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Sample records for ardennes b-2 reactor

  1. Growth of MgB2 Films by an Impinging Jet HPCVD Reactor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborn, Daniel; Wilke, R. H. T.; Li, Qi; Xi, Xiaoxing; Snyder, D. W.; Wang, Shufang; Redwing, Joan

    2008-03-01

    An impinging jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor design was used for the growth of both thin and thick MgB2 films. This technique was able to independently control the substrate and Mg supply temperatures, and still maintained sufficient Mg overpressure to ensure phase stability. Thin films were predominantly axis oriented with the (0001) sapphire substrate while the thick films were either polycrystalline or showed preferred orientation. Thick films (˜10 μm) were deposited at a growth rate of ˜ 110 μm/hr and showed a maximum Tc of 39.8 K and residual resistivity ratio of 6.6. The thick films also showed a high Jc of 2x10^6 A/cm^2 at low applied magnetic fields even at 20 K. The results indicate that the impinging jet HPCVD configuration shows promise for coated conductor processes.

  2. Modeling of divertor geometry effects in China fusion engineering testing reactor by SOLPS/B2-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M. L.; Chen, Y. P.; Li, G. Q.; Luo, Z. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031; General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 ; Ye, M. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031 ; Tendler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is currently under design. The SOLPS/B2-Eirene code package is utilized for the design and optimization of the divertor geometry for CFETR. Detailed modeling is carried out for an ITER-like divertor configuration and one with relatively open inner divertor structure, to assess, in particular, peak power loading on the divertor target, which is a key issue for the operation of a next-step fusion machine, such as ITER and CFETR. As expected, the divertor peak heat flux greatly exceeds the maximum steady-state heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, which is a limit dictated by engineering, for both divertor configurations with a wide range of edge plasma conditions. Ar puffing is effective at reducing divertor peak heat fluxes below 10 MW/m{sup 2} even at relatively low densities for both cases, favoring the divertor configuration with more open inner divertor structure.

  3. Modeling studies of an impinging jet reactor design for hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition of superconducting MgB 2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborn, Daniel R.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Li, Qi; Xi, X. X.; Snyder, David W.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2009-03-01

    An impinging jet reactor was developed for the deposition of superconducting MgB 2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition, a technique that combines Mg evaporation with the thermal decomposition of B 2H 6 gas. A transport and chemistry model for boron film deposition from B 2H 6 was initially used to investigate the effect of carrier gas, Mg crucible temperature and gas flow rates on boron film growth rate and uniformity. The modeling studies, which were validated experimentally, demonstrated a reduction in B 2H 6 gas-phase depletion and an increased boron film growth rate using an argon carrier gas compared to hydrogen. The results were used to identify a suitable set of process conditions for MgB 2 deposition in the impinging jet reactor. The deposition of polycrystalline MgB 2 thin films that exhibited a transition temperature of 39.5 K was demonstrated at growth rates up to ˜50 μm/h.

  4. The study of MgB2/BN/MgB2 trilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Feng, Qingrong; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    MgB2/BN/MgB2 trilayer films have been fabricated by using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method for the MgB2 layers and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the BN layers in the same reactor. The films are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurements. These test outcomes indicate the trilayer films are grown without deteriorating the superconductivity of MgB2 films. Our results show that it is feasible to grow MgB2/BN/MgB2 trilayer films in the same reactor sequentially, which has the advantage of reducing contamination during the growth. This therefore opens the door for fabricating all-MgB2 Josephson junctions by using the BN film as the insulating layer.

  5. Foliar mineral composition, fertilization and dieback of Norway spruce in the Belgian Ardennes.

    PubMed

    Van Praag, H J; Weissen, F

    1986-09-01

    Needles from healthy Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at Willerzie in the West Ardennes and from trees with symptoms of dieback at Langesthal in the East Ardennes were analyzed by age class for mineral composition. Both stands were on acid oligotrophic soils. At Willerzie, needles were sampled from plots fertilized 12 to 17 years earlier (dolomitic lime plus N, P and K) as well as unfertilized plots. Effects of fertilization included increased levels of calcium, manganese, phosphorus, and copper and reduced levels of total sulfur, sulfate-S, sulfate-S:total S, potassium and aluminum. Levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and boron were low at both sites and, at Langesthal, calcium and magnesium may have been deficient. Sulfur level was normal at Willerzie, but at Langesthal, mean sulfur content for needles of all age classes was 198 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight, a level that may be toxic. In older needles, the N:S ratio at Langesthal was below the threshold value of eight reported to be necessary for healthy growth. Other symptoms of stress observed were high sulfate-S:total S and nitrate-N:total N ratios. At Langesthal, manganese level was probably adequate although only one-fifth the level at Willerzie. Levels of aluminum and iron were very high at both sites. Most of the iron and much of the aluminum occurred as a surface deposit that could be removed by washing the needles in chloroform. PMID:14975893

  6. Evaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile; Petit, François

    2015-12-01

    In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages.

  7. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2011-04-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium) that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  8. Spatial variability in channel and slope morphology within the Ardennes Massif, and its link with tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2010-09-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 years. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This work focuses on a wide range of slope and river channel morphometric indices to study their behavior and strength in regions affected by low to moderate tectonic activity. We selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm year-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our data indicate that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronous, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  9. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  10. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Eeckhaut, M. Van; Marre, A.; Poesen, J.

    2010-02-01

    The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne-Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA - Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. With regard to the variables assumed to be important environmental factors controlling landslides, the two models are in agreement. They both indicate that present and future landslides are mainly controlled by slope gradient and lithology. However, the comparison of the two landslide susceptibility maps through (1) an evaluation with the location of mapped 'old' landslides and through (2) a temporal validation with spatial data of 'recent' (1960-1999; n = 48) and 'very recent' (2000-2008; n = 46) landslides showed a better prediction capacity for the statistical model produced in this study compared to the heuristic model. In total, the statistically-derived landslide susceptibility map succeeded in correctly classifying 81.0% of the 'old' and 91.6% of the 'recent' and 'very recent' landslides. On the susceptibility map

  11. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  12. Present day and geologic deformation rates in the Ardenne and the lower Rhine embayment (North-western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vanneste, K.; Warnant, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the Roer Graben and the Belgian Ardenne, there is a difference of an order of magnitude in the inferred vertical crustal movements deduced on one side from geological information (0.1 mm/yr) and on the other side from repeated levellings since the end of the 19th century (~1 mm/yr). We present a new analysis of the repeated levellings: generally, they are not significant enough to infer actual vertical ground displacements. We also reconsider the interpretation of the significant measurements with crustal movements: observed vertical movements in areas with a thick cover of unconsolidated sediments, which is generally the case in the Roer Valley Graben, can be related to the local geological conditions rather than to true crustal movements. An example is the man-made subsidence induced by water pumping to prevent large open-cast mines in Germany from being flooded, observed by repeated levellings, GPS, INSAR and gravity measurements. To measure the present crustal deformations for the interpretation of the slip rates along the active-faults in the Lower-Rhine Embayment, we have performed two very-long-term experiments. First, continuous measurements of the movements across the Feldbiss fault have been recorded by two GPS permanent stations (Bree &Meeuwen) on either side of the fault since 1997. No observable relative vertical (horizontal resp.) movement larger than 0.5 mm/yr (0.3 mm/yr resp.) has been observed for the last 5 years. These values are already less than the results deduced from repeated levellings. Secondly, since 1999, we undertook a series of biannual campaigns of absolute gravity measurements (AG) along an 8-station profile running over 140 km across the Ardenne and the Roer valley rift system. We present the first results and they show that, in all the stations but Jülich, there is no detectable gravity rate of change larger than 2 µGal/yr. This is equivalent to an uplift of 10 mm/yr, using a deformational gradient of -0.2 µGal/mm. J

  13. GPS monitoring of vertical ground motion in northern Ardenne Eifel: five campaigns (1999 2003) of the HARD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Campbell, J.; Wulf, A. De.; Muls, A.; Arnould, R.; Görres, B.; Fischer, D.; Kötter, T.; Brondeel, M.; Damme, D. Van.; Jacqmotte, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    We present the HARD project of GPS monitoring of vertical ground motion in NE Ardenne and Eifel (western Europe). Its main purposes are to get a better insight into the present-day rates of vertical ground motion in intraplate settings and to identify the various causes of these motions. Since 1999, we have carried out yearly campaigns of simultaneous GPS measurements at 12 sites situated so as to sample the different tectonic subunits of the study area and especially to record potential displacements across the seismogenic Hockai fault zone. Five campaigns (1999 2003) have been processed currently. Key issues of the data processing with the Gamit software are discussed and first results are presented. Though temporally consistent in many cases, the obtained vertical motion rates are spatially highly variable. They are also much too high (several mm/year) to support a tectonic interpretation, and a long-term influence of groundwater level variations is proposed to account for the observed motions. This influence should be distinguished from seasonal variations and from inter-survey variations linked to the varying degree of soil and subsoil drying off during the successive spring surveys.

  14. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  15. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  16. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the High-Ardenne slate belt, part of the Rhenohercynian external fold-and-thrust belt at the northern extremity of the Late Palaeozoic Variscan orogen (Belgium, Germany, France), particular quartz vein occurrences can be observed in predominantly fine-grained siliciclastic metasediments. Detailed structural, petrographical and geochemical studies has revealed that these vein occurrences can be related to a mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a low-grade metamorphic mid-crustal environment. The first type of quartz veins are bedding-perpendicular, lens-shaped extension veins that are confined to the sandstone layers within the multilayer sequence. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrate high fluid pressures suggesting that the individual sandstone bodies acted as isolated high-pressure compartments in an overpressured basin. Hydraulic fracturing occurred during the tectonic inversion (from extension to compression) in the earliest stages of the Variscan orogeny. The vein fill shows a blocky character indicating crystal growth in open cavities. Both the typical lens shape of the veins and the subsequent cuspate-lobate folding of the bed interfaces in between the quartz veins suggest plastic deformation of cohesionless fluid-filled fissures. Metamorphic grade of the host rock and fluid temperature and pressure clearly indicates mid-crustal conditions below the brittle-plastic transition. This first type of quartz veins exemplifies mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour, possibly related to a transient deepening of the brittle-plastic transition. This is in contrast with contemporaneous bedding-perpendicular crack-seal veins observed in higher - upper-crustal - structural levels in the slate belt, reflecting pure brittle deformation behaviour. The second type are discordant quartz veins confined to extensional low-angle detachment shear zones. These very irregular veins transect a pre-existing pervasive cleavage fabric. They show no matching walls and

  17. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Hallot, E.

    2009-09-01

    A good evaluation of the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish shield is a key element for the understanding of the Cenozoic geodynamics of the western European platform in front of the alpine arc. Previous maps of the massif uplift relied on fluvial incision data since the time of the rivers' Younger Main Terrace to infer a maximum post-0.73 Ma uplift of ~ 290 m in the SE Eifel. Here, we propose a new interpretation of the incision data of the intra-massif streams, where anomalies in the terrace profiles would result from knickpoint retreat in the tributaries of the main rivers rather than from tectonic deformation. We also use additional geomorphological data referring to (1) deformed Tertiary planation surfaces, (2) the history of stream piracy that severely affected the Meuse basin in the last 1 Ma, and (3) incision data outside the Rhenish shield. A new map of the post-0.73 Ma uplift of the Rhenish shield is drawn on the basis of this enlarged dataset. It reduces the maximum amount of tectonic uplift in the SE Eifel to ~ 140 m and modifies the general shape of the uplift, namely straightening its E-W profile. It is also suggested that an uplift wave migrated across the massif, starting from its southern margin in the early Pleistocene and currently showing the highest intensity of uplift in the northern Ardennes and Eifel. These features seem to favour an uplift mechanism chiefly related to lithospheric folding and minimize the impact on the topography of a more local Eifel plume.

  19. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  20. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  14. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  15. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The system conteraplates ohmically heating a gas to high temperatures such as are useful in thermonuclear reactors of the stellarator class. To this end the gas is ionized and an electric current is applied to the ionized gas ohmically to heat the gas while the ionized gas is confined to a central portion of a reaction chamber. Additionally, means are provided for pumping impurities from the gas and for further heating the gas. (AEC)

  16. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  17. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals and to follow the procedures declared by...

  18. Assessing the Economic Cost of Landslide Damage in Low-Relief Regions: Case Study Evidence from the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranken, L.; Van Turnhout, P.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Vantilt, G.; Poesen, J.

    2012-04-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk to incur damage from landslides. These landslides cause significant structural and functional damage to public and private buildings and infrastructure. Numerous studies investigated how natural factors and human activities control the (re-)activation of landslides. However, few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium), a low-relief region (area=ca. 700 km2) susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants (e.g. from the technical services from the various towns), or with the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, we have quantitatively estimated the direct and indirect damage induced by landsliding and this for a 10 to 30 year period (depending on the type of infrastructure or buildings). Economic damage to public infrastructure and buildings was estimated for the entire region, while for private damage 10 cases with severe to small damage were quantified. For example, in the last 10 year, costs of road repair augmented to 814 560 €. Costs to repair damaged roads that have not yet been repaired, were estimated at 669 318 €. In the past 30 years, costs of measures to prevent road damage augmented to at least 14 872 380 €. More than 90% of this budget for preventive measures was spent 30 years ago, when an important freeway was damaged and had to be repaired. These preventive measures (building a grout wall and improving the drainage system) were effective as no further damage has been reported until present. To repair and prevent damage to waterworks and sewage systems, expenditures amounted to 551 044 € and this for the last 30 years. In the past 10 years, a new railway line

  19. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE... Application. This part applies to each recipient of Federal financial assistance from the Department...

  20. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and... 3-year intervals thereafter, as redefined in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of General... the immediately preceding 3-year period. (f) Administrative Governor means the Board member serving...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  2. A TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF Sgr B2

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Zheng, X. W.; Xu, Y.

    2009-11-10

    We have measured the positions of H{sub 2}O masers in Sgr B2, a massive star-forming region in the Galactic center, relative to an extragalactic radio source with the Very Long Baseline Array. The positions measured at 12 epochs over a time span of one year yield the trigonometric parallax of Sgr B2 and hence a distance to the Galactic center of R {sub 0} = 7.9{sup +0.8} {sub -0.7} kpc. The proper motion of Sgr B2 relative to Sgr A* suggests that Sgr B2 is approx0.13 kpc nearer than the Galactic center, assuming a low-eccentricity Galactic orbit.

  3. 12 CFR 261b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in 5 U.S.C. 551(1). (h) Committee means the Action Committee established pursuant to 12 CFR 265.1a... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following... member of the Board designated to serve on that subdivision. (f) The term public observation means...

  4. B2-Eirene modelling of ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, D. P.; Schneider, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Bosch, H.-S.; Wunderlich, R.; Fuchs, C.; Mast, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Becker, G.; Braams, B. J.; Reiter, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1997-02-01

    The extension of the computational region of the coupled fluid plasma, Monte-Carlo neutrals code, B2-Eirene, to the plasma center is discussed. The simulation of completely detached H-mode plasma is presented, as is the modelling of He and Ne compression.

  5. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  6. The B2 aluminides as alternative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of the B2 aluminides as structural material alternatives for the strategic element containing superalloys currently used in gas turbine engines is being explored with emphasis on the equiatomic Fe and Ni aluminides. Although Co is a strategic material, the equiatomic Co aluminide is also being studied to gain a more complete understanding of these fourth period intermetallics. Research focuses on initial processing techniques such as ingot melting, power metallurgy, and rapid solidification with and without additional thermomechanical processing; high temperature deformation - primarily compressive creep; compositional effects within the binary B2 aluminides; third-element alloying addition effects on high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, and near room temperature ductility as influenced by processing, alloying, and grain size. Various programs now underway are reviewed and some highlights of research results are presented.

  7. HCl absorption toward Sagittarius B2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.; Blake, G. A.; Carlstrom, J.; Keene, J.; Miller, D.

    1995-01-01

    We have detected the 626 GHz J = 1 approaches 0 transition of hydrogen chloride (H(sup 35)Cl) in absorption against the blending of the three hyperfine components of this transition by the velocity profile of Sgr B2 observed in other species. The apparent optical depth of the line is tau approximately equal to 1, and the minimum HCl column density is 1.6 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm. A detailed radiative transfer model was constructed which includes collisional and radiative excitation, absorption and emission by dust, and the radial variation of temperature and density. Good agreement between the model and the data is obtained for HCl/H2 approximately 1.1 x 10(exp -9). Comparison of this result to chemical models indicates that the depletion factor of gas-phase chlorine is between 50-180 in the molecular envelope surrounding the SgrB2(N) and (M) dust cores.

  8. Transpressional deformations at lateral boundaries of propagating thrust-sheets: the example of the Meuse Valley Recess within the Ardennes Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (N France S Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacquement, F.; Averbuch, O.; Mansy, J.-L.; Szaniawski, R.; Lewandowski, M.

    2005-10-01

    The 3D kinematics of the fold-thrust structures within the Meuse Valley Recess (MVR) (Ardennes Variscan thrust belt, N France-S Belgium) have been investigated using an integrated approach combining geological mapping, cross-section analyses and studies of magnetic fabrics and paleomagnetic data at a total of 52 sites distributed within the study area. Fold-thrust geometries, strain distribution and thrust-sheet rotational patterns lead to a conceptual structural model illustrating natural deformation processes at lateral boundaries of propagating thrust-sheets. The MVR is shown to result from distributed transpressional deformation of the Ardennes Basal Thrust hanging wall above a buried lateral/oblique ramp inherited from the Lower-Middle Devonian extensional tectonics of the sedimentary wedge. This deep lateral/oblique discontinuity basically controls the thickness and basal friction of the Ardennes thrust wedge, thus resulting in contrasting thrust propagation west and east of the MVR. Out-of-plane strain within the transfer zone includes some varying components of normal-to-bedding shear and lateral shortening depending on the proximity with the buried lateral discontinuity. A gradient of lateral shortening is evidenced towards this discontinuity, thus acting as a buttress zone. We emphasize the high friction conditions prevailing along the lateral borders of the thrust sheets, which potentially result in drag effects during foreland-directed thrust propagation. Such additional shear strain is suggested to be accommodated by late pervasive thrust-sheet rotation and lateral broadening of the deformed zone subsequent to oblique folding close to the lateral/oblique boundary.

  9. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollsteiner, P.; Bessiere, H.; Nicolas, J.; Allier, D.; Berthet, O.

    2015-04-01

    This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with annual cycles, used in these examples, are supposed to be representative of the aquifer hydro-dynamics. Except for multi-annual systems, the analysis between discharge measurements at a hydrometric station and groundwater levels measured at a piezometer representative of the main aquifer, leads to relatively precise and satisfactory relationships within a chalky context. These relationships may be useful for monitoring, validation, extension or reconstruction of the low water flow data. On the one hand, they allow definition of the piezometric levels corresponding to the different alert thresholds of river discharges. On the other hand, they clarify the proportions of low surface water flow from runoff or drainage of the aquifer. Finally, these correlations give an assessment of the minimum flow for the coming weeks. However, these correlations cannot be used to optimize the value of the exploitable water resource because it seems to be difficult to integrate the value of the effective rainfall that could occur during the draining period. Moreover, in the case of multi-annual systems, the solution is to attempt a comprehensive system modelling and, if it is satisfactory, using the simulated values to get rid of parasites or running the model for forecasting purposes.

  10. Anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibodies and ErbB-2-directed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yip, Yum L; Ward, Robyn L

    2002-01-01

    The tumour antigen ErbB-2 belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Numerous studies have shown that ErbB-2 is overexpressed in many cancers and it is prognostically important in a subset of malignancies. It is well recognised that this receptor has many characteristics that make it an excellent target for tumour-specific immunotherapy. One anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody, Herceptin or TrastuzuMab, has already shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, despite this success, it is still currently unclear how monoclonal antibodies inhibit tumour growth in vivo. This review will summarise the biological activities of a range of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs, as well as their possible mechanisms of action. In addition, as an active mode of immunotherapy, the current vaccine strategies for inducing or enhancing ErbB-2-specific immunity will also be discussed. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the activities of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs will aid in the development of both passive and active immunotherapies against this important receptor. PMID:11807621

  11. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  12. Chooz A, First Pressurized Water Reactor to be Dismantled in France - 13445

    SciTech Connect

    Boucau, Joseph; Mirabella, C.; Nilsson, Lennart; Kreitman, Paul J.; Obert, Estelle

    2013-07-01

    Nine commercial nuclear power plants have been permanently shut down in France to date, of which the Chooz A plant underwent an extensive decommissioning and dismantling program. Chooz Nuclear Power Station is located in the municipality of Chooz, Ardennes region, in the northeast part of France. Chooz B1 and B2 are 1,500 megawatt electric (MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) currently in operation. Chooz A, a 305 MWe PWR implanted in two caves within a hill, began operations in 1967 and closed in 1991, and will now become the first PWR in France to be fully dismantled. EDF CIDEN (Engineering Center for Dismantling and Environment) has awarded Westinghouse a contract for the dismantling of its Chooz A reactor vessel (RV). The project began in January 2010. Westinghouse is leading the project in a consortium with Nuvia France. The project scope includes overall project management, conditioning of the reactor vessel (RV) head, RV and RV internals segmentation, reactor nozzle cutting for lifting the RV out of the pit and seal it afterwards, dismantling of the RV thermal insulation, ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) forecast to ensure acceptable doses for the personnel, complementary vacuum cleaner to catch the chips during the segmentation work, needs and facilities, waste characterization and packaging, civil work modifications, licensing documentation. The RV and RV internals will be segmented based on the mechanical cutting technology that Westinghouse applied successfully for more than 13 years. The segmentation activities cover the cutting and packaging plan, tooling design and qualification, personnel training and site implementation. Since Chooz A is located inside two caves, the project will involve waste transportation from the reactor cave through long galleries to the waste buffer area. The project will end after the entire dismantling work is completed, and the waste storage is outside the caves and ready to be shipped either to the ANDRA (French

  13. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  14. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  15. A bispecific anti-ErbB2 antibody potently induces ErbB2 internalization and suppresses ErbB2-overexpressing tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Lingfei; Chong, Xiaodan; Yu, Xiaojie; Meng, Yanchun; Dong, Jian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Huajing; Yang, Yang; Xia, Tian; Zhao, Jian; Li, Bohua

    2016-09-01

    The anti-ErbB2 humanized antibody trastuzumab was approved for ErbB2-positive metastatic gastric and gastro-esophageal junction cancer in 2010. Despite the effectiveness of trastuzumab, its efficacy remains variable and often modest. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve ErbB2-targeting therapy. Down-regulation of surface receptors induced by monoclonal antibody (mAb) contributes to its antitumor efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that if two anti-ErbB2 mAbs did not compete with each other for binding to ErbB2, the combination of them can enhance ErbB2 internalization. In the present study, we investigated ErbB2 internalization-inducing ability of non-competitive anti-ErbB2 mAb combinations and surprisingly found that most of the mAb combinations tested did not down-regulate ErbB2. Only 4 of 18 non-competitive mAb pairs efficiently induced ErbB2 internalization. Interestingly, although the non-competitive anti-ErbB2 mAbs trastuzumab and pertuzumab, either alone or in combination, were ineffective at inducing ErbB2 internalization, TPL, a bispecific antibody engineered from trastuzumab and pertuzumab, potently down-regulated the ErbB2 molecule. Importantly, TPL exhibited a far greater antitumor effect on ErbB2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell line than trastuzumab plus pertuzumab, suggesting that it may be a promising agent for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27363335

  16. Effect of beaver dams on the hydrology of small mountain streams: Example from the Chevral in the Ourthe Orientale basin, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, J.; Pontzeele, J.; Billi, P.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryThe European beaver ( Castor fiber) was recently reintroduced to Belgium, after an absence of more than 150 years; around 120 beaver dam systems have been established. In Europe, few studies consider the hydrological effects of those dams, and the spatial scale larger than that of one beaver pond system has not been addressed at all. This research focuses on the hydrological effects of a series of six beaver dams on the Chevral R., a second order tributary of the Ourthe Orientale R. in a forested area of the Ardennes. Thereby, also the Ourthe Orientale sub-basin itself was taken into account, being the area with probably the highest density of beaver dams in Belgium. The main research questions regarded: (1) the extent to which discharge peaks are reduced at the very location and well downstream of beaver dams and (2) the impact of the beaver dams on low flows. The first approach consisted of a temporal analysis of the Ourthe Orientale discharge and precipitation data for the periods 1978-2003 (before) and 2004-2009 (after the establishment of beaver dams in the sub-basin). The second study determined the in situ impact of the beaver dams: discharges were measured (September 2009-March 2010) upstream as well as downstream of the 0.52 ha beaver dam system on the Chevral river, and changes in water level within the system of six dams were monitored. Our findings indicate that there is a significant lowering of discharge peaks in the downstream river reaches due to the effect of the beaver dams. The temporal analysis of the Ourthe Orientale sub-basin shows an increase in the recurrence interval for major floods; for instance, the recurrence interval of a reference flood of 60 m 3 s -1 increased from 3.4 years to 5.6 years since the establishment of the beaver dams. At the scale of the Chevral beaver dams' site, we measured that the dams top off the peak flows, in addition delaying them by approximately 1 day. There are also increased low flows: Q355 (i.e. the

  17. Warm Water Vapor around Sagittarius B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernicharo, José; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Pardo, Juan R.; Asensio-Ramos, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    Several condensations heated externally by nearby hot stars are present in the Sgr B2 region for which H2O far-IR lines are expected to probe only an external low-density and high temperature section. Millimeter-wave lines can penetrate deeper into them (higher densities and lower Tk). We have conducted a study combining H2O lines in both spectral regions using the ISO (far-IR lines) and the IRAM 30 m telescope (183 GHz line). The far-IR H2O lines, seen in absorption, are optically thick. They form in the outermost gas in front of the far-IR continuum sources, probing a maximum visual extinction of ~5-10 mag. IR photons from the dust play a dominant role in their excitation. We conclude, based on observations of the CO J=7-6 line at 806.65 GHz, and the lack of emission from the far-IR CO lines, that the gas density has to be below ~104 cm-3. Using the gas kinetic temperature and density derived from OH, CO, and other molecular species, we derive a water column density of (9+/-3)×1016 cm-2 in the absorbing gas, implying an abundance of ~=(1-2)×10-5 in this region. The resulting relatively low H2O/OH abundance ratio, ~=2-4, is a signature of UV photon-dominated surface layers traced by far-IR observations. As a consequence, the temperature of the absorbing gas is high, Tk~=300-500 K, which allows very efficient neutral-neutral reactions producing H2O and OH. Finally, the 183.31 GHz data allow one to trace the inner, denser (n(H2)>=105-106 cm-3), and colder (Tk~40 K) gas. The emission is very strong toward the cores with an estimated water vapor abundance of a few × 10-7. There is also moderate extended emission around Sgr B2 main condensations, in agreement with the water vapor abundance derived from far-IR H2O lines. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with participation of ISAS and NASA.

  18. Thermal defects in B2 iron aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.S.; Peng, L.S.J.; Wei, M.

    1999-07-01

    Thermal defects in B2 FeAl samples with compositions between 49.5 and 54.7 at.% Fe were investigated using perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Vacancies on the Fe-sublattice were detected through quadrupole interactions induced at adjacent {sup 111}In/Cd probe atoms on the Al-sublattice. Five high-frequency quadrupole-interaction signals were detected (greater than 50 Mrad/s) that are attributed to complexes involving 1, 2, 3, 4 and (with less certainty) 5 Fe-vacancies in the first neighbor shells of the probes. These attribution are based on (1) a comparison between measured quadrupole interaction parameters and point-charge calculations of electric-field gradients for possible vacancy-probe complexes; and (2) numerical simulation of the evolution of site fractions of probes in the complexes at lower temperatures. Measurements were made at temperatures up to 950 C. Assuming that the equilibrium high-temperature is the triple defect (2 Fe-vacancies and one Fe-antisite atom), measurements over the range 600--900 C yield a formation enthalpy of 1.1(1) eV for the triple defect. Below about 600 C, Fe-vacancies are quenched-in with a fractional concentration of the order of 1 at.% close to stoichiometry. However, quenched-in vacancies continue to jump over short distances and trap next to the impurity probes atoms in day-long measurements down to 200 C. Simulations of site fractions below 700 C were used to determine binding enthalpies of vacancies with probe complexes. Binding enthalpies obtained for the first four vacancies were 0.23, 0.23, 0.15 and 0.18 eV. Simulations in the range 200--700 C suggest a negative value for the formation entropy. The negative value indicates either that triple defects stiffen the B2 lattice or that repulsive defect-defect interactions become important at the high defect concentrations in FeAl.

  19. Modeling studies of the chemical vapor deposition of boron films from B 2H 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborn, Daniel R.; Snyder, David W.; Xi, X. X.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2007-02-01

    The effect of growth conditions on the chemical vapor deposition of boron thin films from diborane (B 2H 6) was investigated using a combination of experimental studies and computational fluid dynamics-based reactor modeling. A multi-physics computational model was developed to simulate the thermal-fluid environment in the reactor. The proposed chemistry model incorporated into the simulations includes gas-phase decomposition and formation of B 2H 6 and surface adsorption and reaction of borane (BH 3). The model accurately predicts the experimentally measured temperature and partial pressure dependence of the boron growth rate using the sticking coefficient of BH 3 on the growth surface as the only adjustable parameter in the calculations. The results indicate that at lower growth temperatures (<500 °C) the boron growth rate is limited by gas-phase kinetics while at higher temperatures (>500 °C) the growth rate is limited by mass transfer of BH 3 to the substrate surface. The studies of boron thin film growth are relevant to the deposition of superconducting MgB 2 thin films, in which B 2H 6 is used as the boron precursor.

  20. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets...

  1. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets...

  3. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required....

  4. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required....

  5. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-2 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 48.4161(b)-2 Section 48.4161(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-2 Meaning of terms....

  6. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  7. B2(BO)6 0/- and B 2(BS) 6 0/- doubly bridged structures containing BO or BS as ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian

    2014-09-01

    The investigation on the geometrical and electronic properties of B(2)(BO)(6) (0/-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (0/-) has been performed by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and BP86 methods. The chemical bonding in B(2)A(6) (A = H, BO, and BS) series is elucidated through the recently developed adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP). D(2h) B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) were found to possess two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups, as well as four terminal BO or BS groups that are analogs of diborane B(2)H(6). D(2)h B(2)(BO)(6) (-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (-) with two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups which are more stable than their corresponding D(3d) structures. The binding energy of B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) with respect to B(2)(BO)(6) (D2h) → 2B(BO)(3) (D(3h)) and B(2)(BS)(6)(D(2h)) → 2B(BS)(3) (D(3h)) are estimated to be (△)E = 19.8 and 40.6 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)//B3LYP level, respectively. This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:25159274

  8. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  9. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  10. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-01-01

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  11. Superconducting gap parameters of MgB 2 obtained on MgB 2/Ag and MgB 2/In junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plecenik, A.; Beňačka, Š.; Kúš, P.; Grajcar, M.

    2002-03-01

    MgB 2 superconducting wires with the critical temperature Tc approaching 40 K were used for the preparation of MgB 2/Ag and MgB 2/In junctions. The differential conductance vs. voltage characteristics of N-S junctions exhibit a clear contribution of the Andreev reflection. Using a modified BTK theory for s-wave superconductors two order parameters Δdirty≈4 meV and Δ3D≈2.6 meV were determined from the temperature dependencies. Surprisingly, the larger order parameter Δdirty vanishes at a lower temperature T c dirty≈20 K compared with the smaller one Δ3D with Tc≈38 K. Both the magnitudes of the order parameters and their critical temperatures are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of electron-phonon coupling in MgB 2 carried out by Liu et al. [cond-mat/0103570 (2001)].

  12. Unusual behaviour of (Np,Pu)B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, Tomasz; Boulet, Pascal; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Bauer, Ernst; Falmbigl, Matthias; Rogl, Peter; Wastin, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Two transuranium metal boron carbides, NpB2C and PuB2C have been synthesized by argon arc melting. The crystal structures of the {Np,Pu}B2C compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray data to be isotypic with the ThB2C-type (space group ?, a = 0.6532(2) nm; c = 1.0769(3) nm for NpB2C and a = 0.6509(2) nm; c = 1.0818(3) nm for PuB2C; Z = 9). Physical properties have been derived from polycrystalline bulk material in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering for NpB2C with a Neel temperature TN = 68 K. PuB2C is a Pauli paramagnet most likely due to a strong hybridization of s(p,d) electrons with the Pu-5f states. A pseudo-gap, as concluded from the Sommerfeld value and the electronic transport, is thought to be a consequence of the hybridization. The magnetic behaviour of {Np,Pu}B2C is consistent with the criterion of Hill.

  13. Compton profile study of ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, V.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, G.; Sharma, B. K.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Compton profile of ZrB2. The theoretical Compton profile of ZrB2 is computed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). To compare the spherically averaged theoretical values, the measurement on polycrystalline ZrB2 is performed using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from an 241Am radioisotope. To estimate the charge transfer in ZrB2, ionic model based calculations have also been performed which suggest transfer of electron from Zr to B atoms.

  14. Structural requirements for ErbB2 transactivation.

    PubMed

    Penuel, E; Schaefer, G; Akita, R W; Sliwkowski, M X

    2001-12-01

    ErbB2 is a unique member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases that is distinguished by the fact that no ligand has yet been identified. Due to the absence of an ErbB2 ligand, alternative mechanisms are used for ErbB2 activation. As such, when ErbB2 is overexpressed, kinase activation occurs in the absence of ligand because of constitutive homodimerization. However, at normal expression levels ErbB2 acts as the shared coreceptor for the ErbB family, and these heterodimeric complexes are activated in response to the partner ligand. While the extracellular domain and transmembrane domains are necessary for ErbB2 transactivation, the carboxy terminus is also required. Specifically, ligand-dependent ErbB2 transactivation requires a discrete three-amino-acid segment, located at the C-terminus of ErbB family members ErbB3, ErbB4, and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Transactivation of ErbB2 via the three-amino-acid segment likely represents a conserved mechanism for regulated signaling by the ErbB family of receptors. PMID:11774204

  15. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2 - Employees' account numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employees' account numbers. 31.6011(b)-2 Section 31.6011(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Administrative Provisions of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  17. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  18. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  20. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2 - Employees' account numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employees' account numbers. 31.6011(b)-2... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-2 Employees' account numbers. (a) Requirement of... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day has neither secured an account number nor...

  1. CRADA Final Report: ErbB2 Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    SciTech Connect

    Lupu, Ruth

    2002-08-27

    The aim of the study was to design novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of carcinomas which overexpress the erbB-2 oncogene product and/or the activator (HRG). erbB-2 is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, that overexpression of which in invasive breast, prostate, ovarian and lung carcinomas correlates with poor prognosis and poor overall survival. In breast carcinomas, erbB-2 is overexpressed in 25%-30% of the invasive phenotype and in 70% of ductal carcinomas in situ. On the other hand, the erbB-2 activator, heregulin (HRG) is expressed in about 30% of invasive breast carcinomas and it is highly expressed in other carcinoIl1as including, ovarian, lung, and prostate. Interestingly, only 6% of invasive breast carcinomas co-express both HRG and erbB-2. It is known today that tumors that overexpress erbB-2 are a leading cause of death, making erbB-2 and its activator HRG critical targets for therapy. Targeting both the receptors and the activator would be beneficial for a significant number of cancer patients. At the final stages of the project we had obtained significant improvements over the peptide quality but not significant improvements were made towards the generation of humanized monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Substitution of Mn for Mg in MgB_2*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael D.; Johnston, David C.; Miller, Lance L.; Hill, Julienne M.

    2002-03-01

    The study of solid solutions in which the Mg in MgB2 is partially replaced by magnetic 3d or 4f atoms can potentially reveal important information on the superconducting state of MgB_2. As an end-member of the hypothetical Mg_1-xMn_xB2 system, MnB2 is isostructural with MgB2 and is an antiferromagnet below TN = 760 K which becomes canted at 157 K. A previous study by Moritomo et al.[1] examined the structure and properties of multi-phase samples with 0.01<= x<= 0.15. We attempted to obtain single-phase samples with x<= 0.25 by reacting the constituent elements in sealed Ta tubes and/or using prereacted MnBx synthesized using an arc furnace. The results of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements on those samples will be presented. * Supported by the USDOE under contract no. W-7405-Eng-82. [1] "Mn-substitution effects on MgB2 superconductor", Y.Moritomo et al. J. Phys. Soc. Japan b70, 1889 (2001).; “Effects of transition metal doping in MgB2 superconductor", Y. Moritomo at al. arXiv:cond-mat/0104568.

  3. MISR Level 1B2 Terrain Data (MI1B2T_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Terrain data are re-projected to the terrain altitude. In this product, surface data from all cameras will appear in the same geographic location. Thus, this product is the primary input to Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, which requires co-registration of the L1B2 imagery at the surface. Clouds will still be displaced due to their elevation above the surface, but this time with respect to the terrain rather than the ellipsoid. (The mountain location T is now assigned the geographic location at T, and the Cloud at F appears at the geographic location T.) In Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, algorithms are applied to screen out the clouds. Terrain data only exist for MISR blocks containing some land. [Location=GLOBAL LAND] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track).; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  4. The role of TiB2 in strengthening TiB2 reinforced aluminium casting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Kang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, T.

    2016-03-01

    With an aim of developing high quality in situ TiB2 reinforced aluminium foundry alloy based composites, the conventional direct synthesis method was modified into a two-step route. In step one we optimized the halide salt route to fabricate in situ TiB2 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites and in step two we investigated the effects of the Al-5wt.% TiB2 composite, as a “master composite”, on strengthening the practical foundry alloys. The in situ formed TiB2 particles play two roles while strengthening the composites: (1) The grain refinement effect that improves the quality of the alloy matrix; and (2) The interactions between the hard particulates and the matrix add extra increment to the material strength. In different alloy systems, TiB2 may play distinct roles in these two aspects (figure 1). Further analysis of the strengthening mechanisms shows that particle agglomeration behaviour during solidification is responsible for the latter one. The present work details the role of TiB2 in strengthening TiB2 reinforced aluminium casting composites.

  5. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  6. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-26

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson. PMID:17995320

  7. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  8. Ubiquitous transposon-like repeats B1 and B2 of the mouse genome: B2 sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Krayev, A S; Markusheva, T V; Kramerov, D A; Ryskov, A P; Skryabin, K G; Bayev, A A; Georgiev, G P

    1982-01-01

    Mouse genome contains two major families of short interspersed repeats in more than 10(5) copies scattered throughout the whole genome. They are referred to as B1 and B2 sequences since they were first isolated from the genome library by means of a dsRNA-B probe /1/. In this work, two copies of the B2 family were sequenced and compared with the previously sequenced B1 repeat /2/. A B2 ubiquitous repeat is ca. 190 bp long. The members of the family deviate in 3-5% of nucleotides from the consensus sequence. B2 contains regions of homology to the RNA polymerase III split promoter and to 4.5S snRNA I. Both B1 and B2 contain regions which resemble junctions between exons and introns. In contrast to B1, B2 does not contain apparent homologies to papova viral replication origins and a human Alu sequence. One side of the B2 repeat is represented by a very AT-rich sequence (ca. 30 bp long) followed with an oligo (dA) stretch 10-15 nucleotides long. This region of the repeat is the most variable one. The whole unit is flanked with 15-16 bp direct repeats different in sequenced copies of B2. The same is true of some copies of the B1 family. The properties of B1 and B2 repeats suggest that they may represent a novel class of transposon-like elements in eukaryotic genome. A possible role of B-type repeats in genome reorganization, DNA replication and pre-mRNA processing is discussed. PMID:6296779

  9. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 C and cooling in vacuo down to 225 C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2 2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276 426 C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  10. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  11. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  12. The compressibility of high purity YbB2.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, B; Suzer, S; Ozdas, E

    2012-08-29

    The compressibility and phase stability of Y bB(2) are investigated under high pressure using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The bulk modules of high purity Y bB(2) is obtained as ∼182 GPa using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The patterns measured up to 20 GPa and the pressure dependence of normalized lattice parameters, a/a(0) and c/c(0), reveal that the compressibility of Y bB(2) is low and fairly isotropic, and this material can be classified as a hard material. X-ray photoemission studies demonstrate that Yb in Y bB(2) has a mostly trivalent valence state at room temperature. Moreover, sample preparation details provide a new insight into the high purity synthesis of Y bB(2) at ambient pressure and moderate temperatures. The presented structural and compressibility results are in agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data on binary rare-earth borides and can serve as a reliable reference for future studies. PMID:22850355

  13. Expanding Interprofessional EHR Data in i2b2.

    PubMed

    Westra, Bonnie L; Christie, Beverly; Johnson, Steven G; Pruinelli, Lisiane; LaFlamme, Anne; Park, Jung In; Sherman, Suzan G; Byrne, Matthew D; Ranallo, Piper; Speedie, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Emerging issues of team-based care, precision medicine, and big data science underscore the need for health information technology (HIT) tools for integrating complex data in consistent ways to achieve the triple aims of improving patient outcomes, patient experience, and cost reductions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a hierarchical flowsheet ontology in i2b2 using data-derived information models and determine the underlying informatics and technical issues. This study is the first of its kind to use information models that aggregate team-based care across time, disciplines, and settings into 14 information models that were integrated into i2b2 in a hierarchical model. In the process of successfully creating a hierarchical ontology for flowsheet data in i2b2, we uncovered a variety of informatics and technical issues described in this paper. PMID:27570680

  14. Expanding Interprofessional EHR Data in i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Bonnie L.; Christie, Beverly; Johnson, Steven G.; Pruinelli, Lisiane; LaFlamme, Anne; Park, Jung In; Sherman, Suzan G.; Byrne, Matthew D.; Ranallo, Piper; Speedie, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Emerging issues of team-based care, precision medicine, and big data science underscore the need for health information technology (HIT) tools for integrating complex data in consistent ways to achieve the triple aims of improving patient outcomes, patient experience, and cost reductions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a hierarchical flowsheet ontology in i2b2 using data-derived information models and determine the underlying informatics and technical issues. This study is the first of its kind to use information models that aggregate team-based care across time, disciplines, and settings into 14 information models that were integrated into i2b2 in a hierarchical model. In the process of successfully creating a hierarchical ontology for flowsheet data in i2b2, we uncovered a variety of informatics and technical issues described in this paper. PMID:27570680

  15. caB2B hosting update —

    Cancer.gov

    cancer Bench-to-Beside - caB2B - is an open-source query tool that permits translational research scientists to search and combine data from virtually any caGrid data service. The caB2B suite is composed of three core components: the Web application, the Client Application and the Administrative Module. The caB2B Web Application provides query templates that allow easy search and retrieval of microarray data (from caArray), imaging data (from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA)), specimen data (from caTissue) and nanoparticle data (from caNanoLab) across the grid. Searches can be performed on selected locations using either form-based or keyword searches and data can be exported in the CSV format.

  16. Oxygen Segregation and Ordering in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Klie, Robert; Browning, Nigel D.

    2002-03-01

    Polycrystalline MgB2 has been studied by atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). We find that within the detection limits of the techniques, there is no oxygen within the bulk of the grains, but significant oxygen segregated to the grain boundaries. The majority of the grain boundaries contain ordered crystalline MgB_2-xOx and amorphous BOy phases smaller than the coherence length, explaining the high conductivity of the material. Other kinds of grain boundaries containing larger areas of MgO sandwiched between BOy layers were also found. Furthermore, coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates can be formed within the bulk of the MgB2 grains. We will discuss the formation mechanisms of these secondary phases, the presence of oxygen ordering within the precipitates and the effect of the oxide precipitates on the bulk transport properties.

  17. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  18. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  19. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2: structure, expression and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    2001-01-01

    7B2 is an acidic protein residing in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Its sequence has been elucidated in many phyla and species. It shows high similarity among mammals. A Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro polyproline motif is its most conserved feature, being carried by both vertebrate and invertebrate sequences. It is biosynthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into an N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal peptide. In neuroendocrine cells, 7B2 functions as a specific chaperone for the proprotein convertase (PC) 2. Through the sequence around its Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro motif, it binds to an inactive proPC2 and facilitates its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to later compartments of the secretory pathway where the zymogen is proteolytically matured and activated. Its C-terminal peptide can inhibit PC2 in vitro and may contribute to keep the enzyme transiently inactive in vivo. The PC2-7B2 model defines a new neuroendocrine paradigm whereby proteolytic activation of prohormones and proneuropeptides in the secretory pathway is spatially and temporally regulated by the dynamics of interactions between converting enzymes and their binding proteins. Interestingly, unlike PC2-null mice, which are viable, 7B2-null mutants die early in life from Cushing's disease due to corticotropin ('ACTH') hypersecretion by the neurointermediate lobe, suggesting a possible involvement of 7B2 in secretory granule formation and in secretion regulation. The mechanism of this regulation is yet to be elucidated. 7B2 has been shown to be a good marker of several neuroendocrine cell dysfunctions in humans. The possibility that anomalies in its structure and expression could be aetiological causes of some of these dysfunctions warrants investigation. PMID:11439082

  20. Microstructure and superconductivity of MgB2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kijoon H.P.; Jung, C.U.; Kang, B.W.; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Sung-Ik; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W.A.; Patel, J.R.

    2004-07-19

    The hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals were synthesized under the high-pressure conditions. The crystal symmetry, lattice constants as well as the Laue pattern of these single crystals were obtained from X-ray micro-diffraction. A crystallographic mapping showed that the edge and the c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [1 0 1 bar 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions of the MgB2 phase. This clearly confirmed that above well-shaped single crystals could be excellent samples to study the unsolved direction dependencies of the physical properties.

  1. Multicore MgB 2 wires made by hydrostatic extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Pachla, W.; Hušek, I.; Kulczyk, M.; Melišek, T.; Holúbek, T.; Diduszko, R.; Reissner, M.

    2008-12-01

    Seven-filament MgB2/Fe and MgB2/Nb/Cu wires have been made by in situ process using hydrostatic extrusion, drawing and two-axial drawing deformation into the wire size of 1.1 × 1.1 mm2. The conductors were sintered at 650 °C/0.5 h and studied in terms of field-dependent transport critical current density and thermal stability. XRD, SEM and EDX analysis were applied for structural characterization. Transport current property and compositional/structural differences are compared and discussed in connection to used powders and metallic materials.

  2. Superconducting state in (W, Ta)5SiB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, M.; Kawashima, K.; Akimitsu, J.

    We characterize the superconducting state in a boro-silicide (W, Ta)5SiB2, with Tc of 6.5 K by means of magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. As x increased, the transition temperature Tc abruptly enhances from 5.8 to 6.5 K. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curve indicated that (W, Ta)5SiB2 was a conventional type-II superconductor. The estimated lower critical field Hc1(0) and upper critical field Hc2(T) are about 121 Oe and 14.7 kOe, respectively. The penetration depth λ(0) and coherence length ξ(0) are calculated to be approximately 369 and 14.9 nm, respectively, using Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations. Specific heat data shows the superconductivity in W4.5Ta0.5SiB2 belongs to a week-coupling BCS superconductor. Finally, we discuss the increasing of Tc in of (W, Ta)5SiB2 system.

  3. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-2 Hour of service. (a) General rule. An hour of service which must, as a minimum,...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  5. Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

  6. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob; Mueller, Martin; Gao, Huili; Radovic, Miladin; Cullen, David A.

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ±more » 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics.« less

  7. Permanent magnet with MgB2 bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-01

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB2) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB2 permanent bulk magnet was detrmined. Because MgB2 is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB2 bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  8. Strategies for maintaining patient privacy in i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Gainer, Vivian; Mendis, Michael; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Background The re-use of patient data from electronic healthcare record systems can provide tremendous benefits for clinical research, but measures to protect patient privacy while utilizing these records have many challenges. Some of these challenges arise from a misperception that the problem should be solved technically when actually the problem needs a holistic solution. Objective The authors' experience with informatics for integrating biology and the bedside (i2b2) use cases indicates that the privacy of the patient should be considered on three fronts: technical de-identification of the data, trust in the researcher and the research, and the security of the underlying technical platforms. Methods The security structure of i2b2 is implemented based on consideration of all three fronts. It has been supported with several use cases across the USA, resulting in five privacy categories of users that serve to protect the data while supporting the use cases. Results The i2b2 architecture is designed to provide consistency and faithfully implement these user privacy categories. These privacy categories help reflect the policy of both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the provisions of the National Research Act of 1974, as embodied by current institutional review boards. Conclusion By implementing a holistic approach to patient privacy solutions, i2b2 is able to help close the gap between principle and practice. PMID:21984588

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  14. 29 CFR 2520.104b-2 - Summary plan description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section 102 or 29 CFR 2520.102-3 would have been reflected in the most recently distributed summary plan... section 102 or 29 CFR 2520.102-3 would have been reflected in the most recently distributed summary plan... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary plan description. 2520.104b-2 Section...

  15. Strongly bound metastable states of B2 + 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Pablo J.; Wright, James S.

    1990-08-01

    The stabilities of about 25 electronic states of B2+2 have been investigated using a multireference CI (MRD-CI) method and an AO basis set composed of 6s4p2d contracted Gaussian species per atom, including semidiffuse functions relevant for an adequate description of charge transfer interactions. The ground state X1∑+g (σ2gσ2u) is repulsive, as expected by its electronic configuration with a zero bond order. In spite of this and the doubly-positive charge, many excited states are found to be metastable, four of them (11∏g, 11∏u, 13∑-g, and 11Δg ) having potential wells from 1.52 eV (11∏u) to 2.83 eV (13∑-g). Relative to the ground state configuration, the metastable states arise from the excitations σu→σg(3∑+u), σu→πu(3,1∏g), σ2u→σgπu(3,1∏u), and σ2u→π2u(3∑-g, 1Δg, 1∑+g); they are analogous to those states showing deep local minima in B2 and B+2. Differences in stabilities among quasibound states can be explained on the basis of the asymptotic ΔE's between repulsive channels B++B+ and appropriate higher-lying limits (states) B+B2+ of bonding character; another important factor governing stability is the actual bonding character of the electronic configurations assigned to each state. The vertical double-ionization potential B2B2+2(π2u→∞) between both ground states is 27.97 eV, the repulsive X1∑+g dication state being created with 8.37 eV excess energy relative to B++B+. Doubly-ionized states with a chance of being detected because of their long lifetimes against predissociation are those showing a strongly quasibound character, such as (with the vertical double ionization potential in eV given in parentheses): 11∏g(σuπu→∞; 30.29); 11∏u(σ2uπu→σg∞; 31.30); 13∑-g(σ2u→∞; 31.33), and 11Δg(σ2u→∞; 31.95).

  16. Stability of MnB2 with AlB2-type structure revealed by first-principles calculations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Huiyang; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Bykova, Elena; Nakajima, Yoichi; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Li, Yuan; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia

    2013-02-01

    MnB2 with the ReB2-type structure has been theoretically predicted to be a superhard material which could be synthesized at ambient pressure. However, this phase has not been observed experimentally to date. In the present work, we show that even applying moderate pressure does not facilitate the formation of ReB2-structured MnB2. Our high-pressure high-temperature experiments resulted in the synthesis of single crystals of MnB2 with the previously known AlB2-type structure. This is at odds with results from density functional theory-based calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The discrepancy with the computational prediction was reconciled by including on-site repulsion (GGA + U), which found the anti-ferromagnetically ordered AlB2-type structure energetically favored over the ReB2-structure for MnB2.

  17. Paramagnetic Meissner effect in MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sözeri, Hüseyin; Dorosinskii, Lev; Topal, Uǧur; Ercan, İsmail

    2004-08-01

    We observed the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) in MgB 2 pellets after cooling in low fields of less than 1 Oe. As external magnetic field increases, the paramagnetic response of the sample decreases and disappears completely at 1 Oe. Effect of gamma irradiation on magnetic properties of MgB 2 has been investigated at low fields. In irradiated samples, the magnitude of the PME was found to be lower. To understand that whether this effect is of geometrical origin (so called flux compression model) or whether it is intrinsic to the material (e.g., π-junctions), measurements were performed with two samples having different geometries. Our results showed that paramagnetic response did not change as the geometry changes.

  18. Analysis of the b2 correction in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre Bauer et al.

    2003-06-10

    Beam loss and emittance dilution during ramping from injection to collision energy is observed in the Tevatron, now in its collider run-II stage. It is well known that the sextupole (b2) components in the superconducting dipole magnets decay during the injection plateau and snap back rapidly at the start of the ramp. These so called dynamic effects, which were originally discovered in the Tevatron, are compensated with the chromaticity correctors, distributed around the ring. Imperfect control of the chromaticity during injection and snapback can contribute to the beam loss. Therefore a thorough investigation of the b2 compensation in the Tevatron was launched, including beam chromaticity measurements and offline magnetic measurements on Tevatron dipoles. This paper reports the status of this investigation. A companion paper describes in detail the results of the magnet measurements. This work was partly conducted as a collaboration between FNAL and CERN.

  19. K-shell photoionization of Li, Be+ and B2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jian Dang; Zhang, Song Bin; Ye, Bang Jiao

    2016-06-01

    K-shell photoionization (PI) of Li, Be+ and B2+ from ground state 1s22s2Se have been studied by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The K-shell PI process is featured with the contributions from the core-excited metastable states or dominated by the Auger states 2Po. The resonant parameters of the Auger states 2Po and the PI cross-sections have been calculated and compared with the available experimental and theoretical works. Our results agree very well with that of the published works. It is worth noting that compared with previous theoretical calculations, our results of B2+ show better agreements with the latest high-resolution advanced light source measurements [A. Müller et al., J. Phys. B 43 (2010) 135602].

  20. Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol% SiC is examined. Samples were exposed in stagnant air in a zirconia furnace (Deltech, Inc.) at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C for ten ten-minute cycles. Samples were removed from the furnace after one, five, and ten cycles. Oxidized material was characterized by mass change when possible, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Oxidation kinetics, oxide scale development, and matrix recession were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Oxidation and recession rates of ZrB2 - 20 vol% SiC were adequately modeled by parabolic kinetics. Oxidation rates of this material are rapid, allowing only very short-term application in air or other high oxygen partial pressure environments.

  1. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  2. Superconductivity in MgB2 irradiated with energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Viorel; Craciun, Liviu; Ionescu, Alina Marinela; Aldica, Gheorghe; Miu, Lucica; Kuncser, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A series of MgB2 samples were irradiated with protons of 11.3 and 13.2 MeV. Magnetization data shows an insignificant reduction of the critical temperatures but a continuous decrease of the Meissner fraction with increasing fluence or energy. All samples show a consistent improvement of the critical current density compared to the virgin sample and an increase of the pinning energy at high fields as resulted from relaxation data.

  3. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  4. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.; Matsumoto, N.

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  5. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  6. Flux Line Lattice Structure in YNi2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano-Furukawa, Hazuki; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Tsukagoshi, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Chiyako; Nagata, Takashi; Sakiyama, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Yethiraj, Mohana; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Recently Nakai et al. reported a theoretical H-T phase diagram of flux line lattice (FLL) structure in which successive transitions from a triangular, a square (\\squarev), a triangular and another square (\\squareg) occur with increasing a magnetic field. Here \\squarev and \\squareg indicate the FLL structures reflecting anisotropies in the Fermi velocity and the superconducting gap, respectively. In the case of YNi2B2C, \\squarev and \\squareg should rotate by 45°. The low field transition from triangular to \\squarev is observed in RENi2B2C (\\textit{RE}=Er, Tm, Lu, and Y). However, there is no experimental evidence for the appearance of \\squareg phase so far. We studied the FLL structure of YNi2B2C in the higher field region by small-angle neutron scattering. Our results show that a large area of the H-T phase diagram is occupied by \\squarev phase and there is no evidence for the appearance of \\squareg lattice.

  7. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making. PMID:21678896

  8. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  9. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (<10 micrometers) could reduce alternating current (AC) losses that occur due to hysteresis, eddy currents, and coupling losses. The company refined a manufacturing method that incorporates a magnesium-infiltration process and provides a tenfold enhancement in critical current density over wire made by a conventional method involving magnesium-boron powder mixtures. Hyper Tech also improved its wire-drawing capability to fabricate fine multifilament strands. In Phase II, the company developed, manufactured, and tested the wire for superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  10. Effect of Heavy Carbon Doping of MgB_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Pickett, W. E.

    2003-03-01

    Superconductivity in MgB2 seems to be beginning to be understood, but behavior under changes of hole concentration remain to be established and understood. Recently Ribeiro, Bud'ko, Petrovic, and Canfield (cond-mat/0210530) have reported MgB_2-xC_x, where Tc ˜ 20 K for x 0.1 -- 0.2. Rigid band arguments would say that the σ-band hole states in MgB2 should be filled by x=1/6, with no superconductivity. We have carried all-electron, full potential LAPW studies [WIEN2K] of ordered supercells corresponding to x=1/6 and 1/8 to assess the effects of the C, whose potential is more attractive and size is smaller than B, on the structure and the electronic bands and density of states. The behavior is non-rigid-band in important ways. We report on the magnitude of B atom relaxation around the C impurities, the effect that the relaxation has on the band filling, and the degree to which the experimental data can be accounted for.

  11. The hexacyanodiborane(6) dianion [B2(CN)6](2-).

    PubMed

    Landmann, Johannes; Sprenger, Jan A P; Hailmann, Michael; Bernhardt-Pitchougina, Vera; Willner, Helge; Ignat'ev, Nikolai; Bernhardt, Eduard; Finze, Maik

    2015-09-14

    Diborane(6) dianions with substituents that are bonded to boron via carbon are very reactive and therefore only a few examples are known. Diborane(6) derivatives are the simplest catenated boron compounds with an electron-precise B-B σ-bond that are of fundamental interest and of relevance for material applications. The homoleptic hexacyanodiborane(6) dianion [B2 (CN)6 ](2-) that is chemically very robust is reported. The dianion is air-stable and resistant against boiling water and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. Its salts are thermally highly stable, for example, decomposition of (H3 O)2 [B2 (CN)6 ] starts at 200 °C. The [B2 (CN)6 ](2-) dianion is readily accessible starting from 1) B(CN)3 (2-) and an oxidant, 2) [BF(CN)3 ](-) and a reductant, or 3) by the reaction of B(CN)3 (2-) with [BHal(CN)3 ](-) (Hal=F, Br). The latter reaction was found to proceed via a triply negatively charged transition state according to an SN 2 mechanism. PMID:26219926

  12. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2ṡ2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  13. Fractographic Analysis of HfB2-SiC and ZrB2-SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Ellerby, D. T.; Johnson, S. M.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Loehman, R. E.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hafnium diboride-silicon carbide and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide composites are potential materials for high temperature leading edge applications on reusable launch vehicles. In order to establish material constants necessary for evaluation of in-situ fracture, bars fractured in four point flexure were examined using fractographic principles. The fracture toughness was determined from measurements of the critical crack sizes and the strength values, and the crack branching constants were established to use in forensic fractography of materials for future flight applications. The fracture toughnesses range from about 13 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 6 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for ZrB2-SiC composites and from about 11 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 4 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for HfB2-SiC composites.

  14. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Md; Somer, M.

    2016-08-01

    As the "low activation" superconductor, Mg11B2 has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the Jc and Hirr values of Mg11B2 bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better Jc performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher Jc at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest Jc value (2.20 ×105 A cm-2 at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg11B2 sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  15. Synthesis of ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC Powders Using a Sucrose-Containing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingyu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Junping; Zhao, Bin; Li, Ruixing; Yin, Shu; Feng, Zhihai; Sato, Tsugio; Cai, Hongnian

    2015-09-01

    ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC powders are synthesized by a sol-gel method from zirconium n-propoxide, tetraethyl orthosilicate (only for ZrB2-SiC), boric acid, and sucrose. After reduction at 1550 degrees C, both ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC are unconsolidated, soft gray powders. The ZrB2-SiC particles have an equiaxed shape with a diameter of about 800 nm and a uniform size distribution. The SiC may be very finely distributed, because we barely find SiC among ZrB2 particles when using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), although both ZrB2 and SiC are identified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). PMID:26716344

  16. Trastuzumab-induced recruitment of Csk-homologous kinase (CHK) to ErbB2 receptor is associated with ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation and ErbB2 degradation to mediate cell growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dokmanovic, Milos; Wu, Yun; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jieqing; Hirsch, Dianne S; Wu, Wen Jin

    2014-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of ErbB2, is associated with its ability to induce ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation, and the status of phosphorylated ErbB2-Y1248 (ErbB2-pY1248) may correlate with the sensitivity of breast cancers to trastuzumab. The mechanisms of which remain unclear. Here, we show that binding of trastuzumab to ErbB2 activates ErbB2 kinase activity and enhances ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation in trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer cells. This in turn increases the interaction between ErbB2 and non-receptor Csk-homologous kinase (CHK), leading to growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of CHK mimics trastuzumab treatment to mediate ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation, Akt downregulation, and growth inhibition of trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer cells. CHK overexpression combined with trastuzumab exerts an additive effect on cell growth inhibition. We further demonstrate that positive ErbB2-pY1248 staining in ErbB2-positive breast cancer biopsies correlates with the increased trastuzumab response in trastuzumab neoadjuvant settings. Collectively, this study highlights an important role for ErbB2-pY1248 in mediating trastuzumab-induced growth inhibition and trastuzumab-induced interactions between CHK and ErbB2-pY1248 is identified as a novel mechanism of action that mediates the growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. The novel mechanistic insights into trastuzumab action revealed by this study may impact the design of next generation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as open new avenues to identify novel targets for the treatment of ErbB2-positive cancers. PMID:24835103

  17. Trastuzumab-induced recruitment of Csk-homologous kinase (CHK) to ErbB2 receptor is associated with ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation and ErbB2 degradation to mediate cell growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Dokmanovic, Milos; Wu, Yun; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jieqing; Hirsch, Dianne S; Wu, Wen Jin

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of ErbB2, is associated with its ability to induce ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation, and the status of phosphorylated ErbB2-Y1248 (ErbB2-pY1248) may correlate with the sensitivity of breast cancers to trastuzumab. The mechanisms of which remain unclear. Here, we show that binding of trastuzumab to ErbB2 activates ErbB2 kinase activity and enhances ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation in trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer cells. This in turn increases the interaction between ErbB2 and non-receptor Csk-homologous kinase (CHK), leading to growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of CHK mimics trastuzumab treatment to mediate ErbB2-Y1248 phosphorylation, Akt downregulation, and growth inhibition of trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer cells. CHK overexpression combined with trastuzumab exerts an additive effect on cell growth inhibition. We further demonstrate that positive ErbB2-pY1248 staining in ErbB2-positive breast cancer biopsies correlates with the increased trastuzumab response in trastuzumab neoadjuvant settings. Collectively, this study highlights an important role for ErbB2-pY1248 in mediating trastuzumab-induced growth inhibition and trastuzumab-induced interactions between CHK and ErbB2-pY1248 is identified as a novel mechanism of action that mediates the growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. The novel mechanistic insights into trastuzumab action revealed by this study may impact the design of next generation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as open new avenues to identify novel targets for the treatment of ErbB2-positive cancers. PMID:24835103

  18. Anisotropic high field superconductinng behavior in MgB_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Alexander

    2004-03-01

    I will discuss new effects resulting from the two-gap superconductivity in MgB_2, focusing on: 1. Current-induced interband breakdown and dynamic interband phase textures caused by nonequilibrium charge imbalance [1], 2. Anomalous enhancement of the upper critical field H_c2(T) by nonmagnetic impurities in dirty two-gap superconductors. A theory of H_c2 based on generalized two-gap Usadel equations, which include both intra and interband scattering channels and paramagnetic pairbreaking is presented. Solutions of these equations show that H_c2(T) can exhibit a strong upward curvature and an unusual temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter H_c2^||/H_c2^⊥, which can both increase and decrease with T depending on the ratio of the intraband electron diffusivities D_π/D_σ [2]. The theory explains recent high-field transport experiments on resistive MgB2 films in which the upper critical field was increased by 3-10 times as compared to single crystals [3], H_c2 exceeding 50 Tesla for H||ab and 35T for H⊥ ab. The results suggest that nonmagnetic impurities due to selective atomic substitution on Mg and B sites can increase H_c2 of MgB2 to a much greater extend than in one-gap superconductors. [1]. A. Gurevich and V.M. Vinokur, PRL 90, 047004 (2003). [2]. A. Gurevich, PRB 67, 1845151 (2003) and unpublished. [3]. A. Gurevich et al. Supercond. Sci. Technol. (2003, to appear). *In collaboration with V.M. Vinokur, V. Braccini, S. Patnaik, X. Song, D.C. Larbalestier, C.B. Eom, X. Pan, X. Xi, V. Ferrando, C. Ferdighini, A. Siri, K.H. Kim and C. Mielke. Work supported by NSF Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces MRSEC at the University of Wisconsin.

  19. Ideal tensile strength of B2 transition-metal aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianshu; Morris, J. W., Jr.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2004-08-01

    The ideal tensile strengths of the B2 -type (CsCl) transition-metal aluminides FeAl , CoAl , and NiAl have been investigated using an ab initio electronic structure total energy method. The three materials exhibit dissimilar mechanical behaviors under the simulated ideal tensile tests along [001], [110], and [111] directions. FeAl is weakest in tension along [001] whereas CoAl and NiAl are strongest in the same direction. The weakness of FeAl along [001] direction is attributed to the instability introduced by the filling of antibonding d states.

  20. The rat ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor produced in plants is immunogenic in mice and confers protective immunity against ErbB2(+) mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Matić, Slavica; Quaglino, Elena; Arata, Lucia; Riccardo, Federica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Vallino, Marta; Cavallo, Federica; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The rat ErbB2 (rErbB2) protein is a 185-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor-related proteins (ErbB) of receptor tyrosine kinases. Overexpression and mutations of ErbB proteins lead to several malignancies including breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder and ovary carcinomas. ErbB2 is immunogenic and is an ideal candidate for cancer immunotherapy. We investigated the possibility of expressing the extracellular (EC) domain of rErbB2 (653 amino acids, aa) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, testing the influence of the 23 aa transmembrane (TM) sequence on protein accumulation. Synthetic variants of the rErbB2 gene portion encoding the EC domain, optimized with a human codon usage and either linked to the full TM domain (rErbB2_TM, 676 aa), to a portion of it (rErbB2-pTM, 662 aa), or deprived of it (rErbB2_noTM, 653 aa) were cloned in the pEAQ-HT expression vector as 6X His tag fusions. All rErbB2 variants (72-74.5 kDa) were transiently expressed, but the TM was detrimental for rErbB2 EC accumulation. rERbB2_noTM was the most expressed protein; it was solubilized and purified with Nickel affinity resin. When crude soluble extracts expressing rErbB2_noTM were administered to BALB/c mice, specific rErbB2 immune responses were triggered. A potent antitumour activity was induced when vaccinated mice were challenged with syngeneic transplantable ErbB2(+) mammary carcinoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of expression of rErbB2 in plants and of its efficacy in inducing a protective antitumour immune response, opening interesting perspectives for further immunological testing. PMID:25865255

  1. MgB2 superconducting joints for persistent current operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; See, Khay Wai; Xu, Xun; Barua, Shaon; Ma, Zongqing; Choi, Seyong; Tomsic, Mike; Kim, Jung Ho

    2015-06-01

    High-performance superconducting joints are essential for realizing persistent-mode magnets. Herein, we propose a concept and fabrication of such superconducting joints, which yielded reliable performance in the operating temperature range of 4.2-25 K. MgB2-MgB2 joints in magnets are known to result in deterioration of localized electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. To overcome these problems, the ends of the two wires are inserted into a pellet press, which is then filled with a mixture of unreacted magnesium and boron powders, followed by heat treatment. The critical current capacity and joint resistance were precisely evaluated by the standard four-probe method in open-circuit and by field-decay measurements in a closed-loop, respectively. These joints demonstrated up to 66% of the current-carrying capacity of unjoined wire at 20 K, 2 T and joint resistance of 1.4 × 10-12 Ω at 4.2 K in self-field.

  2. Analysis of the Defect Structure of B2 Feal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Noebe, Ronald D.; Amador, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    The Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith (BFS) method for alloys is applied to the study of the defect structure of B2 FeAI alloys. First-principles Linear Muffin Tin Orbital calculations are used to determine the input parameters to the BFS method used in this work. The calculations successfully determine the phase field of the B2 structure, as well as the dependence with composition of the lattice parameter. Finally, the method is used to perform 'static' simulations where instead of determining the ground state configuration of the alloy with a certain concentration of vacancies, a large number of candidate ordered structures are studied and compared, in order to determine not only the lowest energy configurations but other possible metastable states as well. The results provide a description of the defect structure consistent with available experimental data. The simplicity of the BFS method also allows for a simple explanation of some of the essential features found in the concentration dependence of the heat of formation, lattice parameter and the defect structure.

  3. Carbon Doped MgB2 Thin Films using TMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, R. H. T.; Li, Qi; Xi, X. X.; Lamborn, D. R.; Redwing, J.

    2007-03-01

    The most effective method to enhance the upper critical field in MgB2 is through carbon doping. In the case of thin films, ``alloying'' with carbon has resulted in enhanced Hc2 values estimated to be as high as 70 T for H parallel to ab and 40 T for H perpendicular ab [1]. ``Alloying'' refers to the in-situ Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) of carbon containing MgB2 films using (C5H5)2Mg as the carbon source. While these films exhibit enhanced Hc2 values, there are amorphous boron- carbon phases in the grain boundaries that reduce the cross section area for superconducting current. We present here the results of our attempts to make more homogeneously carbon doped thin films using gaseuous trimethyl-boron (TMB) as the carbon source. Initial results indicate different behavior upon carbon doping using TMB from carbon-alloying. The microstructures and upper critical fields of the carbon doped films using TMB and carbon alloyed films will be compared. [1] V. Braccini et al., Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 012504. [2] A.V. Pogrebnyakov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett 85 (2004) 2017.

  4. B2H6 PLAD Doped PMOS Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Z.; Miller, T.; Winder, E.; Persing, H.; Arevalo, E.; Gupta, A.; Parrill, T.; Singh, V.; Qin, S.; McTeer, A.

    2006-11-13

    Plasma doping (PLAD) achieves high wafer throughput by directly extracting ions across the plasma sheath. PLAD profiles are typically surface peaked instead of retrograde as obtained from beamline (BL) implant. It may require optimization of PLAD energy and dose in order to match BL doping results. From device optimization point of view, it is necessary to understand the impact of doping parameters to device characteristics. In this paper we present the PMOS device performance with the poly gate and source drain (SD) implants carried out using B2H6 PLAD. The BL control conditions are 2-5 keV 11B+ 4-6x1015 cm-2. Equivalent device performance for p+ poly gate doping is obtained using PLAD with B2H6 / H2. In SD doping using same gas mixture, nearly 50% reduction in SD contact resistance is observed in the PLAD splits. The reduction in SD contact resistance leads to 10-15% increase in device on-current, hence demonstrating the process advantages of using PLAD in addition to having a high wafer throughput.

  5. Multilayer MgB2 superconducting quantum interference filter magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, Elias; Melbourne, Thomas; Davidson, Bruce A.; Xi, X. X.; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    We report two types of all-MgB2 superconductive quantum interference filter (SQIF) magnetometers that can measure absolute magnetic fields with high sensitivity. In one configuration, the SQIFs were made of 20 multilayer nonplanar all-MgB2 superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 3.6 μm2. These devices are sensitive to magnetic fields parallel to the substrate and show a single antipeak from 3 to 16 K with a maximum transfer function of ˜16 V/T at 3 K and a field noise of ˜110 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 10 K. In a second configuration, the SQIFs were made with 16 planar SQUIDs connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 4 μm2 to 25 μm2 and are sensitive to the magnetic fields perpendicular to the substrate. The planar SQIF shows a single antipeak from 10 to 22 K with a maximum transfer function of 7800 V/T at 10 K and a field noise of ˜70 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 20 K.

  6. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  7. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-2 - Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....6222(b)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... treatment. 301.6222(b)-2 Section 301.6222(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6222(b)-2 Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment. (a) In general. Generally, if a...

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-20

    The 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells were built as part of the 183-B Water Treatment Facility and are composed of 2 covered concrete reservoirs. The bulk of the water stored in the clearwells was used as process water to cool the 105-B Reactor and as a source of potable water. Residual conditions were determined to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD through an evaluation of the available process knowledge. The results of the evaluation do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also indicate that residual concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. 75 FR 23572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... CONTACT: Dan Rodina, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate... (75 FR 11428, March 11, 2010), for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4... total flight \\1\\ '' has been corrected to read ''>17,500 total flight cycles \\1\\.'' (The word...

  10. Identification of New Methanol Lines toward Sagittarius B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, C. C.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Snyder, Lewis E.

    2000-02-01

    The first astronomical measurements of the Jk=182-181, 192-191, and 202-201 E transitions of methanol (CH3OH) are presented. A rotational temperature Trot=170(13) K was determined for the Sgr B2N-LMH core by combining the data from the Jk=132-131 and 172-171 E transitions. The total column density of CH3OH is NT(CH3OH)=4.2(6)x1017 cm-2, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is X(CH3OH)~4x10-8. The H59α recombination line and a new unidentified line were detected.

  11. Ionization delocalization and ALCHEMI of B2-ordered alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the major assumption underlying the ALCHEMI formulation is justified: that the degree of ionization localization of an elemental shell can be accounted for by a linear coefficient; and to introduce a potential method, which would be applicable to B2-ordered alloys, of independently extracting the ratio of coefficients L{sub jk} necessary for delocalization correction. A Cr-doped FeAl alloy and a series of Fe-doped NiAl alloys with 0.25-12 at. % Fe were analyzed. Excellent linearity of the data substantiates the use of linear coefficients to model ionization localization. It was investigated whether the L{sub jk} acquired at a (110) systematics orientation could be accurately applied to ALCHEMI data acquired at (200).

  12. Semantic ETL into i2b2 with Eureka!

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Krc, Tahsin; Rathod, Himanshu; Agravat, Sanjay; Mansour, Michel; Torian, William; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping is an emerging research information systems capability. Research uses of electronic health record (EHR) data may require the ability to identify clinical co-morbidities and complications. Such phenotypes may not be represented directly as discrete data elements, but rather as frequency, sequential and temporal patterns in billing and clinical data. These patterns' complexity suggests the need for a robust yet flexible extract, transform and load (ETL) process that can compute them. This capability should be accessible to investigators with limited ability to engage an IT department in data management. We have developed such a system, Eureka! Clinical Analytics. It extracts data from an Excel spreadsheet, computes a broad set of phenotypes of common interest, and loads both raw and computed data into an i2b2 project. A web-based user interface allows executing and monitoring ETL processes. Eureka! is deployed at our institution and is available for deployment in the cloud. PMID:24303265

  13. Semantic ETL into i2b2 with Eureka!

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Krc, Tahsin; Rathod, Himanshu; Agravat, Sanjay; Mansour, Michel; Torian, William; Saltz, Joel H.

    Clinical phenotyping is an emerging research information systems capability. Research uses of electronic health record (EHR) data may require the ability to identify clinical co-morbidities and complications. Such phenotypes may not be represented directly as discrete data elements, but rather as frequency, sequential and temporal patterns in billing and clinical data. These patterns’ complexity suggests the need for a robust yet flexible extract, transform and load (ETL) process that can compute them. This capability should be accessible to investigators with limited ability to engage an IT department in data management. We have developed such a system, Eureka! Clinical Analytics. It extracts data from an Excel spreadsheet, computes a broad set of phenotypes of common interest, and loads both raw and computed data into an i2b2 project. A web-based user interface allows executing and monitoring ETL processes. Eureka! is deployed at our institution and is available for deployment in the cloud. PMID:24303265

  14. Integrated Product and Process Data for B2B Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad; Jones, Albert; Wysk, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Collaborative development of engineered products in a business-to-business (B2B) environment will require more than just the selection of components from an on-line catalogue. It will involve the electronic exchange of product, process, and production engineering information during both design and manufacturing. While the state-of-the-practice does include a variety of ways to exchange product data electronically, it does not extend to the exchange of manufacturing process data. The reason is simple; process data is usually tied to specific manufacturing resources. These resources are not known typically at product development time. This paper proposes an approach, called an Integrated Product and Process Data (IPPD), where manufacturing process data is considered during product development. This approach replaces traditional process plans, which are resource specific, with a resource-independent process representation. Such a representation will allow a much wider collaboration among business partners and provide the necessary base for collaborative product development.

  15. Bond deformation paths and electronic instabilities of ultraincompressible transition metal diborides: Case study of OsB2 and IrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.

    2014-09-01

    The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

  16. Oxidation of ZrB2-and HfB2-Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Effects of Ta Additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth; Levine, Stanley; Lorinez, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Several compositions of ZrB2- and HfB2-based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) were oxidized in stagnant air at 1627 C in ten minute cycles for times up to 100 minutes. These compositions include: ZrB2 - 20v% SiC, HfB2 - 20v% SiC, ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2, ZrB2 - 33v% SiC, HfB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2, and ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaC. The weight change due to oxidation was recorded. The ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2 composition was also oxidized in stagnant air at 1927 C and in an arc jet atmosphere. Samples were analyzed after oxidation by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the reaction products and to observe the microstructure. The ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2 showed the lowest oxidation rate at 1627 C, but performed poorly under the more extreme tests due to liquid phase formation. Effects of Ta-additions on the oxidation of the diboride-based UHTC are discussed.

  17. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, JOhn W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 are candidate materials for applications in extreme environments because of their high melting point, good mechanical properties and reasonable oxidation resistance. Unlike many ceramics, these materials have high thermal conductivity which can be advantageous, for example, to reduce thermal shock. Recently, we developed Tersoff style interatomic potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  18. Experiences and Future Expectations towards Online Courses--An Empirical Study of the B2C-and B2B-Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the future potential for the development of online courses. The findings are based on an empirical study with 3 sample groups: (1) B2C segment in Germany, (2) B2C segment in the United States, and (3) B2B segment (international). In the first step the status quo of the use of e-learning in general and online courses in…

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  20. Transport simulations of linear plasma generators with the B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.; Owen, L. W.; Bonnin, X.; Caneses, J. F.; Canik, J. M.; Corr, C.; Lore, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    Linear plasma generators are cost effective facilities to simulate divertor plasma conditions of present and future fusion reactors. The codes B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene were extensively used for design studies of the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). Effects on the target plasma of the gas fueling and pumping locations, heating power, device length, magnetic configuration and transport model were studied with B2.5-Eirene. Effects of tilted or vertical targets were calculated with EMC3-Eirene and showed that spreading the incident flux over a larger area leads to lower density, higher temperature and off-axis profile peaking in front of the target. The simulations indicate that with sufficient heating power MPEX can reach target plasma conditions that are similar to those expected in the ITER divertor. B2.5-Eirene simulations of the MAGPIE experiment have been carried out in order to establish an additional benchmark with experimental data from a linear device with helicon wave heating.

  1. MgB2: Novel properties due to multibands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, Girsh

    2008-03-01

    About 40 years ago A.J. Leggett proposed a new collective mode arising from cross-tunneling of Cooper pairs residing on different Fermi surfaces of a multiband superconductor: Leggett's collective mode is caused by a counter flow of the interacting superfluids leading to small fluctuations of the relative phase of the condensates while the total electron density is locally conserved.ootnotetextA.J. Leggett, Progr. Theor. Phys. 36, 901 (1966). Here we present direct spectroscopic observation of the Leggett's excitation in the MgB2 superconductor containig two pairs of Fermi surfaces resulting from π- and σ-bands. Electronic Raman scattering studies have revealed three distinct superconducting (SC) features: (i) a clean threshold of Raman intensity at 4.6 meV consistent with the π-band SC gap; (ii) the SC pair breaking coherence peak at 13.5 meV consistent with excitations above the σ-band gap; and (iii) the SC collective mode at 9.4 meV which we assign to an excitation first discussed by Leggett.ootnotetextG. Blumberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007); arXiv:0710.2803http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.2803. Our calculation of the Raman response function for MgB2 superconductor based on multiband interaction matrices by first principle computations show good agreement with spectroscopic observations. The temperature and field dependencies for all three features (i) -- (iii) have been established;ootnotetextG. Blumberg et al., Physica (Amsterdam) 456C, 75 (2007). the effects of magnetic field on the pair cross-tunneling in multiband system will be discussed. In addition, anharmonicity and superconductivity-induced self-energy effects for the E2g boron stretching phonon have been studied.ootnotetextA. Mialitsin et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 020509(R) (2007). We show that anharmonic two-phonon decay is mainly responsible for the unusually large linewidth of the E2g mode. We observe 2.5% hardening of the E2g phonon frequency upon cooling into the SC state and estimate the

  2. Kinetic analysis of MgB2 layer formation in advanced internal magnesium infiltration (AIMI) processed MgB2 wires

    PubMed Central

    Li, G. Z.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Significantly enhanced critical current density (Jc) for MgB2 superconducting wires can be obtained following the advanced internal Mg infiltration (AIMI) route. But unless suitable precautions are taken, the AIMI-processed MgB2 wires will exhibit incomplete MgB2 layer formation, i.e. reduced superconductor core size and hence suppressed current-carrying capability. Microstructural characterization of AIMI MgB2 wires before and after the heat treatment reveals that the reaction mechanism changes from a “Mg infiltration-reaction” at the beginning of the heat treatment to a “Mg diffusion-reaction” once a dense MgB2 layer is formed. A drastic drop in the Mg transport rate from infiltration to diffusion causes the termination of the MgB2 core growth. To quantify this process, a two-stage kinetic model is built to describe the MgB2 layer formation and growth. The derived kinetic model and the associated experimental observations indicate that fully reacted AIMI-processed MgB2 wires can be achieved following the optimization of B particle size, B powder packing density, MgB2 reaction activation energy and its response to the additions of dopants. PMID:26973431

  3. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  4. A Novel Stable Binary BeB2 phase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Changzeng; Jin, Ye; Li, Jian; Dong, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Potential crystal structures of BeB2 were explored using ab initio evolutionary simulations. A new phase with a Cmcm space group was uncovered. It was determined that the Cmcm phase is mechanically and dynamically stable and has a lower enthalpy, from ambient pressure up to 13 GPa, than any previously proposed phases, as measured using first-principles calculations. The crystal structure, phonon dispersion, phase transitions, and mechanical and electronic properties of this phase were investigated. It was determined that the Cmcm phase may transform into the phase at pressures higher than 13 GPa. The band structures and density of states reveal that the Cmcm phase is metallic. In addition, the Vickers hardness was calculated using three empirical models. To explain the origin of the hardness, charge density difference maps and a Mulliken population analysis were carried out, which demonstrated that there are strong covalent interactions between B atoms. By analyzing the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) diagrams, it was determined that the total interaction of the Be-B bonds is stronger than that of the B-B bonds, indicating a very complex bonding feature in the new phase. It was predicted that the new Cmcm phase is nearly absent of superconductivity. PMID:25385147

  5. Damping and modulus measurements in B2 transition metal aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmouche, M. R.; Wolfenden, A.

    1985-01-01

    The polycrystalline intermetallic alloys FeAl (50.9 to 58.2 percent Fe), NiAl (49.2 to 55.9 percent Ni) and CoAl (48.5 to 52.3 percent Co) have the B2 structure and are of interest for high temperature applications. The PUCOT (piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique) has been used to measure mechanical damping or internal friction and Young's modulus has been used as a function of temperature and composition for these materials. The modulus data for six CoAl alloys at temperatures up to 1300 K are presented. Examples are given of the strain amplitude dependence of internal friction for four CoAl alloys. The curves showed the break away phenomenon and are interpreted in terms of a theory dealing with the pinning of dislocation lines and their eventual break away at large strain amplitudes. The dislocation density was calculated to be about 10 to the 8th per sq m. For all the compositions (X1) of CoAl studied, a single equation could be fitted to the data.

  6. The Methane Abundance in Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Brooke, T. Y.; Disanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Chin, G.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Owen, T. C.; Lisse, C. M.

    1997-07-01

    We report on infrared observations of methane in comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) that were obtained during April 1996 using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. The effective aperture size was 1'' x 2'' and the spectral resolving power was ~ 20,000. On 8-9 April we observed at r=0.73-0.71 AU and Delta =0.47-0.50 AU, while on 16 April r=0.54 AU and Delta =0.73 AU. Seven different lines in the nu_ {3} band near 3.3 mu m were clearly detected, and we have used their relative intensities to conduct the first detailed examination of the rotational excitation in cometary methane. We derive a rotational temperature (Trot) of ~ 110 K on 8-9 April and ~ 150 K on 16 April, which indicates that Trot varied approximately inversely with the heliocentric distance. We also find that the population distribution among the different spin species is consistent with the value expected in the high temperature limit (Tspin>=50 K). We estimate that the methane abundance relative to water was ~ 1% during the period of our observations, although this value is uncertain by at least a factor of two due to uncertainties in the water production rate. Methane is apparently an important trace constituent of both cometary nuclei and grain mantles in star-forming regions, which provides further evidence that comets retain a signature of their interstellar heritage.

  7. Solute hardening and softening effects in B2 nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Liu, C.T.; Anderson, I.M.; Chang, Y.A.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of substitutional solute additions including Fe, Mn, and Pd on the hardness of B2-ordered NiAl alloys was investigated. The solid solution hardening behavior of intermetallics is more complex than that of typical metallic solid solutions because of complications arising from the site preference of the solute as well as the effects of the solute on the concentrations of other point defects, e.g., vacancies and anti-site defects. For this reason, care was taken to experimentally establish solute site preferences and point defect concentrations in the NiAl alloys before analyzing the hardness data. By taking these factors into account it was possible to rationalize the observed unusual hardening effects. Three distinct categories of solid solution hardening behavior were encountered. The first was hardening by the solute addition itself. This was observed in the case of Pd additions to Al-poor NiAl. However, when fe or Mn is added to Al-poor NiAl a second category is observed; these elements are seen to soften the material. The third category of behavior is observed when Fe is added to NiAl with a constant Al concentration of 50 at. %. In this case it is vacancies, rather than solute atoms, which harden the material.

  8. Flux Pinning and Connectivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Susner, M.; Bhatia, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2008-03-01

    The transport and pinning properties of in-situ MgB2 bulks and strands are discussed. The influence of SiC, excess Mg, B4C, TiC, and their combination on Birr and Bc2 as distinct from connectivity and flux pinning is the focus of the work. SiC dopants increase Bc2 and Birr predominantly, with little influence on connectivity or flux pinning. Excess Mg improves the transport current, changes the grain microstructure, and also leads local maxima in Bc2 and Birr at excess Mg levels of 15% mol fraction. Fp curves are consistent with grain boundary pinning for the binary materials over the whole temperature range. This is also true for SiC and TiC doped materials at lower fields and temperatures, while higher temperatures show a deviation from surface pinning. These higher temperature deviations are consistent with the size and distribution of these nanoparticulate additions. Normal state resistivity measurements and models are used to extract residual resistivity values, percent connectivity, and Debye temperatures. Debye temperatures are seen to be depressed by SiC doping, an effect which is confirmed by heat capacity measurements. Residual resistivity values are seen to correlate with Bc2 and Birr enhancements, consistent with B site substitution with C as evidenced by XRD extracted lattice parameter shifts.

  9. Epitaxial semimetallic HfxZr1-xB2 templates for optoelectronic integration on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roucka, Radek; An, YuJin; Chizmeshya, Andrew V. G.; Tolle, John; Kouvetakis, John; D'Costa, Vijay R.; Menéndez, José; Crozier, Peter

    2006-12-01

    High quality heteroepitaxial HfxZr1-xB2 (x=0-1) buffers were grown directly on Si(111). The compositional dependence of the film structure and ab initio elastic constants were used to show that hexagonal HfxZr1-xB2 possess tensile in-plane strain (0.5%) as grown. High quality HfB2 films were also grown on strain compensating ZrB2-buffered Si(111). Initial reflectivity measurements of thick ZrB2 films agree with first principles calculations which predict that the reflectivity of HfB2 increases by 20% relative to ZrB2 in the 2-8eV range. These tunable structural, thermoelastic, and optical properties suggest that HfxZr1-xB2 templates should be suitable for broad integration of III nitrides with Si.

  10. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B.

    PubMed

    Wise, R; Morrison, D

    2000-01-01

    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important. PMID:11184979

  11. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  12. TiB2 nanostructured coating for GFRP injection moulds.

    PubMed

    Martinho, R P; Silva, F J G; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2011-06-01

    In the injection moulding of polypropylene reinforced with hard glass fibres, die materials are commonly subjected to severe abrasive wear. In order to improve its wear resistance, an unbalanced magnetron sputtering PVD compositional monolayered coating has been produced. The film was composed by a nanostructured TiB2 monolayer. Microstructure characterization and thickness evaluation were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film topography and roughness were accessed by SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The phase analyse was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using Cu Kalpha radiation. Scratch tests were conducted in order to study the film adhesion to the substrate. Load-Displacement curves (nanoindentation analysis) allowed measuring the film hardness and Young's modulus. A ball-cratering tribometer was used to determine the micro-abrasion laboratorial wear resistance, under different tests conditions, using SiC particles in distilled water slurry. At the end of these tests, the worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare these results with some other coatings already tested in the same conditions. To test the practical wear resistance, 135000 injection cycles were done in a plastic injection industrial mould. Coated samples were put on the plastic feed canal, after a turbulent zone. In these tests, a 30% (wt) glass fibres reinforced polypropylene was used. Worn sample surfaces were analyzed by SEM after 45.000 and 90.000 cycles. Image analyses were made in order to evaluate the damage increases and to observe the wear mechanisms involved. PMID:21770191

  13. Structural models of mammalian mitochondrial transcription factor B2.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Uchida, Akira; Wang, Yao; Yennawar, Neela; Cameron, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 13 core proteins of oxidative phosphorylation, 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs. Mutations and deletions of mtDNA and/or nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins have been implicated in a wide range of diseases. Thus, cell survival and health of the organism require some steady-state level of the mitochondrial genome and its expression. In mammalian systems, the mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (mtTFB2 or TFB2M) is indispensable for transcription initiation. TFB2M along with two other proteins, mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP or POLRMT) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA or TFAM), are key components of the core mitochondrial transcription apparatus. Structural information for POLRMT and TFAM from humans is available; however, there is no available structure for TFB2M. In the present study, three-dimensional structure of TFB2M from humans was modeled using a combination of homology modeling and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The TFB2M structural model adds substantively to our understanding of TFB2M function. An explanation for the low or absent RNA methyltransferase activity is provided. A putative nucleic acid-binding site is revealed. The amino and carboxy termini, while likely lacking defined secondary structure, appear to adopt compact, globular conformations, thus "capping" the ends of the protein. Finally, sites of interaction of TFB2M with other factors, protein and/or nucleic acid, are suggested by the identification of species-specific clusters on the surface of the protein. PMID:26066983

  14. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  15. Thermal vacuum integrated system test at B-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlac, M. T.; Weaver, H. F.; Cmar, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3 × 10-4 Pa (1 × 10-6 torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (139°R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2 at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber's cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  16. 26 CFR 54.4980B-2 - Plans that must comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans that must comply. 54.4980B-2 Section 54.4980B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-2 Plans that must comply. The following questions-and-answers apply in determining...

  17. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to...

  18. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. 9b.2 Section 9b.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.2 Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. In order to obtain...

  19. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. 9b.2 Section 9b.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.2 Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. In order to obtain...

  20. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. 9b.2 Section 9b.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.2 Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. In order to obtain...

  1. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. 9b.2 Section 9b.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.2 Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. In order to obtain...

  2. Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken B-cells develop in a specific organ, the bursa of Fabricius. To understand the bursal microenvironment guiding B-cell development, previous studies identified ephrin (Eph) receptor B2 (EphB2) gene transcripts in the embryonic bursa. We hypothesize that the EphB2 receptors and their ligands r...

  3. 26 CFR 54.4980B-2 - Plans that must comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plans that must comply. 54.4980B-2 Section 54.4980B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-2 Plans that must comply. The following questions-and-answers apply in determining...

  4. 26 CFR 54.4980B-2 - Plans that must comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plans that must comply. 54.4980B-2 Section 54.4980B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-2 Plans that must comply. The following questions-and-answers apply in determining...

  5. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  6. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  7. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-2 - Correction not barred at time of erroneous action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... action. 1.1311(b)-2 Section 1.1311(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Special Limitations § 1.1311(b)-2 Correction not barred at time of erroneous action. (a) An adjustment under the circumstances stated in paragraph (b) of § 1.1312-3 (relating to the double exclusion of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-2 - Correction not barred at time of erroneous action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... action. 1.1311(b)-2 Section 1.1311(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Limitations § 1.1311(b)-2 Correction not barred at time of erroneous action. (a) An adjustment under the circumstances stated in paragraph (b) of § 1.1312-3 (relating to the double exclusion of an item of gross...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-2 - Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment. 301.6222(b)-2 Section 301.6222(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6222(b)-2 Effect of notification...

  11. Superconducting Properties of MgB2 with Addition of Other AlB2-type Diborides and Carbon Sources, Prepared Using High Energy Ball Milling and HIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Durval; Silva, Lucas B. S. da; Metzner, Vivian C. V.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    In the present work it is described the production of MgB2 samples by using the mixture of MgB2 with other diborides, (TaB2, VB2, and AlB2) which have the same C32 hexagonal structure as the MgB2, and simultaneous addition with the diborides and SiC, that contribute with C, to replace B in the crystalline structure of the matrix. As an important result, the critical current density (Jc) was improved at low magnetic fields when just the diborides are added. However, when SiC is added simultaneously with the diborides, the result is the improvement of Jc at high fields. The critical temperature (Tc) was maintained high.

  12. Alloy Design Data Generated for B2-Ordered Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Developing alloys based on ordered compounds is significantly more complicated than developing designs based on disordered materials. In ordered compounds, the major constituent elements reside on particular sublattices. Therefore, the addition of a ternary element to a binary-ordered compound is complicated by the manner in which the ternary addition is made (at the expense of which binary component). When ternary additions are substituted for the wrong constituent, the physical and mechanical properties usually degrade. In some cases the resulting degradation in properties can be quite severe. For example, adding alloying additions to NiAl in the wrong combination (i.e., alloying additions that prefer the Al sublattice but are added at the expense of Ni) will severely embrittle the alloy to the point that it can literally fall apart during processing on cooling from the molten state. Consequently, alloying additions that strongly prefer one sublattice over another should always be added at the expense of that component during alloy development. Elements that have a very weak preference for a sublattice can usually be safely added at the expense of either element and will accommodate any deviation from stoichiometry by filling in for the deficient component. Unfortunately, this type of information is not known beforehand for most ordered systems. Therefore, a computational survey study, using a recently developed quantum approximate method, was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine the preferred site occupancy of ternary alloying additions to 12 different B2-ordered compounds including NiAl, FeAl, CoAl, CoFe, CoHf, CoTi, FeTi, RuAl, RuSi, RuHf, RuTi, and RuZr. Some of these compounds are potential high temperature structural alloys; others are used in thin-film magnetic and other electronic applications. The results are summarized. The italicized elements represent the previous sum total alloying information known and verify the computational

  13. Effects of carbon in MgB2 thin films: Intrinsic or extrinsic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengdeejing, A.; Saal, J. E.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.

    2007-04-01

    First-principles calculations are performed on MgB2, carbon doped MgB2, and MgB2C2. The trend of calculated lattice parameters of MgB2 with increasing carbon content agrees with bulk experiments but not with thin films produced by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition. In this work, the authors propose a model to explain this behavior based on the coefficients of thermal expansion of MgB2 and MgB2C2 as predicted from first principles and of graphite from literature. It is concluded that the effect of carbon on the lattice parameters of MgB2 thin films is extrinsic and due to differences of the coefficients of thermal expansion of different phases.

  14. An unusual density evolution between SrCdB2O5 polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwen; Zhou, Zhengyang; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Lei, Chen; Liu, Lu; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-09-28

    Owing to the effect of atomic vibrations, a high-temperature phase usually features a relatively smaller density when compared with a low-temperature phase. In this work, a new SrCdB2O5 phase has been discovered. According to the crystallization temperature from low to high, the new SrCdB2O5 phase can be regarded as the high-temperature β-SrCdB2O5 phase. The density of β-SrCdB2O5 is obviously larger than that of α-SrCdB2O5, meanwhile β-SrCdB2O5 is energetically favored. This unusual density evolution phenomenon has been investigated. In addition, the Pb(2+)-doped compounds, PbxSr1-xCdB2O5 (x = 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5), have also been investigated by powder refinement. PMID:26266583

  15. A highly stable TiB2-supported Pt catalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shibin; Mu, Shichun; Pan, Mu; Fu, Zhengyi

    2011-10-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on TiB2 conductive ceramics (Pt/TiB2) have been prepared through a liquid reduction method, where the TiB2 surfaces are stabilized with perfluorosulfonic acid. The prepared Pt/TiB2 catalyst is characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM techniques, and a rotating disk electrode (RDE) apparatus. The Pt nanoparticles are found to uniformly disperse on the surface of the TiB2 particles with narrow size distribution. The electrochemical stability of Pt/TiB2 is evaluated and found highly electrochemically stable compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Meanwhile, the catalyst also shows comparable performance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to the Pt/C. The mechanism of the remarkable stability and comparable activity for ORR on Pt/TiB2 is also proposed and discussed.

  16. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties investigation of in situ TiB2 and ZrB2 reinforced Al-4Cu composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi Anis, Ahmad; Ramli, Rosmamuhammadani; Darham, Widyani; Zakaria, Azlan; Talari, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Conventional Al-Cu alloys exhibit coarse grain structure leading to inferior mechanical properties in as-cast condition. Expensive thermo-mechanical treatments are needed to improve microstructure and corresponding mechanical properties. In situ Al-based composites were developed to improve mechanical properties by dispersion strengthening and grain refinement obtained by the presence of particulates in the melt during solidification. In this work Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites were prepared by liquid casting method. XRD, electron microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on suitably sectioned and metallographically prepared surfaces to investigate the phase distribution, hardness and tensile properties. It was found that the reinforcement particles were segregated along the grain boundaries of Al dendrites. Tensile fracture morphology for both Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 were analyzed and compared to determine the fracture propagation mechanism in the composites. Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites displayed higher strength and hardness compared to Al-4Cu-3TiB2 which could be ascribed to the stronger interfacial bonding between the Al dendrites and ZrB2 particulates as evidenced from fractographs.

  18. BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+: The novel single-emitting-component phosphors for near UV-white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials with low-cost, high stability and excellent luminescent properties. In this paper, a new kind of luminescent material BPO4@B2O3 was prepared by using a facile method. The as-obtained samples contain numerous BPO4 nanoparticles enclosed by amorphous and crystalline B2O3 homogeneously, which exhibits a broad emission band ranging from 380 to 700 nm under near-UV irradiation. More importantly, it is worth noting that the BPO4@B2O3 phosphor exhibits the excellent thermal quenching property, which endows it with a promising prospect as phosphors for high power white LEDs. To further promote its application as white light phosphors, Eu3+ ions were doped into the BPO4@B2O3 samples and prepared the (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ phosphors with chromaticity coordinates (0.3022, 0.3122). The corresponding packaging of LEDs indicates that both BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ can be considered as the promising phosphors for WLEDs.

  19. Bradykinin inhibits oxidative stress-induced senescence of endothelial progenitor cells through the B2R/AKT/RB and B2R/EGFR/RB signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cong; Li, Bing; Sun, Yuning; Ma, Genshan; Yao, Yuyu

    2015-09-22

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have multiple protective effects that facilitate repair of damage to tissues and organs. However, while various stressors are known to impair EPC function, the mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced EPC senescence remains unknown. We demonstrated that B2 receptor (B2R) expression on circulating CD34(+) cells was significantly reduced in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, CD34(+) cell B2R expression in patients with DM was inversely correlated with plasma myeloperoxidase concentrations. Bradykinin (BK) treatment decreased human EPC (hEPC) senescence and intracellular oxygen radical production, resulting in reduced retinoblastoma 1 (RB) RNA expression in H2O2-induced senescent hEPCs and a reversal of the B2R downregulation that is normally observed in senescent cells. Furthermore, BK treatment of H2O2-exposed cells leads to elevated phosphorylation of RB, AKT, and cyclin D1 compared with H2O2-treatment alone. Antagonists of B2R, PI3K, and EGFR signaling pathways and B2R siRNA blocked BK protective effects. In summary, this study demonstrates that BK significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced hEPC senescence though B2R-mediated activation of PI3K and EGFR signaling pathways. PMID:26360782

  20. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells. - Highlights: ► LPS stimulates generation of secretory vesicles containing SerpinB2. ► SerpinB2 concentrates in TGN46 positive vesicles close to the plasma membrane. ► Brefeldin A inhibits secretion of SerpinB2. ► The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  2. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  3. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  4. Role of Erbin in ErbB2-dependent breast tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yanmei; Shen, Chengyong; Luo, Shiwen; Traoré, Wilfried; Marchetto, Sylvie; Santoni, Marie-Josée; Xu, Linlin; Wu, Biao; Shi, Chao; Mei, Jinghong; Bates, Ryan; Liu, Xihui; Zhao, Kai; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Borg, Jean-Paul; Mei, Lin

    2014-01-01

    ErbB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is overexpressed in around 25% of breast cancers. In addition to forming a heterodimer with other ErbB receptors in response to ligand stimulation, ErbB2 can be activated in a ligand-independent manner. We report here that Erbin, an ErbB2-interacting protein that was thought to act as an antitumor factor, is specifically expressed in mammary luminal epithelial cells and facilitates ErbB2-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Disruption of their interaction decreases ErbB2-dependent proliferation, and deletion of the PDZ domain in Erbin hinders ErbB2-dependent tumor development in MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, Erbin forms a complex with ErbB2, promotes its interaction with the chaperon protein HSP90, and thus prevents its degradation. Finally, ErbB2 and Erbin expression correlates in human breast tumor tissues. Together, these observations establish Erbin as an ErbB2 regulator for breast tumor formation and progression. PMID:25288731

  5. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S

    2013-05-01

    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells. PMID:23474086

  6. ErbB2 signaling at the crossing between heart failure and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Zarha; Segers, Vincent F M; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-11-01

    The dual role of ErbB2 (or HER-2) in tumor growth and in physiological adaptive reactions of the heart positions ErbB2 at the intersection between cancer and chronic heart failure. Accordingly, ErbB2-targeted inhibitory therapy of cancer may lead to ventricular dysfunction, and activation of ErbB2 for heart failure therapy may induce malignancy. The molecular processes leading to the activation of ErbB2 in tumors and cardiac cells are, however, fundamentally different from each other. Thus, it must be feasible to design drugs that specifically target either physiological or malignant ErbB2 signaling, to activate ErbB2 signaling in heart failure with no increased risk for cancer, and to inhibit ErbB2 signaling in cancer with no increased risk for heart failure. In this review, we present a state-of-the-art on how ErbB2 is regulated in physiological conditions and in tumor cells and how this knowledge translates into smart drug design. This leads to a new generation of drugs interfering with ErbB2 in a unique way tailored for a specific clinical goal. These exciting developments at the crossing between cancer and heart failure are an elegant example of interdisciplinary collaborations between clinicians, physiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. PMID:27596216

  7. The Mysterious Ways of ErbB2/HER2 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Vibeke; Stang, Espen

    2014-01-01

    The EGFR- or ErbB-family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4. Receptor activation and downstream signaling are generally initiated upon ligand-induced receptor homo- or heterodimerization at the plasma membrane, and endocytosis and intracellular membrane transport are crucial for regulation of the signaling outcome. Among the receptors, ErbB2 is special in several ways. Unlike the others, ErbB2 has no known ligand, but is still the favored dimerization partner. Furthermore, while the other receptors are down-regulated either constitutively or upon ligand-binding, ErbB2 is resistant to down-regulation, and also inhibits down-regulation of its partner upon heterodimerization. The reason(s) why ErbB2 is resistant to down-regulation are the subject of debate. Contrary to other ErbB-proteins, mature ErbB2 needs Hsp90 as chaperone. Several data suggest that Hsp90 is an important regulator of factors like ErbB2 stability, dimerization and/or signaling. Hsp90 inhibitors induce degradation of ErbB2, but whether Hsp90 directly makes ErbB2 endocytosis resistant is unclear. Exposure to anti-ErbB2 antibodies can also induce down-regulation of ErbB2. Down-regulation induced by Hsp90 inhibitors or antibodies does at least partly involve internalization and endosomal sorting to lysosomes for degradation, but also retrograde trafficking to the nucleus has been reported. In this review, we will discuss different molecular mechanisms suggested to be important for making ErbB2 resistant to down-regulation, and review how membrane trafficking is involved when down-regulation and/or relocalization of ErbB2 is induced. PMID:25102001

  8. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C̃ (1)B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X̃ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C̃ state below 1600 cm(-1) of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C̃ electronic state. PMID:27083725

  9. The Borosulfates K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ].

    PubMed

    Gross, Peter; Kirchhain, Arno; Höppe, Henning A

    2016-03-18

    K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] were obtained by a new synthetic approach. The strategy involves initially synthesizing the complex acid H[B(HSO4 )4 ] which is subsequently reacted in an open system with anhydrous chlorides of K, Ba, and Gd to the respective borosulfates and a volatile molecule (HCl). Furthermore, protonated borosulfates should be accessible by appropriate stoichiometry of the starting materials, particularly in closed systems, which inhibit deprotonation of H[B(HSO4 )4 ] via condensation and dehydration. This approach led to the successful synthesis of the first divalent and trivalent metal borosulfates (Ba[B2 S3 O13 ] with band-silicate topology and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] with cyclosilicate topology) and the first hydrogen borosulfate K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)]. PMID:26924507

  10. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2C 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here, the C 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X~ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C state below 1600 cm–1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, itmore » allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry, and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C electronic state.« less

  11. Development and Application of Interatomic Potentials for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC): ZrB2 and HfB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray; Bauschlicher

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 are characterized by high melting point, good strength, and reasonable oxidation resistance. These materials are of interest for use as sharp leading edges for hypersonic vehicles among other applications. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. We present a Tersoff style parameterization of such potentials for ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. Parameters are fit to data generated from ab initio calculations. The accuracy of the potentials is assessed against further ab initio data. As a first non ]trivial application, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the thermal conductivity of single crystals and the thermal resistance of high symmetry grain boundaries.

  12. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C ˜ 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    The C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X ˜ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C ˜ state below 1600 cm-1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C ˜ electronic state.

  13. Mechanistic and Signaling Analysis of Muc4-ErbB2 Signaling Module: New Insights into the Mechanism of Ligand-Independent ErbB2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kozloski, Goldi A.; Carothers Carraway, Coralie A.; Carraway, Kermit L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The membrane mucin Muc4 is aberrantly expressed in numerous epithelial carcinomas and is currently used as a cancer diagnostic and prognostic tool. Muc4 can also potentiate signal transduction by modulating differential ErbB2 phosphorylation in the absence and in the presence of the ErbB3 soluble ligand heregulin (HRG-β1). These features of Muc4 suggest that Muc4 is not merely a cancer marker, but an oncogenic factor with a unique binding/activation relationship with the receptor ErbB2. In the present study, we examined the signaling mechanisms that are associated with the Muc4-ErbB2 module by analyzing ErbB2 differential signaling in response to Muc4 expression. Our study was carried out in the A375 human melanoma and BT-474 breast cancer cell lines as our model systems. Quantitative and comparative signaling modulations were evaluated by immunoblot using phospho-specific antibodies, and densitometry analysis. Signaling complex components were identified by chemical cross-linking, fractionation by gel filtration, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Activated downstream signaling pathways were analyzed by an antibody microarray screen and immunoblot analyses. Our results indicate that Muc4 modulates ErbB2 signaling potential significantly by stabilizing and directly interacting with the ErbB2-ErbB3 heterodimer. Further analyses indicate that Muc4 promotes ErbB2 autocatalysis, but it has no effect on ErbB3 phosphorylation, although the chemical cross linking data indicated that the signaling module is composed of Muc4, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Our microarray analysis indicates that Muc4 expression promotes cell migration by increasing the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and also through an increase in the levels of β-catenin. PMID:20432461

  14. Microhardness and microstructure evolution of TiB2 reinforced Inconel 625/TiB2 composite produced by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Bi, Guijun; Nai, Sharon; Sun, Chen-nan; Wei, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, micron-size TiB2 particles were utilized to reinforce Inconel 625 produced by selective laser melting. Exceptional microhardness 600-700 HV0.3 of the composite was obtained. In further investigation, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625/TiB2 composite can be significantly influenced by addition of TiB2 particles during SLM. It was found that the long directional columnar grains observed from SLM-processed Inconel 625 were totally changed to fine dendritic matrix due to the addition of TiB2 particles. Moreover, with laser energy density (LED) of 1200 J/m, a Ti, Mo rich interface around TiB2 particles with fine thickness can be observed by FESEM and EDS. The microstructure evolution can be determined by different laser energy density (LED): under 1200 J/m, γ phase in dendrite grains; under 600 J/m, γ phase in combination of dendritic and acicular grains; under 400 J/m, γ phase acicular grains. Under optimized LED 1200 J/m, the dynamic nanohardness (8.62 GPa) and elastic modulus (167 GPa) of SLM-processed Inconel 625/TiB2 composite are higher compared with those of SLM-processed Inconel 625 (3.97 GPa and 135 GPa, respectively).

  15. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  16. MgB 2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. X.; Pogrebnyakov, A. V.; Xu, S. Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E. C.; Zhuang, C. G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D. R.; Redwing, J. M.; Liu, Z. K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D. G.; Weng, X. J.; Dickey, E. C.; Chen, Y. B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X. Q.; Cybart, S. A.; Dynes, R. C.

    2007-06-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk Tc due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2. The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high Hc2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions.

  17. A new therapeutic antibody masks ErbB2 to its partners.

    PubMed

    Badache, Ali; Hynes, Nancy E

    2004-04-01

    In cancer cells, the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase can be activated in two ways: by overexpression or by ligand-mediated stimulation of another ErbB receptor. The ErbB2-targeting antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) is used for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients whose tumors overexpress ErbB2. A new structural study in this issue of Cancer Cell reveals how targeting ErbB2 with another antibody, pertuzumab (Omnitarg), prevents ligand-induced dimerization of ErbB2 with the other ErbB receptors. Pertuzumab's novel mode of action might offer additional therapeutic opportunities for treatment of tumors expressing ligand-activated ErbB2. PMID:15093533

  18. The neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2 is an endogenous inhibitor of prohormone convertase PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G J; Braks, J A; Eib, D W; Zhou, Y; Lindberg, I

    1994-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertase PC2 and the polypeptide 7B2 (an intracellularly cleaved protein of unknown function) are both selectively present in the regulated secretory pathway of neurons and endocrine cells. Here we demonstrate that intact recombinant 7B2 is a potent inhibitor of PC2 and prevents proPC2 cleavage in vitro, whereas the 7B2 cleavage product is virtually inactive. The PC2-related proteinase PC1/PC3 is not inhibited by 7B2. Furthermore, the carboxyl-terminal half of the 7B2 protein sequence is distantly related to the so-called potato inhibitor I family (which includes subtilisin inhibitors). Our findings indicate that 7B2 is a physiological inhibitor of PC2 and may provide alternative avenues for the manipulation of peptide hormone levels. Images PMID:8016065

  19. 26 CFR 1.36B-2 - Eligibility for premium tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Eligibility for premium tax credit. 1.36B-2 Section 1.36B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.36B-2 Eligibility for premium tax credit. (a) In general. An applicable taxpayer (within the meaning of paragraph (b)...

  20. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, Tram Thu; Berger, Christian; Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie; Stang, Espen; Madshus, Inger Helene

    2013-02-01

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ► A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ► Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ► Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ► ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of superconductive MgB 2 from molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Kenji; Abe, Hideki

    2003-05-01

    We have found that superconductive MgB2 can be electrochemically synthesized from molten salts. The electrolysis was performed in an Ar flow at 600 °C on fused mixtures composed of MgCl2, MgB2O4, Na2B2O4 and alkali halides such as KCl, NaCl, and LiCl. Superconductivity was observed for a wide variety of electrolytes. It was also found that the magnetic and electrical transport properties are the most improved for samples prepared from MgCl2-NaCl-KCl-MgB2O4 electrolytes.

  2. Superconducting MgB2 flowers: growth mechanism and their superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won Kyung; Ranot, Mahipal; Lee, Ji Yeong; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Jae Hak; Oh, Young Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kang, Won Nam

    2016-04-01

    We report for the first time the growth and the systematic study of the growth mechanism for flower-like MgB2 structures fabricated on the substrates for solid-state electronics by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The MgB2 flower has a width of 30 μm and a height of 10 μm. The superconductivity of MgB2 flowers was confirmed by a magnetization measurement, and the transition temperature is 39 K, which is comparable with high-quality bulk samples. The excellent current-carrying capability was demonstrated by MgB2 flowers. To understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of MgB2 flowers a very systematic study was performed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and atom probe (AP) microscopy. The HRTEM revealed that the seed grain of a MgB2 flower has a [101¯0] direction, and the flower is composed of micro-columnar MgB2 grains having pyramidal tips and which are grown along the (0001) plane. A clear understanding of the growth mechanism for MgB2 flowers could lead to the growth of other low-dimensional MgB2 structures for superconducting electronic devices.

  3. Microstructure and properties of TiB 2-containing coatings prepared by arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian-Jun; Li, Zhu-Xin; Shi, Yao-Wu

    2008-04-01

    Low cost arc spraying and cored wires were used to deposit composite coatings consisting of TiB 2 and TiB 2/Al 2O 3 hard particles in a Ni(Cr) and stainless steel 304L matrix. Four coatings were prepared namely Ni(Cr)-TiB 2, Ni(Cr)-TiB 2/Al 2O 3, 304L-TiB 2 and 304L-TiB 2/Al 2O 3. The microstructural characteristics of powders and coatings were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase compositions of powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Although all the analyzed coatings exhibited similar lamella structure, remarkable differences not only in the morphology of hard phase and matrix but also in the size and distribution of hard phases were observed from one coating to another. Tribological behavior of the coatings was analyzed in room temperature dry sliding wear tests (block-on-ring configuration), under 75 N at low velocity (0.5 m/s). The coatings showed far high wear resistance than low carbon steel substrate under same conditions examined. Wear loss of 304L-TiB 2 and Ni(Cr)-TiB 2 coatings were lower nearly 15 times than that of steel substrate. TiB 2 hard phases in coatings bonded well with metal matrix contributed to high wear resistance.

  4. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  5. Properties of in situ made MgB2 in Nb or Ti sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Kopera, L.; Melišek, T.; Rosová, A.; Dobročka, E.

    2013-02-01

    Pure Nb and Ti have been used as sheath materials for MgB2 wires examined experimentally. The reason for this research is to compare the effects of these metallic sheaths on the basic properties of MgB2 superconductor. Single-core SiC doped MgB2 wires with Nb and/or Ti sheaths have been made by a powder-in-tube in situ process. Different transport currents, phase compositions and grain connectivity were observed for Nb- and Ti sheathed MgB2 heat treated at temperatures 650-850 °C/30 min. It was found that the critical current density of MgB2/Nb annealed above 700 °C rapidly decreases, while Jc of MgB2/Ti is systematically increasing with temperature. This is explained by the positive role of Ti absorbing impurities from the MgB2 core and by the negative effect of boron diffusion into Nb, reducing the quantity and worsening the quality of the MgB2 core. The obtained results show clearly that a Ti sheath offers the application of higher heat treatment temperatures (above 700 °C) and consequently the achievement of higher critical current densities in comparison to MgB2/Nb.

  6. Al-doped MgB2 materials studied using electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateni, Ali; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan; Somer, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Undoped and aluminum (Al) doped magnesium diboride (MgB2) samples were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. The microscopic defect structures of Al-doped MgB2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that Mg-vacancies are responsible for defect-induced peculiarities in MgB2. Above a certain level of Al doping, enhanced conductive properties of MgB2 disappear due to filling of vacancies or trapping of Al in Mg-related vacancy sites.

  7. Nucleation and growth of dense phase in compressed MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, P.; Bevan, A. I.; Abell, J. S.

    2006-06-01

    We report nucleation and growth of dense MgB2 phase in two advanced methods for compacting MgB2 powder: hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and resistive sintering (RS). Both methods produce a compact with nearly theoretical mass density and high critical current density: up to 8 . 105 A/cm2 at 20 K. A liquid phase is responsible for the propagation of dense MgB2. The additions of Mg and Ni are beneficial for rapid formation of dense compact. The process of compacting is further improved by introducing single crystal-dense MgB2 seeds.

  8. Scintigraphic detection of overexpressed c-erbB-2 protooncogene products by a class-switched murine anti-c-erbB-2 protein monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Akiyama, T.; Sakahara, H.; Koizumi, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Nakai, T.; Hosono, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Toyoshima, K. )

    1991-02-01

    Class-switched monoclonal antibody SV2-61r recognized the extracellular domain of c-erbB-2 protooncogene products separate from the epidermal growth factor receptor. We studied the potential of SV2-61r for evaluating the amplification of c-erbB-2 protooncogene on cancer cells, which has been reported to have prognostic value in adenocarcinoma patients. Radiolabeled SV2-61r specifically bound to various adenocarcinoma cells in addition to c-erbB-2-transfected NIH-3T3 cells (A4) with the affinity constant of 4.4 x 10(8) M-1. SV2-61r injected i.v. localized well to A4 cells xenografted in nude mice. Tumor uptake and localization index of radioiodinated SV2-61r were lower than those of 111In-labeled SV2-61r, probably due to the internalization and dehalogenation of formed antibody-antigen complexes. Biodistribution and specificity of targeting were assessed by comparison among three cells, A4, lung cancer SBC-3 (c-erbB-2 weakly positive) and B-lymphoblastoid Manca cells (c-erbB-2 negative). Tumor:blood ratios, obtained 48 h after injection, were 5.63, 1.45, and 0.68, respectively, indicating the potential of 111In-labeled SV2-61r for evaluating the amplification of c-erbB-2 protooncogene on cancer cells. Because of its close relationship with carcinogenesis and the uniform expression, c-erbB-2 protooncogene products seem to be the optimal target of imaging and therapy of adenocarcinoma patients.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  10. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  11. Effects of ZrB2 on substructure and wear properties of laser melted in situ ZrB2p/6061Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yida; Chao, Yuhjin; Luo, Zhen; Cai, Yangchuan; Huang, Yongxian

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum matrix composites reinforced by in situ ZrB2 particles were successfully fabricated from an Al-KBF4-K2ZrF6 system via a direct melt reaction. A laser surface melting strategy is used to improve the surface strength of the in situ ZrB2p/6061Al composite, which includes a series of laser-melted composites with different laser power processed by a 2 kW YAG laser generator. XRD and EDS results demonstrated the existence of ZrB2 nanoparticles in the composite. After laser melting, the penetration depth of the molten pool increases with increasing power density. OM and SEM analysis indicate that the laser melting process yields narrower cellular spacing of the matrix and partly disperses the ZrB2 particle clusters. Compared with laser-melted matrix alloys, the crystal orientations near the melted layers edge of the composite are almost random due to heterogeneous nucleation in the melt and the pinning effect of laser-dispersed ZrB2 nanoparticles at the solidification front. Wear test results show that the laser melted layer performs better at wear resistance than both the substrate and the matrix AA6061 by measuring wear mass loss. Compared with composite samples prepared without laser melting, the wear mass loss of the laser melted composites decreased from 61 to 56 mg under a load of 98 N for 60 min.

  12. Possible high-temperature superconductivity in hole-doped MgB2C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Modak, P.; Gaitonde, D. M.; Rao, R. S.; Godwal, B. K.; Gupta, L. C.

    2003-09-01

    We report first-principles full potential linearised augmented plane wave calculations of the electronic band structure of the compound MgB2C2 and its hole-doped derivatives Mg0.5Li0.5B2C2, Mg0.5Na0.5B2C2, Mg0.9Na0.1B2C2 and Mg0.5K0.5B2C2. The parent compound MgB2C2 is a band insulator, which on hole doping, is predicted to turn metallic with a large density of states at the Fermi energy. Its band dispersion shows a flat band feature close to the Fermi energy, reminiscent of MgB2. Based on our estimates of changes in the density of states at the Fermi level, we predict that hole-doped MgB2C2 is a potential candidate for high-temperature superconductivity.

  13. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  14. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  15. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  16. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  17. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix B2 to Part 305 - Upright Freezers With Automatic Defrost

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upright Freezers With Automatic Defrost B2 Appendix B2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix B2 to Part 305 - Upright Freezers With Automatic Defrost

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upright Freezers With Automatic Defrost B2 Appendix B2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-2 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....4216(b)-3 apply. (c) Sales of articles taxable under section 4061(a). With respect to sales made after... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; basic rules. 48.4216(b)-2 Section 48.4216(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. EphB2 in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Vulnerability to Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Han, Ying; Chen, Chen; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen-Hao; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The ephrin B2 (EphB2) receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is associated with synaptic development and maturation. It has recently been implicated in cognitive deficits and anxiety. However, still unknown is the involvement of EphB2 in the vulnerability to stress. In the present study, we observed decreases in EphB2 levels and their downstream molecules in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat stress. The activation of EphB2 receptors with EphrinB1-Fc in the mPFC produced stress-resistant and antidepressant-like behavioral effects in susceptible mice that lasted for at least 10 days. EphB2 receptor knockdown by short-hairpin RNA in the mPFC increased the susceptibility to stress and induced depressive-like behaviors in a subthreshold chronic social defeat stress paradigm. These behavioral effects were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin and membrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and the expression of some synaptic proteins in the mPFC. We also found that EphB2 regulated stress-induced spine remodeling in the mPFC. Altogether, these results indicate that EphB2 is a critical regulator of stress vulnerability and might be a potential target for the treatment of depression. PMID:27103064

  2. Synthesis of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Ritesh; Park, Jong-Woo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a route for synthesizing TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite is proposed via high energy ball milling by using directly coarse powders of TiB2, Fe, Cr and Al. Various compositions of these powder mixtures are milled up to 48 hrs to investigate the effect of composition on the crystalline refinement. The crystalline size is analyzed by an X-ray diffractometer for powder samples containing 30 to 100 wt% TiB2 (the rest of the powder consists of Fe-20 wt%Cr-5 wt%Al composition). The crystalline size after 48 hrs of ball milling decreases with increasing TiB2, and then again increases after reaching a minimum value of 18 nm at 70% TiB2. By transmission electron microscopic analysis, it is confirmed that particles of TiB2 are significantly reduced and finely dispersed in the Fe-Cr-Al matrix. The particle size of TiB2 is found around 20-25 nm, reinforced in the matrix. Considering the results of this study, the proposed mechanical milling route can be recommended as a promising way for fabrication of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder. PMID:19198473

  3. SerpinB2 is critical to Th2 immunity against enteric nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SerpinB2, a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is expressed by macrophages and up-regulated significantly by inflammation. Recent studies implicated a role for SerpinB2 in the control of Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In the current study...

  4. A Decompositional Approach to Executing Quality Data Model Algorithms on the i2b2 Platform.

    PubMed

    Mo, Huan; Jiang, Guoqian; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Kiefer, Richard; Rasmussen, Luke V; Pathak, Jyotishman; Denny, Joshua C; Thompson, William K

    2016-01-01

    The Quality Data Model (QDM) is an established standard for representing electronic clinical quality measures on electronic health record (EHR) repositories. The Informatics for Integrated Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is a widely used platform for implementing clinical data repositories. However, translation from QDM to i2b2 is challenging, since QDM allows for complex queries beyond the capability of single i2b2 messages. We have developed an approach to decompose complex QDM algorithms into workflows of single i2b2 messages, and execute them on the KNIME data analytics platform. Each workflow operation module is composed of parameter lists, a template for the i2b2 message, an mechanism to create parameter updates, and a web service call to i2b2. The communication between workflow modules relies on passing keys ofi2b2 result sets. As a demonstration of validity, we describe the implementation and execution of a type 2 diabetes mellitus phenotype algorithm against an i2b2 data repository. PMID:27570665

  5. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  6. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-2 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.669(b)-2... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-2 Manner of exercising election. (a) By whom election is to be made. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, a taxpayer whose tax liability...

  7. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-2 - Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets. 20.2056(b)-2 Section 20.2056(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16,...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-2 - Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets. 20.2056(b)-2 Section 20.2056(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16,...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-2 - Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets. 20.2056(b)-2 Section 20.2056(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16,...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-2 - Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets. 20.2056(b)-2 Section 20.2056(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16,...