depletion event frequency at Alert does not appear to correlate significantly with total or first-year northern hemispheric sea ice area or with other major teleconnection patterns. Nor do AMDEs at either Alert or Amderma correlate with local wind speed, as might be expected if depletion events are sustained by stable, low-turbulence atmospheric conditions. The data presented here - both the change in timing of depletion events and their relationship with temperature - can be used as additional constraints to improve the ability of global models to predict the cycling and deposition of mercury in the Arctic.

Cole, A. S.; Steffen, A.

2009-12-01

321

Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations.  

PubMed

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have experienced substantial changes in the seasonal availability of sea ice habitat in parts of their range, including the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. In this study, we compared the body size, condition, and recruitment of polar bears captured in the Chukchi and Bering Seas (CS) between two periods (1986-1994 and 2008-2011) when declines in sea ice habitat occurred. In addition, we compared metrics for the CS population 2008-2011 with those of the adjacent southern Beaufort Sea (SB) population where loss in sea ice habitat has been associated with declines in body condition, size, recruitment, and survival. We evaluated how variation in body condition and recruitment were related to feeding ecology. Comparing habitat conditions between populations, there were twice as many reduced ice days over continental shelf waters per year during 2008-2011 in the SB than in the CS. CS polar bears were larger and in better condition, and appeared to have higher reproduction than SB bears. Although SB and CS bears had similar diets, twice as many bears were fasting in spring in the SB than in the CS. Between 1986-1994 and 2008-2011, body size, condition, and recruitment indices in the CS were not reduced despite a 44-day increase in the number of reduced ice days. Bears in the CS exhibited large body size, good body condition, and high indices of recruitment compared to most other populations measured to date. Higher biological productivity and prey availability in the CS relative to the SB, and a shorter recent history of reduced sea ice habitat, may explain the maintenance of condition and recruitment of CS bears. Geographic differences in the response of polar bears to climate change are relevant to range-wide forecasts for this and other ice-dependent species. PMID:23913506

Rode, Karyn D; Regehr, Eric V; Douglas, David C; Durner, George; Derocher, Andrew E; Thiemann, Gregory W; Budge, Suzanne M

2014-01-01

322

Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have experienced substantial changes in the seasonal availability of sea ice habitat in parts of their range, including the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. In this study, we compared the body size, condition, and recruitment of polar bears captured in the Chukchi and Bering Seas (CS) between two periods (1986–1994 and 2008–2011) when declines in sea ice habitat occurred. In addition, we compared metrics for the CS population 2008–2011 with those of the adjacent southern Beaufort Sea (SB) population where loss in sea ice habitat has been associated with declines in body condition, size, recruitment, and survival. We evaluated how variation in body condition and recruitment were related to feeding ecology. Comparing habitat conditions between populations, there were twice as many reduced ice days over continental shelf waters per year during 2008–2011 in the SB than in the CS. CS polar bears were larger and in better condition, and appeared to have higher reproduction than SB bears. Although SB and CS bears had similar diets, twice as many bears were fasting in spring in the SB than in the CS. Between 1986–1994 and 2008–2011, body size, condition, and recruitment indices in the CS were not reduced despite a 44-day increase in the number of reduced ice days. Bears in the CS exhibited large body size, good body condition, and high indices of recruitment compared to most other populations measured to date. Higher biological productivity and prey availability in the CS relative to the SB, and a shorter recent history of reduced sea ice habitat, may explain the maintenance of condition and recruitment of CS bears. Geographic differences in the response of polar bears to climate change are relevant to range-wide forecasts for this and other ice-dependent species.

Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Douglas, David C.; Durner, George; Derocher, Andrew E.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Budge, Suzanne M.

2014-01-01

323

Controlling the chirality and polarity of vortices in magnetic tunnel junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static and dynamic control of the chirality and polarity of a magnetic vortex confined in a magnetic tunnel junction is demonstrated. The modes associated with the four chirality/polarity vortex configurations are first explored by resonant excitation with a low power rf current. When the rf power is increased, both the chirality and polarity of the vortex can be resonantly switched, which—as shown by micromagnetic simulations—involves vortex expulsion and renucleation. This tunable resonant switching of the vortex parameters are an exciting step forward for the viability of magnetic vortex-based applications.

Jenkins, A. S.; Grimaldi, E.; Bortolotti, P.; Lebrun, R.; Kubota, H.; Yakushiji, K.; Fukushima, A.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Yuasa, S.; Cros, V.

2014-10-01

324

New view of Arctic cyclone activity form the Arctic System Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic cyclone activity is of great interest due to its potential association with the large magnitudes of the Arctic warming, and particularly unprecedented Arctic sea ice decline over the last decades. There is an evidence of a direct influence of very intense cyclones on the sea ice cover at synoptic time scales. At the same time, cyclone dynamics reflects atmospheric circulations changes and play an important role in high latitude atmospheric heat and moisture transport. The recently released Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) - Interim version opens a new avenue in studying atmospheric circulation in the Arctic. ASR performed with the high-resolution version of the non-hydrostatic Polar Weather Research and Forecast model (Polar WRF V3.3.1) using ERA-Interim reanalysis data as lateral boundary conditions. ASR assimilates much more data compared to standard assimilation input, particularly surface weather observations, and more accurate lower boundary condition descriptions over land and ocean that are frequently updated. We present analysis of the Arctic cyclone activity in 11-year (2000-2010), 3-hourly output from the (ASR) - Interim version with 30km spatial resolution, covering Arctic north from 50°N. To track cyclones we use sea level pressure fields and IORAS numerical tracking scheme, that was specially adjusted for limited area tracking. ASR provides a new vision of the cyclone activity in high latitudes, showing that the Arctic is more densely populated with cyclones, especially in summer, than suggested by three the modern era global reanalyses: ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-CFSR. ASR reveals 35% more cyclones mostly due to capturing shallow and moderately deep cyclones over the high latitude continental areas. Over the Arctic Ocean ASR reports slightly higher cyclone counts compared to the global reanalyses with the largest differences being identified in summer. Over the Arctic Ocean during both seasons ASR well captures the cyclone maximum in the Eastern Arctic which has 30% less cyclones in summer and is hardly detectable in ERA-Interim. High resolution of the ASR model coupled with more comprehensive data assimilation allows for more accurate (compared to the global reanalyses) description of the life cycle of the most intense Arctic cyclones, for which ASR shows lower central pressure, faster deepening and stronger winds.

Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey; Bromwich, David

2014-05-01

325

Canadian Arctic vegetation mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next few decades the Arctic is expected to experience unprecedented changes in climate and resource development. All of these will potentially aVect land use and vegetation cover. There is a need for a comprehens- ive and consistent circumpolar map of arctic vegetation that will be useful for modelling vegetation change in the circumpolar region. The Canadian arctic vegetation

W. A. Gould; S. Edlund; S. Zoltai; M. Raynolds; D. A. Walker; H. Maier

2002-01-01

326

Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.  

PubMed

Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495

Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

2008-01-01

327

Propeller tip vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

1990-01-01

328

Wake vortex technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of the highlights of NASA's wake vortex minimization program is presented. The significant results of this program are summarized as follows: (1) it is technically feasible to reduce significantly the rolling upset created on a trailing aircraft; (2) the basic principles or methods by which reduction in the vortex strength can be achieved have been identified; and (3) an analytical capability for investigating aircraft vortex wakes has been developed.

Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Barber, M. R.; Croom, D. R.

1978-01-01

329

Dynamic decay of a single vortex into vortex-antivortex pairs  

SciTech Connect

A variety of metastable states, including vortices, antivortices, and their combinations, is typical for magnetically soft, thin films and patterned structures. The physics of individual spin vortices in patterned structures has been rather extensively explored. In contrast, there are few studies of the vortex–antivortex–vortex (v-av-v) system, in part because the configuration is rather challenging to obtain experimentally. We demonstrate herein how a recently proposed resonant-spin-ordering technique can be used to induce the dynamic decay of a single vortex into v-av states in elongated elements. The approach is based on first driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency, and then subsequently reducing the excitation field back to the linear regime. This procedure stabilizes the system into a v-av-v state that is completely decoupled from the initialization excitation frequency. The newly acquired state is stable in remanence. The dynamic response of this system is expected to demonstrate a number of collective modes, depending on the combination of the vortex core polarities, and/or the excitation field direction, and, hence, is of interest for future studies.

Lendínez, Sergi [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Universidad Barcelona, Departamento Fisica Fonamental, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn, E-mail: novosad@anl.gov; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tejada, Javier [Universidad Barcelona, Departamento Fisica Fonamental, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-05-07

330

Vortex core reversal due to spin wave interference.  

PubMed

In this Letter we address spin wave dynamics involved in fast and selective vortex core polarity reversal by rotating magnetic field bursts. In a first example we explain the origin of the delayed switching for excitations with short bursts of only one period duration as an interference effect between spin wave modes. Second, when the vortex core is initially no longer at rest but in gyrotropic motion, the magnetization dynamics become more complicated and the interaction of spin waves with the vortex core leads to a variety of nonlinear effects. Our analysis allows us to explain the experimentally observed switching diagram for simultaneous excitation of spin waves and gyrotropic mode. PMID:24579629

Bauer, Hans G; Sproll, Markus; Back, Christian H; Woltersdorf, Georg

2014-02-21

331

Landis/Byrd Polar Research Center The Ohio State University/2012  

E-print Network

. The exhibit features 3 polar bears, 2 grizzly bears, and 4 Arctic fox Ice Bear Outpost - the interpretive center for the Polar Frontier exhibitLandis/Byrd Polar Research Center The Ohio State University/2012 1

Howat, Ian M.

332

Oregon Zoo Polar Bear  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tasul, an Oregon Zoo polar bear, sports a high-tech collar that will help researchers study her endangered wild counterparts in the Arctic. Photo by Michael Durham, courtesy of the Oregon Zoo. Photo by Michael Durham, courtesy of the Oregon Zoo....

333

Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

1999-01-01

334

Evolution of the Arctic Calanus complex: an Arctic marine avocado?  

PubMed

Before man hunted the large baleen whales to near extinction by the end of the nineteenth century, Arctic ecosystems were strongly influenced by these large predators. Their main prey were zooplankton, among which the calanoid copepod species of the genus Calanus, long considered key elements of polar marine ecosystems, are particularly abundant. These herbivorous zooplankters display a range of adaptations to the highly seasonal environments of the polar oceans, most notably extensive energy reserves and seasonal migrations to deep waters where the non-feeding season is spent in diapause. Classical work in marine ecology has suggested that slow growth, long lifespan and large body size in zooplankton are specific adaptations to life in cold waters with short and unpredictable feeding seasons. Here, we challenge this understanding and, by using an analogy from the evolutionary and contemporary history of the avocado, argue that predation pressure by the now nearly extinct baleen whales was an important driving force in the evolution of life history diversity in the Arctic Calanus complex. PMID:22312184

Berge, Jørgen; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Moline, Mark; Renaud, Paul E

2012-03-01

335

PBS Online NewsHour: Polar Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the Arctic and Antarctic research planned for the International Polar Year, together with instructional materials. Includes lesson plan on Arctic warming, profiles of researchers, audio slide show on Antarctic dry-valley organisms, and stories on research projects.

336

Vortex control: Further encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of continuing investigations on vortex control techniques is updated. The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) vortex flaps adapted for high-alpha control; (2) alleviation of leading edge extension (LEX) vortex induced twin-tail buffet; (3) controlled decoupling of interactive forebody chine and wing vortices; (4) forebody vortex manipulation by mechanical and pneumatic techniques; and (5) stall-departure alleviation of high aspect-ratio wings. Salient results of exploratory low speed wind tunned experiments are presented. The investigations, primarily aimed at concept validation, were performed on generic configurations utilizing flow visualizations and pressure and balance measurements. Selected results illustrate the efficacy and potential for development of specific vortex control concepts for improved high-alpha configuration aerodynamics.

Rao, Dhanvada M.

1991-01-01

337

Impact of climate change on Arctic ozone loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ozone losses for 10 recent Arctic winters were analyzed. It was found that an additional 15 Dobson unit (DU) thinning of the ozone layer occurs per degree Kelvin of cooling in the Arctic stratosphere, a value three times larger than estimates from current models. It was also found that climate conditions in the Arctic stratosphere became more favorable to large ozone losses over the past four decades, with a tripling in the volume of air exposed to polar stratospheric cloud conditions during the coldest winters.

Al., Rex E.; Unknown., Copyright A.

338

Microscopic Investigation of Vortex-Vortex Interaction in Conventional Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-particle structures around a pair of vortices and its effect on the vortex-vortex interaction are investigated. For this purpose, a new numerical method is developed. This method uses the elliptic coordinate and (modified) Mathieu functions. Using this method and solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we analyse how quasi-particle structures change with the vortex-vortex distance.

Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei

2012-12-01

339

Application of interleaving models for the description of intrusive layering at the fronts of deep polar water in the Eurasian Basin (Arctic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interleaving models of pure thermohaline and baroclinic frontal zones are applied to describe intrusions at the fronts found in the upper part of the Deep Polar Water (DPW) when the stratification was absolutely stable. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main mechanism of the intrusion formation. Important parameters of the interleaving such as the growth rate, vertical scale, and slope of the most unstable modes relative to the horizontal plane are calculated. It was found that the interleaving model for a pure thermohaline front satisfactory describes the important intrusion parameters observed at the frontal zone. In the case of a baroclinic front, satisfactory agreement over all the interleaving parameters is observed between the model calculations and observations provided that the vertical momentum diffusivity significantly exceeds the corresponding coefficient of mass diffusivity. Under specific (reasonable) constraints of the vertical momentum diffusivity, the most unstable mode has a vertical scale approximately two-three times smaller than the vertical scale of the observed intrusions. A thorough discussion of the results is presented.

Kuzmina, N. P.; Zhurbas, N. V.; Emelianov, M. V.; Pyzhevich, M. L.

2014-09-01

340

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1981-03-01

341

Microscopic theory of vortex dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to vortex dynamics is outlined, a new form being obtained for the pair potential forces on a vortex. A microscopic calculation of the vortex inertial mass is presented. Quantum effects on vortex lattice melting are briefly discussed. Partly supported by IFCPAR

D. M. Gaitonde; T. V. Ramakrishnan

1994-01-01

342

Acoustic emissions by vortex motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to acoustic emission by vortex motions. The following cases are presented as illustrative examples: (1) the head-on collision of two vortex rings, (2) a vortex ring moving near a circular cylinder, and (3) a vortex ring moving near a sharp edge of a semiinfinite plate. Experimental power laws of the acoustic pressure amplitude versus the translation speed

T. Kambe

1986-01-01

343

UARS Microwave Limb Sounder observations of dentrification and ozone loss in the 2000 Arctic late winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The UARS Microwave Limb Sounder obtained measurements of CIO, HNO3, and O-3 inside the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during two intervals in February and March 2000. The data show evidence of significant chemical processing in February, consistent with the exceptionally cold conditions that prevailed earlier in the winter.

Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Waters, J. W.

2000-01-01

344

A characterization of the warm 1999 Arctic winter by observations and modeling: NOy  

E-print Network

inside a distortion of the winter Arctic vortex from Kiruna (Sweden, 68°N) on 27 January 1999: Middle atmosphere-- composition and chemistry; 3360 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing; 3334 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Middle atmosphere dynamics (0341, 0342); 3337 Meteorology

Chipperfield, Martyn

345

Vortex crystals in fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common in geophysical flows to observe localized regions of enhanced vorticity. This observation can be used to derive model equations to describe the motion and interaction of these localized regions, or vortices, and which are simpler than the original PDEs. The best known vortex model is derived from the incompressible Euler equations, and treats vortices as points in the plane. A large part of this dissertation utilizes this particular model, but we also survey other point vortex and weakly viscous models. The main focus of this thesis is an object known as the vortex crystal. These remarkable configurations of vortices maintain their basic shapes for long times, while perhaps rotating or translating rigidly in space. We study existence and stability of families of vortex crystals in the special case where N vortices have small and equal circulation and one vortex has large circulation. As the small circulation tends to zero, the weak vortices tend to a circle centered on the strong vortex. A special potential function of this limiting problem can be used to characterize orbits and stability. Whenever a critical point of this function is nondegenerate, we prove that the orbit can be continued via the Implicit Function Theorem, and its linear stability is determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix of the potential. For general N, we find at least three distinct families of critical points, one of which continues to a linearly stable class of vortex crystals. Because the stable family is most likely to be observed in nature, we study it extensively. Continuation methods allow us to follow these critical points to nonzero weak vortex strength and investigate stability and bifurcations. In the large N limit of this family, we prove that there is a unique one parameter family of distributions which minimize a "generalized" potential. Finally, we use point vortex and weakly viscous vortex models to analyze vortex crystal configurations observed in hurricane eyes and related numerical simulations. We find striking numerical and analytical agreement, thus validating the use of simplified vortex models to describe geophysical phenomena.

Barry, Anna M.

346

Peeking through a frosty window: molecular insights into the ecology of Arctic soil fungi  

E-print Network

Peeking through a frosty window: molecular insights into the ecology of Arctic soil fungi Ina Biodiversity Climate change Cold adaptation Community structure Edaphic factors Fungi Mycorrhiza Polar regions Stress tolerance Tundra a b s t r a c t Fungi are ubiquitous in Arctic soils, where they function

Taylor, Lee

347

Paleomagnetic chronology of Arctic Ocean sediment cores; reversals and excursions the conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronologies of Arctic Ocean sediment cores are mainly based on interpretation of paleomagnetic inclination records. The first paleomagnetic chronology assigned zones with negative inclinations to polarity reversals (Steuerwald et al, 1968) because geomagnetic excursions at that time were a novel observation and had only been reported from lavas. Arctic Ocean sedimentation rates were thus established to be in the mm\\/ka-range.

Reidar Løvlie; Martin Jakobsson; Jan Backman

2003-01-01

348

Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; De Zafra, R. L.

1994-01-01

349

NASA wake vortex research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.

Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

1993-01-01

350

Wave-vortex interaction.  

PubMed

We present an experimental study of the effect of an electromagnetically generated vortex flow on parametrically amplified waves at the surface of a vertically vibrated fluid layer. The underlying vortex flow, generated by a periodic Lorentz force, creates spatiotemporal fluctuations that nonlinearly interact with the standing surface waves. We measure the power spectral density of the surface wave amplitude and we characterize the bifurcation diagram by recording the subharmonic response of the surface to the external vibration. We show that the parametric instability is delayed in the presence of spatiotemporal fluctuations due to the vortex flow. In addition, the dependence of the amplitude of the subharmonic response on the distance to the instability threshold is modified. This shows that the nonlinear saturation mechanism of the waves is modified by the vortex flow. PMID:20365066

Falcón, Claudio; Fauve, Stéphan

2009-11-01

351

Wingtip vortex turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for extracting rotational energy from the vortex created at aircraft wing tips which consists of a turbine with blades located in the crossflow of the vortex and attached downstream of the wingtip. The turbine has blades attached to a core. When the aircraft is in motion, rotation of a core transmits energy to a centrally attached shaft. The rotational energy thus generated may be put to use within the airfoil or aircraft fuselage.

Patterson, James C., Jr. (inventor)

1990-01-01

352

Implications of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Arctic Tropospheric Chemical Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the drastic reduction of Arctic sea ice in this decade and discuss the potential implications on bromine, ozone, and mercury change in the Arctic troposphere. We are witnessing extraordinary change in the Arctic sea ice cover. In the context of a half century change, perennial sea ice, the class of thicker and older ice important to the stability of Arctic sea ice, has been declining precipitously in this decade. Perennial ice extent declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007, which continued the precipitous declining trend observed in this decade. While the record low of total ice extent in summer 2007 is a historical mark of sea ice loss, the distribution and extent of different sea ice classes in spring (March-May) are critical information to understand the implications of sea ice reduction on photochemical processes, such as bromine explosions, ozone depletion episodes (ODEs), gaseous elementary mercury depletion episodes (MDEs), which occur at the time of polar sunrise. In this regard, the drastic reduction of perennial ice means that the Arctic becomes dominated by seasonal ice consisting of thinner ice, more leads, polynyas, frost flowers, and salty snow (due to seawater spray from open water), representing the overall saltier condition of the Arctic sea ice cover conducive to ice-mediated chemical processes leading to Arctic tropospheric ODEs and MDEs. To date (2009), the extent of perennial sea ice remains low and the extent of the thinner and saltier seasonal ice continues to dominate the Arctic sea ice cover. The shift of the state of Arctic sea ice cover to the dominance domain of seasonal ice can impact photochemical processes, leading to potentially significant implications on Arctic chemical change. Such implications, within the context of Arctic climatic change, are to be investigated in order to assess consequential changes in the Arctic habitat that may affect the health of people and wildlife. Regarding Arctic climatic change, seemingly opposing scenarios of Arctic chemical change have been hypothesized. In the first scenario, if sea ice cover continues to reduce in a warming trend in the 21st century, frost flower growth and bromine explosions might be suppressed and thus there would be less ozone and mercury depletion. Alternatively, in a different scenario, if the extent of seasonal ice during spring time in the Arctic continues to expand together with more cold spells due to temperature extremes exacerbated by climatic change, the abundance of seasonal ice, leads, and frost flowers may lead to more prevalent episodic events of bromine explosion and more intensive tropospheric ozone and mercury depletion in cold episodes. However, fundamental science questions remain to be addressed, and we have formed an international science team to plan for a future interdisciplinary research on those issues.

Nghiem, S. V.

2009-12-01

353

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted dur- ing April-July 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influ- ences the evolution

J. A. Curry; P. V. Hobbs; M. D. King; D. A. Randall; P. Minnis; G. A. Isaac; J. O. Pinto; T. Uttal; A. Bucholtz; D. G. Cripe; H. Gerber; C. W. Fairall; T. J. Garrett; J. Hudson; J. M. Intrieri; C. Jakob; T. Jensen; P. Lawson; D. Marcotte; L. Nguyen; P. Pilewskie; A. Rangno; D. C. Rogers; K. B. Strawbridge; F. P. J. Valero; A. G. Williams; D. Wylie

2000-01-01

354

Atmospheric-wake vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions of a vortex wake with a turbulent stratified atmosphere are investigated with the computer code WAKE. It is shown that atmospheric shear, turbulence, and stratification can provide the dominant mechanisms by which vortex wakes decay. Computations included the interaction of a vortex wake with a viscous ground plane. The observed phenomenon of vortex bounce is explained in terms of secondary vorticity produced on the ground. This vorticity is swept off the ground and advected about the vortex pair, thereby altering the classic hyperbolic trajectory. The phenomenon of the solitary vortex is explained as an interaction of a vortex with crosswind shear. Here, the vortex having the sign opposite that of the sign of the vorticity in the shear is dispersed by a convective instability. This instability results in the rapid production of turbulence which in turn disperses the smoke marking the vortex.

Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Teske, M. E.; Hecht, A. M.

1978-01-01

355

Arctic Haze Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset, including satellite remote sensing, ground-based observations and modelling. The key question is which information should be used for analysis and how to integrate the source information. The behavior of different atmospheric parameters as described in the paper is consistent and the analysis using satellite atmospheric parameters is in line with synoptic charts. Hence the different data sources are complementary and the results support each other (Mei et al., 2011). In the paper, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from both satellite retrieval data and ground-based measurements were analyzed the characteristic, especially the absorption. We also discuss the effect of Arctic haze to the Arctic temperature, snow albedo and arctic flux in details.

Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

2013-04-01

356

Observed Changes at the Surface of the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic has long been considered a harbinger of global climate change since simulations with global climate models predict that if the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere doubles, the Arctic would warm by more than 5°C, compared to a warming of 2°C for subpolar regions (Manabe et al., 1991). And indeed, studies of the observational records show polar amplification of the warming trends (e.g. Serreze and Francis, 2004). These temperature trends are accompanied by myriad concurrent changes in Arctic climate. One of the first indicators of Arctic climate change was found by Walsh et al. (1996) using sea level pressure (SLP) data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP, http://iabp.apl.washington.edu). In this study, they showed that SLP over the Arctic Ocean decreased by over 4 hPa from 1979 - 1994. The decreases in SLP (winds) over the Arctic Ocean, forced changes in the circulation of sea ice and the surface ocean currents such that the Beaufort Gyre is reduced in size and speed (e.g. Rigor et al., 2002). Data from the IABP has also been assimilated into the global surface air temperature (SAT) climatologies (e.g. Jones et al. 1999), and the IABP SAT analysis shows that the temperature trends noted over land extend out over the Arctic Ocean. Specifically, Rigor et al. (2000) found warming trends in SAT over the Arctic Ocean during win¬ter and spring, with values as high as 2°C/decade in the eastern Arctic during spring. It should be noted that many of the changes in Arctic climate were first observed or explained using data from the IABP. The observations from IABP have been one of the cornerstones for environmental forecasting and studies of climate and climate change. These changes have a profound impact on wildlife and people. Many species and cultures depend on the sea ice for habitat and subsistence. Thus, monitoring the Arctic Ocean is crucial not only for our ability to detect climate change, but also to improve our understanding of the Arctic and global climate system, and for forecasting weather and sea ice conditions. The IABP provides the longest continuing record of observations for the Arctic Ocean.

Ortmeyer, M.; Rigor, I.

2004-12-01

357

AEM. Arctic Economics Model  

SciTech Connect

AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery, costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.

Reister, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1985-08-01

358

Impact of heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric chemistry of the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible depletion of ozone due to heterogeneous reactions occurring in Arctic polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) is fundamentally different from the Antarctic situation. PSCs in the Arctic are relatively short-lived and occur over limited regions of the Arctic stratosphere. The Arctic situation is examined using a model which calculates photochemical processes as a function of longitude in air circulating with fixed velocity around the pole at fixed pressure level and latitude. The model allows sunlight to vary diurnally and PSCs to occur in specified subregions of the domain. Measurements of chemical species including HCl, ClO, NO2 and HNO3 downwind from a PSC should show obvious changes compared to measurements in air unaffected by clouds. These species concentrations are found to be sensitive to sticking coefficients, cloud characteristics including particle number density and surface area, and to the PSC exposure time.

Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.

1989-01-01

359

Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions  

SciTech Connect

The data base required to adequately ascertain seasonal source and sink strengths in the arctic regions is difficult to obtain. However, there are now a reasonable quantity of data for this polar region to estimate sources and sinks within the Arctic which may contribute significantly to the annual tropospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration fluctuation. The sea-ice-air and the sea-air interfaces account for most of the contribution to the sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. Although the arctic and subarctic region is small in extent, it certainly is not impervious and ice sealed. Our estimate, based on historical data and current research, indicates that the Arctic, which is about 4% of the earth's surface, is an annual net sink for approx. 10/sup 15/ g CO/sub 2/ accounting for an equivalent of approx. 3% of the annual anthropogenic contribution of CO/sub 2/ to the troposphere.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1982-01-01

360

Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex state in CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks  

SciTech Connect

In magnetic thin films, a magnetic vortex is a state in which the magnetization vector curls around the center of a confined structure. A vortex state in a thin film disk, for example, is a topological object characterized by the vortex polarity and the winding number. In ferromagnetic (FM) disks, these parameters govern many fundamental properties of the vortex such as its gyroscopic rotation, polarity reversal, core motion, and vortex pair excitation. However, in antiferromagnetic (AFM) disks, though there has been indirect evidence of the vortex state through observations of the induced FM-ordered spins in the AFM disk, they have never been observed directly in experiment. By fabricating single crystalline NiO/Fe/Ag(001) and CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks and using X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD), we show direct observation of the vortex state in an AFM disk of AFM/FM bilayer system. We observe that there are two types of AFM vortices, one of which has no analog in FM structures. Finally, we show that a frozen AFM vortex can bias a FM vortex at low temperature.

Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Park, J. S.; Meng, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A.; Young, A.T.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Zhao, H. W.; Bokor, J.; Qiu, Z. Q.

2010-12-21

361

A model study of tropospheric impacts of the Arctic ozone depletion 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ozone loss in spring 2011 occurred in concert with record positive values of the tropospheric Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index raising the question about the role of stratospheric driver on this tropospheric climate event. A set of 50 years long simulations by atmospheric general circulation model European Centre/Hamburg version 5 (ECHAM5) is carried out and the responses of the model to observed anomalies in stratospheric ozone (O3) and sea surface temperatures (SST) separately and also the response to combined SST and O3 forcing (ALL) are analyzed. In all three experiments the response is characterized by a strengthening of stratospheric polar vortex in March-April. In the ALL experiment, this strengthening is followed by a significant, long-lasting shift of the tropospheric circulation toward a positive NAM phase and increased probability of occurrence of extremely positive NAM events. The combined effect of the O3 and SST forcings on the stratospheric circulation differs from the sum of the individual O3 and SST responses, most likely due to nonlinear effects, leading to a colder stratosphere in February-March. In the troposphere, the sum of the individual responses is comparable in magnitude to the ALL response, but the individual responses are delayed with respect to that in ALL. In summary, these results suggest that both ozone-induced stratospheric cooling and tropospheric forcing associated with the SST anomalies contributed to the record tropospheric climate anomalies observed in spring 2011.

Karpechko, Alexey Yu.; Perlwitz, Judith; Manzini, Elisa

2014-07-01

362

The Polaris Project: Rising Stars in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allure and mystique of the Arctic, combined with its central role in the global warming issue, make it the ideal place to capture the imagination of the public while engaging students and early career scientists in interdisciplinary polar research and education. Funded as part of NSF's contribution to the International Polar Year, the Polaris Project (www.thepolarisproject.org) is a multifaceted effort that includes: a field course and research experience for undergraduate students in the Siberian Arctic; several new arctic-focused undergraduate courses taught by project PIs at their respective colleges across the United States and in Russia; the opportunity for PIs to initiate research programs in the Siberian Arctic; and a wide range of outreach activities. The unifying scientific theme of the Polaris Project is the transport and transformation of carbon and nutrients as they move with water from terrestrial uplands to the Arctic Ocean. This is a central issue in arctic system science and the PIs were selected in part because of their potential to bring fresh insights to this complex topic. Thus, the Polaris Project is training future leaders in arctic research and education, and educating the public, both of which are essential given the rapid and profound changes underway in the Arctic in response to global warming. This presentation will give an overview of the project, report on our inaugural Siberian field course during summer 2008 (which involved 20 US and Russian undergraduate students and scientists), and discuss plans for on-campus activities and summer field courses during for remaining two years of the project.

Holmes, R. M.; Beld, J.; Bulygina, E.; Bunn, A.; Chandra, S.; Frey, K.; Schade, J.; Spektor, V.; Sobczak, W.; Walter, K.; Zimov, S.

2008-12-01

363

Modelling of Mercury in the Arctic with the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 3-D mercury model has been developed within the Danish Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). The model is based on the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, which in the original version has been used to study the transport of SO2, SO42- and Pb into the Arctic. It was developed for sulphur in 1990 and in 1999 also lead was included. For the current study a chemical scheme for mercury has been included and the model is now applied to the mercury transport problem. Some experiments with the formulation of the mercury chemistry during the Polar Sunrise are carried out in order to investigate the observed depletion. Some of the main conclusions of the work described in this paper are that atmospheric transport of mercury is a very important pathway into the Arctic and that mercury depletion in the Arctic troposphere during the Polar Sunrise contributes considerably to the deposition of mercury in the Arctic.

Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Skov, H.

2004-11-01

364

Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals  

PubMed Central

Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284

Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

2013-01-01

365

Vortex soliton motion and steering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.

Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry

1996-10-01

366

Topological phase structure of vector vortex beams.  

PubMed

The topological phase acquired by vector vortex optical beams is investigated. Under local unitary operations on their polarization and transverse degrees of freedom, the vector vortices can only acquire discrete geometric phase values, 0 or ?, associated with closed paths belonging to different homotopy classes on the SO(3) manifold. These discrete values are demonstrated through interferometric measurements, and the spin-orbit mode separability is associated to the visibility of the interference patterns. The local unitary operations performed on the vector vortices involved both polarization and transverse mode transformations with birefringent wave plates and astigmatic mode converters. The experimental results agree with our theoretical simulations and generalize our previous results obtained with polarization transformations only. PMID:24979632

Souza, C E R; Huguenin, J A O; Khoury, A Z

2014-05-01

367

The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon"2 and "Airzooka."3 We will briefly discuss the uses of a vortex cannon in teaching and a new type of vortex cannon for teaching.

Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

2014-03-01

368

Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion  

PubMed Central

Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic “hole” contrasts with the generally weaker depletions observed in the warmer Arctic. An unusually cold Arctic stratospheric season occurred in 2011, raising the question of how the Arctic ozone chemistry in that year compares with others. We show that the averaged depletions near 20 km across the cold part of each pole are deeper in Antarctica than in the Arctic for all years, although 2011 Arctic values do rival those seen in less-depleted years in Antarctica. We focus not only on averages but also on extremes, to address whether or not Arctic ozone depletion can be as extreme as that observed in the Antarctic. This information provides unique insights into the contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic ozone chemistry. We show that extreme Antarctic ozone minima fall to or below 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at 18 and 20 km (about 70 and 50 mbar) whereas the lowest Arctic ozone values are about 0.5 ppmv at these altitudes. At a higher altitude of 24 km (30-mbar level), no Arctic data below about 2 ppmv have been observed, including in 2011, in contrast to values more than an order of magnitude lower in Antarctica. The data show that the lowest ozone values are associated with temperatures below ?80 °C to ?85 °C depending upon altitude, and are closely associated with reduced gaseous nitric acid concentrations due to uptake and/or sedimentation in polar stratospheric cloud particles. PMID:24733920

Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

2014-01-01

369

Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion.  

PubMed

Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic "hole" contrasts with the generally weaker depletions observed in the warmer Arctic. An unusually cold Arctic stratospheric season occurred in 2011, raising the question of how the Arctic ozone chemistry in that year compares with others. We show that the averaged depletions near 20 km across the cold part of each pole are deeper in Antarctica than in the Arctic for all years, although 2011 Arctic values do rival those seen in less-depleted years in Antarctica. We focus not only on averages but also on extremes, to address whether or not Arctic ozone depletion can be as extreme as that observed in the Antarctic. This information provides unique insights into the contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic ozone chemistry. We show that extreme Antarctic ozone minima fall to or below 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at 18 and 20 km (about 70 and 50 mbar) whereas the lowest Arctic ozone values are about 0.5 ppmv at these altitudes. At a higher altitude of 24 km (30-mbar level), no Arctic data below about 2 ppmv have been observed, including in 2011, in contrast to values more than an order of magnitude lower in Antarctica. The data show that the lowest ozone values are associated with temperatures below -80 °C to -85 °C depending upon altitude, and are closely associated with reduced gaseous nitric acid concentrations due to uptake and/or sedimentation in polar stratospheric cloud particles. PMID:24733920

Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J; Min, Flora

2014-04-29

370

Aircraft vortex marking program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

Pompa, M. F.

1979-01-01

371

Vortex attenuation flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

1977-01-01

372

Vortex sensing - An operational review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex anemometer systems considered use a vortex sensing technique to determine windspeed. An ultrasonic beam, at a frequency of approximately 150 kHz, is utilized to detect the passage of vortices created by an obstruction. The frequency of vortex formation is directly proportional to the windspeed, independent of temperature, pressure, or humidity. This frequency output is converted to an analog

D. W. Beadle

1978-01-01

373

Simulating the evolution of the chemical composition of the 1988/89 winter vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1988/89 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) observations of the chemical composition and aerosol characteristics of the winter vortex were obtained from a NASA ER-2 aircraft. In this paper we present interpretations of observations obtained on three ER-2 flights using a Lagrangian coupled photochemical-microphysical model. It is argued that observations obtained on Jaunary 16 and 19, and February 10, represent different stages of the chemical evolution of the vortex, from the early stages of chlorine release, the onset of denitrification and the intensively processed state.

Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. S.; Poole, L. R.; Solomon, S.

1990-01-01

374

Changes in Sea Ice: Antarctic vs. Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice in summer 2007, the summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover has been at the lowest levels on record, with a new record minimum seen in 2012. The steep decline occurred after years of shrinking and thinning of the ice cover not only in summer but also in other seasons. Meanwhile, satellite passive microwave images show that there has been a modest net increase in the Antarctic sea ice extent since 1979. This upward trend is caused by a significant increase in ice concentration in most of the Indian sector and parts of the Atlantic and Pacific sectors including areas in the Weddell and Ross seas, as shown by satellite ice concentration data. However, satellite data also show that ice concentration has decreased considerably in some areas in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors, particularly around the Antarctic Peninsula. This highlights the complex variability and trend patterns of the Antarctic sea ice cover. In an effort to shed light on the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover, a comparative model study is conducted to examine its variability and trends relative to the behavior of the Arctic sea ice cover over 1979-2012, using the Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (GIOMAS). We compare changes in sea ice extent, volume, motion, deformation, internal interaction, ridging, growth, and melt in both polar regions. We also explore the differences in sea ice response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the polar regions.

Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

375

Entangled transverse optical vortex.  

PubMed

We discuss a new kind of optical vortex with the angular momentum perpendicular to the flow direction and entangled in that it is a coherent combination of different orbital angular momentum states of the same sign. This entangled state exhibits many unexpected physical properties. The transverse optical vortex can be generated from the reflection of an electromagnetic wave off an array of ferrite rods. Its vorticity can be reversed by switching the direction of the magnetization of the rods, which usually takes only a nanosecond. PMID:25360971

Chui, S T; Lin, Zhifang

2014-10-01

376

Vortex pairs on surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.

Koiller, Jair [Centro de Matematica Aplicada, FGV/RJ, Praia de Botafogo 190 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22250-40 (Brazil); Boatto, Stefanella [Instituto de Matematica da UFRJ, C.P. 68530, Cidade Universitaria Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil)

2009-05-06

377

The polar caps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the most common definition, the 'polar cap' is the region bounded by the average or statistical auroral oval. Studies of the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on various upper atmospheric phenomena are reviewed. The Antarctic region and the Arctic region represent an area for such investigations. Particular attention is given in this paper to those observations in the highest latitude region which provide some information concerning corresponding changes of the internal structure of the magnetosphere. A definition and working definition of the polar cap are considered along with the IMF and magnetospheric models, the entry of solar energetic electrons, statistical studies regarding the aurora, individual events, polar cap arcs, the cusp aurora, auroral electron precipitation, convection, ionospheric currents and field-aligned currents, the ionosphere, the thermosphere, polar rain, polar wind, and hopping motions of heavy ions.

Akasofu, S.-I.

1985-01-01

378

Diffraction characteristics of optical and polarization vortices generated by an axially symmetric polarizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously developed an achromatic method for the generation of the white-light optical and polarization vortices using axially-symmetric polarizer (ASP). In the present presentation, we report the experimental study on the Fresnel diffraction characteristics of the vortices generated by ASP. The diffraction pattern of the optical vortex has a dark core whose diameter is not scaled by the beam diameter. This behavior is described by the numerical simulation for a point-like vortex at ASP. We also studied the polarization change of a radially polarized light from ASP owing to the diffraction. This change can be explained by the decomposition of the radially polarized light into a plane wave and a point-like optical vortex which are respectively circularly-polarized with opposite handedness.

Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Oka, Kazuhiko; Morita, Ryuji

2012-03-01

379

Arctic Studies Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the virtual museum exhibit. Lessons for every discipline including anthropology, archeology, biology. Downloadable publications include the center's newsletter, field reports, and staff research. Resources include FAQs and a glossary. Educator resources available (complimentary and cost-associated). Current features include a Viking exhibit, complete with artifacts, and a Yup'ik Masks exhibit, complete with audio and video. Includes information and photos of Arctic wildlife and Arctic peoples. Information on the St. Lawrence Gateways Project.

380

Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing two to seven bromines are ubiquitous in Arctic biotic and abiotic samples (from zooplankton to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and humans; air, soil, sediments). The fully brominated decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are also present in biotic and abiotic samples. Spatial trends of PBDEs and HBCD in top

Cynthia A. de Wit; Mehran Alaee; Derek C. G. Muir

2006-01-01

381

Piston cores improve understanding of deep Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent proposals for deep Arctic Ocean drilling [COMPLEX, 2000; JOIDES, 2001] are significant steps toward an eventual understanding of the geologic framework, plate kinematics, and Cretaceous and Cenozoic environmental history of the north polar ocean. Because the proposals are subject to a variety of fiscal uncertainties, however, deep drilling in the ice-covered ocean could be years away from initiation. However,

David L. Clark; Arthur Grantz

2002-01-01

382

Simulations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Denitrification Using Laboratory Freezing Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1999-2000 Arctic winter, the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) provided evidence of widespread solid-phase polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) accompanied by severe nitrification. Previous simulations have shown that a freezing process occurring at temperatures above the ice frost point is necessary to explain these observations. In this work, the nitric acid freezing rates measured by Salcedo et al. and discussed by Tabazadeh et al. have been examined. These freezing rates have been tested in winter-long microphysical simulations of the 1999-2000 Arctic vortex evolution in order to determine whether they can explain the observations. A range of cases have been explored, including whether the PSC particles are composed of nitric acid dihydrate or trihydrate, whether the freezing process is a bulk process or occurs only on the particle surfaces, and uncertainties in the derived freezing rates. Finally, the possibility that meteoritic debris enhances the freezing rate has also been examined. The results of these simulations have been compared with key PSC and denitrification measurements made by the SOLVE campaign. The cases that best reproduce the measurements will he highlighted, with a discussion of the implications for our understanding of PSCs.

Drdla, Katja; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

383

Vortex Dynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms  

E-print Network

We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in phase space as fixed points undergo saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines. We illustrate how saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines also govern the formation and evolution of embedded vortices in cerebral aneurysms under variable inflow rates during the cardiac cycle.

Byrne, Greg

2013-01-01

384

Experimental study of vortex diffusers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-11-01

385

Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.  

PubMed

Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention? PMID:22392639

Kral, Michael J

2012-06-01

386

Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

1996-04-01

387

Overview of analogue science activities at the McGill Arctic Research Station, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian High Arctic contains several of the highest fidelity Mars analogue sites in the world. Situated at nearly 80° north, Expedition Fjord on Axel Heiberg Island is located within a polar desert climate, with the surrounding landscape and conditions providing an invaluable opportunity to examine terrestrial processes in a cold, dry environment. Through the Canadian Space Agency's Analogue Research

Wayne Pollard; Tim Haltigin; Lyle Whyte; Thomas Niederberger; Dale Andersen; Christopher Omelon; Jay Nadeau; Miles Ecclestone; Martin Lebeuf

2009-01-01

388

The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

2013-12-01

389

Control of submersible vortex flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.

Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.

1990-01-01

390

Microphysical Modelling of Polar Stratospheric Clouds During the 1999-2000 Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the 1999-2000 Arctic winter has been examined using a microphysical/photochemical model run along diabatic trajectories. A large number of trajectories have been generated, filling the vortex throughout the region of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation, and extending from November until the vortex breakup, in order to provide representative sampling of the evolution of PSCs and their effect on stratospheric chemistry. The 1999-2000 winter was particularly cold, allowing extensive PSC formation. Many trajectories have ten-day periods continuously below the Type I PSC threshold; significant periods of Type II PSCs are also indicated. The model has been used to test the extent and severity of denitrification and dehydration predicted using a range of different microphysical schemes. Scenarios in which freezing only occurs below the ice frost point (causing explicit coupling of denitrification and dehydration) have been tested, as well as scenarios with partial freezing at warmer temperatures (in which denitrification can occur independently of dehydration). The sensitivity to parameters such as aerosol freezing rates and heterogeneous freezing have been explored. Several scenarios cause sufficient denitrification to affect chlorine partitioning, and in turn, model-predicted ozone depletion, demonstrating that an improved understanding of the microphysics responsible for denitrification is necessary for understanding ozone loss rates.

Drdla, Katja; Schoeberl, Mark; Rosenfield, Joan; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

391

Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

Shakerin, Said

2010-01-01

392

Micro Vortex Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in house video made to show how NASA Langley scientists have found ways to improve airplane performance. Micro Vortex Generators placed on airplane wings can reduce drag, increase lift, and reduce fuel consumption. Nice animation and real footage of planes with this technology.

2000-01-01

393

4/25/11 12:28 PMScientists: Soot may be key to rapid Arctic melt -Wandtv.com, NewsCenter17, StormCenter17, Central Illinois News-Page 1 of 3http://www.wandtv.com/story/14483043/scientists-soot-may-be-key-to-rapid-arctic-melt?clienttype=printable  

E-print Network

out, the "warming of the Arctic has implications not just for polar bears, but for the entire planet of reasons, including the threat to human health from inhaling it and the potential warming of the polar through the atmosphere, its deposit on snow and ice surfaces, and its effect on warming in the Arctic. Two

Rigor, Ignatius G.

394

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

Ortega, J M

2001-10-18