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  1. Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the

  2. Distributional prediction of Pleistocene forearc minibasin turbidites in the NE Nankai Trough area (off central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, K.; Furukawa, T.; Saeki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Narita, H.

    2011-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-related sequences commonly provide unclear seismic images due to bottom simulating reflector, a seismic indicator of the theoretical base of gas hydrate stability zone, which usually causes problems for fully analyzing the detailed sedimentary structures and seismic facies. Here we propose an alternative technique to predict the distributional pattern of gas hydrate-related deep-sea turbidites with special reference to a Pleistocene forearc minibasin in the northeastern Nankai Trough area, off central Japan, from the integrated 3D structural and sedimentologic modeling. Structural unfolding and stratigraphic backstripping successively modeled a simple horseshoe-shaped paleobathymetry of the targeted turbidite sequence. Based on best-fit matching of net-to-gross ratio (or sand fraction) between the model and wells, subsequent turbidity current modeling on the restored paleobathymetric surface during a single flow event demonstrated excellent prediction results showing the morphologically controlled turbidity current evolution and selective turbidite sand distribution within the modeled minibasin. Also, multiple turbidity current modeling indicated the stacking sheet turbidites with regression and proximal/distal onlaps in the minibasin due to reflections off an opposing slope, whose sedimentary features are coincident with the seismic interpretation. Such modeling works can help us better understand the depositional pattern of gas hydrate-related, unconsolidated turbidites and also can improve gas hydrate reservoir characterization. This study was financially supported by MH21 Research Consortium.

  3. Chemistry of surface water at a volcanic summit area, Norikura, central Japan: multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Anazaw, K; Ohmori, L H

    2001-11-01

    Many hydrochemical studies on chemical formation of shallow ground water have been reported as results of water-rock interaction, and contamination of paleo-brine or human activities, whereas the preliminary formation of precipitation source in the recharged region has not been established yet. The purpose of this research work is to clarify the geochemical process of water formation from a water source unpolluted by seawater or human activity. Norikura volcano, located in western part of central Japan provided a suitable source for this research purpose, and hence chemical compositions of water samples from the summit and the mountainside area of Norikura volcano were determined. Most samples in the summit area showed very low electrical conductivity, and lower than 12 microS/cm. On the basis of the chemical compositions, principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), such as kinds of multivariate statistical techniques were used to extract geochemical factors affecting hydrochemical process. As a result, three factors were extracted. The first factor showed high loading on K+, Ca2+, SO2 and SiO2, and this factor was interpreted due to influence of the chemical interaction between acidic precipitated water and rocks. The second factor showed high loading on Na+ and Cl-, and it was assumed to be an influence of seawater salt. The third factor showed loading on NO3-, and it was interpreted to be caused by biochemical effect of vegetation. The proportionate contributions of these factors to the evolution of water chemical composition were found to be 45%, 20%, and 10% for factors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same exploration at the mountainside of Norikura volcano revealed that the chemical variances of the non-geothermal water samples were highly influenced by water-rock interactions. The silicate dissolution showed 45% contribution for all chemical variances, while the adsorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ by precipitation or ion exchange showed 20

  4. Self-potential Anomalies Around the Earthquake Swarm Area in the Southeastern Flank of Ontake Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, R.; Yamazaki, K.; Okada, Y.; Oshiman, N.

    2006-12-01

    Ontake Volcano is located in the southern end of the Norikura Volcanic Chain, central Japan, close to the junction of the Izu Bonin and Mariana and Southwestern Japan volcanic arcs. It is almost conical and made of andesite. Earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed around the southeastern flank of Mt. Ontake since 1976. A phreatic explosion occurred in 1979 at a fissure on the southwestern slope of the Kengamine, the main peak of Mt. Ontake. And a large earthquake with the depth about 2 km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern flank of the volcano. Recently, Kimata et al. (2004) revealed uplift ground deformation above the earthquake swarm area by using repeated leveling. Furthermore, Magnetotelluric soundings estimated a low resistivity region with the depth about 2km beneath the uplift area [Kasaya et al., 2002]. In order to investigate a relationship between tectonic movements and subsurface low resistivity zone, we carried out self-potential(SP) measurements from 2003 and 2006 around the focal region of the 1984 Earthquake and the summit area of Mt. Ontake. The equipment for measuring surface self-potentials consists of a pair of non-polarizing copper-copper sulfate/silver-silver chloride electrodes, an insulated connecting conductor cable, and a high input impedance digital multimeter. In this survey, profiles totaling to about 90km length (982 sites) were made, with an average measurement interval of 100m. Two distinctive SP features are found around the active earthquake cluster and inside of the aseismic area of southeastern flank of Mt. Ontake. In this presentation, we will report a detail of SP measurements and results.

  5. Possible Long-term SSEs in the Tokai Area, Central Japan, After 1981: Size, Duration, and Recurrence Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term slow slip event (LSSE) in the Tokai area, central Japan, from mid-2000 to mid-2005 [Suito and Ozawa (2009)], had continued five years, which was much longer than other LSSEs around the world [e.g. Schwartz and Rokosky (2007)]. After the termination of the SSE in 2005, no obvious long-term SSE was detected and that makes difficult to discuss a recurrence interval of the events. In order to reveal whether the event repeats or not, and if it repeats, to clarify the interval and a temporal and spatial change of the coupling and the LSSE, I analyzed a leveling data from 1981 to 1999 -- before the era of GNSS -- and deduced spatial patterns of the vertical crustal deformation rate.The deduced rates show two sorts of spatial patterns and the patterns appear alternately. One of them resembles the pattern during the LSSE between 2000 and 2005. Summing up the results and accounting for the estimation errors, it is clear that there are at least three events in the last thirty years; 2000-2005 (already and well known event), 1987-1990, and around 1983. The 2000-2005 event is the biggest and longest one, while 1983 event is the smallest and shortest one in the three events. It suggests that the duration of the event is longer, the interval to the next event becomes longer, and that there are some relationships between the size, duration time, and the recurrence interval of the events. These features are very unique for the Tokai LSSEs compared with those in the other regions such as the Bungo Channel and Cascadia.

  6. High-resolution seismic reflection survey results in the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    GSJ has conducted the coastal project since 2008 in order to equip seamless geoinformations of land and sea. This project has approached the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan. In the waters off the Boso Peninsula, the Philippine Sea plate subducts under the Honshu arc. Therefore, the subsurface structure in this area is important for understanding of tectonics of Kanto region, Japan. In this study, we obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structure in the area. We mainly research the Kujukuri area, eastern part of Boso peninsula. The broad shelf characterizes this area and that width is ca. 50 km. A clear unconformity can be distinguished separating two strata and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The planner stratification characterizes the Kujukuri A Unit and this unit buries many channels. Distinct stratification deformed by synclines and anticlines develops in the Kujukuri B Unit. The amounts of displacement of them are over 50 msec (TWT) and it exceeds 100 msec in some locations. Additionally, a lot of faults develop in the Kujukuri B Unit near land and the vertical amounts of displacement of faults exceed 100 msec. These structures in the Kujukuri B Unit might have an effect on tectonics of the Kanto region. The understanding of geology in the Kujukuri area contributes to the tectonics of Japan.

  7. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  8. Sequential variation of atmospheric mercury in Tokai-mura, seaside area of eastern central Japan - article no. D19107

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, T.; Ueno, T.; Fu, F.F.

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were continuously measured from October 2005 to August 2006 in Tokai-mura (36.27{sup o}N, 140.36{sup o}E), a small city on the Pacific side of central Japan. The concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer and autumn is higher than in winter and spring, and an 11-month average of 1-hour measurements is 3.78 {+-} 1.62 ng/m{sup 3} (n = 7551). Our results showed that changes in the GEM level in Tokai-mura are largely determined by temperature and relative humidity, but are independent of wind speed and direction. Two contrary patterns were observed in the daily cycle of GEM concentrations: the most frequent pattern of lower concentrations at noon and a pattern of higher concentrations at noon, which was only observed in November. Our results showed that two nearby potential anthropogenic sources of mercury, a coal-fired power plant and incineration facility, have only little effect on the gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in Tokai-mura based on only GEM measurements.

  9. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    of disturbance of the geothermal environment and groundwater flow caused by the use of GSHPs, therefore, would depend on the thickness of these gravels. Reference Funabiki, A., Nagoya, K., Kaneki, A., Uemura, K., Kurihara, M., Obara, H., Goto, A., Chiba, T., Naya, T., Ueki, T., and Takemura, T. (2011) Sedimentary facies and physical properties of the sediment core CRE-NUCHS-1 in Setagaya district, Tokyo, central Japan. Abstracts, The 118th Annual Meeting of theGeological Society of Japan. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

  10. Magneto-biostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic bedded chert succession from the Mino Belt, Inuyama area, central Japan: correlation to Tethyan sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, D.; Koji, U.; Onoue, T.

    2015-12-01

    Late Triassic magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy has recently been investigated in both continental and Tethyan marine sequences (Hounslow and Muttoni, 2010). However, there is no agreed on geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) for the Late Triassic, because of poor age control of many Late Triassic magnetostratigraphic sections, missing or duplicated intervals, and within- section changes in sedimentation rates (Lucas, 2013). Here we present lower Carnian to upper Norian magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (conodont and radiolaria) of the Upper Triassic bedded chert successions from the Mino belt, Inuyama area, central Japan. The bedded chert was deposited in a mid-oceanic basin of the Panthalassa Ocean. Chert samples were collected at two sections (Sakahogi and Momotaro sections) where Sugiyama (1997) investigated the radiolarian biostratigraphy. Based on detailed study of the conodont biostratigraphy from the study sections, five conodont zones are recognized in ascending order as follows: lower Carnian lower Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, upper Carnian upper Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, lower Norian Epigondolella quadrata zone, middle Norian Epigondolella postera zone, and late Norian Epigondolella bidentata zone. Thermal demagnetization showed four distinct remanent magnetization components from the cherts. The highest blocking temperature component shows positive reversal test and is regarded as the primary remanent magnetization, which produced a magnetostratigraphy of the lower Carnian to upper Norian. The magnetostratigraphy consists of 15 substantive normal- reverse polarity chrons, defined by sampling at 256 stratigraphic levels. Paleomagnetic polarity reversals observed at the vicinity of Carnian/Norian boundary and middle Norian/upper Norian boundary are correlated with those of Tethyan marine sections (Pizzo Mondello and Silickà Brezovà). Assuming that the rocks in the two Tethyan marine sections were deposited in the Northern

  11. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation. PMID:18262223

  12. Seismic structure of southern margin of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake aftershocks area: slab-slab contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Mizohata, S.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on the Japan Trench off the eastern shore of northern Honshu, Japan. The southward expansion of the afterslip area has reached the Kanto region, central Japan (Ozawa et al., 2011). The Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts beneath the Kanto region. The bottom of the PHS is in contact with the upper surface of the Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath northeastern Kanto. Detailed structure of the PHS-PAC contact zone is important to constrain the southward rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and provide new insight into the process of future earthquake occurrence beneath the Kanto region. Active and passive seismic experiments were conducted to obtain a structural image beneath northeastern Kanto in 2010 (Sato et al., 2010). The geometry of upper surface of the PHS has been revealed by seismic reflection profiling (Sato et al., 2010). Passive seismic data set is useful to obtain a deep structural image. Two passive seismic array observations were conducted to obtain a detailed structure image of the PHS-PAC contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto. One was carried out along a 50-km-long seismic line trending NE-SW (KT-line) and the other was carried out along a 65-km-long seismic line trending NW-SE (TM-line). Sixty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on KT-line with 500 to 700 m interval and waveforms were continuously recorded during a four-month period from June, 2010. Forty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on TM-line with about 1-2 km spacing and waveforms were continuously recorded during the seven-month period from June, 2010. Arrival times of earthquakes were used in a joint inversion for earthquake locations and velocity structure, using the iterative damped least-squares algorithm, simul2000 (Thurber and Eberhart-Phillips, 1999). The relocated hypocenter distribution shows that the seismicity along the upper surface of the PAC is located at depths of 45-75 km beneath

  13. The geomorphological and geological features of gravitational deformation of mountain and its history in the area from Mt. Yambushi to the Oya-Kuzure, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokudai, K.; Chigira, M.

    2003-04-01

    We clarified the geological structure and the geomorphological features of a mountain deformation as well as its deformation history in central Japan. The ridge we investigated is underlain by slate, of which cleavage trends at a small angle with the ridge trend. The cleavage dips very steeply in the depth, but dips gently toward the mountain in most higher elevations, clearly showing that the slaty cleavage bowed valleyward. The deformation left ridge-top depressions and uphill-facing scarps at the upper part of the mountain. The ridge-top depression was made earlier than 20 ka BP and uphill-facing scarps lower than those were formed in about 10 ka BP, which has been clarified by the trenching and tephra analysis of depression-filling deposits.

  14. Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

  15. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  16. Lateral inhomogeneity deduced from 3-D magnetotelluric modeling around the hypocentral area of the 1984 Western Nagano Prefecture earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaya, T.; Oshiman, N.

    2004-05-01

    Earthquake swarms have been observed since 1976 in the southeastern region of Mt. Ontake, where the 1984 Western Nagano Prefecture earthquake (M6.8) occurred. Most earthquake swarm activities show a dense distribu-tion in a narrow area and at shallow depths. We have carried out forward 3-D magnetotelluric modeling for the data set observed around the focal region of the earthquake swarms. An initial 3-D image was constructed based on previous 2-D magnetotelluric analysis results. The resistivity structure shows remarkable lateral inhomogeneity: a low resistivity zone is located at shallow depth around the center of the study area and the low resistivity zone is surrounded by a high resistive structure and its shape is about a 4-km cube. This feature agrees well with the distribution of the degree of water saturation deduced from seismic information. Hypocenters of recent seismicity are distributed around an area between the resistivity boundary and the relatively high-resistance region. This fact strongly suggests that earthquakes in the study area are triggered by fluid (water) in the crust.

  17. Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility Project-(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Hosaka, M.; Takami, K.; Morimoto, H.; Ito, T.; Sakurai, I.; Hara, H.; Okamoto, W.; Watanabe, N.; Takeda, Y.; Katoh, M.; Hori, Y.; Sasaki, S.

    2010-06-23

    A synchrotron radiation facility that is used not only for basic research, but also for engineering and industrial research and development has been proposed to be constructed in the Central area of Japan. The key equipment of this facility is a compact electron storage ring that is able to supply hard X-rays. The circumference of the storage ring is 72 m with the energy of 1.2 GeV, the beam current of 300 mA, and the natural emittance of about 53 nm-rad. The configuration of the storage ring is based on four triple bend cells, and four of the twelve bending magnets are 5 T superconducting ones. The bending angle and critical energy are 12 degree and 4.8 keV, respectively. For the top-up operation, the electron beam will be injected from a booster synchrotron with the full energy. Currently, six beamlines are planned for the first phase starting from 2012.

  18. Quaternary volcanism and tectonic history of the Suwa-Yatsugatake Volcanic Province, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiki, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kou; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Miyake, Yasuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Beneath central Japan, where three island arcs meet, the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates are both subducting, resulting in a complex tectonic history. The Suwa-Yatsugatake Volcanic Province (SYVP) consists of five groups of volcanoes (the Circum-Lake Suwa, Utsukushigahara, Kirigamine, Yabashira, and Yatsugatake volcanoes). The province is characterized by an enormous amount of volcanic activity, with lava flows and volcaniclastic rocks spread over a vast area of more than 1200 km 2, and with a total eruption volume exceeding 400 km 3. We determined the K-Ar ages of 41 samples of the SYVP with the aim of elucidating temporal and spatial changes in the tectonic and volcanic activities of central Japan. According to these new dates and previously reported radiogenic ages, we lead to conclude that volcanic activity has been occurring intermittently in the province since ca. 2.2 Ma. Volcanic activity in the SYVP can be classified into three phases, separated by dormant periods. Among these three phases, the volcanism during Phase II (1.6-0.7 Ma) is characteristic of an extensional stress field, such as voluminous outpourings of andesitic lava, and the existence of the WNW-ESE Oiwake Graben. Since ca. 5 Ma, Central Japan has been situated in a regional compressional stress field. However, in the SYVP, the stress field was locally extensional during Phase II. Here we propose a model in which the Izu Block, which lies above the Philippine Sea Plate, collided with Central Japan, resulting in enhanced NW-SE regional compressional stresses, but local extensional stresses in the SYVP due to the existence of a massive quantity of magma, and the geometry of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line. We consider the volcanic activity in the SYVP to have been pulse-like, resulting from successive, intermittent collisions between Central Japan and blocks on the Philippine Sea Plate.

  19. Short-term slow slip and correlated tremor episodes in the Tokai region, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Obara, Kazushige

    2006-09-01

    We observe the related phenomenon of short-term slow slip event (SSE) and low-frequency nonvolcanic tremor on the deeper extension of the 1944 Tonankai and the anticipated Tokai earthquake rupture areas, central Japan. Japan nation-wide seismometer and tiltmeter array, NIED Hi-net has recorded these correlated episodes of SSE and tremor, known as episodic tremor and slip (ETS) in 2004 and 2005. The events are located on two areas in the Tokai region, one is near the Shima peninsula, and the other is around the Aichi area. Both episodes have a typical duration of 2-3 days and released seismic moment corresponding to Mw ~ 6.0. Moreover, these episodes repeatedly occur with a recurrence interval of about six months in both areas. This evidence suggests that the coincidence between the SSE and the tremor is a characteristic behavior in the whole tremor belt-like zone in the Nankai trough subduction zone.

  20. Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Ochiai, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

  1. The block structure and Quaternary strike-slip block rotation of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaori, Yuji; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; Yairi, Kenji

    1992-02-01

    Central Japan is situated on the inflection point of the bow-shaped Japanese islands. Numerous NW-SE trending active faults, arranged in parallel at intervals of 20 to 80 km are found in this area. These active faults are more than 30 km long with shattered zones from 30 to 300 m wide. Several active faults constitute a given block boundary, which serves as the dividing line for one of the four blocks that make up central Japan. The block boundaries require careful study since numerous historical earth-quakes have occurred along these lines. Offset measurements of basement rocks, created during the Quaternary period due to left-lateral faulting, amount to 1 to 7 km. Gravity lineaments, which link points of sudden change and saddles of Bouguer anomalies, are clearly found along the block boundaries. The NW-SE trending active faults appearing on the ground surface are associated with motions of the block boundaries. Block rotational movement, caused by left-lateral faulting, plays an important role in the crustal deformation of central Japan. Rotational angles of the blocks calculated from the amount of displacement of basement rocks, initiated during the Quaternary period, are estimated to be 3° to 7° in a clockwise manner.

  2. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    Along the southern to eastern margin of the Sea of Japan, active faults are densely distributed. These submarine active faults produced tsunami disasters, such as 1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (M7.7) and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8). To estimate tsunami hazards, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling to obtain the information of tsunami source faults, off-Hokuriku area in the central part of Honshu, Japan. The survey is carried out as a part of research project named "the integrated research project on seismic and tsunami hazards around the Sea of Japan" funded by MEXT. To obtain long offset data in busy marine activity area, we used two vessels; a gun-ship with 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable with 156 channels and 480 cu. inch air-gun. Common-midpoint reflection data were acquired using two ships at 4 km offset. The survey area consists of stretched continental crust associated with rifting and opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene and is marked by densely distributed syn-rift normal faults. Fault reactivation of normal faults as reverse faults is common. Two phases of fault reactivation are identified from the seismic sections after termination of opening of the Sea of Japan. One is the late Miocene NS trending shortening deformation. This is produced by NS-trending convergence of the Shikoku basin (15 Ma), which belongs to the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) to SW Japan at Nankai trough (Kimura et al., 2005). After the initiation of the subduction of PHS at Nankai trough, the strong shortening deformation is terminated and the fold-and-thrust belt was unconformably covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Some horizons of unconformities represent multiple events of shortening driven from the subduction interface. Some normal faults reactivated as active strike-slip and reverse faults in Quaternary. Well observed example is the 2007 Noto peninsula earthquake (M6.8). The 2007 Noto peninsula

  3. Nitrous oxide fluxes from upland soils in central Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Kimura, Sonoko D; Toma, Yo; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils were measured using the closed chamber method during the snow-free seasons (middle April to early November), for three years, in a total of 11 upland crop fields in central Hokkaido, Japan. The annual mean N2O fluxes ranged from 2.95 to 164.17 microgN/(m2 x h), with the lowest observed in a grassland and the highest in an onion field. The instantaneous N2O fluxes showed a large temporal variation with peak emissions generally occurring following fertilization and heavy rainfall events around harvesting in autumn. No clear common factor regulating instantaneous N2O fluxes was found at any of the study sites. Instead, instantaneous N2O fluxes at different sites were affected by different soil variables. The cumulative N2O emissions during the study period within each year varied from 0.15 to 7.05 kgN/hm2 for different sites, which accounted for 0.33% to 5.09% of the applied fertilizer N. No obvious relationship was observed between cumulative N2O emission and applied fertilizer N rate (P > 0.4). However, the cumulative N2O emission was significantly correlated with gross mineralized N as estimated by CO2 emissions from bare soils divided by C/N ratios of each soil, and with soil mineral N pool (i.e., the sum of gross mineralized N and fertilizer N) (P < 0.001). PMID:19202870

  4. Environmental change pattern in central Japan as revealed by LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Tsuchiya, K.; Ochiai, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A patched cirrus reported by weather stations was hardly recognizable by the eye in LANDSAT MSS data of a three year time lapse. The cloud cover affected radiance values significantly in band 4, while its effect was minimal in bands 6 and 7 (near infrared spectra). The cross correlation coefficient analysis between the two images indicated that the highest value obtained in central Japan was 0.963 for the area where little change occurred in land use over the three period. An analysis of land use in Nagoya showed little change in the metropolitan area while a fairly large change occurred in the northern periphery of the city where large scale housing projects are located.

  5. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  6. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-12-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  7. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-01-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  8. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  9. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  10. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  11. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  12. Methylmercury monitoring study in Karakuwacho peninsula area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junxia; Inoue, Kayoko; Asakawa, Akihiro; Harada, Kouji H; Watanabe, Takao; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a worldwide concern owing to its adverse health effects. To explore MeHg exposure burdens and the potential contributing factors in different subpopulations in a peninsula area (Karakuwacho) in Japan, a cross-sectional survey was performed. This study included 189 individuals from 102 families. The geometric means of total hair mercury (THg) were 5.74, 3.78 and 2.37 μg/g for adult males, females and children, respectively, of which 56.5 %, 30.9 % and 12.9 % had hair THg exceeding 5 μg/g, respectively. Tuna and mackerel were the common fish species that were positively correlated with hair THg levels in different subpopulations (standardized coefficient ranged from 0.20 to 0.58, p < 0.05). Frequent consumption of these fish species and a large amount of fish intake are likely major contributors of MeHg exposure in this area. Local-scale risk evaluation and risk communication should be highlighted in future studies. PMID:24599146

  13. Channel initiation by groundwater sapping in Kanozan, Boso Peninsula of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushi, Y.; Hattanji, T.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater sapping is known as one of the important processes for channel initiation. We examined hydro- geomorphic factors that affect channel initiation by groundwater sapping. The study site (Mt. Kanozan) is located in Boso Peninsula, 50-km southeast of Tokyo, central Japan. Unconfined sandstone with high permeability comprises the mountain. Some features of piping, boiling and seepage erosion were found along first and second-order channels. Runoff at a spring site (SS) kept a constant discharge throughout year, and did not show any responses to typhoon storms with over 100-mm total rainfall. We surveyed micro-topography of 12 channel heads. Most channel heads have steep head slope (35-45 deg.) and gentle gradient downstream (5-10 deg.). Gentle slope of groundwater table immediately above channel head (roughly 7 deg. at the spring site SS) controls channel gradient, and affects distinct gradient transition at channel heads. We could not found any significant correlation between source area and local slope at channel heads, probably due to a scattered relation between surface drainage area and spring discharge. All channel heads are located in an altitude zone of 50-100 m, while the altitude of mountain peak is 270 m. The limited altitude distribution of channel heads implies that channel initiation of this area should be controlled by a critical altitude associated with deep groundwater flow systems.

  14. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  15. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-09-30

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

  16. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Giesbrecht, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  17. Regional differences in homicide patterns in five areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, N; Kominato, Y; Shimada, I; Takizawa, H; Fujikura, T; Morita, M; Funayama, M; Yoshioka, N; Touda, K; Gonmori, K; Misawa, S; Sakairi, Y; Sakamoto, N; Tanno, K; Thaik-Oo, M; Kiuchi, M; Fukumoto, Y; Sato, Y

    2001-03-01

    This article describes regional differences in the homicide patterns which occurred in Sapporo City and the surrounding area, and in Akita, Ibaraki, Chiba and Toyama prefectures in Japan. Information collected from each case of homicide included factors such as age, sex of the victim and assailant, causes of death, disposition of the offender, relationship between assailant and victim, reasons for criminal action, et al. The statistical features of homicidal episodes among the five different regions showed considerable variation, as follows. The mean death rates for homicide (number of victims per 100,000 of population) during the period 1986-1995 were 0.44 (Sapporo), 0.8 (Akita), 0.58 (Toyama), 0.7 (Ibaraki) and 0.75 (Chiba), respectively. Close family relationship between the victim and assailant was observed in the homicidal acts which occurred in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. Assailant's relationship to victim was commonly extra-familial in Ibaraki and Chiba-neighboring megalopolis Tokyo, where some events of murder by a foreigner occurred. Homicide by female assailant, murder by mentally abnormal killers and homicide-suicide events were closely associated with family members. And these factors contributed to the considerable number of victims in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. But, this close family relationship of the victim to the assailant did not correspond with the elevation in the number of deaths, and it was rather inversely related to the higher death rates recognized in Ibaraki and Chiba. This comparative study suggested that rapid urbanization considerably affects regional differences in homicide patterns. PMID:12935732

  18. Large heterogeneous structure beneath the Atotsugawa Fault, central Japan, revealed by seismic refraction and reflection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, Takashi; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iwasaki, Takaya; Arai, Ryuta; Kato, Aitaro; Katao, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Fumihito

    2015-08-01

    A high-strain-rate zone termed the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone is located in central Japan and contains an active right-lateral fault called the Atotsugawa Fault. We present the results of an explosive-source seismic experiment that focused on identifying the formation mechanisms of the fault. The experiment used seven explosive sources and 1108 seismic stations, and was undertaken during October 2007 in the area of the Atotsugawa Fault. The seismic stations were set up on a survey line with a length of ~ 170 km, oriented orthogonal to the strike of the fault. The linear array was used to identify the seismic structure of the fault zone and the deeper parts of the crust in the study area, yielding fine details of the seismic structure of the crust along the profile line, including lateral variations in P-wave velocity and the configuration of layers in the crust. A relatively low P-wave velocity reflective zone was detected beneath the fault at depths of 15-25 km. This zone also has extremely low S-wave velocities, directly underlies three active faults, and contains three low-resistivity zones that underlie these faults. These reflective and low-resistivity zones are thought to represent fluid within the crust, and the data obtained during this study are consistent with a weak zone model for the formation of the active faults in the study area. This suggests that the reflective layer represents a weak zone in the lower crust that is responsible for the concentration of deformation within the upper crust. The presence of abundant fluids beneath the Atotsugawa Fault could also reduce the strength of the lower crust, again focusing deformation related to the regional stress regime in areas that overlie these fluid-containing zones. The results suggest that the reflective layer was an important factor in the formation of the Atotsugawa Fault.

  19. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 2. Quantitative evaluations of the nuisance of chironomid midges].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In order to make clear the present "nuisance" caused by chironomid midges around a eutrophic lake, a questionnaire survey of 249 leaders of the Hygiene Self-governing Association of the cities of Suwa and Okaya and the town of Shimosuwa near Lake Suwa was conducted. The results are as follows: 1. More than 90% of the respondents had specific knowledge about the chironomid midge, but 40% of them didn't know about its role as a purifier in the lake. 2. More than 10% of respondents answered that they were "can not able to stand any more" massive flights of chironomid midges, and about half of them lived within 500 m of the lake shore. The damages "nuisances" were "running laundry or defacing walls (67.1%) and "contamination of food (15.3%)", suggesting that chironomid midges influenced the daily life of the residents. 3. The selected causes of massive flights of chironomid midges were "pollution in Lake Suwa" and "decreases in the numbers of birds and dragonflies" as well as others. This means that the deterioration of the environmental situation around the lake may cause the "nuisance" of chironomid midges. 4. The respondents were more strongly interested in counterplans for the control of the chironomid midges made by administrative authorities than in plans made by each family. 5. "The distance from the lake shore" was the major factor contributing to the impression of chironomid damage. "The occupation of the respondent" was the second important factor. To redirect the insect flights away from the residential area, and to decrease the number of adult midges coming from the lake, are thought to be the most important measures for the resolution of this problem. PMID:1890774

  20. Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. δ13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

  1. Assessment of precursor signature of TEC anomalies over Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Han, P.

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the effect of strong geomagnetic activities, the TEC data of 2 days after Dst index exceed -60 nT were excluded in previous statistical studies of earthquake related TEC anomalies. Actually, the influences of a magnetic storm on TEC variations depend on the intensity and onset time of the storm. In this study, to clarify such dependences, we applied classification analysis to the storm data (Dst) and discussed the response of TEC variation to each type of storm. We picked out all the 294 geomagnetic storms during 1998-2013, and classified them into 3 types in magnitude and 4 types in onset time (local time). We checked the TEC data from 2 days before till 5 days after the onset of each geomagnetic storm. A bootstrap method is used to calculate the average variation of the TEC for each type of storm. The average variation can be regarded as an average response of TEC to the related type of storm. If the average value of TEC exceeds the mean±2σ threshold, we consider it being affected by the storm. By this mean, we could find the accurate period affected by each type of storm. We employed the results obtained above to remove the TEC data associated with geomagnetic storms. Next we performed statistical analysis of the TEC anomalies possibly associated with large earthquakes in Japan area during 1998/05-2013/12. There are statistical significance of TEC anomalies 1-5 days before and 16-20 days after M>=6.0 earthquakes. The significance of pre-earthquake anomalies is consistent with the results reported by Kon et al., 2011. The significance of 16-20 days after earthquakes may be due to aftershock effects of the Tohoku earthquake. To remove the influences of any per- and after- shock effects, we proposed a new method which considers 'isolate EQs' only. 'Isolate EQs' are earthquakes which is unique in a 61 days window centered by the day of the EQ. The result shows there are clear high possibilities of TEC anomalies 1-5 days prior to M>=6 earthquakes. Finally

  2. On-going Slow Slip Event at the Tokai Region, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, N.; Hirose, H.; Kimata, F.; Hirahara, K.

    2001-12-01

    On-going slow slip event started from March, 2001 or earlier is detected at the Tokai region by a dense GPS network, GEONET operated by Geographycal Survey Institute (GSI), Japan. By subtracting a linear trend and annual variations from the GEONET data, a thrust type slip movement is occurring for at least half a year at deeper part of the anticipated fault zone of the "Tokai earthquake (M>=8)", although the model suggests that the slip region could be extending into the locked zone. As the maximum slip at the plate interface zone becomes a few centimeter and the estimated area extends from the eastern border of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake fault zone to the middle of the "Tokai earthquake" fault zone. As the area becomes about 40km x 150km, the moment magnitude of this slow slip events becomes ~6.5, which is similar to those previously found at the Bungo Channel (western edge of the Nankai subduction zone) event [Hirose, et al., 1999; Ozawa, et al., 2001] and the Cascadia event [Dragert et al., 2001]. The Tokai region, central Japan, is located at the eastern end of the Nankai trough (continued to the Suruga trough), where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the southwest part of Honshu in the NW direction at average rate of about 3 - 5 cm/yr. Repeated occurrence of the temporal changes of the interplate coupling in the Tokai region are also suggested (see Kimata, et al., in this meeting) during 25 years using a back-slip inversion technique similar to Yabuki and MatsuOura [1992]. The data used are horizontal length changes by the EDM ranging at two lines and level changes between Hamanako and Shizuoka, where are located just above the lower part of the locked zone. Results seem to indicate at least two slow slip events during the periods of 1978-1983 and 1987-1991 when both of the subducting rate and direction changes from the average plate motion. A variety of time scale of slow slip event could closely related with the fluctuation of plate motions

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (p<0.01). Moreover, serotyping of 996 isolates identified 1/2b as the most prevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. PMID:24180587

  4. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  5. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  6. A magma-hydrothermal system beneath Hakone volcano, central Japan, revealed by highly resolved velocity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Yohei; Honda, Ryou; Harada, Masatake; Arai, Ryuta; Matsubara, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution images of subsurface structures are necessary to understand the transport processes of crustal fluids from deep magma sources and their relationship to earthquake swarms in active volcanic regions. Based on a seismic tomography approach, we have developed a new model for the magma-hydrothermal system beneath Hakone volcano, central Japan, where shallow earthquake swarms and crustal deformation associated with inflation of an open-crack source are often observed. By applying travel-time data for local earthquakes to a tomographic inversion, we obtained highly resolved seismic velocity structures that show a region of low P-wave velocity (Vp), low S-wave velocity (Vs), and high Vp/Vs ratios at depths of 10-20 km beneath the volcano, corresponding to the location of the open-crack source. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs ratios represent a deep magma chamber with a high concentration of melt and/or fluids. Deep low-frequency earthquakes, located just beneath this high Vp/Vs zone, may indicate that magmatic fluids are supplied from below. Above the high Vp/Vs zone, a region of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratios exists at depths of 3-10 km, suggesting the presence of crack-filled water or CO2 supplied from the inferred deep magma chamber. Many earthquake swarms occur in this low Vp/Vs zone, indicating that crustal fluids play an important role in generating the swarms. Similar relationships between magma reservoirs, overlying hydrothermal systems, and swarm activity have been reported from other volcanic areas and thus may be a ubiquitous feature beneath active volcanoes.

  7. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  8. Wide-angle seismic survey in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Iwamaru, H.; Shirai, T.; Dannowski, A.; Thorwart, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Morgan, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration process within the subducting oceanic plate and expelled water from there affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes. This implies that the degree of hydration within the incoming oceanic plate just prior to subduction might be a key control factor on the regional variations in subduction zone processes like interplate earthquakes and arc volcanism. Recent advances in seismic structure studies in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan Trench have revealed that seismic velocities within the incoming oceanic plate become lower owing to the plate bending-related faulting, suggesting the hydration of the oceanic plate. If the degree of the oceanic plate hydration is one of key factors controlling the regional variations of the interplate earthquakes, the degree of the oceanic plate hydration just prior to subduction is expected to show the along-trench variation because the interplate seismicity in the forearc region of the Japan Trench show along-trench variations. However, we cannot discuss the along-trench variation of the incoming plate structure because seismic structure studies have been confined only to the northern Japan Trench so far.In 2014 and 2015, JAMSTEC and GEOMAR conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench to reveal the detailed seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate. The western extension of our survey line corresponds to the epicenter of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquakes. We deployed 88 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) at intervals of 6 km and shot a tuned air-gun array of R/V Kairei at 200 m spacing. In this presentation, we will show the overview of our seismic survey and present seismic structure models obtained by the data of mainly 2014 seismic survey together with the several OBS data from 2015 survey. The preliminary results show P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle decreases toward the trench axis

  9. Measurement of Indoor Radon-222 and Radon-220 Concentrations in Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Mitsuaki; Shimo, Michikuni; Tokonami, Shinji; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2008-08-07

    A passive-type radon/thoron detector was used for measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations at 90 dwellings in Aichi and Gifu prefectures in central Japan during 90 days from December, 2006 to March, 2007. The radon and thoron concentrations were 21.1 Bq/m3 and 25.1 Bq/m3, respectively. The dose due to radon and thoron in dwellings was roughly evaluated as 0.7 mSv/y and 2.4 mSv/y, respectively. The examination of the geological factor and house condition having an effect on indoor radon concentration was performed.

  10. Explosion energy of the 2004 eruption of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, inferred from ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2006-07-01

    The Japanese dense array of Global Positioning System recorded ionospheric disturbances as changes in Total Electron Content ~12 minutes after the September 1 2004 eruption of the Asama Volcano, Central Japan. The disturbance had a period of one and a quarter minutes and propagated as fast as ~1.1 km/s, suggesting its origin as the acoustic wave generated by the explosion. By comparing the disturbance amplitudes with those by a surface mine blast with a known energy, the overall Asama explosion energy is inferred to be about 2 × 1014 J.

  11. Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen input on the aquatic food webs of river ecosystem in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Togashi, H.; Tokuchi, N.; Yoshimura, M.; Kato, Y.; Ishikawa, N. F.; Osaka, K.; Kondo, M.; Tayasu, I.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of the anthropogenic nitrogen input to the river ecosystem, we conducted the monitoring on nutrient status of river waters and food web structures of aquatic organisms. Especially, changes of sources and concentration of nitrate (NO3-) in river water were focused to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic nitrogen loadings from agricultural and residential areas. Stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) of aquatic organisms has also intensively been monitored not only to describe their food web structure, but also to detect the influences of extraneous nitrogen inputs. Field samplings an observation campaigns were conducted in the Arida river watershed located in central part of Japan at four different seasons from September 2011 to October 2012. Five observation points were set from headwaters to the point just above the brackish waters starts. Water samples for chemical analysis were taken at the observation points for each campaign. Organisms including leaf litters, benthic algae, aquatic insects, crustacean, and fishes were sampled at each point quantitatively. Results of the riverine survey utilizing 5 regular sampling points showed that δ15N of nitrate (NO3-) increased from forested upstream (˜2 ‰) to the downstream (˜7 ‰) due to the sewage loads and fertilizer effluents from agricultural area. Correspondingly the δ15N of benthic algae and aquatic insects increased toward the downstream. This indicates that primary producers of each reach strongly relied on the local N sources and it was utilized effectively in their food web. Simulation using a GIS based mixing model considering the spatial distributions of human population density and fertilizer effluents revealed that strongest impacts of N inputs was originated from organic fertilizers applied to orchards in the middle to lower parts of catchment. Differences in δ15N between primary producers and predators were 6-7 ‰ similarly at all sampling points. Food web structural

  12. Dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, estimated by eigenvectors of gravity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, by using the dip of the maximum eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor. A series of earthquakes in Kumamoto and Oita beginning on 14 April 2016 occurred along this tectonic line, the largest of which was M = 7.3. Because a gravity gradiometry survey has not been conducted in the study area, we calculated the gravity gradient tensor from the Bouguer gravity anomaly and employed it to the analysis. The general dip distribution of the Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line was found to be about 65° and tends to be higher towards its eastern end. In addition, we estimated the dip around the largest earthquake to be about 60° from the gravity gradient tensor. This result agrees with the dip of the earthquake source fault obtained by Global Navigation Satellite System data analysis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Detection and Monitoring of Ongoing Aseismic Slip in the Tokai Region, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Murakami, Makoto; Kaidzu, Masaru; Tada, Takashi; Sagiya, Takeshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yarai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takuya

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of global positioning system data shows that the rate of crustal deformations in the Tokai region of Japan, a seismic gap area, changed over the past 18 months. Kalman filtering analysis shows aseismic slip on the plate boundary in the western Tokai region centered on Lake Hamana, adjacent to the anticipated Tokai earthquake source area. The cumulative moment magnitude reaches 6.7 in June 2002 with a relative slip increase northeast of Lake Haman from January 2002. An existence of aseismic slip in the western Tokai supports the hypothesis of a silent event as the cause of uplifting several days before the 1944 Tonankai earthquake.

  14. Detection and monitoring of ongoing aseismic slip in the Tokai region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Murakami, Makoto; Kaidzu, Masaru; Tada, Takashi; Sagiya, Takeshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yarai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takuya

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of global positioning system data shows that the rate of crustal deformations in the Tokai region of Japan, a seismic gap area, changed over the past 18 months. Kalman filtering analysis shows aseismic slip on the plate boundary in the western Tokai region centered on Lake Hamana, adjacent to the anticipated Tokai earthquake source area. The cumulative moment magnitude reaches 6.7 in June 2002 with a relative slip increase northeast of Lake Haman from January 2002. An existence of aseismic slip in the western Tokai supports the hypothesis of a silent event as the cause of uplifting several days before the 1944 Tonankai earthquake. PMID:12364622

  15. Geochemistry of arsenic and other trace elements in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Shahadat; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Total arsenic (As), As(III) species, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate (δ34SSO4), major ions and trace elements were measured in groundwater collected from boreholes and wells along the flow lines of western margins of Kumamoto basin, at central part of Kyushu island in southern Japan. Kumamoto city is considered as the largest groundwater city in Japan. 100% people of this city depends on groundwater for their drinking purpose. In this study, we used trace elements data and δ34SSO4 values to better understand the processes that are likely controlling mobilization of As in this area. Arsenic concentrations ranges from 1 to 60.6 μg/L. High concentrations were found in both shallow and deep aquifers. The aquifers are composed of Quaternary volcanic (pyroclastic) flow deposits. In both aquifers, groundwaters evolve along the down flow gradient from oxidizing conditions of recharge area to the reducing conditions of stagnant area of Kumamoto plain. 40% samples from the Kumamoto plain area excced the maximum permissible limit of Japan drinking water quality standard (10 μg/L). In the reducing groundwater, As(III) constitutes typically more, however; 50% samples dominated with As(III) and 50% samples dominated with As(V) species. High As concentrations occur in anaerobic stagnant groundwaters from this plain area with high dissolved Fe, Mn, moderately dissolved HCO3, PO4, DOC and with very low concentrations of NO3 and SO4 suggesting the reducing condition of subsurface aquifer. Moderately positive correlation between As and dissolved Fe, Mn and strong negative correlation between As(III)/As(V) ratio and V, Cr and U reflect the dependence of As concentration on the reductive process. The wide range of δ34SSO4 values (6.8 to 36.1‰) indicate that sulfur is undergoing redox cycling. Highly enriched values suggesting the process was probably mediated by microbial activity. It also be noted from positive values of sulfur

  16. Active intraplate deformation as geodynamic responses to oblique shallow subduction of a flat slab: example from central and southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Subduction of a flat slab has been recognized as one of the primary driving mechanism of wide intracontinental subsidence farther away from the subduction leading edge in many subduction margins. In most cases, however, quantitative and qualitative limitations on chronological constraints prevent comprehensive understanding of these geodynamic linkages. In this study, we show distinct, geologic and seismic evidence for spatial and temporal correlation between plate subduction and intercontinental deformation, mainly driven by dynamic interaction between subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding continental crusts of central and southwest Japan (Eurasian plate) along the Nankai-Tonankai subduction zone since Pliocene. Based on analyses of Pliocene to Pleistocene tectonic histories by use of rich dataset of Neogene stratigraphy, drainage network evolution, and shallow to deep seismic reflection profiles, depocenters of wide sedimentary basins and active thrusting have migrated northward since ca. 5 Ma to present from forearc to backarc of the southwest Japan arc. Median tectonic line, active dextral strike-slip fault as a forearc sliver along the Nankai, is located north of the upward extension of the downdip limit of the interseismic locked zone. Southwest Japan north of the MTL, underlain by the subducting slab with steady state slip (Nakanishi et al., 2002; Kodaira et al., 2004), appears tectonically less inactive than central Japan and has behaved as a less deformed rigid block. Contrastingly, Quaternary active intraplate deformation has been prominent north of the inactive MTL above a shallow flat segment of the PHS plate along the Tonankai. Deep seismic reflection profile images upward corrugated very shallow PHS slab being contact with continental lower crust beneath actively deforming area. We interpreted temporal and spatial correlation of oblique subduction of the shallow and flat, corrugated PHS slab as an essential mechanical role to enhance

  17. Stress field in central Japan estimated by multiple inverse method from focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Otsubo, M.; Ishi, T.

    2008-12-01

    In central Japan, active faults with strike-slip type are dominated. In addition small fractions of reverse faults are observed in Nigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ) and other places. However large part of focal mechanism solutions in this region shows reverse fault type. Thus relation between existent fault and stress field are essentially important problem. To obtain precise heterogeneous stress field, we apply multiple inverse method (Otsubo et al., in press) and K-means clustering (Otsubo el al., 2006) to the shallower focal mechanism solutions (NIED F-net focal mechanisms catalogue: depth <30km) in this region. The multiple inverse method can treat heterogeneous stress field and have no requirement for strict a priori data selection which can be assumed under homogeneous stress field. First we extract two stress solutions within each 1° × 1° (lat, lon) region. Most of the stress solutions show strike-slip or reverse fault type with stress ratio (φ) between 0 and 0.66. Then we divide input fault parameters into four groups using misfit angles between the observed and computed slip directions for detected stress solutions in each region. The misfit angle is 30°. We estimated the spatial changes of stress field from the focal mechanisms of which observed slip directions are consistent with only one stress solution. These selected dataset are useful to map spatial heterogeneity of the stress field. Solutions with medium stress ratio (φ = 0.33 to 0.66) and strike-slip regime appear in central Japan enclosed by Itoigawa Shizuoka Tectonic Line and Median Tectonic Line. Stress solution with reverse fault regime and medium stress ratio are seen in northeast region and Japan Sea side. In contrast, solutions with low stress ratio (φ) between 0.00 and 0.33 (s1 >> s2=s3) appears along high strain rate zone (NKTZ). It may show that the high strain rate zone correspond to stress concentrated region toward Shmax direction.

  18. Paleotsunamis from the central Kuril Islands segment of the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Kravchunovskaya, Ekaterina; Pinegina, Tatiana; Bourgeois, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Paleotsunami records from the central Kuril Island segment of the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone indicate that the region has been frequently inundated by tsunamis. As many as 20-22 tsunami deposits are recognized on Matua Island for the past 3300 yr with an average tsunami recurrence interval of ∼150 yr, and 34-36 tsunami deposits are evident on Simushir Island for the past 2350 yr with an average recurrence of ∼65 yr. These intervals are short, but comparable to other segments of the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone. Results from all survey locations reveal shortening recurrence intervals toward the present, especially for the last 600 yr, indicating a possible preservation bias. On Simushir, tsunamis at least 11 m higher than the modern tsunamis in 2006 and 2007 occurred every ∼300 yr on average. On Matua, tsunamis with slightly farther inundation than the 2006 and 2007 tsunamis occurred every ∼215 yr while those with at least 100 m farther inland inundation occur every ∼750 yr. Our paleotsunami record almost certainly includes tsunamis that are not from great subduction zone earthquakes in the central Kuril segment: we expect the Matua record includes volcanic tsunamis and the Simushir record includes tsunamis from the southern Kuril segment.

  19. Land subsidence resulted from 500m spring draining in granite complex in Mizunami, central Japan (2004-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, F.; Honda, R.; Asai, Y.; Ishii, H.; Miyajima, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2013-12-01

    The 1,000m shaft excavation project in granite complex by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is on going in Mizunami, Gifu prefecture, Central Japan since April 2004. The excavating is reached the 500 m depth in March 2010 and the groundwater are inflowing around 700 ton/day. It is suggested the land subsidence as a result of ground water level changing by spring drain at the shaft. We make observations of ground water, crustal deformation by tilt meter, stress meter, strain meter and precise leveling, and gravity around the shaft. The subsidence was started at the time of the excavation beginning. As the observation results, drawdown of water head amounting to 70 m was detected in the observation wells, and 1-2 cm subsidence are detected at the benchmarks locating close to the shaft excavation site and on its south side area in the period of February 2004 to October 2012. The groundwater was almost recovered to the level of before the shaft excavation when drainage was temporarily stopped in June 2005, but it decreased by resume of drainage again. It shows a good association between the subsidence and water level change. It is suggested ground consolidation and elastic deformation as a mechanism of the subsidence. However, benchmarks are limited to the excavation site, and we could not make clear spatial distribution of the subsidence.

  20. Concentrated Heavy Rain Detected by InSAR: a Case Study of the August 2008 Episode in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Shimada, M.; Furuya, M.; Hobiger, T.; Ichikawa, R.

    2010-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can measure a spatial distribution of precipitable water vapor with unprecedented spatial resolution, and thus can provide us with unique information about mesoscale weather systems. From the end of August to the beginning of September 2008, torrential rains struck wide areas over central Japan, causing hourly precipitations more than 100 mm at Tokai areas. Japan Aerospace exploration Agency (JAXA) carried out an emergent observation of the heavy rains by PALSAR, an L-band synthetic aperture radar sensor, with an incidence angle of 45 degrees that is different from their nominal operation scenario. On January 2010, JAXA has carried out another PALSAR measurement of the very areas with the same incidence angle as that on 2 September 2008, so that we could generate InSAR image of the area and examine a detailed snapshot of the regional troposphere. Here we report our InSAR observation data, and discuss our preliminary analysis results. Near Ibi River, we could detect localized signals, which changed 12.2 cm in radar line-of-sight over a spatial scale on the order of 8 km, and were unlikely to be an artifact of either DEM errors or ionosphere. We validate this point, showing another InSAR image with similar equivalent spatial baseline as well as azimuth component of pixel-offset data. In addition, we employ a high-resolution numerical weather model, WRF, and a ray-tracing tool, KARAT, so that we could derive the predicted state of troposphere at the moment and compare them with the observation. We will discuss what we can learn from the InSAR image, and what the WRF/KARAT can and cannot predict.

  1. Subsurface electrical resistivity structure around the Noubi fault system, central Japan, by MT survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, K.; Matsuda, T.; Yamada, R.

    2009-12-01

    Subsurface electrical resistivity around active faults is an important property to investigate the position and the geometry of the faults, the scale of the fracture zones related to the fault activity, and the amount of water and/or clay minerals in fault zones. We performed MT (magnetotelluric) surveys with remote reference method across the Noubi active fault system, central Japan, in order to image the electrical resistivity structure in and around the faults, and to obtain fundamental information on the earthquake generation mechanism. The Noubi fault system, about 80 km long, activated at 1891 Noubi Earthquake, consisting of the Nukumi, the Neodani, and the Umehara faults, which slipped left laterally by 1 - 7 m at the 1891 earthquake. Seismological and geomorphologic studies revealed different features between these three faults; the amount of lateral slip of the Neodani fault was larger than those of the Nukumi and the Umehara fault at 1891 Noubi earthquake (Matsuda, 1974; Mikumo and Ando, 1976); the average recurrence intervals of activation of the Nukumi and the Neodani fault were shorter than that of the Umehara fault (The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2005). Survey areas are mainly covered by the Mino sedimentary complex formed in the Jurassic - Cretaceous period that consists of mudstone, sandstone, limestone, basalt, chart, and siliceous mudstone. But the Hida belt that consists of metamorphic and granitic rocks covers northeast area of the Nukumi fault. Three survey lines of about 20 km length were set crossing normal to the surface fault traces of the Nukumi, Neodani and Umehara faults. And 10 - 12 MT measurement sites were arranged with the same interval on the survey lines. We measured two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field by a 'MTU-5' system made by Phoenix Geophysics Ltd. at three different sampling frequencies to cover frequency bands of 0.0003 - 317 Hz of electric and magnetic field. Applying

  2. The Effect of Deep Ground Water on the Initiation of Kumanodaira Landslide in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Onda, Y.; Shimamura, M.; Togari-Ohta, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Hattori, S.; Uchida, T.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrometric and isotopic analyses were carried out to study the groundwater flow processes at the Kumanodaira landslide scars in Gunma Prefecture, central Japan. Kumanodaira landslide, which occurred on 8th and 9th in June 1950, consists of two slope failure events and killed 50 people; total 2 mm of rainfall was monitored for two days before the disaster, however, 320 mm/day of rainfall had been monitored nine months before. Precipitation and stream flow have been monitored in four small catchments (K1, K2, K3, and K4: Kumanodaira landslide occurred in K4) in Kumanodaira area to elucidate the mechanism of Kumanodaira landslide. To realize the data use of antecedent precipitation, effective rain was defined as Rw=Σ a1iR1i; in which Rw is the effective rain, a1i is the reduction coefficient of i hour before (a1i=0.5i/T: T is a half value period), and R1i is the one hour precipitation of i hour before. Two wells were also installed in K4; the Well A located relatively downslope of the catchment reaches the soil/bedrock interface, and Well B located upslope penetrates under the soil/bedrock interface. These data show that the rainfall-runoff response in K4 is much slower than that in the other catchments. The groundwater in shallow soil (Well A) was found to be corresponded to the effective rain with half value period of 2400 hours, whereas the groundwater in the bedrock (Well B) never corresponds to the effective rain with any half value periods. The stable isotopic ratio (δ 18O) of rainfall, surface water, and groundwater samples from each catchment were analyzed. This analyses show that only δ 18O of the Well B differs considerably from that of the others, implying that the water by heavy rainfalls during the summer season would supply to the Well B. Therefore these results suggest that groundwater flows as "piston flow" in the bedrock, responding several months after the rainfall. This caused significant difference in residence time from soil water, and

  3. Vertical Ground Deformation Detected by the Leveling and the Tidal Observation in Tokai Region, Central Japan in 1980 - 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Kimata, F.; Fujii, N.

    2003-12-01

    Great earthquakes more than M8 have occurred along the Suruga-Nankai subduction zone of the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS), southeast Japan, every 100 to 150 years. The last events are 1944 M7.9 Tonankai and 1946 M8.0 Nankai earthquakes. Interseismic subsidence is detected along the subduction zone from the precise leveling and tide gauge. Discussion of the occurrence of great earthquake in near feature brought the expanding the measurements and observation of earthquake and ground deformation in Tokai region. Whereas nation-wide dense GPS network (GEONET) makes clear of the ground deformation of contraction in west-northwestward contraction and east-southeastward tilting in Tokai region, no northwestward horizontal displacements are observed since 2001 in the western Tokai region. Slow slip event (SSE) toward trough is discussed (Ozawa et al., 2002). Precise leveling and line length measurements also suggest the episodic changes with time interval of 4-5 years in the late 20 years (Kimata and Yamauchi, 1999; Kimata et al., 2001). Moreover pre-seismic ground tilt is suggested in the same area of the 2001 Tokai SSE from the leveling of the day in 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. Meanwhile pre-seismic slip is estimated in the SSE area from the numerical experiment of rock crusher (Kato, 2003). We discuss the episodic change of the ground deformation and the recurrence of the SSE in Tokai region with more detail from the vertical ground deformation detected by precise leveling and tide gauge in the period from 1980 to 2002. Geographical Survey Institute of Japan (GSI) has repeated the precise leveling in Tokai region every year since 1980. Tide gauge measurements have also been continued at more than 10 sites in Tokai region by GSI, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Aichi prefecture (AP). Time series of vertical movements at the benchmarks are analyzed by spline function and Annual relative sea levels at tide stations are corrected (Savage and Thatcher, 1992). The 2001 Tokai

  4. Precursory Slope Deformation around Landslide Area Detected by Insar Throughout Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Wada, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Kamiya, I.; Nakajima, H.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique is able to detect a slope deformation around landslide (e.g., Singhroy et al., 2004; Une et al., 2008; Riedel and Walther, 2008; Sato et al., 2014). Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan has been performing the InSAR analysis regularly by using ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data throughout Japan. There are a lot of small phase change sites except for crustal deformation with earthquake or volcano activity in the InSAR imagery. Most of the phase change sites are located in landslide area. We conducted field survey at the 10 sites of those phase change sites. As a result, we identified deformation of artificial structures or linear depressions caused by mass movement at the 9 sites. This result indicates that InSAR technique can detect on the continual deformation of landslide block for several years. GSI of Japan will continue to perform the InSAR analysis throughout Japan. Therefore, we will be able to observe and monitor precursory slope deformation around landslide areas throughout Japan.

  5. Imaging of seismogenic source faults in metropolitan areas in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Hirata, N.; Abe, S.; Iwasaki, T.; Ito, K.; Okaya, D.; Ito, T.; Kasahara, K.; Koketsu, K.; Kato, N.; Hagiwara, H.; Kawanaka, T.; Ikawa, T.

    2006-12-01

    Location and geometry of a seismogenic source fault, and crustal velocity structure, provide the basic information for more precise estimation of strong ground motions with devastative earthquakes. For this purpose, deep seismic profiling has been performed in the Kanto (Metropolitan Tokyo) and Kinki areas for five years from 2002. In the Kanto area, five seismic lines were deployed to obtain images of the subduction megathrust at the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plates (PHS). In all of the seismic lines, reflections from the upper surface of PHS were clearly identified. The new deep seismic reflection profile across the northwestern part of the Izu collision zone acquired in 2005 revealed the existence of aseismic slab of PHS down to 40 km in depth. Together with the results of seismic tomography, the geometry of the top of PHS was determined including the seismic gap of northwest of the Izu collision zone. The newly determined depth to the PHS is much shallower than the previous estimates and the PHS slab continues to the west without showing a large gap at the NW of Izu collision zone at the shallow depth (>30 km). Such deeper images of the subduction megathrust including an out-of-sequence thrust, such as the Kozu-Matsuda fault, contribute for the realistic estimation of seismic risk. The determination of precise geometry of the PHS megathrust clearly demonstrated the occurrence of earthquakes below the PHS megathrust, which have potential to cause serious damages to the Tokyo metropolitan area. The Kinki area is marked by dense distribution of active faults. To real deep geometry of active faults, seismic reflection profiling was performed across the major active faults, such as the Median Tectonic Line active fault system, Uemachi and Ikoma faults in Osaka plain, Suzuka-toen fault in the western Ise plain. The obtained seismic sections delineate the down dip extension of active faults down to about 15 km in depth. The mid-crustal reflectors, which

  6. Crustal structure of the Izu Collision zone, central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Kato, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Obara, K.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region. In western Kanto region, the Izu-Bonin arc (IBA) within the PSP has been colliding from the south with the Honshu arc, forming a complex structure called the Izu-Collision zone (ICZ). Several active faults were formed in and around the ICZ. The geometry of the subducting PSP and the overlying crustal structure of the ICZ are important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence and the crustal evolution process associated with arc-arc collision. Recent seismic experiments reveal the geometry of the subducting PSP beneath the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The Japanese islands, including the ICZ, are covered with dense arrays of permanent seismic stations, which provide good constraints on velocity structures by a tomographic method. Such studies reveal a general picture of the lithospheric structure such as a descending plate configuration (e.g. Matsubara et al., 2008). However, since an average spacing of the permanent station is typically 20 km, a detailed structure in the upper crust, which is imperative for an understanding of the active tectonics, cannot be well constrained by permanent array alone. Two dense seismic array observations were conducted to obtain a structural image beneath the ICZ. One is a 40-km-long line (EW-line) located in the northern part of the ICZ and the other is a 55-km-long line (NS-line) located in the central part of the ICZ. Seventy-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on EW-line with 500 to 700 m interval and waveforms were recorded during a four-month period from October, 2008. Forty 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on NS-line with about 1 km spacing and waveforms were recorded during the three month period from January, 2006. In order to obtain a high-resolution velocity model, a well-controlled hypocenter is essential. Due to this, we combined the seismic array data with

  7. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  8. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  9. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  10. Sex ratio and reproductive activity of benthic copepods in bathyal Sagami Bay (1430 m), central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanaga, Motohiro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2003-04-01

    Sex ratios and reproductive activity of benthic copepod assemblages were investigated at the bathyal site (depth 1430 m) in Sagami Bay, central Japan. The ratio of adult females to adult males was approximately 3.5:1, significantly different from 1:1, although this parameter did not show a seasonal pattern. On the other hand, the percentage of ovigerous females among adult females and the ratio of nauplii to total copepods appeared to fluctuate seasonally in 1997 and 1998. Statistical tests, however, could not detect significant difference in either parameter. We discuss the possibility that the reproductive activity of copepods was enhanced by the increased supply of fresh phytodetritus to the sea floor.

  11. Tubiphytes-archaeolithoporella-girvanella reefal facies in Permian buildup, Mino terrane, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hiroyoshi; Horibo, Kenji; Kumamoto, Yasuko

    1990-10-01

    The Lower to Middle Permian Okumino buildup of the Mino terrane, central Japan, formed a carbonate cap on a seamount which was sitting in an open-ocean realm. Microscopic examination reveals considerable amounts of Tubiphytes, Archaeolithoporella, and Girvanella in these rocks. These low laminar encrusting organisms together with cystopore bryozoa and syndepositional radial-fibrous cements formed bindstones. The bindstones are interpreted as having formed wave-resistant algal reefal mounds on the marginal terrace of the Okumino buildup which also has the lagoonal flat, sand bar or shoal, and foreslope facies. The Okumino buildup is closer in its biotic association of major encrusting organisms to the Trogkofel buildup in southern Alps than to the Capitan Reef Complex in New Mexico and Texas. The similarity implies that Tubiphytes and Archaeolithoporella were the most predominant and significant rock-forming encrusting organisms in Early to early Middle Permian times.

  12. Crustal deformation measurements in central Japan determined by a Global Positioning System fixed-point network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, Seiichi; Bock, Yehuda

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from temporally dense measurements of crustal deformation associated with the convergence of the Eurasian (EUR), Pacific, North American, and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates, carried out in April 1988 by a 10-station GPS fixed-point network established in central Japan. Using regional orbit relaxation methods, the analysis of the first 17-month data revealed significant horizontal deformation across the Suruga trough. Namely, it was found that a site in the northern tip of PHS plate moved nearly westward with a velocity of 28 +/-5 mm per year, and a site at the southeastern tip of EUR plate moved south-southwestward with a velocity of 18 +/-5 mm per year. A significant vertical uplift with a velocity of 20 mm/yr was detected at a site inland of the Tokai district located in the Akaishi uplift zone and at a site on the Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay.

  13. Stress accumulation process in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, estimated from focal mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Katsumata, Kei; Katao, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Masahiro; Iio, Yoshihisa; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We estimated 275 focal mechanisms from P-wave first-motion polarities of small earthquakes obtained in an extensive seismic survey during 2004-2008 in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, where ongoing dextral shear strain concentration has been observed. Along the fault trace, the azimuth direction of P-axes is oriented WNW-ESE, which agrees well with previous studies. The regional stress disturbance is detected by stress inversion analysis. The azimuth of the maximum principal stress axis systematically rotates counterclockwise as the distance from the fault trace decreases. The regional stress disturbance is explained by a cumulative slip deficit in the shallower portion of the Atotsugawa fault relative to the surrounding fault surface (i.e., the eastern, western, and deeper extensions of the fault plane).

  14. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  19. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan. PMID:26255608

  20. Interseismic Crustal Deformation in and around the Atotsugawa Fault System, Central Japan, Detected by InSAR and GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Y.; Sagiya, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Interseismic crustal deformation of active faults provides crucial information to understand the stress accumulation process on the fault planes. Recently, the interseismic surface movements are detected with very high spatial resolution using combination of InSAR and GNSS survey. Most of the successful reports, however, addressed the fault creep in less vegetated area which enables C-band SAR interferometry. In this study, we report the interseismic crustal deformation in and around the Atotsugawa fault system, a strike-slip active fault in central Japan. This area is covered with dense vegetation in summer and with heavy snow in winter. We created a series of InSAR images acquired by ALOS/PALSAR and applied SBAS based time-series analysis (Berardino et al., 2002) to extract small deformation. Next, we corrected the long wave-length phase trend by GNSS network maintained by Japanese University Group (e.g, Ohzono et al., 2011) and GSI, Japan. The mean velocity field thus obtained shows a strain concentration zone along the Ushikubi fault, a major strand of the Atotsugawa fault system. The Ushikubi fault is seismically less active than the Atotsugawa fault, but it shows good correlation with a zone of large spatial gradient of Bouguer gravity anomaly. We further discuss on the deformation style at the junction between the Atotsugawa fault and the Hida mountain range (Tateyama volcano). Acknowledgement: The PALSAR level 1.0 data were provided by JAXA via the PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface (PIXEL) based on a cooperative research contract between JAXA and the ERI, the University of Tokyo. The PALSAR product is owned by JAXA and METI.

  1. Interplate coupling of the central Nankai Trough and shortening of the central Japan estimated from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, K.; Sagiya, T.

    2007-12-01

    Interplate megathrust earthquakes have repeatedly occurred with a repeat time of 100-150 years along the Nankai subduction zone. The latest megathrust events there were the 1944 Tonankai (M7.9) and the 1946 Nankai (M8.0) earthquakes. It is very important to investigate tectonic loading processes toward the next large earthquake along the Nankai Trough. For this purpose, we estimate slip deficit distribution of the source region of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake from GPS data inversion analysis and also examine E-W shortening in Central Japan where tectonic contraction between the northeastern and the southwestern Japan arcs. We invert GPS displacement rate data estimated from daily coordinates from April 1996 to March 2000 to estimate interplate coupling in the Tonankai region by using the method of Yoshioka et al. (1993). We reconstruct the plate boundary configuration based on hypocenters determined by the Japan Meteorological Agency and results of seismic explorations in this region. We find that GPS data analysis with a single fixed point is inappropriate in the Tonankai region. With such analysis, the resultant slip deficit distribution becomes unrealistic, showing large slip deficit vectors deviating from the direction of the plate convergence. Such a result can be attributed to the E-W shortening in the inland region. Therefore, this shortening effect must be eliminated to estimate correct distribution of slip deficits. For the elimination of E-W shortening, we divide the GPS stations into the eastern and western groups and introduce one fixed point for each group. We calculate displacement rate of GPS stations with respect to the fixed point of each group, and invert those relative displacement rates to estimate the slip deficit on the plate boundary. We test various cases of partitioning of GPS stations into two groups, and find that a group division near the Yoro-Kuwana-Yokkaichi fault yields a reasonable result. Slip deficit is estimated to be the 4

  2. Seismic structure along transitions from flat to normal subduction: central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Sara L.

    The fine-scale seismic structure of the central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan subduction zones is studied using intraslab earthquakes recorded by temporary and permanent regional seismic arrays. The morphology of the transition from flat to normal subduction is explored in central Mexico and southern Peru, while in southwest Japan the spatial coincidence of a thin ultra-slow velocity layer (USL) atop the flat slab with locations of slow slip events (SSEs) is explored. This USL is also observed in central Mexico and southern Peru, where its lateral extent is used as one constraint on the nature of the flat-to-normal transitions. In western central Mexico, I find an edge to this USL which is coincident with the western boundary of the projected Orozco Fracture Zone (OFZ) region. Forward modeling of the 2D structure of the subducted Cocos plate using a finite-difference algorithm provides constraints on the velocity and geometry of the slab's seismic structure in this region and confirms the location of the USL edge. I propose that the Cocos slab is currently fragmenting into a North Cocos plate and a South Cocos plate along the projection of the OFZ, by a process analogous to that which occurred when the Rivera plate separated from the proto-Cocos plate 10 Ma. In eastern central Mexico, observations of a sharp transition in slab dip near the abrupt end of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) suggest a possible slab tear located within the subducted South Cocos plate. The eastern lateral extent of the USL is found to be coincident with these features and with the western boundary of a zone of decreased seismicity, indicating a change in structure which I interpret as evidence of a possible tear. Analysis of intraslab seismicity patterns and focal mechanism orientations and faulting types provides further support for a possible tear in the South Cocos slab. This potential tear, together with the tear along the projection of the OFZ to the northwest

  3. Imaging of the seismogenic source fault in the fold-and-thrust belt, Niigata basin, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Kawai, N.; Saito, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Inaba, M.

    2010-12-01

    Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, volcanic rift-basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu. The Niigata basin, central Japan, is one of such basins and filled by thick (< 7 km) Neogene sediments. By subsequent convergence since the Pliocene, an arc-parallel fold-and-thrust-belt has been developed along the Miocene rift-basins. In this belt devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (M7.5), 2004 Chuetsu (M6.8) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (M6.8) earthquakes, occurred by reverse faulting. Due to thick Neogene sediments, relationship between active faults/folds at near the surface and deep-sited seismogenic source faults is poorly understood. To reveal the crustal structure, in particular geometry of source faults, onshore-offshore integrated deep seismic profiling was undertaken along the three seismic lines in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The 2009 Aizu-Sado Seismic line is a 135-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic line across Niigata basin and Sado island, which is located in the eastern part of Japan Sea. The 2008 Sanjo-Yahiko Seismic line is located 20 km south of the seismic line and trending parallel to it. The 2010 Higashiyama-Mishima seismic line cut through the northern part of the epicentral area of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake. The seismic sources were air-gun (3020 cu. inch), four vibroseis trucks and explosives (< 200 kg). Along the Sado strait, seismic data was acquired using two-ships to make large offset shot gathers. Seismic signals were recorded by ocean bottom cables, cable-connected-recording system and offline recorders, forming a maximum 2400 channels receiver array. The basin fill consists of early to middle Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and overlying Neogene sedimentary rocks showing upward coarsening facies deposited under bathyal to fluvial environment. Main features of basin development, such as early Miocene normal faulting, associated with the formation of Japan Sea, and shortening deformation since the Pliocene

  4. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Hachisu, Yushi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Nakanishi, Noriko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Wada, Takayuki; Seto, Junji; Kishida, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative and qualitative comparison was carried out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan. A total of 452 strains from Chiba Prefecture, 75 from Yamagata Prefecture, and 315 from Kobe City were analyzed for 24 loci by variable number of tandem repeats typing (24(Beijing)-VNTR). All strains were classified in six Beijing subgroups (B(SUB)), B1 to B5 and T, based on a minimum spanning tree reconstructed using data of a standard set of 15 VNTR loci. No significant difference was found in the distribution of strains in the B(SUB) in the three areas, with one exception due to a B5 outbreak in Yamagata, indicating no significant quantitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas (P<0.01, Chi-square test). In addition, when strains in each B(SUB) isolated in the three areas were mixed and standardized index of association (I(A)(s)) and variance (Φ(PT)) values were calculated, no significant qualitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas was found. These results suggested that the B(SUB) diverged prior to the introduction of M. tuberculosis Beijing strains into Japan. Differences in the distribution of strains in each B(SUB) between Japan and continental Asian countries suggested there had been genetic drift in the continental Asian countries in which B4 had been dominant. PMID:26096775

  5. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  6. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  7. Persistent inelastic deformation in central Japan revealed by GPS observation before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Gutierrez, Angela; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze strain rate distribution in central-northeastern Japan based on continuous GPS data before and after the occurrence of the Great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) on March 11th, 2011, focusing on the far-field response in the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), an E-W contraction region along the Japan seacoast of central Japan. Wavelength decomposition of the strain rate on the E-W direction, calculated from GPS data, indicates that the long-wavelength pattern changed from preseismic E-W contraction to postseismic E-W extension, representing elastic response to plate interaction at the Japan Trench. However, the short wavelength patterns reveal a persistent localized contraction zone around northern NKTZ before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. The persistent localized deformation pattern can be reproduced by an aseismic slip on a fault cutting the lower crust and a part of the upper crust. These results demonstrate that an inelastic process plays an essential role in the deformation of the Japan island arc.

  8. Descriptions of two new and one newly recorded enchytraeid species (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae) from the Ozegahara Mire, a heavy snowfall highmoor in Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Torii, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Three species of semi-aquatic freshwater Enchytraeidae of the genera Mesenchytraeus Eisen, 1878, Chamaedrilus Friend, 1913 and Globulidrilus Christensen & Dózsa-Farkas, 2012 are described from stream, wet soil or snow habitats in the Ozegahara Mire, an extensive high moor in heavy snowfall area in central Japan. Among Mesenchytraeus speies, Mesenchytraeus nivalis sp. nov. is distinguished by not having enlarged chaetae and spermathecal diverticula, vas deferens with atrial glands 3 or 4 in number and club-shaped, spermathecal ental duct short, with sperm bundles in the sperm sack. Chamaedrilus ozensis sp. nov. closely resembles C. floridae, but the length of the sperm funnel and character of the coelomocytes are different. Globulidrilus helgei Christensen & Dózsa-Farkas, 2012 is recorded for the first time from Japan. PMID:26623738

  9. Estimation of total discharged mass from the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, Shinji; Oikawa, Teruki; Furukawa, Ryuta; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Itoh, Jun'ichi; Geshi, Nobuo; Miyagi, Isoji

    2016-08-01

    The total mass discharged by the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014, was estimated using several methods. The estimated discharged mass was 1.2 × 106 t (segment integration method), 8.9 × 105 t (Pyle's exponential method), and varied from 8.6 × 103 to 2.5 × 106 t (Hayakawa's single isopach method). The segment integration and Pyle's exponential methods gave similar values. The single isopach method, however, gave a wide range of results depending on which contour was used. Therefore, the total discharged mass of the 2014 eruption is estimated at between 8.9 × 105 and 1.2 × 106 t. More than 90 % of the total mass accumulated within the proximal area. This shows how important it is to include a proximal area field survey for the total mass estimation of phreatic eruptions. A detailed isopleth mass distribution map was prepared covering as far as 85 km from the source. The main ash-fall dispersal was ENE in the proximal and medial areas and E in the distal area. The secondary distribution lobes also extended to the S and NW proximally, reflecting the effects of elutriation ash and surge deposits from pyroclastic density currents during the phreatic eruption. The total discharged mass of the 1979 phreatic eruption was also calculated for comparison. The resulting volume of 1.9 × 106 t (using the segment integration method) indicates that it was about 1.6-2.1 times larger than the 2014 eruption. The estimated average discharged mass flux rate of the 2014 eruption was 1.7 × 108 kg/h and for the 1979 eruption was 1.0 × 108 kg/h. One of the possible reasons for the higher flux rate of the 2014 eruption is the occurrence of pyroclastic density currents at the summit area.

  10. Numerical modeling of the three-layered hydrothermal system in the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, K.; Ehara, S.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical modeling of hydrothermal systems beneath active volcanoes has been conducted. Their purposes were, however, confined to interpret individual geothermal systems. We constructed a numerical model of the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan using 3-D finite-difference code HYDROTHERM ver.2.2 (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994). The central part of Kuju volcano is categorized as an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Otake-Hatchobaru geothermal area, where two geothermal power plants are in operation, is known as a typical liquid dominated hydrothermal system. These two types of geothermal systems are closely located in the region. Moreover, subsurface horizontal temperature distributions in the Kuju volcanic region consist of a three-layered structure. A horizontal temperature anomaly at a depth of -2000m separates into two anomalies at depths of about 0m. Five anomalies appear in the horizontal temperature distribution of 80m depth. Geothermal systems or such characteristics of the thermal structure should be related to the influence of the magma chamber in the region. Existence of molten magma was suggested from seismic observations (Yoshikawa et al., 2005). Therefore, we presumed that the geothermal systems in Otake- Hatchobaru geothermal area and in the central part of Kuju volcano can be explained by a common magma chamber. We determined the calculation time as 40000 based on the age of the latest large pyroclastic flow deposit (Kamata, 1997). The temperature of the magma chamber in the model was maintained at a constant value during the calculation. Parameter studies of crustal permeabilities were conducted to reproduce temperature profiles obtained by logging at shallow depths (NEDO, 1987). The calculated results show that temperature anomalies in the basement rock seemed to be directly affected by the magma chamber. The results also indicate that molten materials have been continuously supplied from the bottom of the magma chamber of Kuju volcano

  11. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  12. Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Bacterial community in sclerotia of Cenococcum species and soil in sub-alpine forest, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama, Y.; Narisawa, K.; Ohta, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2009-04-01

    Species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, may be particularly abundant in cold- or nutrient-stressed habitats. The fungus is easily recognized by its jet-black hyphae, and distinct compact masses of fungal mycelium called sclerotia. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and can provide sufficient inoculums for several years. The purpose of this study is to investigate bacterial community inside sclerotia, with an interest on contribution of sclerotia to microbial diversity in rhizosphere. To investigate bacterial community inside of the fungal sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from sub-alpine forest soil in central Japan. Furthermore, three sclerotium grains were applied to investigate internal bacteria community by culture method. The isolated bacterial strains were then proceeded to determine their 16S rDNA partial sequences. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes with DNA from the sclerotia was Acidobacteria in both sclerotia and soil. Bacterial community of sclerotia showed higher diversity compared to soil. On the contrary, bacterial flora isolated from single sclerotium differed each other. Additionally, the bacterial community was composed by limited species of related genus.

  14. Offscraping accretion of Jurassic chert-clastic complexes in the Mino-Tamba belt, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Katsumi; Hori, Rie

    1993-02-01

    Detailed structural and biostratigraphical analysis of the Jurassic Inuyama Sequence, a coherent chert-clastic complex in the Mino-Tamba Belt, central Japan, clarifies the evolution of accretionary processes at shallow structural levels. The Inuyama Sequence is characterized by a series of stacked thrust sheets. Each sheet consists of an Early Triassic to Middle Jurassic oceanic plate stratigraphy composed of four lithologic units which are, in ascending order: siliceous claystone; ribbon chert; siliceous mudstone; and clastic rocks. The structural features of the Inuyama Sequence demonstrate a four-stage progressive deformation. (1) A décollement was initiated within the siliceous mudstone when this sequence was just seaward of the deformation front. Clastic dikes and sills formed at the horizon just above the décollement at this time. (2) The stratigraphic section above the décollement was imbricated by in-sequence thrusting in the frontal part of the wedge. This initial stage of thrusting and imbrication was followed by (3) the formation of duplex structures with fault-related folds within the lower stratigraphic section as the décollement stepped down-section to the lowest siliceous claystone interval. Finally, (4) these thrust packages were overprinted by secondary prism thickening in the form of out-of-sequence thrust faulting.

  15. Photographic evidence of variable bottom-current activity in the Suruga and Sagami Bays, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hakuyu; Ohta, Suguru

    1993-01-01

    Complex patterns of bottom-current behaviour were clarified by studies of sedimentary features and orientations of benthic animals in the deep Suruga and Sagami Bays on the Pacific side of central Honshu, Japan. Both the Suruga and Sagami Bay measure about 60 km in length as well as in width at their mouths and are about 1500 m deep in their central portions. The size of each bay is comparable to that of ancient forearc basins. The bottom sediments are characterized by turbidites and slump deposits. At 32 stations on the bottom of the bays, deep-sea photographs were taken, most of which clearly indicate bottom-current activity. Current-induced bottom features are current-lineations, moat-like scours around resistant objects, crag-and-tail structures behind obstacles, ripple marks, sand ridges and deformed biogenic structures such as burrows, mounds, tracks and faeces. These features are produced by bottom currents with rather high velocities. Other important current indicators are some benthic organisms, which in general show a sensitive response to currents and adopt particular orientations. Typical examples of megabenthos identified in the bottom photographs as effective current indicators are the small deimatid holothurian Peniagone japonica, the benthic shrimp Glyphocrangon hastacauda, sea anemones, and sea pens. Among them, the orientation of Peniagone japonica shows abrupt changes of current direction with time, for example, from N (0°) to SW (240°) during 15 min and from N to S and back to N, a complete rotation during 40 min. The results of these observations indicate that the bottom currents in deep bays tend to fluctuate rapidly in velocity and direction, probably owing to strong internal tidal waves in the very steep embayments. Upslope currents appear to be present at the mouths of submarine canyons. Thus, it should be borne in mind that palaeocurrent analysis of ancient bottom-current deposits or contourites is limited in application.

  16. Dual subduction tectonics and plate dynamics of central Japan shown by three-dimensional P-wave anisotropic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, Motoko; Miyake, Hiroe; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2015-07-01

    The central Japanese subduction zone is characterized by a complex tectonic setting affected by the dual subduction of oceanic plates and collisions between the island arcs. To better understand of the subduction system, we performed an anisotropic tomography analysis using P-wave arrival times from local earthquakes to determine the three-dimensional structure of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the overriding plate and the Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs. The principal characteristics of anisotropy in the subducted and subducting plates are (1) in the overriding plate, the distribution pattern of fast direction of crustal anisotropy coincides with that of the strike of geological structure, (2) in the two oceanic plates, fast propagation directions of P-wave were sub-parallel to the directions of seafloor spreading. Additionally, our tomographic images demonstrate that (1) the bottom of the Median Tectonic Line, the longest fault zone in Japan, reaches to the lower crust, and seems to link to the source region of an inter-plate earthquake along the PHS slab, (2) the segmentation of the PHS slab - the Izu Islands arc, the Nishi-Shichito ridge, and the Shikoku basin - due to the formation history, is reflected in the regional variation of anisotropy. The tomographic study further implies that there might be a fragment of the Pacific slab suggested by a previous study beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area. The overall findings strongly indicate that seismic anisotropy analysis provide potentially useful information to understand a subduction zone.

  17. Sources and transportation modes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits on the central east Japan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Purna Sulastya; Nishimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yugo; Yulianto, Eko

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated sediment sources of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits along a 4500 m inland transect from the central east Japan coast, using grain size, mineralogy and foraminifera analyses. The tsunami run-up height in our study area was 13 to 20 m near the coastline, 1.4 to 2.8 m in the middle of the valley and 1.3 m around the inundation limit. The inundation distance was around 4800 m. The deposits are composed of sand and mud and show a fining and thinning trend. Mineral composition of the tsunami deposits was similar to that of coastal dune and beach deposits, indicating that most of the tsunami sediment originated from there. A minor foraminifera population in the deposit (≤ 15 specimens per 5 g of sample compared with ≥ 100 specimens per 1 g for typical marine sediment) indicates that marine sediment source was not dominant. Topography played an important role in sediment transport process and deposit distribution. The run-up wave accelerated faster in concave topography, became more erosive, and resulted in a thin deposit in topographic lows. We infer that the deposits up to 2300 m from the coastline were deposited by bedload and suspension, whereas suspension was responsible for deposits farther inland.

  18. Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992–1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications. PMID:24385028

  19. Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992-1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications. PMID:24385028

  20. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Multichannel seismic profiles crossing source regions of megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events off-Boso, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; No, T.; Kodaira, S.; Nozaki, K.; Kobayashi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Off-Boso is a southeastern coastal region of Boso peninsula neighboring Tokyo metropolitan, locating central Japan. This region is one of the most complex plate configuration regions on the earth because the Pacific Plate (PAP) and the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) are subducting beneath off-Boso reigon, which is a part of North American Plate (NAP) (or Okhotsk Plate). Associated with the subduction, magnitude eight-class large earthquakes have occurred historically (e.g. 1703 Genroku and 1923 Taisho earthquakes) bringing serious damages to Tokyo metropolitan. Moreover, slow-slip events have been observed with 5-7 year interval off Boso region. To reveal the structural characteristics associated with the various seismogenesis off-Boso region, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has conducted multichannel seismic (MCS) surveys. The MCS data is important information for the drilling of Kanto Asperity Project (KAP), which is one of IODP proposal. A 7800 cu. in. (140 liter) tuned airgun array was shot with 50-m interval, detected by a 444-ch hydrophone streamer with 12.5 m group interval. In 2008, three NE-SW lines were conducted for revealing the subduction images of the PSP crossing the regions of stable sliding, slow-slip and slip deficit. In 2009, a NW-SE long line and a NE-SW short line were carried out to obtain the structural images of PSP and PAP perpendicular to trench axis and the 1703 Genroku asperity in the vicinity of Boso peninsula, respectively. From NE-SW lines of 2008, the morphology of the top of PSP is not smooth but rugged below the NAP. The northeastern end of PSP is confirmed by the MCS data combined with previous MCS profiles. Moreover, deep events interpreted as the top of PAP are recognized below the reflections of the PSP. The shallow part above the top of PSP can be divided into four blocks based on the MCS images and bathymetries: 1) trough deposits block, 2) thrust block, 3) thick sediments covered block, and 4) thin

  2. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  3. Hydrogen and carbon isotope studies on the graphite-bearing metapelites in the northern Kiso district of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikiyo, Toshiro

    1986-06-01

    Measurements were made of the hydrogen isotope ratios of hydrous silicates (mica and amphibole) and whole rocks, and the carbon isotope ratios of graphite and carbonaceous matter in the metamorphic rocks from the northern Kiso district in central Japan. δD values of hydrous silicates in the graphite-bearing metapelites are always higher than those in graphite-free schists, even though the sample localities of the two rock-types are very close. Hydrogen isotopic equilibrium has been attained between the coexisting minerals. D/H ratios of water in the metamorphic fluids seem to depend strongly on the presence or absence of graphite and seem to be not constant throughout the district. The district is divided into three areas of low (metamorphic zones I, II), medium (zones IIIa V) and high δ 13Cgr value (zones VIa VII) areas. In the high δ 13Cgr values area, the carbon contents of the graphite-bearing rocks decrease slightly from zones VIa to VII, whereas the δ 13Cgr values increase sharply from the upper part of zone VIa to VIb. The δD values of biotite in these graphite-bearing rocks are higher than those in the medium δ 13Cgr area. This suggests that methane enriched in H and12C is produced and liberated by the devolatilization reactions between muscovite, graphite and water. The fluid produced is composed of water, methane and a subordinate amount of carbon dioxide, and its log fO2 value is deduced to be about 1.2 lower than that defined by the FMQ buffer. In the medium δ 13Cgr area, the δ 13C values of graphite are nearly constant (-20.8‰), while the Fe2O3/(Fe2O3 + FeO) ratio of the graphite-bearing rocks apparently decreases with increasing metamorphic grade. δD differences in hydrous silicates between graphite-bearing and graphite-free rocks are observed. These facts are interpreted to mean that methane was produced in addition to water and carbon dioxide, and that its generation (X_{{text{CH}}_{text{4}} } /X_{{text{CO}}_{text{2}} } ratio of the fluid

  4. Soil volume estimation in debris flow areas using lidar data in the 2014 Hiroshima, Japan rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-10-01

    Debris flows triggered by the rainstorm in Hiroshima, Japan on August 20th, 2014 produced extensive damage to the built-up areas in the northern part of Hiroshima city. In order to consider various emergency response activities and early-stage recovery planning, it is important to evaluate the distribution of the soil volumes in the debris flow areas immediately after the disaster. In this study, automated nonlinear mapping technique is applied to light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) observed before and after the disaster to quickly and accurately correct geometric locational errors of the data. The soil volumes generated from the debris flows are estimated by subtracting the pre- and post-event DEMs. The geomorphologic characteristics in the debris flow areas are discussed from the distribution of the estimated soil volumes.

  5. Trace element accumulations in 13 avian species collected from the Kanto area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Horai, Sawako; Watanabe, Izumi; Takada, Hideshige; Iwamizu, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Terutake; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kuno, Katsuji

    2007-02-15

    In the present study, concentrations of 13 elements (Li, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Hg) were measured in the tissues of the livers, the kidneys, pectoral muscles, lungs and brains of 13 avian species collected from the Kanto area of Japan. The difference in hepatic heavy metal levels of the grey herons from the two sites was compared. Metal levels in the sediment of the Tama River estuary, situated in the Haneda area, were also measured. These results revealed that heavy metal pollution is present in an aquatic area of Haneda. The accumulation patterns of Cu and Zn in the livers of grey herons appeared to be separated into two groups. Additionally, the present study includes the properties of other metal accumulations and their relationships in avian species. PMID:17229456

  6. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  7. Validation of S-wave Velocity beneath the Ise Bay, Central Japan, Using Continuous Short-period Ambient Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    We have applied seismic interferometry to three-component ambient noise data recorded around the Ise bay area, central Japan, to validate published three-dimensional S-wave velocity models. For the bay area, detailed seismic velocity structure models have been constructed based on P-wave reflection surveys. There is no direct information on the S-wave velocities beneath the bay and the parameters are assigned by reference to those in a land area. We used one-year continuous data from 20 permanent stations of the NIED Hi-net (High-sensitivity seismograph network) to obtain stacked cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of ambient noise between station pairs that cross the bay. The CCFs were calculated, using one-hour data in the radial-radial (R-R), transverse-transverse (T-T) and vertical-vertical (Z-Z) directions for time lags of ±500s. Horizontal distances between the stations range form 15 km to 103 km. Although the Hi-net stations deploy seismometers with the natural period of 1 s, we found that the yearly stacked CCFs for selected 101 Hi-net station pairs are comparable with those derived from neighboring broadband seismic stations in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, by deconvolving the instrument response. The CCFs shows clear Rayleigh waves from all directions in the R-R and Z-Z components, and clear Love waves in the T-T component with reasonable signal-to-noise ratios. The derived group velocities and waveforms of the wave trains are variable in the higher frequency range (> 0.2 Hz), indicating deep sedimentary basin beneath the bay. We compared obtained group velocities with theoretical ones to find systematic differences between the expected structure model from the CCFs and the published models in the northwest part of the bay, while the agreements are generally good for many other station pairs. This result indicates that the seismic interferometry technique provides valuable information for validation and improvement of a velocity structure

  8. Deep-sea tsunami deposits in the Miocene Nishizaki Formation of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I. T.; Ogawa, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Many sets of deep-sea deposits considered to be formed by return flow of tsunami were found from the middle Miocene Nishizaki Formation of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, which is located near the convergent plate boundary at present as well as in the past, and has been frequently attacked by tsunami. The characteristics of the tsunami deposits in the Nishizaki Formation are as follows. Each set consists of 10-20 beds with parallel laminations formed under upper plane regime composed of alternated pumiceous beds in white and black colors. The white bed comprises coarse sands and pebbles with thickness of 5-10 cm. In contrast, the black bed is made of silts with thickness less than 1 cm. Among the 10-20 beds, the grain size is coarsest in the middle part of the set in general. The uppermost bed of each set shows cross-lamination formed by lower plane regime, gradually changing into finer graded bed on top. Sometimes, the lower part of the parallel laminated bed is associated with an underlying debrite or turbidite bed. Each set of these parallel-laminated beds is lenticular in shape thinning to the east in consistent with the generally eastward paleocurrent of the cross-lamination at the top. Such sedimentary characteristics are different from any event deposits reported in deep-sea but similar to the deep-sea K/T boundary deposits in the Caribbean region. Statistically, tsunami waves occur totally 12-13 times. Among them the height of 5-6th wave is known to be strongest. Interval time of each return flow is known to be 30-40 minutes, enough to settle the finer clastics at each bed top. The parallel-laminated parts have common dish structure and never trace fossils, indicating rather rapid deposition for the whole parts of the set. Consequently, the sedimentary characteristics shown from the parallel-laminated beds of the Nishizaki Formation are attributed to the return flow of tsunami to the deep-sea. We considered that such deep-sea parallel-laminated deposits of

  9. Contradicting Estimates of Location, Geometry, and Rupture History of Highly Active Faults in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate location and geometry of seismic sources are critical to estimate strong ground motion. Complete and precise rupture history is also critical to estimate the probability of the future events. In order to better forecast future earthquakes and to reduce seismic hazards, we should consider over all options and choose the most likely parameter. Multiple options for logic trees are acceptable only after thorough examination of contradicting estimates and should not be a result from easy compromise or epoche. In the process of preparation and revisions of Japanese probabilistic and deterministic earthquake hazard maps by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion since 1996, many decisions were made to select plausible parameters, but many contradicting estimates have been left without thorough examinations. There are several highly-active faults in central Japan such as Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system (ISTL), West Nagano Basin fault system (WNBF), Inadani fault system (INFS), and Atera fault system (ATFS). The highest slip rate and the shortest recurrence interval are respectively ~1 cm/yr and 500 to 800 years, and estimated maximum magnitude is 7.5 to 8.5. Those faults are very hazardous because almost entire population and industries are located above the fault within tectonic depressions. As to the fault location, most uncertainties arises from interpretation of geomorphic features. Geomorphological interpretation without geological and structural insight often leads to wrong mapping. Though non-existent longer fault may be a safer estimate, incorrectness harm reliability of the forecast. Also this does not greatly affect strong motion estimates, but misleading to surface displacement issues. Fault geometry, on the other hand, is very important to estimate intensity distribution. For the middle portion of the ISTL, fast-moving left-lateral strike-slip up to 1 cm/yr is obvious. Recent seismicity possibly induced by 2011 Tohoku

  10. Sedimentary imprints of tsunami and storm deposits on the Shizuoka coastline, south central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Brückner, Helmut; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Riedesel, Svenja; Miyairi, Yosuke; Shishikura, Masanobu; De Batist, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Differentiating between the deposits left by extreme wave events - including tsunamis and storms - presents a major challenge for the palaeotsunami and palaeotempestology communities. The coast of Shizuoka Prefecture, south central Japan, is impacted by typhoons and by tsunamis triggered by great subduction zone earthquakes along the adjacent Nankai Trough. A low-lying organic swale close to the town of Shirasuka is well-placed to preserve sedimentary layers left by both event types. The swale lies between a 5 to 10 metre high beach ridge and a 60 to 80 m high riser of the mid-Pleistocene Tenpakubara marine terrace. Investigating the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the site, Komatsubara et al. (2008) identified seven sand layers and attributed these to four tsunamis and one storm, with two sand layers identified as of terrestrial origin. Revisiting the site, we adopted a multi-proxy approach to further analyse the characteristics of selected deposits. We visualise the stratigraphy of retrieved vibrocores in 2D with linescan photography and in 3D with X-ray computed tomography. While problems remain in attempting to fully correlate all sedimentary layers with the published stratigraphy, we suggest that this reflects the difficulties of using a vibrocoring system in an environment characterised by alternating units of unconsolidated sand and compressible humic mud. Nevertheless, by focussing on sand units that are entirely contained within single core sections and by applying Bayesian age models based on new radiocarbon dates, we are able to identify and correlate selected sand layers. Radiocarbon ages, derived from terrestrial plant macrofossils and the acid-insoluble organic fraction of bulk samples sieved to <180 μm, constrain the timing of sand sheet emplacement, facilitating correlation with the historical record. We combine X-ray diffraction, geophysical characterisation and particle size analysis to provide a comprehensive assessment of the variations

  11. Mid-crustal fluid related to the Matsushiro earthquake swarm (1965-1967) in northern Central Japan: Geochemical reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi; Takamoto, Naohiko; Tosha, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The Matsushiro district in the northern part of Ngano Prefecture, Central Japan, experienced a severe earthquake swarm associated with ground uplift and groundwater outflow during a period from 1965 to 1967. Geochemistry and isotope geochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the swarm area have been investigated. Water samples for the analyses were obtained from saline springs and streams, fresh water from streams and a shallow well, and, from seven wells of up to 600 m deep drilled in the Matsushiro fault zone. The results of analyses of water from the deep wells in the fault zone indicate a linear increase in dissolved Na, K, Al, Cl, Br, B and SiO4, and isotopic ratios of δD, δ18O and δ13C. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of the well water indicate a mixing between the surface water and isotopically heavy water exemplified by the "andesitic water" of Giggenbach (1992). Assuming that the isotopically heavy water has δD similar to the "andesitic water", the geochemistry of deep-seated brine is reproduced from the analytical data of well water. The reproduced composition of deep-seated brine is enriched in Na, Ca, Cl and HCO3 and has total dissolved solids comparable to seawater. The water of the reproduced composition is estimated to occupy a deep part (> 3 km below surface) of the fault zone. Available data show that the geochemical regime in the Matsushiro fault zone has remained unchanged since the swarm event. The reproduced composition of water is concluded to be similar to the brine triggering the swarm of earthquakes. The composition of the reproduced water is not as saline as the deep-seated fluid derived from dehydration of a subducting oceanic plate which results in water having a Cl content about twice that of the seawater. The relatively low-salinity nature comparable to seawater is one of the characteristics of mid-crustal fluid in volcanic fields.

  12. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  13. Kinematic vicissitudes and the spatial distribution of the alteration zone related to the Byobuyama fault, central Japan. (Implication; Influence of another faults.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The central Japan is one of the most concentrated area of active faults (Quaternary fault). These are roughly classified into two orthogonally-oriented fault sets of NE-SW and NW-SE strikes. The study area is located in Gifu prefecture, central Japan. In there, the basement rocks are composed mainly of Triassic-Jurassic accretionary prism (Mino belt), Cretaceous Nohi Rhyolite and Cretaceous granitic rocks. Miocene Mizunami G. and Pliocene-Pleistocene Toki Sand and Gravel F. unconformably cover the basement rocks. The Byobuyama fault, 32 km in length, is NE-SW strike and displaces perpendicularly the Toki Sand and Gravel F. by 500 m. The northeastern terminal of the fault has contact with the southern terminal of the Atera fault of NW-SE strike and offset their displacements each other. It is clear that the activity of the Byobuyama fault plays a role of the development of the complicated fault geometry system in the central Japan. In this study, we performed a broad-based investigation along the Byobuyama fault and collected samples. Actually, we observed 400 faults and analyzed 200 fault rocks. Based on these results, we obtained the following new opinion. 1. The Byobuyama fault has experienced following activities that can be divided to 3 stages at least under different stress field. 1) Movement with the sinisterly sense (preserved in cataclasite zone). 2) Dextral movement (preserved in fault gouge zone). 3) Reverse fault movement (due to the aggressive rise of mountains). In addition, the change from Stage 2 to Stage 3 is a continuous. 2. There is a relationship between the distance from the trace of the Byobuyama fault and the combination of alteration minerals included in the fault rocks. 3. In the central part of the Byobuyama fault (CPBF), fault plane trend and combination of alteration minerals shows specific features. The continuous change is considered to mean the presence of factors that interfere with the dextral movement of the Byobuyama fault. What is

  14. The study of mesoscale phenomena, winter monsoon clouds and snow area. [Sea of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The clouds under a moderate winter monsoon situation taken with S190A camera reveal existence of clouds with band structure of various wavelengths. The wavelength ranges from 0.4 to 3.5 kms. There was a good relationship between the longitudinal cloud band and vertical wind shear. There was a distinct difference in size of clouds between the Japan Sea side or upwind side and the Pacific Ocean side or downwind side of the Japanese mainland. Large solid cumulus clusters have the size of 20 x 35 sq km over the Japan Sea off the coast of Hokuriku District. It was found that S190A aerial color pictures showing shadows of fair weather cumuli over the sea could be successfully used in estimating cloud height while S190A station 1 picture was more useful over the land since it could more clearly distinguish shadow from vegetation. The height of fair weather cumuli estimated from shadows agree with the lifted condensation level. It was also found that these pictures were effectively used in delineating snow cover area. S192 data, especially IR channel, were found to be effective in finding topography of nimbostratus.

  15. Subsurface flow behavior in thick colluvium and fissured bedrock in Kumano-daira, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, S.; Onda, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Shimamura, M.; Togari-Ohta, A.; Uchida, T.; Tsujimura, M.

    2005-12-01

    To study the groundwater flow path and runoff generation mechanism in the watershed underlain by thick volcanic tephra and permeable bedrock, hydrometric observations, rain water, subsurface water, and stream water sampling and chemical and isotopic analysis were performed. Four catchments were monitored; K1, K2, K3 and K4, underlain by Neogene tuff (6-10 m thick) and Rhyolite, in Kumanodaira area, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Large landslides occurred in K4 catchment without marked rainfall in 1950, killed 50 people. Discharge was monitored outlet of each cachment. In K4 catchment, six tensiometers, buried 50-650 cm, 2 groundwater wells (9 and 12 m depth) were installed. In K4 catchment, stream runoff shows the longest recession limb compared with other catchments. The groundwater level of well B (12 m) in K4, which penetrates under the bedrock interface, shows delayed peak of 5 months after the major storm event, whereas groundwater level of well A (9 m) shows similar trend to the stream hydrograph. The chemical analysis of groundwater show that the ion concentrations of grandwater in well B are significantly differs from those stream and bedrock spring water in K4. The deuterium excess value of rainwater indicates lower at large storm events by a number of typhoons compared with smaller storm events. The deuterium excess values of stable isotopic also show the seasonal trend; a low value of rainfall is indicated in summer and a high value in winter. The deuterium excess value of soil water was found to be smaller as the depth increases. These data suggest that soil water near bedrock is mainly originated from larger rainfall events. Employing the dispersive model by using deuterium excess, mean residence times of ground water in well B was estimated as 420 days. The dispersion parameter of groundwater in well B estimated as 0.047, is smaller than that of grandwater in shallow soil (well A) estimated as 0.325. From above results, the ground water flow path in the

  16. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  17. Geological Structure of the Itoigawa - Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Northern Fossa Magna, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Geological structure of two different natures is recognized in the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM). NFM is situated near the zone where the central Japan Island bent geographically and a graben zone formed between the North Alps and the Kanto highland. NFM is characterized by thick Neogene deposits and with active tilting of the crustal blocks and active folding bloc. At the present the sedimentary basin is the Saigawa hill due to the active faulting and folding in the Fossa Magna. Active fault system of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is an eastward - dip of reverse fault which strikes N-S along the western margin of the NFM. The vertical displacement rate of ISTL is estimated to be maximum 9 mm/yr from the offset amount and the formation age of flexure scarp which appeared in the fluvial terrace [ex. Ikeda et al., (2002)]. Besides, the last event and the reccurrence interval are presumed to be about about 1,500 years aga and 2,000 years, respectively [Okumura (2001)]. In addition the western margin fault of the Nagano basin (NBF) strikes NNE-SSW along the east edge of NFM. The NBF is an eastward-dip of reverse fault, and the Zenkoji earthquake (M7.4) in 1847 was occurred. The purpose of present study is to discuss the geometry of ISTL and geological process of NFM based on the geomorphological and geological survey using the geological dip and strike already obtained at the more than 1,500 data points. Based on these geological data, the geological structure provinceis divided into two types those are a tilt block and a folding belt at west and east sides, respectively. The Western tilting block and an Eastern folding belt trend NS strike and NNE-SSW strike, respectively. As a result of the geomorphic decipherment in alignment with ISTL using the air photograph, flexure scarp of east side upheaval is formed in the fluvial terrace side and it is difficult for the terrace riser which crosses flexure scarp and a valley to observe lateral offset. The tilt block,

  18. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE...

  19. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)...

  20. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  1. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  2. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  3. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  4. The preliminary results of new submarine caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc volcanoes, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial volcano in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc volcanoes. Therefore, the existence of volcanoes and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new submarine volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where located the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new submarine caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera volcano. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc

  5. Winter lipid depletion of juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma in the Doto area, northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kooka, K; Yamamura, O; Ohkubo, N; Honda, S

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal variation in body size and nutritional condition of juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying their first-winter survival on the continental shelf of the Doto area, northern Japan, based on monthly samples collected over 2 years. Stored lipid mass was highest during autumn, but 93% (2004) and 80% (2005) of lipids were exhausted by the onset of winter. Lipid levels in the winter of 2004 remained low (7-14% of the autumnal maximum), and there was reduced growth rate until the spring, whereas in 2005 lipid levels were higher and more variable (10-46% of the maximum) and some growth occurred. An analysis of the allometric relationships between body size and stored energy showed that larger individuals accumulated disproportionately more energy in the autumn, but the advantage disappeared prior to the winter. In January 2004, stored lipid energy was low throughout the Doto continental shelf relative to the continental slope area. These results suggest that winter feeding opportunities on the shelf are severely limited but not completely absent. Previous studies have shown that winter temperatures on the shelf are lower than those in the slope area. It is possible that juvenile T. chalcogramma survive winter on the shelf without a high level of pre-winter lipid storage because the occasional feeding in the cold shelf water benefits energy conservation. PMID:20738491

  6. Genesis of jadeite-quartz rocks in the Yorii area of the Kanto Mountains, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Mayuko; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Horie, Kenji; Lee, Der-Chuen

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports the results of U-Pb dating and REE (rare earth element) analysis of zircons separated from jadeite-quartz rocks within serpentinite mélanges in the Yorii area of the Kanto Mountains, Japan. These rocks contain jadeite, albite, and quartz, with minor aegirine-augite, zircon, monazite, thorite, allanite, and titanite. Mineral textures provide evidence of a jadeite + quartz = albite reaction during formation of these jadeite-quartz rocks. Zircon crystals separated from the jadeite-quartz rocks can be split into two distinct types, here named Types I and II, based on their morphology and REE concentrations. Type I zircons are prismatic and have fluid, jadeite, quartz, and albite inclusions. Those show positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies and HREE (heavy rare earth element) enriched chondrite normalized REE patterns and have higher REE concentrations than those generally found in magmatic zircons. Type I zircons would have precipitated from a fluid. Mineralogical observation provides that Type I zircon crystallized at the same timing of the formation of the jadeite-quartz rocks. Type II zircons are porous and have REE patterns indicative of a hydrothermal zircon. Both types of zircons are fluid-related. Type I zircons yield U-Pb ages of 162.2 ± 0.6 Ma, with an MSWD (mean square weighted deviation) of 1.4. At this time, Japan was still a part of the eastern margin of the Asian continent, with the subduction of the oceanic paleo-Pacific Plate leading to the formation of the Jurassic Mino-Tanba-Chichibu accretionary complex in Japan. The age data indicate that the jadeite-quartz rocks formed in a deep subduction zone environment at the same time as the formation of the Jurassic accretionary complex in a shallower near-trench subduction zone environment. The jadeite-quartz rocks contain high concentrations of Zr and Nb, with low LILE (large ion lithophile elements) concentrations, suggesting that the HFSE (high field strength elements) can be

  7. The usefulness of semi-solid medium in the isolation of highly virulent Leptospira strains from wild rats in an urban area of Fukuoka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Haraguchi, Yusuke; Ita, Shuhei; Miyahara, Satoshi; Ozuru, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Yoshimura, Michinobu; Ikejiri, Mami; Aramaki, Natsumi; Amran, Muhammad Yunus; Muslich, Lisa Tenriesa; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The importance of urban leptospirosis is recognized in Japan: urban rats carry pathogenic leptospires and people acquire these pathogens through contact with surface water or soil contaminated by the urine of the infected animals. To determine the current Leptospira carriage rate in urban rats, 29 wild rats were trapped in the central area of Fukuoka and strains isolated from their kidneys and urine analyzed. When semi-solid Korthof's medium containing 0.1% agar was used for isolation, 72.2% and 30.8% of the kidney and urine cultures, respectively, were found to be Leptospira-positive. The isolates belonged to Leptospira interrogans, and were classified into two groups (serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae) based on the results of gyrB sequence analysis and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT). Strains belonging to serogroup Icterohemorrhagiae grew well in liquid medium. On the other hand, serogroup Pomona isolates multiplied very little in liquid medium, but did grow in a semi-solid medium. Although strains belonging to serogroup Pomona have not been recognized as native to Japan, this strain may be widely distributed in urban rats. Representative strains from each group were found to be highly pathogenic to hamsters. Our findings should serve as a warning that it is still possible to become infected with leptospires from wild rats living in inner cities of Japan. Furthermore, the use of semi-solid medium for culture will improve the isolation rate of leptospires from the kidneys of wild rats. PMID:25890990

  8. Assessment of wintertime atmospheric pollutants in an urban area of Kansai, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Oki, Yoshishige; Tohno, Susumu; Kasahara, Mikio

    An intensive measurement of particulate matter and gaseous materials was made to assess the characteristics of wintertime atmospheric pollutants in an urban area of Kansai, Japan. Sampling was performed by a combination of filter pack sampler and low-pressure Andersen impactor (LPAI). Particle-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Thermal/Optical Reflectance (TOR ®) methods were employed in analyzing element and carbon, respectively. The concentrations of SO 2, NO x, and PM 2.5 monitored during our intensive measurement show a strong time serial variation. PM 2.5 levels are higher in the daytime with an average level of 21.3 μg m -3. Most of the peaks for NO x were regularly found in the morning throughout the campaign duration. The number concentration of particles larger than 0.3 μm appears dominated by the ultrafine particles ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 μm. The size distribution of elemental concentration as a function of water solubility was investigated. Organic carbon (OC) concentration shows the strong size distribution with the main peak formed in a range of 0.29-0.67 μm, while elemental carbon (EC) is principally enriched in a range of 0.12-0.29 μm ultra fine fraction. TC (OC+EC) fraction accounts for 42.5% and 26.2% of the mass concentration in fine particle fraction (<1.17 μm ) and coarse particle fraction (>1.17 μm), respectively. The simulated backward aerosol dispersion with the surface wind roses for three events of high PM 2.5 mass concentration indicates that aerosol dispersions might be originated from the emission sources of Osaka and Shiga. Also the possibility of long-range transportation of fine particulate matter from the domestic areas of Japan, Taiwan, and Pacific Ocean was still raised. The result of factor analysis indicates that automobile exhaust, fossil fuel combustion, refuse incineration, iron industry, and soil originated particles contribute the major portion of PM 2.5 in our sampling area.

  9. Geomorphic process and vegetation diversity in the active riverbed and the floodplain in the Kamikochi valley, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Kamikochi valley is located in a mountainous area in central Japan. The R. Azusa in this valley is a braided river with floodplains. Dense riparian forests cover the floodplains and fragmented small pioneer plant patches and isolated old pioneer trees are distributed in the active riverbed. This study aims to discuss the relationships between geomorphic processes of the river and vegetation diversity. Yearly mapping of the riverbed micro-landforms revealed that channel migrations and landform changes in the active riverbed occurs once every one or several years during a bankfull flood in the rainy season. Germination ages of riparian trees using a dendrochronological technique, their established layers and landform structure were examined to reconstruct floodplain dynamics. Major channel migrations destroyed the riparian forest repeatedly and the recent event occurred about 100 years ago. This caused a longitudinal zonal structure of the riparian forest vegetation, elm-fir forest, mature pioneer forest and young pioneer forests. The young pioneer forest is located alongside the present riverbed. The mature pioneer forest lies between the older elm-fir forests. The pioneer plants germinated simultaneously on the abandoned channel after channel migration. These trees became the mature pioneer forest. Ditches and lobes including boulders are found in the floodplain. The ditches extend parallel to the direction of the present and former channels. The lobes are distributed alongside them. Younger trees under the canopy grow on the lobes in the inner part of the floodplain. These young trees and lobes show that dominant sedimentation process in the floodplain is not lateral flooding, but longitudinal flooding. Sediments from the present channel flew downward through the ditches and were overflowed on the floodplain. This process destroyed the vegetation in and alongside the ditches causing vegetation diversity in the inner part of the riparian forest. Several species

  10. Exploration and monitoring geothermal activity using Landsat ETM + images. A case study at Aso volcanic area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. Bodruddoza; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Thermal activity monitoring in and around active volcanic areas using remote sensing is an essential part of volcanology nowadays. Three identical approaches were used for thermal activity exploration at Aso volcanic area in Japan using Landsat ETM + images. First, the conventional methods for hydrothermal alteration mapping were applied to find the most active thermal region after exploring geothermal indicator minerals. Second, we found some thermally highly anomalous regions around Nakadake crater using land surface temperature estimation. Then, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation was used for estimating and also monitoring radiative heat flux (RHF) from the most active region of about 8 km2 in and around Nakadake crater in the central part of the Aso volcano. To fulfill the required parameter in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux, the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method was used for spectral emissivity, and the mono-window algorithm was used for land surface temperature of this study area. The NDVI value was used to divide land-cover in the study area into four types: water, bare ground, mixed and vegetated land. The bare land was found within the most active region. Vegetation coverage area showed an inverse relationship with total RHF in this study as health of thermally stressed vegetation supports this relationship. The spatial distribution of spectral emissivity ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 in our study. Land surface temperature was estimated using a mono-window algorithm and was highest LST in 2008 and lowest in 2011. The results of RHF showed that the highest pixel RHF was found to be about 296 W/m2 in 2008. Total RHF was obtained of about 607 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 354 MW in 2008. The RHF anomaly area was found the highest in 2002 and was lowest in 2011. The highest total heat discharge rate (HDR) obtained about 3918 MW in 2002 and lowest total HDR about 2289 MW in 2008 from this study area. But in the case of

  11. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  12. Stratigraphy of the Sarkisla area, Sivas basin, eastern central Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Bilgic, T.; Sumengen, M.; Terlemez, I.; Unay, E.; Gurbuz, M.; Erkan, E.

    1988-08-01

    The stratigraphy of the Sarkisla area, southeastern Central Anatolian Massif, is characterized by a succession of rock units ranging from late Paleocene to Pliocene in age. The Caldag group mostly consists of deep-water units and forms the base of the Tertiary rocks. However, its relation to the basement rocks is not observed in the area. This group is represented by late Paleocene-Lutetian-age turbiditic pyroclastics and limestones, andesitic lavas and pyroclastics topped with reefal limestones, and turbiditic limestones and pyroclastics alternating with limestone blocks. During Lutetian to early Priabonian time, shallow marine clastics were deposited along the southern margin of the basin, while continental clastics and platform limestones accumulated along the northern margin. Late Priabonian to early Oligocene time is represented by gypsiferous deposits followed by late Oligocene-age fluvial clastics. The gypsiferous deposits conformably overlie the shallow marine formations but rest on the Caldag group unconformably. During early to middle Miocene time, alternating lacustrine limestones, gypsum, and basalts formed on the fluvial clastics; to the north, basalts formed on the platform limestones. The uppermost sequence of the basin, composed of Tortonian-early Pliocene-age fluvial clastics, lacustrine limestones, and fan deposits, unconformably overlies the older formations. The stratigraphy of the study area is similar to the Ulukisla basin, southwestern Central Anatolian Massif. Therefore, this basin can be considered to be the prolongation of the Ulukisla basin offset by the Ecemis fault.

  13. Geology of the central Roan Plateau area, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The geology of the central Roam Plateau area in the south-central part of the Piceance Creek basin, comprising four 7.5-minute quadrangles, is described. Subsurface rocks penetrated by drill holes include the Mancos Shale and Mesaverde Formation of Later Cretaceous age, and parts of the Wasatch Formation of Paleocene and Eocene age, and Green River Formation of Eocene age. Exposed rocks, aggregating as much as 4,550 feet in thickness, are all Eocene in age and include the upper part of the Wasatch Formation , and the Green River and Uinta formations. The Green River and Uinta formations are extensively intertongued. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age include alluvium, talus, slopewash, and landslides. Two northwesterly trending folds, the Clear Creek Syncline and the Crystal Creek anticlinal nose, are present in the northern part of the area. There are no major faults. The area contains large potentially important oil-shale resources, mostly in the Parachute Creek member of the Green River Formation.

  14. Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Takase, Yuuya; Mitobe, Hideko; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Ohzeki, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Kitayama, Yoshie

    2003-07-01

    The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as HCB, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane (t-CHL, c-CHL), DDE, DDD and DDT, in ambient air have been measured at five sampling points in Niigata area, Japan (Niigata, Maki, Tsubame, Jouzo and Yahiko) during the period from September 1999 to November 2001. HCB, alpha-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL showed higher concentrations than the other chemicals in all locations. All the POPs except t-CHL and c-CHL collected at urban sites of the Niigata Plain was almost the same in their concentration levels. Higher concentrations of t-CHL and c-CHL in residential areas should be attributed to the past usage of the chemical as a termiticide. At Yahiko (remote site), most of the POPs showed lower concentrations than those measured at the other sampling sites, although alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were comparable with the concentrations found at the other sampling sites. All POPs except alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH tend to decrease 41-80% in their concentrations from 2000 to 2001. The lower POPs concentrations in winter and the higher POPs concentrations in summer at every sampling point can be partly explained by temperature differences. Applying the equation of the logarithm of the POP partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature (lnPa=m/T+b) to our data, linear relations were observed. HCB gave a poor linearity and the smallest slope, while beta-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL gave good linearities and large slopes in the equation. The results suggest that HCB level is influenced by not only the emission from terrestrial sources but the global-scale background pollution. A peculiar observation is that beta-HCH concentration measured in our study showed large temperature dependence, indicating there could be a source of contamination in the surrounding areas. PMID:12738282

  15. Feedback control of human alpha rhythm from the central area.

    PubMed

    Potolicchio, S J; Zukerman, A S; Chernigovskaya, N V

    1979-09-01

    Twenty subjects, aged 17 to 25, were given from 5 to 10 sessions of training in controlling alpha. They were divided into three groups, respectively reinforced for increasing alpha from the central area, reinforced for decreasing alpha from the central area, and given noncontingent reinforcement. Compared with the initial baseline, the alpha of the noncontingent subjects did not change, while those reinforced for increases were reliably higher and those reinforced for decreases reliably lower than the noncontingent group. A slight trend toward improvement during successive sessions was not reliable. Since the experiment was conducted in the Soviet Union, the subjects had no expectations of an "alpha experience." Although tests showed a slight elevation in mood at the end of the sessions, there were no differences among the groups. There was an increase in reports of fatigue after the training sessions. There were no reports of using visual or somatomotor maneuvers as a means of controlling alpha. Furthermore, alpha rhythm control was not found to be consistently correlated with changes in heart rate, respiration, or mood, as determined by cross-correlation analysis. PMID:486587

  16. Virulence characterization of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from resident wild birds in Tokachi area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHYAKA, Anselme; KUSUMOTO, Akiko; CHAISOWWONG, Warangkhana; OKOUCHI, Yoshiki; FUKUMOTO, Shinya; YOSHIMURA, Aya; KAWAMOTO, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds is a potential hazard for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of C. jejuni in wild birds in Tokachi area, Hokkaido, Japan and investigate their virulence in vitro. In total, 173 cloacal swabs from individual wild birds were collected for the detection of Campylobacter spp. Thirty four samples (19.7%) were positive for Campylobacter of which 94.1% (32/34 samples) were C. jejuni. Additionally, one C. coli and one C. fetus were isolated. Seven C. jejuni isolates (one from crows and the other from pigeons) had important virulence genes including all three CDT genes (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and flaA, flaB, ciaB and cadF, and the other isolates were lacking cdtA gene. Further studies on in vitro virulence-associated phenotypes, such as motility assay on soft agar and invasion assay in Caco-2 cells, were performed. The wild bird C. jejuni isolates adhered and invaded human cells. Although the numbers of viable intracellular bacteria of wild bird isolates were lower than a type strain NCTC11168, they persisted at 48-hr and underwent replication in host cells. PMID:25843040

  17. Mineralogy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of clay minerals in the Ohnuma geothermal area, Northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Nagasawa, Keinosuke; Kuroda, Yoshimasu

    1980-04-01

    Mineralogical and hydrogen isotopic studies have been made on clay minerals occurring in the Ohnuma geothermal area, northeastern Japan. Here, clay minerals such as smectite, kaolinite, dickite, sericite, and chlorite were formed by hydrothermal alteration of Miocene rocks. A chemical equilibrium can be assumed to be attained from the fact that the amount of expandable layer in the interstratified chlorite/smectite decreases and the polytype of sericite changes from 1M to 2M 1 with increasing depth and temperature. The hydrogen isotopic composition (D/H) of the clay minerals is lighter than that of the geothermal and local meteoric waters by about 20-40‰. The hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors α mineral-water are as follows: 0.972-0.985 for kaolinite and dickite, 0.973-0.977 for sericite, and 0.954-0.987 for chlorite. In the temperature range from 100 to 250°C, the hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors between these minerals and water are not sensitive to the temperature. α chlorite-water depends on the kind of octahedrally coordinated cations which lie close to the hydroxyl groups; it becomes large with an increase of Mg content of chlorite.

  18. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.85 - What is a central business area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.85 What is a central business area? Central business area (CBA... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a central business area? 102-83.85 Section 102-83.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.85 - What is a central business area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.85 What is a central business area? Central business area (CBA... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a central business area? 102-83.85 Section 102-83.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  1. Effects of urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in Nohbi Plain, coastal region of Central Japan - a numerical analysis by meso-scale meteorological model with k-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Setsu

    1996-12-31

    Japanese large cities, mostly located in coastal region, have rapidly expanded in the last three decades. People in the region now experience warmer and unpleasant thermal environment in summer season, supposedly because of the extensive urbanization. Especially, under fine weather with light synoptic-scale gradient wind, the highest temperature often appears in rather inland area. An explanation to this phenomenon is horizontal transport of heat by the sea breeze which is strongly heated during its passage over the coastal urban area. This study investigated how and how much urbanization in Nohbi Plain of central Japan influences local wind and temperature distribution over the plain and its surrounding region, Nohbi Plain which faces to the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Japanese Alps, and thus is in a typical topographic situation in Japan. For the study we performed numerical simulations using our meso-scale meteorological model which includes k-c model for turbulence. One of the major results obtained is to have clarified a hierarchy in natural and artificial topography of various scales on their contributions to formation of characteristic diurnal pattern of wind and temperature distributions in the plain area. The Japanese Alps, the largest topographic feature in central Japan and often called the roof of Japan, gave the most important influence on the wind, although the mountains are located quite far, around 200 km, from Nohbi Plain. The way for the influence of the high mountains was to warm air mass in upper layer but below 2 km in altitude, over the Nohbi Plain through heat transport due to a large scale circulation consisting of the {open_quotes}flows from plain to plateau in lower layer and plateau to plain in upper layer{close_quotes}. Urbanization in the coastal Nohbi Plain showed little effect on the flow pattern, but caused large temperature rises at surface level in the inland area because of horizontal heat transfer by the sea breeze.

  2. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  3. Basin formation and inversion of the back-arc, Niigata basin, central Japan: New insight from deep seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo; Saito, Hideo; Kato, Naoko; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Fukasawa, Hikaru; Inaba, Mitsuru

    2010-05-01

    Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, rift-basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu. The Niigata basin, central Japan, is one of the such basins and filled by thick (< 8 km) Neogene sediments. By subsequent convergence since the Pliocene, an arc-parallel fold-and-thrust-belt has been developed along the Miocene rift-basins. In this belt devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (M7.4), 2004 Chuetsu (M6.8) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (M6.8) earthquakes, occurred by reverse faulting. Due to thick Neogene sediments, relationship between active faults/folds at near the surface and deep-sited seismogenic source faults is poorly understood. To reveal the crustal structure, in particular geometry of source faults, onshore-offshore integrated deep seismic profiling was undertaken along the two seismic lines in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 Aizu-Sado seismic line is a 135-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic line across Niigata basin and Sado island, which is located in the eastern part of Japan Sea. The 2008 Sanjo-Yahiko seismic line (Sato et al., 2009) is located 20 km south of the seismic line and trending parallel to it. The seismic source was air-gun (3020 cu. inch), four vibroseis trucks and explosives (< 200kg). Along the Sado strait, seismic data was acquired using two-ships to make large offset shot gather. Seismic signals were recorded by ocean bottom cables, cable-connected-recording system and offline recorders, forming a maximum 2400 channels receiver array. The basin fill consists of early to middle Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and overlying Neogene sedimentary rocks showing upward coarsening facies deposited under bathyal to fluvial environment. Main features of basin development, such as early Miocene normal faulting, associated with the formation of Japan Sea, and shortening deformation since Pliocene, are well demonstrated on the seismic sections. Particularly, boundary between pre-Tertiary meta-sedimentary rocks and Miocene

  4. One-year overview of deep vein thrombosis prevalence in the ishinomaki area since the great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi

    2014-01-01

    After the Great East-Japan Earthquake, the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters in Ishinomaki (Pacific coast, Miyagi, Japan) was found much higher than that ever reported in Japan. In Ishinomaki, twelve patients were found to have pulmonary thromboembolism for one month since the earthquake and DVT was found in 10 of those patients. The calf DVT was examined using ultrasonography in the shelters (from March to July 2011) and in temporary emergency housings (from August to December 2011). Calf DVT was found in 190 of 701 evacuees. DVT prevalence was higher in the tsunami-flooded shelters (34.2%) than in that in the non-flooded shelters (19.1%). This indicated that deteriorated and crowded condition in the tsunami-flooded shelters might induce thrombogenesis in calf veins. Therefore, evacuees were recommended to leave tsunami-flooded areas. DVT prevalence in the shelters was gradually reduced, however, that was still higher in the temporary emergency housings (8.9%) than in the non-disaster area in Japan (2.2% in Yokohama city). The risk of calf DVT in the temporary emergency housings was increased because of reduced blood flow in the calf veins caused by immobility. The residents of the housings were required to be physically active to avoid calf DVT. (English translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2013; 24: 380-384). PMID:25593620

  5. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2004-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions.The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.We started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo metropolitan areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Under the project we will deploy a 400-sation dense seismic array in metropolitan Tokyo and Kanto, referred to as the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in next 4 years. The target area of the present project is unique in tectonic setting because two oceanic plates, Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and Pacific plate (PAC), are subducting beneath the Kanto and also a volcanic arc, Izu-Bonin arc, is colliding with Honshu arc. The situation makes the tectonics complicated: there are both zones of smooth subduction and collision of the oceanic plate with the landward plate, either the Eurasian plate or the North American plate. Furthermore, the PSP encounters the PAC at shallow depth in the eastern Kanto region. The newly developing MeSO-net will contribute to understand the generation mechanism associated with the plate subduction and collision. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of the PSP geometry and

  6. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2007-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions.The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.We started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo metropolitan areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Under the project we will deploy a 400-sation dense seismic array in metropolitan Tokyo and Kanto, referred to as the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in next 4 years. The target area of the present project is unique in tectonic setting because two oceanic plates, Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and Pacific plate (PAC), are subducting beneath the Kanto and also a volcanic arc, Izu-Bonin arc, is colliding with Honshu arc. The situation makes the tectonics complicated: there are both zones of smooth subduction and collision of the oceanic plate with the landward plate, either the Eurasian plate or the North American plate. Furthermore, the PSP encounters the PAC at shallow depth in the eastern Kanto region. The newly developing MeSO-net will contribute to understand the generation mechanism associated with the plate subduction and collision. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of the PSP geometry and

  7. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  8. Outbreak of Culex inatomii in disaster areas of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami in 2011, with ecological notes on their larval habitats, biting behavior, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Kim, Kyeong Soon

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of Culex inatomii occurred widely in disaster areas of the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011. Mosquitoes were collected in southern Miyagi Prefecture and northern Fukushima Prefecture in August and September 2011, respectively. In southern Miyagi Prefecture, the average number of adult Cx. inatomii collected by a suction trap baited with 1 kg of dry ice ranged between 69.3 and 132.8 per day in locations within 2.6 km from the coast in tsunami areas, while no Cx. inatomii individuals were collected 8.3 km from the coast, where seawater did not reach, and which therefore escaped the tsunami disaster. There were many ground pools of brackish water of various sizes, and larvae of Cx. inatomii were collected in 48% and 36% of the pools examined in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture, respectively. Ecological notes on the larval habitats, biting behavior, seasonal prevalence, and reproduction of Cx. inatomii are presented for reference based on ecological studies conducted in Sakata Wetland, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan, in June and August 2011. Ecological factors relating to the current outbreak and the potential medical importance of Cx. inatomii are discussed. PMID:23687851

  9. Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ik-Soo; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored at a central urban area of Yongsan (YS), Seoul, Korea during 2013. The daily average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 fractions, were 26.6±12.6 and 45.0±20.4 μg m(-3), respectively. The observed PM2.5 concentration slightly exceeded the annual standard value (25 μg m(-3)) set by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE), while that of PM10 was slightly lower than its guideline value (50 μg m(-3)). Comparison of the monthly mean values (μg m(-3)) of both PM fractions showed maximum concentrations in January (PM2.5: 36.9 and PM10: 59.7) and minimum concentrations in September (PM10: 28.1) and October (PM2.5: 14.9). The existence of strong correlations between the concentrations of PM and some gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, SO2, and NOx) indicated the commonality of contributing source processes, such as traffic and industrial emissions. The results of a back-trajectory (BT) analysis also suggests that the PM pollution in the study area is likely to have been affected by many sources such as Asian dust, volcanic emissions, and industrial activities in the surrounding countries (China, Russia, and Japan). PMID:25218979

  10. Geochemical Characteristics of Aquifer system in Taichung Area, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2016-04-01

    For understanding the relationship between water bodies and host rocks and getting more information for groundwater in Taichung area, Central Taiwan, we systematically analyzed the stable isotopes (hydrogen and oxygen), helium isotopes and radon concentrations of dissolved gases from 54 groundwater, 39 river and 4 rain samples collected from Taichung Basin in wet and dry seasons of the year 2015. In the δ18O vs. δD plot, all samples present a linear trend similar to local meteoric water, indicating a meteoric origin. However, river samples are relative lighter than rain samples, it appears that the rivers are mainly recharged from precipitation of high-elevation areas with a lighter isotopic composition. Because the seasonal isotopic variation of river samples is significant, we calculated relative contribution of precipitation by seasons using the mass balance equation. Results show that the precipitation in the rainy season is the major source of groundwater. The helium isotopic ratio in dissolved gases of most groundwater samples are close to 1 RA (RA = 3He/4He ratio of air), except the sample from Wu-Feng well that exhibits 0.3 RA. This sample also has an older C-14 age (˜27000 yrs.) than others (<200 yrs.), implying that the dissolved helium is likely affected by radiogenic 4He of surrounding rocks. The average concentration of radon for groundwater in the northern section of Taichung Basin is 20.3 Bq/L, which is higher than that of the southern section (14.5 Bq/L). Variations of radon concentrations in the two sections may be related to the different drainage systems (Paleo-Dajia River vs. Wu River), in which sediments from Paleo-Dajia River may contain higher uranium concentrations. On the other hand, water in rivers usually contains undetectable radon (<0.37 Bq/L) because it rapidly escapes to the atmosphere. However, river samples from the central part of basin have radon concentrations ranging between 1 and 3 Bq/L, reflecting that the sampling sites

  11. Trace metals in bulk precipitation and throughfall in a suburban area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Koshikawa, M. K.; Hosomi, M.

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected monthly for 1.5 years over bare land and under canopies of Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and bamboo-leafed oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia) in a suburban area of Japan. Samples were analyzed for dissolved Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb and Bi by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The metal concentrations were higher in throughfall, especially that of C. japonica, than bulk precipitation. Enrichment ratios (ERs: ratios of metal concentrations in throughfall to those in bulk precipitation) ranged from 2.5 (Zn) to 5.3 (Ag) (3.9 on average), and ERs for slightly soluble metals were generally higher than those for easily soluble metals. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn accounted for 99% of the total concentration of heavy metals in rainwater, whereas those of rare metals such as Ag, In, Sn, and Bi totaled <0.23%. Average concentrations of rare metals were 0.002 and 0.010 μg l -1 for Ag, 0.001 and 0.005 μg l -1 for In, 0.062 and 0.21 μg l -1 for Sn, and 0.006 and 0.023 μg l -1 for Bi in bulk precipitation and throughfall, respectively. The metal concentrations in rainwater were negatively correlated to the volume of rainwater, indicating that washout is the main mechanism that incorporates metals into rainwater. From the enrichment factors, that is, (X/Al) rain/(X/Al) crust, metals other than Fe were shown to be more enriched in rainwater than in the Earth's crust, including those present as a result of leaching from soil dust (Mn) and from anthropogenic sources (Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi).

  12. Seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan based on adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Obayashi, M.; Tono, Y.; Tsuboi, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained a three-dimensional (3D) model of seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan. We applied the spectral-element method (e.g. Komatitsch and Tromp 1999) and adjoint method (Liu and Tromp 2006) to the broadband seismograms in order to infer the 3D model. We used the travel-time tomography result (Matsubara and Obara 2011) as an initial 3D model and used broadband waveforms recorded at the NIED F-net stations. We selected 147 earthquakes with magnitude of larger than 4.5 from the F-net earthquake catalog and used their bandpass filtered seismograms between 5 and 20 second with a high S/N ratio. The 3D model used for the forward and adjoint simulations is represented as a region of approximately 500 by 450 km in horizontal and 120 km in depth. Minimum period of theoretical waveforms was 4.35 second. For the adjoint inversion, we picked up the windows of the body waves from the observed and theoretical seismograms. We used SPECFEM3D_Cartesian code (e.g. Peter et al. 2011) for the forward and adjoint simulations, and their simulations were implemented by K-computer in RIKEN. Each iteration required about 0.1 million CPU hours at least. The model parameters of Vp and Vs were updated by using the steepest descent method. We obtained the fourth iterative model (M04), which reproduced observed waveforms better than the initial model. The shear wave-speed of M04 was significantly smaller than the initial model at any depth. The model of compressional wave-speed was not improved by inversion because of small alpha kernel values. Acknowledgements: This research was partly supported by MEXT Strategic Program for Innovative Research. We thank to the NIED for providing seismological data.

  13. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  14. Radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a forested watershed, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, S.; Gomi, T.; Kato, H.; Tesfaye, T.; Onda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a 13 ha headwater watershed, Tochigi prefecture, located in 98.94 km north of Tokyo. The study site was within Karasawa experimental forest, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. We conducted fingerprinting approach, based on the activities of fallout radionuclides, including caesium-134 (Cs-134) caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex). For indentifying specific sources of fine sediment, we sampled tree, soil on forested floor, soil on logging road surface, stream bed and stream banks. We investigated the radionuclides (i.e., as Cs-134, Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) deposition on tree after accident of nuclear power plants on March 11, 2011. We sampled fruits, leaves, branches, stems, barks on Japanese cedar (Sugi) and Japanese cypress (Hinoki). To analyze the samples, gammaray spectrometry was performed at a laboratory at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba City, Japan) using n-type coaxial low-energy HPGe gamma detectors (EGC-200-R and EGC25-195-R of EURYSIS Co., Lingolsheim, France) coupled with a multichannel analyzer. We also collected soil samples under the forest canopy in various soil depths from 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 cm along transect of hillslopes. Samples at forest road were collected road segments crossing on the middle section of monitoring watersheds. Fine sediment transport in the streams were collected at the outlet of 13 ha watersheds using integrated suspended sediment samplers. This study indicates the some portion of radio nuclide potentially remained on the tree surface. Part of the deposited radionuclides attached to soil particles and transported to the streams. Most of the fine sediment can be transported on road surface and/or near stream side (riparian zones).

  15. Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

  16. Utilizing the Cyberforest live sound system with social media to remotely conduct woodland bird censuses in Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Kurosawa, Reiko; Fujiwara, Akio; Kobayashi, Hill Hiroki; Nakayama, Masaya; Toko, Ayako; Nagahama, Kazuyo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a system that streams and archives live sound from remote areas across Japan via an unmanned automatic camera. The system was used to carry out pilot bird censuses in woodland; this allowed us to examine the use of live sound transmission and the role of social media as a mediator in remote scientific monitoring. The system has been streaming sounds 8 h per day for more than five years. We demonstrated that: (1) the transmission of live sound from a remote woodland could be used effectively to monitor birds in a remote location; (2) the simultaneous involvement of several participants via Internet Relay Chat to listen to live sound transmissions could enhance the accuracy of census data collection; and (3) interactions through Twitter allowed members of the public to engage or help with the remote monitoring of birds and experience inaccessible nature through the use of novel technologies. PMID:26508345

  17. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. PMID:17641453

  18. Multi-component Magnetization Of The Late Pliocene Pyroclastic Flow Deposit In Central Japan, Indicating Early Early Pleistocene Fault Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Funaki, M.; Hoshi, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Late Pliocene Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed in central Japan acquired three magnetization components. All of primary reverse intermediate temperature component, and secondary normal low and high temperature components show positive fold tests, indicating that fault-related folding structure postdated the Olduvai normal subchron. The northern segment of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line that bounds the North American and Eurasian Plates in central Japan, comprises the geological Otari-Nakayama and active Kamishiro faults. The Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed intruded by the 2.1 Ma Taro-yama Andesite is subjected to the NE-SW trending folding structure adjacent to the Otari-Nakayama fault. PAFD and PThD were performed to the drilled samples of Taro-yama Andesite and the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed at three and five sites on both limbs of the syncline, respectively. Positive fold test for the tilt-corrected site-mean directions of the andesite indicates prefolding magnetization. The fresh welded tuff bed at one site yields similar reverse direction. Whereas the greenly altered beds at four sites shows normal tilt-corrected site-mean directions by PAFD, and following three temperature-dependent directional components by PThD: normal below 350 degree, reverse from 350 to 530 degree, and normal above 530 degree, all which show positive fold test. IRM acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three orthogonal IRM, thermomagnetic analysis with VSM, and low temperature magnetization measurements with MPMS indicate that the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed with single and three magnetization components contains titanomagnetites, and both titanomagnetites and magnetite, respectively. Magnetization of the Taro-yama Andesite is dominated by titanomagnetites under high temperature oxidation state and minor proportion of titanomaghemites. The Taro-yama Andesite and the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed exhibit primary reverse magnetism corresponding to the Matsuyama Chron. The Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed additionally

  19. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  20. Assessing Groundwater Model Uncertainty for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman; Todd Mihevc

    2002-06-14

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the flow and transport model uncertainty for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). Six parameters were identified as uncertain, including the specified head boundary conditions used in the flow model, the spatial distribution of the underlying welded tuff unit, effective porosity, sorption coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficient, and the geochemical release function which describes nuclear glass dissolution. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior statistical distributions for each of these parameters. Standard Monte Carlo techniques were used to sample from the parameter distributions to determine the full prediction uncertainty. Additional analysis is performed to determine the most cost-beneficial characterization activities. The maximum radius of the tritium and strontium-90 contaminant boundary was used as the output metric for evaluation of prediction uncertainty. The results indicate that combining all of the uncertainty in the parameters listed above propagates to a prediction uncertainty in the maximum radius of the contaminant boundary of 234 to 308 m and 234 to 302 m, for tritium and strontium-90, respectively. Although the uncertainty in the input parameters is large, the prediction uncertainty in the contaminant boundary is relatively small. The relatively small prediction uncertainty is primarily due to the small transport velocities such that large changes in the uncertain input parameters causes small changes in the contaminant boundary. This suggests that the model is suitable in terms of predictive capability for the contaminant boundary delineation.

  1. Quaternary and geodetically measured crustal movements in the Tokai District, Central Honshu, Japan.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Matsuda, T.

    1981-01-01

    Geodetic measurements made in this century demonstrate that modern movements correlate well with deformation that has occurred during the past 2 Ma. Both show effects of subduction and of the Quaternary collision of Izu Peninsula with Central Honshu. Westward from Suruga Bay, deformation is greatest near the coast, decreases markedly towards the uplifting Akaishi Mountains, and then increases again in the conjugate block-faulted terranes of Chubu district. Quaternary faults, historic earthquakes, and the distribution of horizontal shear since approx 1880 all reflect this deformation pattern. Since 1900 the W coast of Suruga Bay has undergone secular subsidence, horizontal contraction and tilting towards Suruga Trough, all typical of the strain buildup process that occurs landward of subduction zones. However, futher westward, active mountain building is occurring, and the Akaishi Ranges are rising 3mm/a. Unlike the episodic aseismic uplift of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, movements here have been relatively uniform. It seems likely that an increase in the tilt rate of the Suruga coast recognized since approx 1973 is part of a long-term readjustment to the great Tonankai earthquake. Data show that a monotonic increase has occurred since at least 1949, and similar effects are seen adjacent to the 1944 rupture zone over 200km SW along the Nankai Trough. -Authors

  2. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969–1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 –1.46 mBq g−1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  3. Hydrological response to earthquakes in the Haibara well, central Japan - II. Possible mechanism inferred from time-varying hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, N.; Roeloffs, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    28 coseismic groundwater level decreases have been observed at the Haibara well, Shizuoka prefecture, central Japan, from 1981 to 1997. These groundwater level changes cannot be explained as the poroelastic response to coseismic static strain. We use the atmospheric pressure and tidal responses of the well, rock properties measured on core samples from the same formation and pumping test results to characterize the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the aquifer. The responses of the Haibara well to the M2 Earth tide constituent and to atmospheric pressure have varied over time. In particular, increasing amplitude and decreasing phase lags were observed after the 1993 pumping test, as well as after earthquakes that caused coseismic water level changes. The tidal response, together with the surface load efficiency derived from the atmospheric pressure response, is used to estimate the mechanical properties of the aquifer. The largest amplitude of the M2 constituent, 2.2 mm, is small enough to imply that pore fluid in this system is approximately twice as compressible as water, possibly due to the presence of a small amount of exsolved gas. Diffusion of a coseismic pressure drop near the well could account for the observed time histories of the water level changes. The time histories of the water level drops are well matched by the decay of a coseismic pressure drop at least 80 m away from the well. Removal of a small amount of gas from the formation in that location might in turn explain the coseismic pressure drops.

  4. Reproduction, growth and vertical distribution of the meso- and bathypelagic fish Cyclothone atraria (Pisces: Gonostomatidae) in Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miya, Masaki; Nemoto, Takahisa

    1987-09-01

    The life history and vertical distribution of the meso- and bathypelagic fish Cyclothone atraria (family Gonostomatidae) are described on the basis of about 9800 specimens taken during a series of 20 cruises from December 1982 to November 1985 at a station near the center of Sagami Bay, Central Japan. C. atraria does not undertake overall diel vertical migrations, being concentrated in the lower mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones below 400 m, with peak abundance at about 600 m both day and night. Spawning occurs mainly during the summer and early autumn. C. atraria releases about 500-3000 eggs at once and may spawn several times during its life span. Duration of the egg and larval stages is estimated to be about 6-7 months. C. atraria is protandrous, attaining male maturation in 3 years at about 25 mm standard length (SL) and attaining female maturation in 5-6 years at about 40 mm SL. Length-frequency analysis demonstrated that modal progressions could be followed until about 55 mm SL; however, no length mode that increases with time was observed at 30-35 mm SL, which corresponds to the size of sex reversal. Such modal indistinctness results from rapid growth of individual fishes set free from male breeding activity during protracted spawning season.

  5. Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) in Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miya, Masaki; Nemoto, Takahisa

    1986-08-01

    Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) are described on the basis of over 4000 specimens taken during a series of 15 cruises from December 1982 to December 1984 at a station near the center of Sagami Bay, Central Japan. C. alba does not undertake diel vertical migrations, being concentrated in the mesopelagic zone between 300 and 500 m, with peak abundance at 350 m both day and night. Spawning occurs mainly during the late spring and summer months in Sagami Bay. C. alba is semelparous, releasing about 200-650 eggs at the end of its life. Duration of the egg and larval stages is estimated to be about 2-3 months. Many males and some females mature at 1 year, and all individuals mature by 2 years of age. Sexual dimorphism in smaller males and larger females results from an earlier decline of growth rate in males: on the average, males reach 17.5 mm SL (standard length) in 1 year and 21 mm SL in 2 years, whereas females reach 19 mm SL in 1 year and 26 mm SL in 2 years. It is suggested that such precocious maturation, together with its small larvalized form, is attained through progenesis.

  6. Lonestones as indicators of tsunami deposits in deep-sea sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Morozaki Group, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Toru

    2013-05-01

    Lonestones are isolated larger clasts enclosed in muddy fine-grained deposits, and are usually interpreted as iceberg-rafted dropstones. This interpretation implies the existence of glaciers (continental ice sheets) and, consequently, a cool climate. However, alternative interpretations are possible, as lonestones may also be deposited by non-glacial processes. Therefore, clarification of the depositional processes associated with lonestones is fundamental for studies based on lonestone-bearing deposits. A field survey of lonestone-bearing deposits from Early Miocene deep-sea sedimentary rocks found around the Chita Peninsula of central Japan suggests that tsunami-induced flows on the sea bottom may also form lonestones. These lonestones are associated with sandy to gravelly deposits, and were deposited by high-energy episodic currents. The main features of these deposits are the multiple stacking of normally graded units, and the laterally discontinuous distribution of coarse-grained clastic material (sands and gravels). Such features are consistent with deposition by tsunamis and suggest that lonestone-bearing depositional successions must be carefully interpreted, especially where lonestones are used as glacial indicators, as some lonestones were probably put in place by ancient tsunami events.

  7. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g-1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 +/- 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades.

  8. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for (239+240)Pu activity concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that (239+240)Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g(-1), and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of (241)Pu using the (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released (241)Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited (241)Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  9. Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative δ37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with δ34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or δ34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with δ37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

  10. Estimated pressure source on Kozu Island volcano, South Central Japan, from GPS measurements (July 1996-August 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Fumiaki; Kariya, Shin-ichi; Fujita, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Kunio; Tabei, Takao; Segawa, Jiro; Yamada, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Although the Kozu Island Volcano, one of the Izu Islands Volcanoes in the south part Central Japan, is an active volcano, there is no record of the eruption for about 1100 years since the last eruption in 833 A.D. Since 1988, frequent earthquake swarms are observed around the Kozu Island, and the uplift of 2-4 cm/yr is observed on the island by tidal observations. Station velocities detected by GPS measurements since 1989 show velocities that differ from the convergent velocity of the Philippine Sea plate calculated from plate motion models. A local GPS network with 12 stations is occupied around the volcano, and the GPS measurements are repeated every about six month since July 1996. Inflated deformation of 2-4 cm/yr are detected from the GPS measurements and the pressure source is estimated to be located in the northeastern part of the island at a depth of 2.1 km using Mogi solution. Negative gravity changes of more than 30 microgal are also measured above the pressure source in the period November 1998 to July 1999, consistent with uplift.

  11. Fractionation and magma mixing within intruding dike swarm: evidence from the Miocene Shitara-Otoge igneous complex, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshi, Nobuo

    2000-05-01

    The analysis of intrusion pattern and petrological character of the central dike swarm in the Miocene igneous complex of the Shitara district, central Japan clarified that magma mixing between a strongly differentiated magma and a less-differentiated magma occurred within a dike swarm. The dike rocks have a wide compositional variation ranging from 5.5 to 0.7 wt.% MgO. They are divided into P1- and P2-types. The P2-type rocks provide many lines of evidence for magma mixing such as reversely zoned phenocrysts, bimodal composition distribution, and dissolution texture, whereas P1-type rocks do not. Phenocryst compositions of P2-type suggest that the magma mixing occurred between a less-fractionated phenocryst-poor magma and a strongly fractionated crystal-rich magma. Concentration ratios among incompatible elements show that the mixing end components were derived from a similar parental magma common to P1-type by fractional crystallization in a near closed system. The dikes with evidence for the magma mixing (P2-type) are distributed only in the southern marginal part of the dike swarm, whereas P1-type dikes do not show any such localization. The distribution and the intrusion direction of the dikes indicate a nearly horizontal outward flow of magmas in the southern part of the dike swarm and accompanied magma mixing in the dike during intrusion. The fractionated end component is inferred to be a product of crystal fractionation within small and ephemeral magma pockets in the dike swarm. Magma mixing is thought to have occurred when a newly intruded dike ruptured the magma reservoir. The frequency of magma mixing was controlled mainly by competition between the lifetime of ephemeral magma reservoir and frequency of dike intrusions. The condition of magma mixing was satisfied only in the southern part of the dike swarm affected by the preceding volcanic activities.

  12. 10 Year Video Monitoring and its Implication to the Fluctuation Detected by Multi-disciplinary Observation on Deep Seafloor at Cold Seepage Site in Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, R.

    2004-12-01

    As a part of multidisciplinary real-time observation at cold seepage site on deep seafloor which faces swarm earthquake area at a depth of 1175 m off Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay, central Japan, video monitoring has been carried out for about 10 years by a cabled observatory. Through the monitoring, both outbreak event such as mudflows caused by earthquakes and long-term phenomena such as sedimentation on seafloor associated not only with mudflow but also with the fluctuation of the amount of suspended particles were observed, along with spawning of clams or other biological events. Some of these video images provide important information on the fluctuation observed by other sensors of the observatory, such as seasonal changes in sub-bottom temperature and intensity of gamma-ray, indicating that those fluctuations were primarily related to such environmental changes on seafloor as sedimentation. On the other hand, extracting meaningful events or phenomena from a huge amount of stored video images needs tremendous time and effort. Effective methodology of scene detection and indexing is necessary to be developed.

  13. Spatially heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2011 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake, NE Japan, probably caused by static stress change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    In order to know whether principal stress orientations in the source area rotated after the 2011 April 11 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake in NE Japan, we investigated detailed spatial distributions of stress orientations for both the pre- and post-main shock periods using a large amount of focal mechanism data. We applied stress tensor inversions to focal mechanism data from Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's F-net broadband seismic network and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The σ3-axes estimated for the pre-main shock period are predominantly oriented WSW-ENE, and are relatively homogeneously in space. In contrast, the orientations of the σ3-axes show a significantly heterogeneous distribution in space for the post-main shock period. In the northern subarea of the focal region, the σ3-axes are oriented NW-SE. In the east and west portions of the central subarea, they are oriented NNW-SSE and WNW-ESE, respectively, almost perpendicular to each other. In the southern subarea, the σ3-axes are oriented WSW-ENE. On the whole, the σ3-axis orientations show concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the Mw Mw 6.6 main shock rupture. The change of principal stress axis orientations after the earthquake is not significant because of the sparse data set for the pre-main shock period. We calculated static stress changes from the Mw 6.6 main shock and three Mw > 5.5 earthquakes to compare with the observed stress axis orientations in the post-main shock period. The σ3-axis orientations of the calculated total static stress change show a concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the main shock, similar to that noted above. This observation strongly suggests that the spatially heterogeneous stress orientations in the post-main shock period were caused by the static stress change from the Mw 6.6 main shock and other large earthquakes. In order to estimate the

  14. An introduction of a new stochastic tropical cyclone model for Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakano, S.; Ueno, G.; Mori, N.; Nakajo, S.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme events such as tropical cyclones (TC), downpours, floods, and so on, have huge influences on the human life in the past, present, and future. In particular, the change in their risks on the human life under the future climate has been concerned by the governments and researchers. Our aim is to estimate the probabilities for frequencies of TC which could attack to Japan under the future climate that calculated by GCMs. For carrying out this subject, it is needed a suitable rare event sampling method to find TCs that land on big cities in Japan. Moreover, it requires sufficient reproductions of TCs for calculation of their probabilities, too. The model for TC reproductions is designed with three parts following the lifecycle of TC; formation, maturity and decay. However, we don't treat the part of maturity with physical equations because the maturity process is complicated to express as a stochastic model. The TC intensity model will take the place of this physical part. Several stochastic TC models have been developed for different purposes and problems. Our model is developed for the establishment of a rare event sampling method. Here, the comparisons of behaviors of TC tracks among several stochastic TC models will be discussed using Best Track data provided by Japan Meteorological Agency and MRI-AGCM data for the present climate.

  15. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Acid Neutralizing Processes in Steep Headwater Catchments in Tanakami Mountains, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Y.; Uchida, T.; Ohte, N.; Tani, M.

    2001-05-01

    The areas characterized by steep slope, thin soils, and unreactive bedrock types are often considered as acid-sensitive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial distribution of acid neutralizing processes in steep headwater catchment in the humid temperate region, and to discuss the long-term change in acid neutralizing processes associated with the forest growth and soil development. The observations were conducted at two adjacent unchannelled steep catchment, Fudoji (0.10ha) and Rachidani (0.18ha). Two catchments share similar climatic condition and the same bedrock geology (granite). The mean hollow gradient is 37degrees in Fudoji and 34degrees in Rachidani. Fudoji is forested with mean soil depth of 77cm, while Rachidani is non-vegetated with mean soil depth of about 10cm. In both catchments, hydrometric and isotopic measurements illustrated the substantial downward water flux into the bedrock in upslope area and emerging of this water from bedrock to soil layer within 2m from the perennial spring points. The mean pH of soil water and groundwater were dispersed over a wide range of 4.00 to 5.84 in Fudoji and 5.29 to 6.28 in Rachidani, while stream pHs converged very closely to neutral value in two catchments. In both catchments, major H+ sources distributed at the near-surface soil layer and the intensity of internal H+ production was greater in forested Fudoji than non-vegetated Rachidani, attributed to the biological cycles in forest ecosystems. Calculation of budget for base cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) presented that 72 to 84 percent (Fudoji) and 34percent (Rachidani) of the net base cation production in each catchment was derived from the bedrock, indicating that a considerable amount of the H+ was consumed within the bedrock. Moreover, the H+ consumption rate per unit volume of soil in Fudoji was almost one order of magnitude smaller than that of Rachidani. These results suggested that the dominant H+ sink in catchments shifted from

  17. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in Coastal Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Uehara, Keita; Shah, Md Mahfuzur Rahman; Suda, Shoichiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP): one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. Methods/Principal Finding A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006–2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8–D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2), two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi) and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8–D10 as

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Methods Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Results Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but

  19. Heat source for an amagmatic hydrothermal system, Noto Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Koji; Ninomiya, Atusi; Negi, Tateyuki

    2009-01-01

    Although there is no evidence of volcanism in the Noto Peninsula since the late Miocene, the peninsula has long been known to be unusual and atypical of non-volcanic regions, as indicated by high-temperature hot springs and a geothermal gradient greater than 50 K/km. In order to provide geochemical constraints on the heat source for amagmatic hydrothermal activity, the chemical and isotopic compositions of 14 gas and water samples from hot springs were measured. The observed 3He/4He ratios of most hot spring gases range from 0.03 to 1.2 RA (RA denotes the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.4 × 10-6). In these samples, mantle helium composes less than 10% of the total helium, indicating an insignificant contribution of mantle-derived volatiles from, for example, newly ascending magma and/or aqueous fluid generated by dehydration of the subducting slab. The Noto Peninsula mainly consists of Neogene volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks overlying Paleozoic to Mesozoic basement rocks associated with uranium-bearing granite pegmatite containing elevated concentrations of heat generating elements such as uranium, thorium, and potassium. A plausible heat source for the amagmatic hydrothermal activity can be attributed to this distinctive geological environment where high heat producing granitic rocks are buried under Neogene sedimentary rocks with low thermal conductivities that act as thermal blankets. Most Noto Peninsula hot springs are found in areas of active faulting, where stress concentrations since the late Miocene could open an existing fault pathway because the fluid pressure is close to the lithostatic pressure. Meteoric waters circulating through hot basement rock come to the surface along these permeable conduits with minimal mixing with shallow groundwater, resulting in emanation of high-temperature hot springs with low 3He/4He ratio gases along active fault zones.

  20. Seepage at western Sagami Bay, Central Japan: Results from heat flow and seismic reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Machiyama, H.; Yamashita, M.; Soh, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Izu Peninsula on the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) collides NNW-ward with the mainland Honshu. The subduction boundary at the northern boundary of PHS is thus distorted northward, forming an oblique subduction boundary Sagami Trough to the east of Izu Peninsula. Also a fault plane is inferred at the western Sagami Bay off Hatsushima Island, in order to explain tremors activity. The volcanic front of IBM arc runs at the western Sagami Bay, producing a group of monogenetic volcanoes. Active cold seep communities develop off Hatsushima at 1200 m water depth. Intensive heat flow studies, including dive results and recent survey in 2004 revealed a high heat flow distribution (> 1,000 mWm-2) within 500m of the colony and low (~50 mWm-2) on the Sagami Trough to the east. Hydrological conduit along the potential fault or along the lithologic boundary will feed nutrients to the colony, as well as it will provide heat conductively in the surrounding region. Dive studies revealed almost zero heat flow within 50 m of the colony, whereas heat flow is as high as 20,000 mWm-2 on the colony. Continuous monitoring of heat flow in and outside the colony (only 1m apart) was conducted for 4 years using JAMSTEC_fs cabled observatory. A temperature decrease by 0.8°C only at sensors 10-20 cm below seafloor within the colony occurred within two months. Piston core samples taken in 2003 include massive carbonate crust of 20 cm thickness, which probably forms a hydrological seal. This suggests that the hydrological system here is dynamically supported through time-variant chemical reaction and fluid transport. In 2005 we conducted a grid survey of single-channel seismics at 0.1-0.2 miles interval around the Hatsushima seep community. A potential reservoir, showing negative reflectivity, was located 200-300m below sea floor. We plan to submit a drilling proposal to IODP in this area, in order to characterize hydrological system trough sampling and long-term monitoring.

  1. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  2. Structural characteristics of shallowly buried accretionary prism: Rapidly uplifted Neogene accreted sediments on the Miura-Boso Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Ogawa, Y.

    2005-10-01

    The upper Miocene Misaki and Nishizaki formations on the Miura and Boso peninsulas in central Japan preserve the deformation features of an off-scraped accretionary prism. The spatial distribution, geometry, and style of accretion-related deformation with paleotemperature and burial depth estimation are elucidated in this study. The deformation structures and textures are similar to those of modern accretionary prisms. The low maximum paleotemperature (<50°C) and high preserved porosity of the sediments (30-50%) imply a maximum burial depth of less than 1000 m. On the basis of the mode of deformation, this off-scraped body is divided into an imbricate thrust, a thrust unit, and an upper coherent unit in ascending order. The imbricate thrust corresponds to a branch from the basal décollement zone and is subdivided into a brecciated zone, a main gouge zone, and a shear band zone. The thrust unit hosts a concentration of thrust systems that form various orders of duplex structures, while the upper coherent unit is characterized by gravitational instability- and earthquake-induced deformation without thrust faulting. The duplex distribution, shear strain, and fluid migration associated with the off-scraping processes are clearly localized within the imbricate thrust and thrust unit. This accretion-related deformation occurred before lithification of the sediment and under high fluid pressure induced by shear deformation, thickening of the sedimentary sequence, and earthquake-induced liquefaction. These processes are inferred to control the effect on the mode of deformation and the location of thrusting during early deformation of the accretionary prism.

  3. Community structures and activity of denitrifying microbes in a forested catchment in central Japan: survey using nitrite reductase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Aoki, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Suwa, Y.; Tange, T.

    2012-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of denitrification processes in the forested catchment, microbial ecological approaches have been applied in an experimental watershed that has previously investigated its hydrological processes. The study catchment is located in the Chiba prefecture in central Japan under the temperate Asian monsoon climate. Potential activities of denitrification of soil samples were measured by incubation experiments under anoxic condition associated with Na15NO3 addition. Existence and variety of microbes having nitrite reductase genes were investigated by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencings of nirK and nirS fragments after DNA extraction. Contrary to our early expectation that the potential denitrification activity was higher at deeper soil horizon with consistent groundwater residence than that in the surface soil, denitrification potential was higher in shallower soil horizons than deeper soils. This suggested that the deficiency of NO3- as a respiratory substrate for denitrifier occurred in deeper soils especially in the summer. However, high denitrification activity and presence of microbes having nirK and nirS in surface soils usually under aerobic condition was explainable by the fact that the majority of denitrifying bacteria have been recognized as a facultative anaerobic bacterium. This also suggests the possibility of that denitrification occurs even in the surface soils if the wet condition is provided by rainwater during and after a storm event. Community structures of microbes having nirK were different between near surface and deeper soil horizons, and ones having nirS was different between saturated zone (under groundwater table) and unsaturated soil horizons. These imply that microbial communities with nisK are sensitive to the concentration of soil organic matters and ones with nirS is sensitive to soil moisture contents.

  4. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takeshi; Sugawara, Hirotaka; Tado, Miyuki; Nishitani, Takuma; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Anderson's crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis. PMID:26479528

  5. Seasonal variations of 14C and δ13C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Masayo; Kato, Tomomi; Horikawa, Keiji; Nakamura, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric 14C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of 14C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem 14C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO2. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in 14C and δ13C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the 14C and δ13C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different 14C concentrations and δ13C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO2, and flow paths. Further, the 14C and δ13C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The 14C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: 14C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in 14C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using 14C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  6. Spatiotemporal inhomogeneity in atmospheric trace-gas over Fukuoka, an urban area in Japan, observed by ground-based MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Irie, H.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous trace-gas observations have been made using ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) at Fukuoka (33.55N, 130.36E), an urban area in Japan. The maximum of the NOx emissions at Fukuoka is estimated to be at the city center, and the monitoring site is located ~5 km southwest of the city center, outside of the central area. To clarify the inhomogeneity as well as the transport/mixing processes of the polluted air in the urban area, continuous profile measurements have been conducted in two azimuth directions: towards and away from the city center. From NO2 observations, we sometimes observed spatial inhomogeneity associated with vertical/horizontal transport of high concentrations of NO2 from the city center, and horizontal transport of low concentrations from the ocean via a land-sea breeze. On the other hand, we observed spatial inhomogeneity in HONO and HCHO during summer, which was probably due to photochemical production over the city center.

  7. Re-examination of the damage distribution and the source of the 1751 Takada Earthquake in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Takada earthquake that occurred in Takada clan in western Echigo (currently Niigata prefecture) at 1:00-3:00 a.m., 26th day of 4th month, Kan'en 4th (Gregorian calendar: 26 May, 1751) caused serious damage especially along the western edge of the Takada plain, in the western mountain region, and along the coastal area of the Sea of Japan. Usami (2003) estimated the magnitude (M7.0-7.4) and the epicenter (in the northwestern part of Takada plain). In this study, at first, we select reliable and contemporary historical documents, because historical documents written in later ages sometimes include wrong or exaggerate description. Next, we calculate the collapse ratios of houses using only historical records that describe both the number of houses before the mainshock and number of collapsed houses. Finally, we convert the ratio of collapsed houses at each village or town to seismic intensity (SI) scale based on Usami (1986)'s table, and examine the focal regions of the 1751 Takada earthquake from the seismic intensity distribution. Historical documents describing the numbers of total houses and damaged houses are necessity in order to determine the ratios of collapsed houses at each village or town. If they are described in two different documents, the ratio may not be reliable because area of the village or town may be different at each historical document. The collapse ratio of houses is then converted into Japanese seismic intensity scale based on Usami (1986)'s table, i.e. SI 7 (XII on MM scale): 81-100% collapse ratio of houses. SI 6 (X-XI on MM scale): 71-80% collapse ratio of houses. SI 5+ (IX on MM scale): 1-70% collapse ratio of houses. SI 5- (VIII on MM scale): 0% collapse ratio of houses. The characteristics of seismic intensity distribution for the Takada earthquake are summarized as below. (a) In Kuwadori Valley in the western mountains, the earthquake generated numerous landslides. The collapse ratios of houses in villages are significantly higher

  8. The origin of muddy sand sediments associated with mud volcanism in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Murakami, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The origin of muddy sand and gas in muddy sand sediments in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated by analyzing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the sediments and the chemical/isotopic compositions of the gas. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that chemically, the muddy sand is derived from a mixing of components from the Hakobuchi and overlying formations, and that the characteristic mineral of the muddy sand is heulandite, which, in the study area, has been detected only in the Hakobuchi Formation. These results suggest that the sediments ascended from depths of at least 2200-2400 m. The δ13CCH4 values and the methane/(ethane + propane) ratios of the gas indicate that the primary origin of the methane is by thermogenic decomposition of coal-bearing beds in the Haboro or Hakobuchi formations, or further deep sources. This study provides new data on processes of onshore mud volcanism in Japan, and contributes to an understanding of processes of subsurface mass transport in regions of mud-volcanic activity.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  10. Effect of subduction components on production of basalts from Tateshina volcano, central Japan: geochemical calculation of dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and partial melting of overlying sediments, and subsequent fluid-mantle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Masayasu; Shuto, Kenji

    Effect of subduction components on production of basalts from Tateshina volcano, central Japan: geochemical calculation of dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and partial melting of overlying sediments, and subsequent fluid-mantle interaction

  11. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  12. A study of the morphology of winter sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan in relation to cloud charge height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myokei, K.; Matsudo, Y.; Asano, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hobara, Y.; Michimoto, K.; Hayakawa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Continuous observations of sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan were performed from two optical sites during the three winter periods. The purpose of this observation is to study the major effect in the appearance of sprites and in determining the morphology of sprites (columns or carrots). Detailed analysis is performed based on the estimation of the height of -10 °C at the time of sprite occurrence. When the height of -10 °C is lower than 1800 m, the occurrence of sprites is infrequent, and the dominant shape is column. Then when it is increased (1800-3000 m), a new situation takes place, namely the occurrence of sprites is very enhanced and more spectacular shapes like carrots tend to be frequently observed in addition to column sprites. These sprite characteristics are first compared with those of parent lightning in the Hokuriku area and with our latest computer simulations on sprite initiation.

  13. Groundwater chemistry in the nitrate contaminated area in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate from agricultural fields is a problem shared by many parts of the world. Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan is an important agricultural district experiencing this problem. In Shimabara, drinking water relies on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected at 40 locations such as residents and municipal waterworks wells, springs and rivers from August 2011 to November 2013. NO3-N concentration of 15 samples exceeded 10 mg L-1 (drinking water standard in Japan). Maximum NO3-N concentration was 26.6 mg L-1. Correlation coefficients were calculated between ion components of collected samples (n=277). NO3- had the highest positive correlation with Cl-(r =0.956) and had positive correlation with K+(r=0.679), SO42-(r=0.654) and Ca2+(r=0.593), respectively. The results revealed that Cl- and K+ related to livestock wastes, SO42- related to chemical fertilizers and Ca2+ related to calcareous materials. Main source of NO3- is from livestock wastes. To understand groundwater chemistry in detail, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were carried out. Result from the PCA, chemical characteristics of groundwater was summarized by the first principal component and the second principal component. Both of two principal components reflected nitrate contamination and ion dissolution from aquifer matrix during groundwater flows. Result from the cluster analysis, chemical characteristics of groundwater was classified into four clusters. Nitrate polluted samples into specific cluster and the rest samples were classified into other clusters depending on the original water quality.

  14. Electrical Structure of the Shallow Part of the Atotsugawa Fault, Central Japan: Detecting en Echelon Structure in the Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, F.; Kubo, A.; Yamada, R.; Omura, K.

    2005-12-01

    Dense VLF-MT and TDEM surveys were carried out to image the electrical structure of a region interpreted as a creeping segment of the Atotsugawa Fault, central Japan. The Atotsugawa Fault is an active fault with a length of 60-70 km and a strike of approximately N60°E. The fault type is a right-lateral strike-slip. The most significant characteristic of this fault is a possible existence of creeping segment. In the central region, the stable slip with a rate of 1.5 mm/year was found by the observation of baseline change (Geographical Survey Institute, 1997). However, such slip has not been found at the southwestern region. Therefore, the central region is considered to be a creeping segment. In the creeping segment, many fault outcrops were found on the right bank of the Atotsu-gawa River that runs along the fault. Strikes of shear planes in outcrops were observed to be N30°-47°E, which is apparently different from that of the Atotsugawa fault. This observation suggested the existence of en echelon structure, which is the cluster of small shear zones oblique to main fault. Investigation of the nature of the en echelon structure will help us to understand the growth history of the Atotsugawa fault and the mechanisms of creeping phenomenon. Because a fracture zone usually includes much water, we can detect it as a low resistivity zone. In order to image the detailed structure of echelon, we carried out the electromagnetic surveys; VLF-MT and TDEM survey as a preliminary and main investigation, respectively. The results of VLF-MT survey has been reported by Yamashita et al. (2005), and therefore we don_ft refer to the results here. We acquired data at 10000 points with airborne TDEM survey, and over 4000 data were selectively used for modeling the subsurface structure. Apparent resistivity at each point was modeled assuming 1-D structure that consists of 30 and 70 m thick layers on a semi-infinite basement (three layers in total). Because over 4000 survey points

  15. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  16. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Takeshi; Sugawara, Hirotaka; Tado, Miyuki; Nishitani, Takuma; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We naturally bred the endangered Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) and tested a laboratory farming technique using near-biotopic breeding cages with several male and female pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species, and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species. Abstract Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live

  17. How the timberline formed: altitudinal changes in stand structure and dynamics around the timberline in central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hirosawa, Tatsuru; Morishima, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Altitudinal timberlines are thought to move upward by global warming, a crucial topic in ecology. Tall tree species (the conifer Abies mariesii and the deciduous broad-leaved Betula ermanii) dominate the sub-alpine zone between 1600 and 2500 m a.s.l., the timberline, on Mount Norikura in central Japan. Dwarf pine Pinus pumila dominates above the timberline to near the summit (3026 m a.s.l.). This study evaluated how the timberline formed on Mount Norikura by examining altitudinal changes in stand structure and dynamics around the timberline. Methods One hundred and twenty-five plots of 10 m × 10 m were established around the timberline (2350–2600 m a.s.l.). Trunk diameter growth rate during 6 years was examined for A. mariesii, B. ermanii and P. pumila. Mortality during this period and mechanical damage scars on the trunks and branches due to strong wind and snow were examined for A. mariesii only. Key Results The density, maximum trunk height and diameter of A. mariesii in plots decreased with altitude. The maximum trunk height of B. ermanii decreased with altitude, but density and maximum trunk diameter did not decrease. In contrast, the density of P. pumila abruptly increased from around the timberline. A strong negative correlation was found between the densities of P. pumila and tall tree species, indicating their interspecific competition. Trunk diameter growth rates of A. mariesii and B. ermanii did not decrease with altitude, suggesting that these two tall tree species can grow at the timberline. The ratio of trees with mechanical damage scars increased with altitude for A. mariesii, a tendency more conspicuous for larger trees. The mortality of larger A. mariesii was also greater at higher altitude. Tall tree species may not increase their trunk height and survive around the timberline because of mechanical damage. Conclusions This study suggests that the altitudinal location of the timberline is mainly affected by mechanical damage

  18. Relationship between temperatures and fault slips on the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Takagi, Rumi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    To elucidate the relationship between interplate temperatures and generation mechanisms for megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events (SSEs) in the Kanto district, central Japan, we performed numerical simulations on the thermal state. For this purpose, we newly developed a 2-D box-type thermal convection model that is able to handle the subduction of two oceanic plates: the young oceanic Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts following subduction of the old oceanic Pacific (PAC) plate beneath it. To constrain temperatures on the upper surface of the PHS plate, we used high-density Hi-net heat flow data on land. We found that low heat flow in the Kanto district was caused mostly by subduction of the cold PHS plate. To explain the heat flow distribution in the Kanto district in more detail, we needed to incorporate frictional heating at the plate interface on the seaward side of the corner of the mantle wedge, and temperature changes due to surface erosion and sedimentation associated with crustal deformation during the Quaternary on land into the models. The most suitable pore pressure ratio to explain the heat flow data was 0.98. The thermally estimated seismogenic zone corresponded well to the fault planes of the 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake and the western half of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake. The eastern half of the fault plane of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake could be divided into two areas; the northwestern fault plane corresponded to the thermally estimated seismogenic zone, whereas the relationship between the southeastern fault plane and interplate temperatures was ambiguous. The off-Boso SSEs occurred on the plate interface at temperatures lower than approximately 250 °C, and the slipped region passed through the 150 °C isotherm, corresponding to the clay mineral phase transformation from smectite to illite. This might suggest that the SSEs occurred in relation to a dehydration process.

  19. Diversity of Triggering Mechanisms in the Northern Nagano Region, Central Japan, Following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, K.; Enescu, B.; Yagi, Y.; Takeda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The seismicity in several inland regions of northeast and central Japan changed dramatically after the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake (e.g., Hirose et al., 2011). For example, in the Northern Nagano region, a relatively large event (Mw6.2) occurred about 13 hours after the megathrust earthquake. However, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) earthquake catalogue does not list any event in Northern Nagano for the first 7 hours after the Tohoku-oki earthquake, although there is some evidence of dynamic triggering (Miyazawa, 2012) in the region due to the M9.0 event. As seismic catalogues are usually incomplete after large earthquakes, we have applied the Matched Filtered Technique (Peng and Zhao, 2009) to detect missing events within the first 13 hours after Tohoku-oki earthquake, using continuous waveforms and template events recorded at Hi-net seismic stations in Northern Nagano. As a result, we have identified 138 new events in the study area, with M1.0~3.0. Few of these events are located close to the hypocenter of the Mw6.2 earthquake, and many others locate about 10km to the south, in an area where an Mw5.4 earthquake occurred about one month later. In the northern area (around the Mw6.2 hypocenter) the activation of seismicity is relatively weak and there is no detection in the first 3h after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. However, a few earthquakes (foreshocks) occur very close to the hypocenter of the Northern Nagano earthquake, at short times before the Mw6.2 event. In the southern area, around the hypocenter of the Mw5.4 quake, the seismicity starts immediately after the megathrust event and shows episodic activation that consists in small events occurring in tight spatio-temporal clusters. In several of these clusters we have identified events that occur within the incoming surface-wave train from the Tohoku-oki earthquake, so were likely triggered dynamically. The seismicity in the south is shallower and shows an overall swarm-type behavior, although no

  20. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  1. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  2. Efficacy of Finasteride for Treating Patients with Androgenetic Alopecia who are Pileous in other Areas: A Pilot Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inadomi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) involves androgen-dependent hair loss and finasteride is an established treatment for the disease. However, reports of the influence of finasteride on hair growth in other areas of the body are lacking. Aims: To investigate the effects of finasteride on hair, including the head and other areas of the body. Materials and Methods: Based on whether AGA patients felt they were pileous in areas other than the head, they were divided into Group A (pileous) or Group B (not pileous). Finasteride (1 mg/day) was prescribed for both groups for at least 6 months, after which patients were asked to estimate the medicine's effects and any changes of their hair growth. Results and Conclusions: A total of 18 out of 37 patients were placed in Group A and 19 of them were in Group B, suggesting that about half of AGA patients in Japan are pileous in other parts of the body. Oral finasteride was effective (excellent or good) in 22 out of 37 (59.5%) patients overall, in 16 out of 18 (88.9%) patients in Group A, and in 6 out of 19 (31.6%) patients in Group B. None of the patients reported that oral finasteride had any effect on their hair growth other than on their head. Finasteride is more effective for treating AGA patients who are pileous in other areas of the body. PMID:24700935

  3. Attempt of volcanomagnetic change detection by repeated aeromagnetic survey aeromagnetic survey on Aso and Kuju volcano, central Kyushu Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsugi, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Kagiyama, T.; Okubo, A.

    2006-12-01

    upward and downward continued aeromagnetic data, inharmonic component of the observed data, such as noise, is carried away and the harmonic field distribution can be estimated on the arbitrary point inside the survey area. The accuracy of the obtained geomagnetic field distribution is about 10nT, and if comparatively larger scale eruption is occurred, we can detect the volcano-magnetic changes using our estimated distribution of the geomagnetic field. On kuju volcano, we also carried out a dense aeromagnetic survey to detect the temporal volcano-magnetic change. On this volcano, small-scale eruption happened at the end of 1995.Just after this eruption(Jun. 1996), low-altitude aeromagnetic survey was carried out by JMA(Japan Meteorological agency). After this eruption, very large geomagnetic temporal change was observed. The amplitude of the total change during 1995 to 2004 becomes 500nT in the maximum. To detect this field change, we made very dense survey on one flight surface. We calculated upward continuation of observed data, and estimated field intensity on each observation points of last aeromagnetic survey in 1996. Comparing the field intensity of 1996 survey and estimated value of 2004, the change in a feature pattern was detected. A magnetic field decrease was detected by centering on the northeast of crater chain, which was created by 1995 eruption, on the north side and the pattern of an increase was detected in the south. Its amplitude is about 100 nT in maximum. This pattern and amplitude are corresponding to the result of obtaining from the observation on the ground well.

  4. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  5. Spatial distribution of precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms in the Izu-Honshu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Y.; Takeda, T.; Honda, R.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Tanzawa region, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin arc collides into the Honshu crust, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts intricately and the seismicity is particularly high. The configuration of the PHS plate in the region has been estimated based on the hypocenter distribution, seismic velocity tomography, and seismic profile (e.g. Ishida, 1992; Matsubara et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). However, the relationship between the structure of the PHP and the seismicity in the collision zone is still not clearly understood. To elucidate the seismotectonics, it is essential to get precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We used data from 107 permanent online stations operated by Hot Springs Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, NIED Hi-net and JMA, which are located within 80-km from the epicenters. We relocated hypocenters of 4351 events that occurred in and around the Tanzawa region with the double-difference relocation algorithm (DD method) (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000), using the differential arrival time obtained by both manual picking and waveform cross-correlation analysis. Then, we determined the focal mechanisms of 420 events using the absolute P- and SH-wave amplitudes by adding the P-wave polarities. We found that the earthquakes in the eastern Tanzawa region are distributed along the planar zone slightly dipping toward east. On the other hand, the earthquakes in the western region spread out in the volume of approximately 10 km × 10 km × 10 km. We examined similarity between the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and a reference of focal mechanism that is inferred from the configuration and relative motion of the PHP. We assumed the fault plane direction of the reference focal mechanism based on the fault model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The slip direction is assumed so as to be consistent with the relative motion of the PHP with respect to the Eurasian plate in the Kanto region (Seno, 1993). The

  6. Time Dependent Model of the Slow Slip Event in the Tokai Region, South Central Japan, Detected by GPS Measurements in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Y.; Kimata, F.

    2003-04-01

    The slow slip event is detected in the Tokai region, south central Japan, by national GPS network (GEONET) in 2001. Generally, as the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting toward to northwest in the Suruga-Nankai Trough, ground displacements in the direction of northwest with rates of 1-2cm/yr are detected in this area. The northwestward displacements are no longer observed at this region from the GPS measurements in 2001. Reports from the ground deformation monitoring by GSI suggest that the slow event is still advancing as of January 2003. Repeated slow slip events are estimated from the leveling and EDM ranging by Kimata et al. (2001). Mogi (1989) suggested the pre-slip of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake in the region from the leveling operated at the current day of the earthquake. Based on these past experience, we take an interest in relationship to slow slip event and plate boundary great earthquake. The 2001 Tokai slow slip models are estimated from the GPS measurements and leveling data [Ozawa et al. (2002) and Kimata et al. (2002)]. They suggest the slow slip southeastward with 10-20 cm is occurred in the area less than 100 sq km. The location of the slow slip fault is the inland of the plate boundary with low angle of subducting at a depth 20-30 km. Additionally; there are GPS stations immediately above slow slip fault, and high density. To make clear the slow slip with more detail, we are re-processing the GEONET GPS data using PPP method at GIPSY OASIS II, and discuss the time-dependent model of the slow slip event. In midterm of 2000, Tokai region came under the influence of ground deformations causes by the volcanic activity at the Miyakejima Volcano, and it makes difficult to discuss the deformation start point associated with the slow slip event from the GPS measurements. From our preliminary results, the vertical movements and shortening of base length between the neighboring GPS stations suggest that slow slip event is occurred in the western part of

  7. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  8. Ground-water reconnaissance of the central Weber River area, Morgan and Summit Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Steiger, Judy I.; Green, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground water in the central Weber River area obtained data to help State administrators devise a policy for acting on applications to appropriate ground water resulting from recent and future influxes of residents.

  9. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  10. A Model Planning of Design and Means for Recuperation of East Japan Disaster Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Misaki; Emori, Hisashi; Tsunaki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Naoaki; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Masanori

    We propose the following recuperation planning in Tarou area in Miyako city as a model area with the aid of educational industrial complex. Proposed means and vision are the following. First, setting up networked anti disaster facility within 500 m evacuation distance. Second, planning a model city of fence off which is more agreeable to the 21st century concept than traditional fence up concept, using natural energy and anti-disaster bridge instead of giant embankment. Third, proposing hill side residence instead of hill top residence. Fourth, putting up computergraphics of model planning for the residents. Lastly, we examined the possibility of the solar energy city based on the energy test calculation of photovoltaic power generation by solar heat in the inundation ground.

  11. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  12. Impact of long-range transport of aerosols on the PM2.5 composition at a major metropolitan area in the northern Kyushu area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Sato, Kei; Takami, Akinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hara, Keiichiro; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Okuda, Tomoaki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    In view of the recent rapid economic growth and accompanying energy consumption in the East Asian region, particularly in China, there is much concern about the effects of emitted particulate pollutants on human health. We have thus investigated the impact of long-range transport of aerosols on urban air quality in the upwind areas of Japan by comparing the PM2.5 composition collected for multiple years in Fukuoka, a representative metropolis in the Kyushu area, and in Fukue Island, located 190 km southwest of Fukuoka. Daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations in Fukuoka and Fukue were almost identical. PM2.5 concentrations at these sites were dominated by sulfate and particulate organics, and their fluctuation patterns were similar except for organics in the warm season. In contrast, those of nitrate and elemental carbon differed substantially between the sites. In addition, the ratios of Pb/Zn and Cd/Pb in Fukuoka were close to the reported values in Beijing. Non-sea-salt sulfate concentration in Fukuoka measured in this study and reported in the past measurements apparently coincided with the decadal SO2 emission change in China reported in a recent emission inventory. Therefore, we conclude that even in a city as large as Fukuoka, the PM2.5 concentration in the northern part of the Kyushu area is primarily dominated by the inflow of long-range transported aerosols throughout the year, except in the summer, rather than local air pollution emitted at each site.

  13. Crustal structure in and around the Onikobe geothermal area, northeastern Honshu, Japan, inferred from the spatial variation of coda decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasemi, Akiko; Miura, Hidetoshi; Ishizawa, Mari; Kosuga, Masahiro; Umino, Norihito; Hasegawa, Akira

    2015-07-01

    The Onikobe area is an active geothermal area situated in the Ou backbone range of northeastern Honshu, Japan. It is home to calderas from the Tertiary to Quaternary eras and active volcanoes. A systematic spatial variation of Qc has been found in this area: Qc values are lower at stations in and around calderas than at other stations. The amplitude of coda waves with high Qcs decreases more slowly after a lapse time of around 7-10 s than that with low Qcs. In the present study, to determine causes for these coda decay variations, coda envelopes were synthesized in a structure model in which high attenuation zones existed beneath the Onikobe and Sanzugawa calderas and where scattering coefficients were higher in the lower crust than in the upper crust. Using hypocenters shallower than 10 km, envelopes were calculated for 256 station-hypocenter pairs with epicentral distances of less than 10 km. It was assumed that the coda waves were composed of S-S scattered waves, and that the scattering was single and isotropic. The observed features of the Qc distribution were reproduced in the synthesis, and synthesized envelopes were found to mostly coincide with observed decay curves. The top of high attenuation zones was thus estimated as being deeper than 7.5 km. The structure assumed for the synthesis was consistent with that of previous studies. We consider that the structure model used was appropriate, and that high attenuation zones beneath calderas and the reflective lower crust caused the spatial variation of the Qc and decay curves in the Onikobe area. We also consider that studies using coda decay would be beneficial in detecting high attenuation zones and the reflective lower crust.

  14. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster. PMID:25530559

  15. Episodic sediment disturbance on the mega-splay fault at Tonankai earthquake area, Nankai trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.; Strasser, M.; Murayama, M.; Curewitz, D.; Fergusson, C.; Milliken, K.; Nicholson, U.; Screaton, L.; Iodp, E.

    2008-12-01

    The cores at hanging wall (C0004) and footwall (C0008) of mega splay fault are obtained in the Stage 1A of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment during IODP Expeditions 316 (Kimura et al., 2008). The mega splay fault develops in the area where the coseismic slip (Ichinose et al., 2003) and tsunami source (Baba and Cumming, 2005) are reconstructed for the 1944 Tonankai earthquake. The X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) makes 3D image depending on X-ray attenuation coefficient that is a function of chemical composition and density of the target material. Whereas optical observation my not resolve small differences, emphasizing by the CT-scanner enables to find small difference in sediment composition and structures. The CT image has been taken for all cores during preliminary core processing. Episodic event deposits are found at uppermost core of hanging wall (C0004). The core sample is composed of un-consolidated silt clay and looks homogeneous in optical observation. The X-CT can show complex structure indicating some horizontal layers, scattered mud clasts and mud-filling burrows. The X-CT 3D observation can distinguish a mud clasts and mud-filling burrow. Because tubular burrow is formed by mud- eating worm or mollusks, the cross section area is constant along long axis. On the other hand, the cross section area changes along long axis in distorted shape mud clast. The mud clasts are intercalated between horizontal layers, indicating episodic event. At least five events are observed. The boundary of some mud- clasts are dim, may have suffered diffusion, and this implies very short transportation or in-situ formation. Thus, repeated mud clast deposit was not found at footwall of the fault (C0008). Strong seismic ground motion can shake surface soft sediment, and sediment suspensions were often observed after large earthquakes (Thunell et al., 1999; Itou et al., 2000; Seeber et al., 2007). The difference of occurrence of sediment disturbance between C0004 and

  16. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  17. An integrated airborne gravity survey of an offshore area near the northern Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazawa, Masao; Okuma, Shigeo; Segawa, Jiro

    2010-02-01

    An airborne gravity survey using a helicopter was carried out in October 2008, offshore along the northern Noto Peninsula, to understand the shallow and regional underground structure. Eleven flight lines, including three tie lines, were arranged at 2km spacing within 20km of the coast. The total length of the flight lines was ~700km. The Bouguer anomalies computed from the airborne gravimetry are consistent with those computed from land and shipborne gravimetry, which gradually decrease in the offshore direction. So, the accuracy of the airborne system is considered to be adequate. A local gravity low in Wajima Bay, which was already known from seafloor gravimetry, was also observed. This suggests that the airborne system has a structural resolution of ~2km. Reduction of gravity data to a common datum was conducted by compiling the three kinds of gravity data, from airborne, shipborne, and land surveys. In the present study, we have used a solid angle numerical integration method and an iteration method. We finally calculated the gravity anomalies at 300m above sea level. We needed to add corrections of 2-5mGals in order to compile the airborne and shipborne gravity data smoothly, so the accuracy of the Bouguer anomaly map is considered to be nearly 2mGal on the whole, and 5mGals at worst in limited or local areas.

  18. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). PMID:27262360

  19. A central mesencephalic reticular formation projection to the supraoculomotor area in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin O; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    The central mesencephalic reticular formation is physiologically implicated in oculomotor function and anatomically interwoven with many parts of the oculomotor system's premotor circuitry. This study in Macaca fascicularis monkeys investigates the pattern of central mesencephalic reticular formation projections to the area in and around the extraocular motor nuclei, with special emphasis on the supraoculomotor area. It also examines the location of the cells responsible for this projection. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine were stereotaxically placed within the central mesencephalic reticular formation to anterogradely label axons and terminals. These revealed bilateral terminal fields in the supraoculomotor area. In addition, dense terminations were found in both the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nuclei. The dense terminations just dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus overlap with the location of the C-group medial rectus motoneurons projecting to multiply innervated muscle fibers suggesting they may be targeted. Minor terminal fields were observed bilaterally within the borders of the oculomotor and abducens nuclei. Injections including the supraoculomotor area and oculomotor nucleus retrogradely labeled a tight band of neurons crossing the central third of the central mesencephalic reticular formation at all rostrocaudal levels, indicating a subregion of the nucleus provides this projection. Thus, these experiments reveal that a subregion of the central mesencephalic reticular formation may directly project to motoneurons in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei, as well as to preganglionic neurons controlling the tone of intraocular muscles. This pattern of projections suggests an as yet undetermined role in regulating the near triad. PMID:25859632

  20. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America. PMID:710075

  1. Detection of monomethylarsenic compounds originating from pesticide in airborne particulate matter sampled in an agricultural area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    Alkylarsenic species in airborne particulate matter sampled in an agricultural area in Japan were investigated. The monomethyl form of arsenic, which has not been found so far in the air, was detected in a concentration as much as 1.4 ng m -3 in a sample collected on a sunny summer day. It had a different size distribution from that of di- and tri-methyl forms of arsenic. The mean particle diameter containing monomethylarsenic compound was 2-4 μm, while those of the di- and/or tri-methyl forms of arsenic were 0.2-0.5 μm. This monomethyl form is thought to originate from the alkylarsenic pesticide spread over rice fields, based on the relation between variation in its concentration and meteorological conditions. Alkylarsenic pesticide appears to be blown up by the wind when the land surface is dry. Further, the methylation of arsenic in nature was found to be influenced by humidity and temperature.

  2. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. PMID:26316544

  3. Active emergent thrust associated with a detachment fold: A case study of the eastern boundary fault of Takada plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Saito, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Abe, S.

    2012-04-01

    To estimate seismic hazards, understanding the relationship between active fault and seismic source fault is crucial. Along the Japan Sea coast of Northern Honshu, Japan, thick sediments, deposited in the Miocene rift-grabens, formed fold-and-thrust belt, due to the shortening deformation since the Pliocene time. Most of the thrusts are active and show clear geomorphological evidences. Some of the thrusts are secondary faults, produced by the folding of competent layers. To elucidate the relationship between an emergent thrust and deep-sited seismogenic source fault, we performed shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling across the eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain, central Japan. Based on the moropho-tectonic data, the vertical slip rate of the Eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain is 0.9 mm/y and has potential to produce M7.2 earthquake (AIST, 2006). For shallow structure, we obtained CMP-seismic reflection data from a 7-km-long seismic line, using 541 channels of off-line recorders. Seismic source was an Envirovibe (IVI). Receiver and shot intervals are 12.5 m and seismic signals were recorded by fixed channels. Shallow seismic data were acquired as a piggy-bag project of 70 km-long onshore-offshore deep seismic profiling. High-resolution seismic section portrays the emergent thrust, dipping to the east at about 30 degrees. The hanging wall consist Pliocene interbedded mudstone and sandstone and deeper extension of the thrust can be traced down to the Miocene mudstone of the Teradoamri Formation as a low-angle fault. In the Niigata basin, the lower part of the Teradomari Formation is known as over pressured mudstone and shallow detachments are commonly developed in this unit. Based on the deep seismic section, including velocity profile obtained by refraction tomography, deep sited fault does not connect to the shallow active fault directly.

  4. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Dugway Valley-Government Creek area, West-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Jerry C.; Sumsion, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The Dugway Valley-Government Creek area covers about 890 square miles (2,300 square kilometers) in west-central Utah. Total annual precipitation on the area averages about 380,000 acre-feet (470 cubic hectometers). Most streams are ephemeral except for a few in their upper reaches--all are ephemeral below the altitude of about 6,000 feet (1,830 meters). Surface-water development and use in the area are insignificant.

  5. Sediment records of historical and pre-historical tsunamis in the last 4000 years in the Tonankai area, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, S.; Kimura, H.; Shishikura, M.; Komatsubara, J.; Namegaya, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal tsunami history of thousands of years that complement and extend existing past tsunami records along the Nankai Trough, Pacific coast of western Japan. It is certainly noted that tsunamis inundated the study site in the Tonankai area in AD 1096, 1498, 1605, 1707, 1854 and 1944. The study site in the Shima Peninsula is a coastal lowland formed by filling of a drowned valley behind a barrier spit. Wetland lower than 1 m above sealevel distributes more than 700 m inland at the site. Hand coring and drilling survey exposed at least 9 sand layers in the 3-4 m thick marsh deposit of organic-rich silt. All of the sand layers contain bioclasts of marine and brackish water organisms such as gastropod, bivalve, calcareous algae and foraminifera. In most cases, these sand layers are few centimeters thick and have sharp basal contacts. Soft x-ray imaging shows that some of the sand layers includes rip-up clasts and are composed of two or more sub-layers of paired sand and silt. It is considered from the sedimentary features and geomorphological setting that these sand layers were deposited by past tsunamis which provably occurred off the study area. There is no record of sand layer deposition and significant seawater inundation at the study site even at the time of one of the biggest typhoon in recorded history. The AD 1944 Showa-Tonankai earthquake tsunami exceeded the height of the barrier spit, but those of the AD 1946 Showa-Nankai earthquake tsunami occurred in the Nankai area and the AD 1960 Chilean tsunami were lower than the barrier spit. Radiocarbon ages of seeds and leaves indicate that the shell-rich sand layers deposited in the last 4000 years, and that younger three sand layers were deposited by the historical tsunamis in AD 684, 1096 and 1498 respectively. This result supports archaeological studies, which suggest that the rupture of the AD 684 earthquake extended to the Tonankai area. We do not see traces of the AD 887 and 1361

  6. The impact of the Tsukiyoshi fault on the hydrogeological conditions in the Tono Area,Japan: A numerical modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiweni, C.; Karasaki, K.; Doughty, C.; Botha, J. F.; Saegusa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Faults are commonly believed to act as either barriers to horizontal ground-water flow normal to the fault, conduits to horizontal flow parallel to the fault, or a combination of both. In addition, enhanced vertical permeability has also been observed as a common feature. We use numerical modeling to investigate the effects of vertical anisotropy of a dipping fault zone on the distribution of hydraulic head within and around the fault. The Tsukiyoshi Fault in the Tono region of Japan extends through the center of the assessment area and has an E-W strike. According to the results of borehole investigations, the fault has N80W strike, 70 degree dip, 10-30 m width and approximately 30 m vertical off-set. Model results show that for anisotropy ratios (A = kz/kx) of greater than 100, hydrostatic conditions are achieved within the fault zone, despite the existence of significant vertical flow rates. A hydraulic head difference of about 40 m across the fault is observed and confirmed by our model, suggesting that the fault acts as barrier to flow normal to it. We consider the pressure response to two shafts pumping in the upper parts of the fractured granitic formation near the fault. The response to pumping is monitored at two boreholes (DH-15 and DH-2) on the same side of the fault as the pumping shafts. The responses at the two boreholes are vertically invariant and highlight the effects of enhanced vertical permeability around the fault. This suggests that the fault controls the hydrology in this area. Particle tracking is used to investigate and demonstrate the effects of the fault on pathlines.

  7. A STUDY ON EMERGENCYWATER DELIVERY IN WIDE-AREA EARTHQUAKE DISASTER - A CASE STUDY OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yoji; Kuwata, Yasuko

    The Great East Japan earthquake disaster caused water outage to 2. 25 million customers in all the eastern part of Japan. It was so-called "wide-area earthquake disaster". Japanwater supply authorities have improved disaster assistant system after the lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. This study focuses on the emergency response capacity on water delivery in such a wide-area earthquake disaster reviewing the activity in assisting and assisted municipalities during the latest earthquake. The total of 355 water trucks dispatched is thought to be the maximum from the availablemunicipalities. It is turned out that the objective amount of 3 litters per person by the water delivery cannot be reached in the wide-area earthquake disaster.

  8. Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central sphere. Farming regions are in the 'tires.' Mirrors reflect sunlight into the habitat and farms. The large flat panels radiate away extra heat into space, and panels of solar cells provide electricity. Factories and docks for spaceships are at either end of the long central tube. (NOTE: art printed in Book 'Space Colony - Frontier of the 21st Century by Franklyn M. Branley)

  9. Collision and subduction structure of the Izu-Bonin arc, central Japan: Recent studies from refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Since the middle Miocene, the Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding from south with the Honshu arc in central Japan associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. This process is responsible for forming a complex crustal structure called the Izu collision zone. Geological studies indicate the several geological blocks derived from the Izu-Bonin arc, such as the Misaka Mountains (MM), the Tanzawa Mountains (TM) and the Izu Peninsula (IP), were accreted onto the Honshu crust in the course of the collision, forming several tectonic boundaries in and around this collision zone (e.g. Amano, 1991). Recent seismic experiments succeeded in revealing the deep crustal structure in the eastern part of the Izu collision zone by reflection analysis (Sato et al., 2005) and refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis (Arai et al., 2009). Although these studies delineate the collision boundary between the Honshu crust and TM, and the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, the southern part of the profile including the Kozu-Matsuda Fault (KMF, the tectonic boundary between TM and IP) is not well constrained due to the poor ray coverage. Moreover, clear images of tectonic boundaries are not obtained for the central or western part of the collision zone. In order to construct the structure model dominated by collision and subduction for the whole part of the collision zone, we carried out the following two analyses: (1) refraction tomography of active source data including another profile line in the western part of the collision zone (Sato et al., 2006), and (2) seismic tomography combining active and passive source data. In the analysis (1), we applied first arrival seismic tomography (Zelt and Barton, 1998) to the refraction data .We inverted over 39,000 travel times to construct a P wave velocity model for the 75-km-long transect, and a fine-scale structure with strong lateral heterogeneity was recovered. We conducted checkerboard resolution test to evaluate a

  10. Thermobaric structure and metamorphic evolution of the Iratsu eclogite body in the Sanbagawa belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Tsutomu; Terabayashi, Masaru; Katayama, Ikuo

    2004-03-01

    The Iratsu body is the largest eclogitic body in the Sanbagawa belt, central Shikoku, composed of schists with pumpellyite-actinolite, through blueschist/greenschist transition and epidote-amphibolite, up to eclogite-facies grades. The Iratsu body and the underlying Higashi-Akaishi peridotite body are situated in the intermediate structural level of the Sanbagawa belt which occurs as a subhorizontal thin slab. In the Iratsu body, eclogites and eclogitic metagabbros (garnet-clinopyroxenites) contain garnet+omphacite+epidote+quartz+rutile±phengite±glaucophane±paragonite±barroisite±kyanite, and garnet+sodic augite+rutile±epidote±zoisite±quartz, respectively, as mineral assemblages at the peak P- T conditions. Textural relations between these minerals and secondary minerals indicate that the eclogites were retrograded by hydration under eclogite through epidote-amphibolite to greenschist-facies conditions. Geothermobarometry for the peak metamorphism of the eclogites yielded conditions of 1.4-2.5 GPa and 500-800 °C in the Iratsu body; the estimated P- T conditions gradually change across the body. Eclogites with higher P- T estimates are predominant in the southern part of the body, and the eclogites near a contact with the Higashi-Akaishi body show the highest P- T conditions. Integration of these results with previously published P- T estimates for various rock types suggests a sandwiched thermobaric structure. The highest P- T area is situated in an intermediate structural level, i.e., in the upper part of the Higashi-Akaishi body near the boundary with the Iratsu body, and the metamorphic conditions systematically decrease towards the upper and lower levels not only within the Iratsu body but also in the surrounding lower grade schists. Our thermobaric structure implies that the Iratsu and Higashi-Akaishi composite mass is not a tectonic block but is the integral part of the Sanbagawa belt, which has been formed together with the surrounding schists under

  11. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  12. Variations of absolute gravity accompanying earthquake-induced changes in subsurface pore water pressure at the Mizunami Underground Research Institute construction site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Salden, W.; Martin, A. J.; Saegusa, H.; Asai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Aoki, H.

    2006-03-01

    The Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science has been measuring gravity using an FG5 absolute gravimeter located at the Mizunami Geoscience Academy (MGA) in central Japan since January 2004. Measured gravity decreased immediately following the 2004 earthquake off the Kii peninsula (MJMA 7.4) by about 6 μGal. Here, we investigate the empirical relationship between pore water pressure change in a borehole near the MGA and gravity change measured at the MGA. We reveal that (1) gravity change correlates inversely with pore water pressure change at 81 m below the surface at a particular borehole and (2) several different sets of conversion coefficients from pressure head to gravity can be used to explain 60-70% of gravity variations with less than 2 μGal uncertainty. These newly identified relationships may suggest that an absolute gravimeter alone could be used to observe the change of groundwater quantity.

  13. Examination of an active submarine fault off the southeast Izu Peninsula, central Japan, using field evidence for coseismic uplift and a characteristic earthquake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihisa; Mitsui, Yuta; Kawate, Shigeto; Kim, Haeng Yoong

    2015-12-01

    Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating of emergent marine sessile assemblages show that coseismic uplift occurred at 1256-950 BC, AD 1000-1270, AD 1430-1660, and AD 1506-1815 in the southern Izu Peninsula, central Japan. Employing a characteristic earthquake model, this study reconstructed the source fault for the uplift events from the spatial distribution of coseismic vertical displacements and historical documents. The source is inferred to be a reversal fault located about 3 km off the southern Izu Peninsula that is 25 km long and 13 km wide (strike = 250°, dip = 52° to the north) and slip of 2.7 m and has generated a Mw 7 class earthquake.

  14. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  15. May 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 7-9, 2010, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  16. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  17. Altitude-dependent distribution of ambient gamma dose rates in a mountainous area of Japan caused by the fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hososhima, Mutsuo; Kaneyasu, Naoki

    2015-03-17

    Large amounts of airborne radionuclides were deposited over a wide area in eastern Japan, including mountainous regions, during the devastating Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Altitudinal distributions of ambient gamma dose rate in air were measured in a mountainous area at the northern rim of the Kanto Plain, Japan, using a portable instrument carried along the mountain trails. In the Nikko Mountain area, located 120 km north of Tokyo, the altitudinal distribution exhibited a maxima at ∼900-2000 m above sea level (ASL). This area was not affected by precipitation until 2300 Japan Standard Time (JST) on March 15, 2011. By that time, a substantial amount of radionuclides had been transported from the damaged reactor, according to the numerical simulations using transport models. Meteorological sounding data indicated that the corresponding altitudes were within the cloud layer. A visual-range monitor deployed in an unmanned weather station at 1292 m ASL also recorded low visibility on the afternoon of March 15. From these findings, it was deduced that the altitude-dependent radioactive contamination was caused by the cloud/fog deposition process of the radionuclides contained in aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei. PMID:25705987

  18. Last 900 ka river longprofile changes controlled by Yoro fault activity and glacial sea-level changes, Nobi plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, T.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper compared grain size, thickness, and lithological character of ten fluvial gravel layers formed during the glacial sea-level lowstands intervening inner bay mud layers deposited during the interglacial marine transgressional periods since the last 900 ka by integrated analyses of sediment cores including 600 m deep onein the Nobi plain, central Japan. Linkages between river long profile changes and sea-level and climate changes will be discussed. The Nobi basin is one of the representative delta type alluvial lowlands in Japan dominated by longitudinal drainage system named Kiso river system flowing southward from central Japan Alps with abundant water and sediment discharges. The basin bounded by the Yoro fault on the west has been tilted westward by the repetitive faulting activity. The basin stratigraphy and its stacking patterns suggest uniform and rapid subsidence and tilting rates of the basin with the maximum value of 1 mm yr-1 and 10-4 kyr-1 respectively produced by the Yoro fault activity under the W-E compressional regional stress field during the middle and late Quaternary periods. Tephrochronological, paleomagnetic, geochemical, and diatom analyses enabled to identify ten times repeated marine transgression-regression sequences correlated with full glacial-interglacial sea-level changes during the last 900 ka. All of the ten sequence boundaries were characterized by fluvial gravel layers were formed by the Kiso river system. The mean maximum gravel size is proportional to the magnitude of sea level lowering inferred from MIS curve, i.e. gravels deposited in MIS 12 and 16 are the largest, and those in MIS 14 and 8 are the smallest since MIS 16. This suggests that the longitudinal profile of the Kiso river system has been adjusting to the sea level changes and that the steeper longitudinal profile formed in the lower sea level periods can transport larger gravels to the drilling sites. In fact the present river bed gravel size is in proportion

  19. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data

  20. The Philippine Sea slab is in contact with the crust at the source region of M 8.0 Nobi earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Kato, A.; Iwasaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the cause of inland earthquakes, as such earthquakes have long recurrence cycles (from several hundred to several thousand years) that hamper our understanding of the processes that give rise to such events. However, these earthquakes can cause major disasters, primarily as their sources are closes to population centers. As such, understanding the mechanisms that cause inland earthquakes is an important step in the mitigation of disasters, and it requires knowledge of the mechanisms of strain accumulation and stress concentration along the source faults of such events. The Nobi earthquake which occurred in 1891 was one of the largest inland earthquakes in Japan. The magnitude of the 1891 Nobi earthquake was 8. The magnitude is much larger than those of other inland earthquakes in Japan. To know cause of the Nobi earthquake and crustal structure of the area, the temporary seismic observation was conducted. We researched receiver function analysis to obtain seismic image around the 1891 Nobi earthquake area. The earthquakes which occurred from August, 2002 to March 10, 2011 are used. The seismic stations of Hi-net and temporary seismic network were used for the receiver function analysis. A clear image of the seismic structure was obtained in this area. The configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is distorted at the western part of the Japan. The Philippine Pea plate is horizontally layered from Ise Bay to Wakasa Bay. In this area, a seismic experiment with artificial sources was done in November, 2012. We compared the results of the receiver function analysis and that of refraction analysis. The Philippine Sea slab is distorted up-ward at the area of the 1891 Nobi earthquake. The up-ward distorted Philippine Sea slab is in contact with the crust. The shallowest point of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is shallower than Moho boundaries at the both sides. The fault plane of the 1891 Nobi earthquake is located in parallel to the iso

  1. Acid deposition and air quality related values in north central Colorado wilderness areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to atmospheric acid, sulfur, and nitrate deposition has been studied only in a very limited way in Colorado wilderness areas. However, the observed deposition rates in north central Colorado remain low relative to affected areas in the eastern United States and well within a range where no adverse ecological effects are expected. This report presents a survey of scientific information describing acid deposition and air quality related values, which may have implications for utility plant operations.

  2. Language and Area Studies: East Central and Southeastern Europe. A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Charles, Ed.

    East Central and Southeastern Europe, considered as "Eastern Eruope," are the subject of a three-year survey of language and area studies undertaken by several committees of specialists of the American Council of Learned Societies. Four basic goals of the project include: (1) a survey of graduate training and research needs, (2) an evaluation of…

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of the Grand Rapids area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.

    1970-01-01

    This report is one of a series of studies of geology and ground-water availability conducted in and near selected communities on the Mesabi Iron Range, north-central and northeastern Minnesota. This report describes the geology and ground-water conditions in the 303 square-mile Grand Rapids area.

  4. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.85 - What is a central business area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is a central business area? 102-83.85 Section 102-83.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF...

  6. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Inadomi, John M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Makino, Kanako; Iwao, Yasushi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. Methods Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46) and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40). Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41) and the presence of Barrett’s esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56). Conclusion Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. PMID:26225858

  7. Morphology, taxonomic status and distribution of the opisthobranch mollusc Coryphella (s.l.) japonica from the central deep water basin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Alexander V.

    2013-02-01

    The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.

  8. A precursorlike change in coda excitation before the Western Nagano Earthquake (Ms = 6.8) of 1984 in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1987-02-01

    Temporal variations of coda duration were studied in relation to a crustal earthquake (September 14, 1984) which took place near the NW corner of the Kanto-Tokai microearthquake observation network of the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention in Japan. Vertical seismograms recorded at station GER close to the main shock epicenter (Δ = 24 km) between February 1982 and December 1984 were analyzed. A precursorlike change was found in the relation between coda duration and average magnitude for 185 earthquakes which occurred in a small volume in the middle of the aftershock region. The average magnitude is the arithmetic mean of station magnitudes which are calculated from the maximum amplitudes of direct waves. Coda durations for earthquakes of the same average magnitude were significantly longer during the 16-month period preceding the main shock than those before and after this period with a confidence level of 99.9%. The increase in coda durations was about 3 s on average in this period. The coda duration anomaly was significant for lapse time shorter than 30 s, which corresponds to a travel radius less than ˜50 km. Although no clear temporal change was found in the residuals of station magnitude measured at GER from average magnitude, an attenuation change in the preevent period can not be ruled out due to the large scatter of data. Crack formation, however, is the most plausible mechanism for an increase in scattering intensity around the focal region in the stress accumulation stage and is consistent with other precursory observations. Clusters of cracks in the heterogeneous earth medium might be big enough to scatter high-frequency seismic waves, even though each individual crack may be very small.

  9. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  10. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. Methods In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. Results In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. Conclusions A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. PMID:26811375

  11. Areas of gain and loss along the Platte River, central Nebraska, spring 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to protect endangered and other wildlife species, the governors of Nebraska, Colorado, and Wyoming, and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed an agreement in 1997 (Platte River Endangered Species Partnership, 1997) to initiate the development of a basin-wide habitat recovery program for the central reaches of the Platte River in Nebraska.  This agreement recognizes the need to maintatin minimal flows in the central reaches of the Platte River.  An understanding of the surgace-water and ground-water intetaction along the central reaches of the Platte River is critical to deliver water to the targeted habitat areas.  Therefore, a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was conducted to determine qualitatively the areas of gain and loss along the central Platte River between Gothenburg and Silver Creek, Nebraska (fig. 1).  The purpose of this report is to present the results of the study.

  12. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  13. Structural Image of Arc-Arc Collision in Central Hokkaido, Japan, Revealed from Integrated Analysis for Controlled Source Seismic Data of the 1998-2000 Hokkaido Transect Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Tanio; Kurashimo, Eiji; Tsumura, Noriko; Abe, Susumu; Noda, Katsuya; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    The Hidaka region in the central part of Hokkaido Island, Japan is known as an arc-arc collision zone where the Kuril Arc (southern part of eastern Hokkaido) has been collided against the NE Japan Arc (western Hokkaido) since the middle Miocene. This collision is a controlling factor for the formation of the Hidaka Mountains, the westward obduction of the middle/upper part of lower crustal rocks of the Kuril Arc (the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt) and the development of the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. The Hokkaido Transect Project from 1998 to 2000 was a multidisciplinary effort intended to clarify the structural deformation process associated with the arc-arc collision. The element of the active source experiment in this project was composed of a 227-km seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile running southern part of Hokkaido and three seismic reflection lines from the hinterland to the foreland crossing the Hidaka Mountains. The previous study for these data sets, mainly based on the forward modelling by the ray-tracing technique, revealed the collision structure in the upper and middle crustal levels beneath the Hidaka Mountains, and a thick sedimentary package developed beneath the fold-and-thrust belt (Iwasaki et al., 2004). The data sets collected through this project are of high quality, which enables us to apply more advanced interpretation techniques. Because refraction/wide-angle reflection method and near-vertical reflection profiling are complimentary to each other, simultaneous evaluation for these two kinds of data set is expected to yield significant improvement for structural modelling and its geophysical/geological interpretation. In the present analysis, seismic tomography analysis was applied to a combined set of a large amount of near vertical reflection data and the refraction data. This analysis was mainly undertaken to confirm the validity of the upper 20-km crustal structure deduced from the previous result (Iwasaki et al. 2004) and

  14. Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  15. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  16. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  17. 77 FR 59223 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 216/222 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior..., 2012, the post-sale evaluation period for Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease...

  18. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  19. The U.S.-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program: some highlights of seminars, interdisciplinary program area, 1981-1996.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1996-03-01

    Thirty-one seminars have been held in the 16 years since 1981. A principal interest from the beginning was the genetics of cancer, well before this subject became widely popular. This interest arose in part because of marked binational differences in type-specific cancer rates, such as the very low rates among Japanese for Hodgkin's disease in the young, testicular cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, superficial spreading melanoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Wilms' tumor (half the U.S. frequency). Three seminars were devoted to the seeming reciprocal relationship between B-cell lymphoma (low in Japan) and certain autoimmune diseases (high in Japan), which is perhaps similar in origin to the male/female differences in the rates for these diseases. A seminar on Li-Fraumeni syndrome led to the recognition of cases among Japanese pedigrees brought to the meeting, and generated a study of its occurrence in Japanese families with adrenocortical carcinoma in a child. Another seminar revealed a marked clustering of rare cancers in Werner's (premature aging) syndrome in Japan, and led to a binational study and analysis of case-reports worldwide. Three seminars on pathology heightened appreciation of the importance of subclassifying cancer by subsite and subtype for racial and other comparisons. Four seminars on biostatistics in cancer research generated a substantial exchange of specialists and trainees in this field. PMID:8613422

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  1. Hydrological response to earthquakes in the Haibara well, central Japan - I. Groundwater level changes revealed using state space decomposition of atmospheric pressure, rainfall and tidal responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, G.; Roeloffs, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the groundwater level observed at the Haibara well, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, time series analysis using state-space modelling is applied to extract hydrological anomalies related to earthquakes. This method can decompose observed groundwater level time series into five components: atmospheric pressure, tidal, and precipitation responses, observation noise, and residual water level. The decomposed responses to atmospheric pressure and precipitation are independently determined and are consistent with the expected response to surface loading. In the groundwater level at the Haibara well, 28 coseismic changes can be discerned during the period from 1981 April to 1997 December. There is a threshold in the relationship between earthquake magnitude and the well-hypocentre distance, above which earthquakes cause coseismic changes in the residual water level. All of the coseismic water level changes at the Haibara well are decreases, although 33 per cent of the estimated coseismic volumetric strain steps are contraction, which would be expected to cause water level increases. The coseismic changes in groundwater level are more closely proportional to the estimated ground motion than to coseismic volumetric strain steps, suggesting that ground motion due to earthquakes is the major cause of the coseismic water level drops and that the contribution from static strain is rather small. Possible pre- or inter-earthquake water level changes have occurred at the Haibara well and may have been caused by local aseismic crustal deformation.

  2. Frictional properties of saponite-rich gouge from a serpentinite-bearing fault zone along the Gokasho-Arashima Tectonic Line, central Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sone, Hiroki; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Moore, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied a serpentinite-bearing fault zone in Gokasho-Arashima Tectonic Line, Mie Prefecture, central Japan, characterizing its internal structures, mineral assemblage, permeability, and frictional properties. The fault core situated between the serpentinite breccia and the adjacent sedimentary rocks is characterized by a zone locally altered to saponite. The clayey gouge layer separates fault rocks of serpentinite origin containing talc and tremolite from fault rocks of sedimentary origin containing chlorite but no quartz. The minerals that formed within the fault are the products of metasomatic reaction between the serpentinite and the siliceous rocks. Permeability measurements show that serpentinite breccia and fault gouge have permeability of 10−14–10−17 m2 and 10−15–10−18 m2, respectively, at 5–120 MPa confining pressure. Frictional coefficient of the saponite-rich clayey fault gouge ranged between 0.20 and 0.35 under room-dry condition, but was reduced to 0.06–0.12 when saturated with water. The velocity dependence of friction was strongly positive, mostly ranging between 0.005 and 0.006 in terms of a–b values. The governing friction law is not constrained yet, but we find that the saponite-rich gouge possesses an evolutional behavior in the opposite direction to that suggested by the rate and state friction law, in addition to its direct velocity dependence.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergence, historical biogeography and conservation of an endangered gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the Central Ryukyus, Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics. PMID:24832904

  4. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  5. Source mechanism of a very-long-period event at Mt Ontake, central Japan: Response of a hydrothermal system to magma intrusion beneath the summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Masaru; Okubo, Makoto; Kimata, Fumiaki; Ito, Yoshihiro; Obara, Kazushige

    2009-11-01

    A very-long-period (VLP) volcanic event, which occurred on 25 January 2007 beneath Mt Ontake, central Japan, was recorded by nearby broadband seismometers as well as the Japanese nationwide Hi-net and F-net seismic networks. The VLP waveforms show a pulse-like shape with a duration of approximately 1 min. The VLP event was accompanied by a burst sequence of long-period (LP) events. We carried out waveform inversion to determine the source mechanism and location of the VLP event. Our analysis indicates volumetric changes in an inclined crack (seismic moment of 10 14 Nm) at the VLP source, which is located at 0.6 km above sea level beneath the summit of Mt Ontake and above dikes determined from GPS data. The source-time functions of the VLP event showed a pulse-like triangular shape, indicating inflation followed by deflation of the crack at the source. We interpreted the result of the waveform inversion as follows. Gases released from the intruded magma heated an aquifer system beneath the summit of Mt Ontake. A break of unstable superheated water in a hydrothermal crack in the system caused vaporization of water and associated crack inflation, which was followed by discharge of steam from the crack resulting in its collapse. These processes caused the VLP event, which may have been a precursor of a small phreatic eruption that occurred in late March 2007.

  6. 76 FR 7228 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Leasing Program: 2012-2017 (See FR Vol. 75, No. 63, Page 16828, April 2, 2010). BOEMRE is combining... Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau...- 2017 oil and gas leasing proposals in the Western and Central Planning Areas of the GOM, off the...

  7. 77 FR 75399 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ...NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary because the 2012 total allowable catch of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA has been...

  8. 78 FR 27863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA has been...

  9. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.211 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area. If an eligible academic entity makes the hazardous waste... central accumulation area. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the eligible academic...

  10. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.211 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area. If an eligible academic entity makes the hazardous waste... central accumulation area. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the eligible academic...

  11. Active Fault Topography and Fault Outcrops in the Central Part of the Nukumi fault, the 1891 Nobi Earthquake Fault System, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Ueta, K.; Inoue, D.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, N.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults are often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for known these paleoseismic records. We have been studied the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. Geomorphological, geological and reconnaissance microearthquake surveys are concluded. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. The study area of this work is the southeastern Nukumi fault and the northwestern Neodani fault. We interpret DEM using shaded relief map and stereoscopic bird's-eye view made from 2m mesh DEM data which is obtained by airborne laser scanner of Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Aerial photographic survey is for confirmation of DEM interpretation using 1/16,000 scale photo. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault . From Ogotani 2km southeastern of Nukumi pass which is located at the southeastern end of surface rupture along the Nukumi fault by previous study to Neooppa 9km southeastern of Nukumi pass, we can interpret left lateral topographies and small uphill-facing fault scarps on the terrace surface by detail DEM investigation. These topographies are unrecognized by aerial photographic survey because of heavy vegetation. We have found several new

  12. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  13. The deformation micro-structures and the relationships of crystal orientation between olivine and antigorite in serpentinized peridotite from Toba area, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Y.; Morishita, T.; Wenk, H.-R.

    2012-04-01

    Foliated serpentinite with lattice preferred orientation (LPO) has strong elastic anisotropy, and is considered as a cause for seismic anisotropy observed in subduction zones (Katayama et al., 2009; Jung, 2011). However, deformation mechanisms of antigorite LPO are unclear. We measured crystal orientation of antigorite and olivine, to clarify the chronological relations between shear deformation and formation of antigorite LPO. The crystal orientations are measured by the U-stage optically. In addition, we try to measure the antigorite orientations by EBSD. The studied samples are from lenticular serpentinite bodies intruded in a Jurassic accretionary complex, Toba area, southwest Japan. Shear zones (

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  15. Phleboviruses associated with sand flies in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dachraoui, K; Fares, W; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Beier, J C; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Lamballerie, X de; Chelbi, I; Charrel, R N; Zhioua, E

    2016-06-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in 2014 at two sites located in Central Tunisia, one irrigated and another non-irrigated situated in arid bio-geographical areas. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius namely Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are the most abundant sand fly species in the irrigated site. However, in the non-irrigated site, Phlebotomus papatasi of the Phlebotomus genus is the most abundant species. A total of 3191 sand flies were collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection date, were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the polymerase gene and sequenced. Of a total of 117 pools, 4 were positive, yielding a minimum infection rate of sand flies with phleboviruses of 0.12%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that these phleboviruses belonged to four different clusters corresponding to Toscana virus (TOSV), Saddaguia virus (SADV), Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV) and Utique virus (UTIV). This study provides more evidence that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia which may have led to the emergence of phleboviruses. We report the first detection of TOSV from sand flies collected from Central Tunisia. PMID:26875761

  16. Ground-water resources of the St. James area, South-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ropes, L.H.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the quality and quantity of the ground-water resources in the area of St. James, Minnesota. St. James is located in the center of Watonwan County in south-central Minnesota. The area is covered by a thick layer of glacial drift which is underlain by Cretaceous, Cambrian, and Precambrian rocks. St. James presently obtains its water supply from two aquifers. One is a Cretaceous sandstone 160 feet below the surface, in which two wells are completed. This aquifer yields abundant water but it is of poor quality and is expensive to treat. The second source, tapped by three municipal wells, is a surficial sand and gravel deposit less than 40 feet thick at the well field. This aquifer produces water of better quality, but its extent and capacity are not known. There are other wells in the area completed at depths ranging from 15 to 500 feet.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Hydrogen Production Zone and Organic Carbon; Case Study from Jurassic Ocean Plateau, the Mikabu Greenstone Belt, Central Shikoku, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Terabayashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity in the Archean-Ridge system has been considered to play a major role to maintain the oldest biosphere in early Earth. In the present ridge-system, hydrogen production in the serpentinized peridotite layer, is considered as major energy source. However, low temperature hydrothermal zone in the lower crust layer in the ridge has been recognized as hydrogen producing zone. Then what is the hydrogen source in the oceanic lower crust? Accreted oceanic plateau is one of the best sample to describe hydration process due to deep-sea-hydrothermal alteration because it is easy to observe huge outcrops and collect samples systematically in whole section. We have collected rock samples from Mikabu high P/T rocks in Toba area and from Ootoyo area, Japan because there are large scale trench cliffs in the mine. Here, we report mineral composition surrounding organic carbon that was found in metabasaltic rocks from Otoyo area. The metabasalt underlies metachert, and exhibit extensive plagioclase veins. Carbonaceous material and FeS are concentrated near the veins. Serpentinization of olivine gabbro was recognized there. In the Toba area, wehrlite and hornblende gabbro are dominant as the oceanic lower crustal material, subsequently suffered high P/T metamorphism. Abundant serpentine with magnetite are along olivine grain boundaries. Cr-spinel and epidote are occasionally recognized. That is, hydrogen was produced due to hydration reaction in the intruded wherlite from the lower crust of the large plateau. In summary, the lower crust might be significant zone producing hydrogen, and provide bacteria cluster above.

  18. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  19. Report on expedited site characterization of the Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhr, L.; Wonder, J.D.; Bevolo, A.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents data collection, results, and interpretation of the expedited site characterization (ESC) pilot project conducted from September 1996 to June 1997 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nye County, Nevada. Characterization activities were limited to surface sites associated with deep well drilling and ancillary operations at or near three emplacement well areas. Environmental issues related to the underground nuclear detonation (Project Faultless) and hydrologic monitoring wells were not addressed as a part of this project. The CNTA was divided into four functional areas for the purpose of this investigation and report. These areas include the vicinity of three emplacement wells (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) and one mud waste drilling mud collection location (Central Mud Pit; CMP). Each of these areas contain multiple, potentially contaminated features, identified either from historic information, on-site inspections, or existing data. These individual features are referred to hereafter as ``sites.`` The project scope of work involved site reconnaissance, establishment of local grid systems, site mapping and surveying, geophysical measurements, and collection and chemical analysis of soil and drilling mud samples. Section 2.0 through Section 4.0 of this report provide essential background information about the site, project, and details of how the ESC method was applied at CNTA. Detailed discussion of the scope of work is provided in Section 5.0, including procedures used and locations and quantities of measurements obtained. Results and interpretations for each of the four functional areas are discussed separately in Sections 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. These sections provide a chronological presentation of data collected and results obtained, followed by interpretation on a site-by-site basis. Key data is presented in the individual sections. The comprehensive set of data is contained in appendices.

  20. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  1. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  2. Central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine microinjected into ventrolateral medullary autonomic areas of the rat.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2016-09-01

    Elevated L-homocysteine concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are related to cardiovascular and neuronal diseases, and could contribute to disease development. However, the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine in two important autonomic regulating areas remain unknown: the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), including pre-sympathetic neurons, and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including interneurons projecting to pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of L-homocysteine microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM areas on changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats, as well as the influence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors on the central actions of L-homocysteine. L-Homocysteine solutions were microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM, which were defined according to pressor and depressor responses to L-glutamate microinjections, respectively. ABP and HR increased in the RVLM and decreased in the CVLM after microinjection with L-homocysteine, similar to L-glutamate, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting mediation of EAA receptors. Prior microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) iEAA receptor antagonist MK801, but not the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX, abolished the observed responses to L-homocysteine in both the RVLM and CVLM. These results indicate the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine via MK801-sensitive receptors of the medullary autonomic neurons in the rat RVLM and CVLM. It remains unknown if the central cardiovascular actions are related to cardiovascular diseases after endogenously and locally augmented L-homocysteine production by disordered metabolism. Further studies on functional significance of L-homocysteine may provide some clue to understand its toxic mechanism. PMID:27178024

  3. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  4. Improvement Limitation of Satellite Visibility by Space Diversity Consisted of Two Geostationary Satellites in Urban Areas of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Toshihiko; Juzoji, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Isao

    The paramedic in the moving ambulance sends via the communications satellite the moving picture data to the doctor in the hospital However, when an ambulance runs inside a city, a radio wave to the communication satellite is blocked and as a result the moving picture data sometimes freeze. Maximum value of the satellite visibility by the space diversity which uses two geostationary satellites is acquired in each city of Japan. From these simulation results, it was found that there was a limit in the improvement of the satellite visibility by the space. The limit of this improvement depends on the city. .Moreover the angle of elevation of the quasi zenith satellite which the satellite visibility exceeds the limit value of two geostationary satellites was acquired ,and these angles of elevation were compared between each city of Japan. It became clear that more than 69 degrees of an elevation angle of the quasi zenith satellite is necessary to exceed a maximum satellite visibility of two geostationary satellites.

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  7. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  8. Interseismic GPS strain data inversion to estimate slip-deficit rates at plate interfaces: application to the Kanto region, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Akemi; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We developed an inversion method to estimate unbiased interseismic slip-deficit rates at plate interfaces from observed GPS velocity data with an elastic dislocation model. In this method, first, we subtract theoretical surface velocities due to known steady relative plate motion from the observed GPS data, and presume the residuals to be caused by slip deficit at plate interfaces. However, the observed GPS data always include rigid block translation and rotation, which cannot be explained by the elastic dislocation model. We treated the rigid block translation and rotation as systematic errors in the analysis, and removed them by transforming the velocity data into the average strain rates of triangle elements composed of adjacent GPS stations. By this transformation, original information about intrinsic deformation is preserved. Applying a unified Bayesian inversion formula to the GPS strain data, we can obtain unbiased slip-deficit rate distribution. We demonstrated the applicability of the method of GPS strain data inversion through the analysis of interseismic GPS velocity data (1996-2000) in the Kanto region, central Japan, where the North American (NAM), Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are interacting with each other in a complicated way. From this analysis we found a broad and high slip-deficit rate zone on the NAM-PHS plate interface, extending from southeast off the Boso peninsula to the Tokai region through the Izu-Mainland collision zone. Two high slip-deficit rate zones along the Sagami and Suruga troughs correspond to the source regions of the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) and a potential Tokai earthquake. On the PHS-PAC plate interface, though the estimation errors are large, we found a moderate slip-deficit rate zone far southeast off the Boso peninsula, where an M7.4 earthquake has occurred in 1953.

  9. Lateral transition from long-wavelength traction carpet deposits to massive sandstone units: An example from turbidite deposits of the Kiyosumi submarine fan, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Yoshiro; Tsuda, Keisuke; Onishi, Yuri; Yokokawa, Miwa

    2015-04-01

    Successions of thin, inversely graded units are occasionally observed in the lowermost sections of sediment gravity flow deposits. These units, previously described as traction carpet deposits or spaced planer laminations, are likely deposited during high-density turbidity currents. These successions, located directly below massive turbidite units, form sedimentary bedforms such as antidunes and cyclic steps. It has been suggested that these successions correspond to massive sediment gravity flow deposits, even though the transition between the two is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed lateral variations in the sedimentary structures, grain-size distributions, mud contents, and grain fabrics of a turbidite-hosted succession located in the Neogene Kiyosumi Formation, central Japan. The results of this study include: (1) Units within the succession exhibit upstream dipping (<10 degree) of the boundary surfaces, and an increase in the number and thickness of units towards the downstream direction. Minor fluctuations in unit thicknesses are observed. In the extreme downstream sections of the deposit, clear boundaries disappear and the unit grades into a massive sandstone characterized by rip-up mud clasts. (2) Mean grain size diameters and D5 values (5% of the cumulative grain size distribution) are smallest in the upstream and downstream sections. Grain size distributions in both the upstream and downstream sections of the unit are relatively poorly sorted. (3) In general, imbrication angles, which dip in the upstream direction, increase in the downstream direction. Grain fabrics exhibit higher degrees of variability near the massive sandstone transition. The results of this study suggest that these units were formed by the upstream migration of bedforms (e.g., antidunes and cyclic steps) during a period characterized by high sedimentation rates. Our observations suggest that sediment gravity flows are able to undergo lateral transformation to form massive

  10. Explosion Energy of the 2004 Eruption of the Asama Volcano, Central Japan: Inference From Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by a Dense GPS Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.

    2006-12-01

    Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can be easily measured as the phase differences of the L1 and L2 band carrier waves from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Ionospheric disturbances measured as TEC changes have been contributing to not only solar-terrestrial studies but also solid earth geophysics, e.g. constraining the source process of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake (Heki et al., JGR, 2006). Here I present a new application of GPS-TEC, i.e. estimation of the explosion energy of a volcanic eruption (Heki, GRL, 2006). The Asama Volcano, Central Japan, started eruptive activity at 11:02 UT on September 1, 2004, with a vulcanian explosion associated with strong airwaves. The Japanese dense GPS array GEONET recorded ionospheric disturbances as N-shaped changes in TEC approximately 12 minutes after the eruption. The disturbance had a period of 1.25 minutes and propagated as fast as about 1.1 km/s, suggesting its origin as the acoustic wave generated by the explosion. By comparing the disturbance amplitudes with those by a surface mine blast with a known energy (Calais et al., GJI, 1998), the overall Asama explosion energy is inferred to be equivalent to 1.2e14 Joule, about one third of the energy reported for the 1938 eruption (Minakami, BERI, 1942). Energy of the airwave can be estimated following Johnson (JVGR, 2003), assuming that the disturbance is a part of the spherical wave propagated from the volcano. We thus obtained the value 9.0e6 Joule, a typical value of airwave energies associated with volcanic eruptions. This new technique would complement past methods based on observations of mass deficits, near-field measurements of airwaves, etc, and may contribute to mitigation of volcanic hazards.

  11. Time trend in incidence of malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system in relation to mobile phone use among young people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kojimahara, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether incidence of malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system from 1993 to 2010 has increased among young people in Japan, and whether the increase could be explained by increase in mobile phone use. Joinpoint regression analysis of incidence data was performed. Subsequently, the expected incidence rate was calculated assuming that the relative risk was 1.4 for those who used mobile phones more than 1640 h cumulatively. Annual percent change was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.3) for men in their 20s from 1993 to 2010, 12.3% (95% CI, 3.3-22.1) for women in their 20s from 2002 to 2010, 2.7% (95% CI, 1.3-4.1) for men in their 30s from 1993 to 2010, and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.4-4.7) for women in their 30s from 1993 to 2010. Change in incidence rates from 1993 to 2010 was 0.92 per 100,000 people for men in their 20s, 0.83 for women in their 20s, 0.89 for men in their 30s, and 0.74 for women in their 30s. Change in expected incidence rates from 1993 to 2010 was 0.08 per 100,000 people for men in their 20s, 0.03 for women in their 20s, 0.15 for men in their 30s, and 0.05 for women in their 30s. Patterns in sex-, age-, and period-specific incidence increases are inconsistent with sex-, age-, and period-specific prevalence trends, suggesting the overall incidence increase cannot be explained by heavy mobile phone use. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:282-289, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27197787

  12. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  13. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  14. Open Skies aerial photography of selected areas in Central America affected by Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.

  15. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  17. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  18. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  19. Evaluation of uncertainties originating from the different modeling approaches applied to analyze regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sawada, Atsushi; Ono, Makoto; Watanabe, Kunio; Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Shimo, Michito; Fumimura, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative evaluation of the effects of uncertainties originating from scenario development, modeling approaches, and parameter values is an important subject in the area of safety assessment for high-level nuclear waste disposal sites. In this study, regional-scale groundwater flow analyses for the Tono area, Japan were conducted using three continuous models designed to handle heterogeneous porous media. We evaluated the simulation results to quantitatively analyze uncertainties originating from modeling approaches. We found that porous media heterogeneity is the main factor which causes uncertainties. We also found that uncertainties originating from modeling approaches greatly depend on the types of hydrological structures and heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity values in the domain assigned by modelers. Uncertainties originating from modeling approaches decrease as the amount of labor and time spent increase, and iterations between investigation and analyses increases.

  20. Evaluation of uncertainties originating from the different modeling approaches applied to analyze regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Yuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sawada, Atsushi; Ono, Makoto; Watanabe, Kunio; Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Shimo, Michito; Fumimura, Kenichi

    2009-01-26

    Qualitative evaluation of the effects of uncertainties originating from scenario development, modeling approaches, and parameter values is an important subject in the area of safety assessment for high-level nuclear waste disposal sites. In this study, regional-scale groundwater flow analyses for the Tono area, Japan were conducted using three continuous models designed to handle heterogeneous porous media. We evaluated the simulation results to quantitatively analyze uncertainties originating from modeling approaches. We found that porous media heterogeneity is the main factor which causes uncertainties. We also found that uncertainties originating from modeling approaches greatly depend on the types of hydrological structures and heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity values in the domain assigned by modelers. Uncertainties originating from modeling approaches decrease as the amount of labor and time spent increase, and iterations between investigation and analyses increases. PMID:19064302

  1. Synoptic climatological study on the decrease in heavy snowfall days in Hokuriku District of Central Japan after the latter half of 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kan, Yuusuke

    2010-05-01

    Many reports point out that the total snowfall amount in winter in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands, such as Hokuriku District, decreased considerably after the latter half of 1980s, in coincidence with the Global Warming together with the interdecadal variation. As for around December, this seems to be partly because more precipitation in the winter monsoon situation is brought as rainfall (not as snowfall), due to the warmer temperature than before. On the other hand, contribution of the daily heavy snowfall events there would be also important for mid-winter when the air temperature is the lowest in a year. Thus the present study examined the contribution of the heavy snowfall events to the difference of the total snowfall amount before and after the middle of 1980s, based on the daily data at several operational surface observation stations of JMA in the Hokuriku District for 1971 - 2001. Then the related daily atmospheric fields were analyzed climatologically with use of the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data with every 2.5 degrees latitude/longitude interval. In the former half of the analysis period, the larger total snowfall amount in January in the Hokuriku District, such as at Takada, was greatly contributed to by the heavy snowfall events with more than 30 cm/day (referred to as "heavy snowfall day", hereafter). The decrease in the total amount in the latter half of that period was due to that in the contribution of "heavy snowfall days". Furthermore, the "heavy snowfall days" tended to appear in the persistent snowfall episodes (including also the days with 10 cm/day), before around 1986. In short, the decrease in the total snowfall in the latter half period there seems to be reflected by the weakening of persistency of heavy snowfall episodes. As shown by Akiyama (1981a and b) in detail, there are several different synoptic situations in the winter monsoon situation for bringing heavy snowfall there (the "mountain snow type" and the "plateau snow type

  2. Characterization, identification of road dust PAHs in central Shanghai areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Cheng, S. B.; Ou, D. N.; Hou, L. J.; Gao, L.; Wang, L. L.; Xie, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, S. Y.

    Road dust samples were collected from central Shanghai in winter (January) and summer (August), respectively. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority-controlled list were determined by GC/MS. Total PAH (t-PAH) concentrations in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng g -1 with a mean value of 20,648 ng g -1, while they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng g -1 in summer with an average of 14,098 ng g -1. Spatial variation showed that city park (CP) samples had the lowest t-PAH concentration, while industrial area (ID) and traffic area (TR) and commercial area (CO) were the most polluted, in both seasons. PAH homologues concentrations were getting higher with the more rings and higher molecular weight (HMW) in all areas. The study of effective factors showed that grain size was only a minor factor influencing the accumulation of PAHs, whereas total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be closely correlated with t-PAH concentration. Prevailing winds could directly affect on the spatial distribution of PAHs. Chemical source apportionment studies took the form of principal component analysis (PCA), followed by compositional analysis. It was demonstrated that road dust PAHs in central Shanghai mainly came from the mixing of traffic and coal combustion. The contribution percentages of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources were respectively 71.0% and 11.4% in winter, while they were, 64.9% and 14.1% in summer, respectively. Road dust PAHs in Shanghai city mostly came from local sources.

  3. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. Methods We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years) from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years). Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Results Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and a smaller increase in rectal temperature during 60 minutes of leg immersion (P = 0.03). Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06) and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07). The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04) compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan < 11 months (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively). There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P <0.05), and negative correlations between duration of stay and sweating onset time on the forehead (r = −0.73, P = 0.01) and on the upper back (r = −0.66, P = 0.02). Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. Conclusions We

  4. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  5. Communicating Astronomy in a Metropolis and Disaster Area - Activities of the Tenpla Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamegai, K.; Takanashi, N.; Hiramatsu, M.; Naito, S.

    2015-03-01

    We present recent activities delivering astronomy to the public by the Tenpla project in Japan. One is voluntary activities in the disaster area of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The other is holding tens of star parties and public lectures in the central area of Tokyo.

  6. Reconstruction of a phreatic eruption on 27 September 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan, based on proximal pyroclastic density current and fallout deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya; Oikawa, Teruki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Komori, Jiro; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Shimano, Taketo; Kaneko, Takayuki; Nagai, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The phreatic eruption at Ontake volcano on 27 September 2014, which caused the worst volcanic disaster in the past half-century in Japan, was reconstructed based on observations of the proximal pyroclastic density current (PDC) and fallout deposits. Witness observations were also used to clarify the eruption process. The deposits are divided into three major depositional units (Units A, B, and C) which are characterized by massive, extremely poorly sorted, and multimodal grain-size distribution with 30-50 wt% of fine ash (silt-clay component). The depositional condition was initially dry but eventually changed to wet. Unit A originated from gravity-driven turbulent PDCs in the relatively dry, vent-opening phase. Unit B was then produced mainly by fallout from a vigorous moist plume during vent development. Unit C was derived from wet ash fall in the declining stage. Ballistic ejecta continuously occurred during vent opening and development. As observed in the finest population of the grain-size distribution, aggregate particles were formed throughout the eruption, and the effect of water in the plume on the aggregation increased with time and distance. Based on the deposit thickness, duration, and grain-size data, and by applying a scaling analysis using a depth-averaged model of turbulent gravity currents, the particle concentration and initial flow speed of the PDC at the summit area were estimated as 2 × 10-4-2 × 10-3 and 24-28 m/s, respectively. The tephra thinning trend in the proximal area shows a steeper slope than in similar-sized magmatic eruptions, indicating a large tephra volume deposited over a short distance owing to the wet dispersal conditions. The Ontake eruption provided an opportunity to examine the deposits from a phreatic eruption with a complex eruption sequence that reflects the effect of external water on the eruption dynamics.

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action.

  8. Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

  10. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  11. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and...) for Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning... of the continental shelf boundary between the United States and Mexico. The CPA lease sale...

  12. Geographically-based discrimination is a social determinant of mental health in a deprived or stigmatized area in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-09-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be associated with health. However, it is uncertain whether discrimination based on geographical place of residence (geographically-based discrimination), such as Buraku or Nishinari discrimination in Japan, is associated with health. We conducted a cross-sectional study (response rate = 52.3%) from February to March 2009 in a Buraku district of Nishinari ward in Osaka city, one of the most deprived areas in Japan. We implemented sex-stratified and education-stratified multivariate regression models to examine the association between geographically-based discrimination and two mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms and diagnosis of mental illness) with adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, social relationships and lifestyle factors. A total of 1994 persons aged 25-79 years (928 men and 1066 women) living in the district were analyzed. In the fully-adjusted model, perceived geographically-based discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and diagnosis of mental illness. It was more strongly associated among men or highly educated people than among women or among less educated people. The effect of geographically-based discrimination on mental health is independent of socioeconomic status, social relationship and lifestyle factors. Geographically-based discrimination may be one of the social determinants of mental health. PMID:22694988

  13. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  14. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  15. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  16. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  17. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  18. [Survey report on magnetic resonance equipment damage in areas in Miyagi Prefecture affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Maeyatsu, Fumio; Abe, Yoshihiro; Hishinuma, Makoto; Hikiti, Takeo; Tanji, Hajime; Seino, Shinya; Adachi, Kojiro; Musashi, Yasunori; Tuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yosihio; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    A questionnaire comprising 14 items, inquiring about the state of damage, whether safety could be ensured, and progress of repair and restoration was distributed to 984 facilities in seven prefectures on the Pacific coast as part of a fact-finding survey of damage caused to magnetic resonance (MR) devices by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In all, 458 responses (46.6%) were collected. In Miyagi Prefecture alone, 65 responses from 105 questionnaires were collected (response rate: 61.9%). The overall incidence of damage was 19.2%, with 57 facilities (12.4%) reporting that displacement of the magnets was the most common problem. The damage event rate in Miyagi Prefecture was 51.3%, with displacement of the magnet being highest at 17 cases (26.2%). There was a high rate of 13 cases (26.5%) of chiller and air conditioning failures and a rapid loss of He in ten MR scanners (20.4%). Notably, 87.8% of facilities in Miyagi Prefecture (24.5% of the total) were affected by earthquakes exceeding 6 on the Japanese Seismic Intensity Scale. Flood damage caused by the tsunami was also seen along the Sanriku coast to Sendai City (six MR scanners, 50% of the total), and was typical of the damage seen in Miyagi Prefecture. PMID:24647061

  19. Modelling of wet deposition of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the consecutive measurements in an urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Shinji; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu

    2010-01-01

    The wet deposition for particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was modelled from the consecutive measurements of atmospheric concentration and wet deposition for particulate matter and PAHs in Higashi-Hiroshima city, Japan. In order to estimate the model in detail, the wet deposition was classified with that from gaseous and PM phase. The gaseous PAHs assumed to be dissolved into raindrops according to Henry's constant, and the PAHs attached on atmospheric PM were assumed to be trapped with PM. The PM was classified with coarse (>7 μm) and fine (0.6-7 μm) PM for the calculation of trap. PM and PAHs depositions estimated with the wet deposition model were compared with measured data. The ratios of the measured to the estimated values of PM and PAHs gave close agreement with measurements (0.41-4.29 (1.35: average) for PM and (0.32-3.83 (1.42)) for PAHs) regardless of precipitation. The depositions of PAHs of liquid and particulate phase were on the other hand significantly different from those from gaseous and PM phases respectively. From those differences, the transfer from particulate to liquid phase was suggested to occur during the precipitation. PMID:20962409

  20. Study of pyroclastic lithofacies and related eruption type in the Aran area (central Iran zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedian, Amir Reza; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Emami, M. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study area is located in 40 Km west of Kashan and belongs to Orumieh - Dokhtar volcanic belt that is a part of Central Iran tectonic zone. The Eocene volcanism in Aran area is related to middle alpine orogenic event. Eocene rock units consist mainly of lavas and a variation of tuffs & tuffites & other volcaniclastic rocks (equivalent to Karaj Fm. in Central Alborz). Tuffs have a dominant importance in this area. Field and microscopy petrography shows that tuffs are acid - median and in some parts of area graded to basic in Composition. In a SW - NE trend, the basin has been changed from shallow marine to terrestrial environment. Vertical changes in lithofacies are a reaction of different conditions in paleogeography which can be a proof for volcanic uplift. Also, in these environments, changes in pyroclastic facies which related to type of eruption (submarine and subaerial) reflected in flow, fallout and surge eruptional mechanisms. Some of main volcanic and especially pyroclastic lithofacies evidences of the subaqueous eruption in this area are: locally horizon of andesitic pillow lava, fluidal shape andesitic-basaltic lavas in lower horizons lava breccia layer, several layers of andesitic-basaltic hyaloclastic tuff & lapilli-tuff breccia, rhyolitic-dacitic subaqueous dense pyroclastic flows, different sizes of accretionary lapilli, vesiculated tuff & tuff layers with cross st. due to surge mechanism. With respect to these pyroclastic facies plus notable and thick mass flow layers, also slumping and current soft sediment deformation st. in upper parts of shallow water sequences may be related to subaqueous to subaerial eruption in a hydroclastic volcano structure. The evidences for subaerial (terrestrial) volcanism in continental parts are including: cross lamination in pyroclastic surge tuffs in base of a ignimbrite sequence, welding of pumice shards with fiamme st. and spherical (snow flake) texture from devitrification of fluidal vitric shards in ground

  1. Soil-gas radon analyses in the Mt. Rose and Lovelock areas, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelli, A.R.; Rigby, J.G.; LaPointe, D.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Soil-gas radon has been sampled and analyzed in two area of differing surficial geology in west-central Nevada. Elevated levels of indoor radon have been found in both area. The Mt. Rose alluvial fan complex, located just southwest of Reno, is an alluvial fan/pediment formed by flow from major drainages in the Carson Range. The surface of the Mt. Rose fan is dominated by glacial outwash deposits believed to be of Donner Lake and Tahoe age. These two units have somewhat differing lithologies and degrees of soil development. The Donner Lake outwash is dominated by volcanic clasts and typically has a thick argillic B-horizon and a moderately to strongly developed duripan. The Tahoe outwash has a mixture of volcanic and granitic clasts and typically has a thinner argillic B-horizon and no duripan. Soil-gas radon levels are generally higher in the Tahoe outwash, probably reflecting either greater emanation from granitic clasts or differences in soil gas permeability. Radon levels along Holocene faults cutting these outwash deposits are fairly typical for the study area and minor differences may be due to the faults' effects on soil gas permeability. Lovelock, about 90 miles northeast of Reno, is located within the Humboldt Sink, one of the lowest parts of the pluvial Lake Lahontan basin. Surficial geology in this area is dominated by fine-grained lacustrine deposits and overbank alluvium from the Humboldt River. During interpluvial periods, this is commonly a marshy area resulting from Humboldt River flow into the basin. Elevated radon levels are likely due to uranium accumulation in black, organic-rich clay layers.

  2. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  3. A study of the Taisho lahar generated by the 1926 eruption of Tokachidake Volcano, central Hokkaido, Japan, and implications for the generation of cohesive lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesawa, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the generation mechanisms of lahars is important for improving volcanic hazard assessments. The Taisho lahar (TL) was generated during the 1926 eruption of Tokachidake Volcano, Japan, and was considered a typical snowmelt lahar caused by the runout of hot debris onto a snow-covered slope. A similar mechanism produced a huge mud flow during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia. However, the origin of water in such lahars remains a controversial topic because the calculated water mass is based on the assumption that all of the snow on the runout area of the TL was melted, although this is much less than the estimated water volume in the TL estimated by previous studies. I have re-examined proximal deposits of the TL and their paleomagnetic characteristics in order to better understand the eruption sequence and formation of the TL. The TL produced two debris avalanche deposits and a surge-like deposit that had relatively high emplacement temperature (~ 350 °C). The deposits are composed of hydrothermally altered andesitic gravel, sand and mud. The high clay content (3-5 wt.% clay in the < 2 mm fraction) and sedimentary characteristics indicate that the flow was a cohesive lahar, most likely induced by collapse of a hydrothermally altered pyroclastic cone (hypocenter). The presence of the surge deposit indicates that the TL was not caused by simple collapse of a cinder cone but by a phreatic explosion that resulted in sector collapse. This suggests that the hydrothermal system was related to the 1926 eruption. The present-day volcano has a large hydrothermal system (1 × 106 m3 water) beneath the active crater. This study indicates that hydrothermal system explosions can trigger cohesive lahars that contain both snow melt and hydrothermal pore water, and this indicates the need to monitor hydrothermal systems.

  4. Arsenic and fluoride in a loess aquifer in the central area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. L.; Blarasin, M. T.; Martínez, D. E.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in the phreatic aquifer of Coronel Moldes, in the central sector of the Argentine Chacopampean plain. The studied aquifer is composed of silty sand sediments of aeolian origin, typically loess-like sediments. The geochemical composition of water varies from sodium bicarbonate to sodium sulfate-chloride water. As contents range from low concentrations, below detection level, to 250 μg/l. High values of F (up to 12 mg/l) were recorded. A high As-F correlation was found ( R 2 = 0.84). The pH varied from 7.31 to 8.85 and the nitrates reached concentrations up to 200 mg/l, indicating an oxidant environment. The highest values of As and F agreed with sodium bicarbonate waters as well as with the highest values of pH recorded. There was a high correlation between As and F- as well as between As and the Na/Ca ratio. The composition and texture of loess, low permeability and hydraulic gradients together with the geochemical features of sodium bicarbonate waters are proper conditions for the mobilization of As and F in groundwater in the central area of Argentina.

  5. Swift UVOT UVW1 filter detection of a transient in the M 31 central area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Haberl, F.; Burwitz, V.

    2010-12-01

    Analyzing Swift UVOT UVW1 filter (181-321nm) observations of the central area of M 31 we detected a new bright transient at RA = 00h42m31.60s, Dec =+41d09'51.5" (J2000, accuracy of 0.5"), which is 144" west and 377" south of the core of M 31. Light curve information is given in the table below. Many UV transients in M 31 have been identified with optical novae in M 31. There is no report of a recent detection of an optical nova or a historical nova (see http://www.mpe.mpg.de/~m31novae/opt/m31/M31_table.html) for the position of the transient.

  6. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area CAU No. 417

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to US Highway 6, about 15 kilometers (10 miles) northeast of Warm Springs. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purpose of this test was to gauge the seismic effects of relatively large, high-yield detonations completed outside of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test was also used to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 1994c).

  7. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  8. Validation Analysis of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman; H. Bekhit; B. Lyles; K. Pohlmann

    2006-09-30

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site undergoing environmental restoration. The CNTA is located about 95 km northeast of Tonopah, Nevada, and 175 km southwest of Ely, Nevada (Figure 1.1). It was the site of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (DOE's predecessor agency) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site [NTS]) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless underground nuclear test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 2000). A three-dimensional flow and transport model was created for the CNTA site (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and determined acceptable by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for predicting contaminant boundaries for the site.

  9. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Ahmed E

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  10. Fluid Management Plan Central Nevada Test Area Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing at sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. Responsibility for environmental restoration of the sites that constitute the Offsites Project was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) on October 1, 2006. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support subsurface investigations at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The subsurface CAU 443 is associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted at UC-1 and is located approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada.

  11. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, dissolved organic carbon and major inorganic ions in alpine snow pit sequence from a high mountain site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Matsumoto, Kohei; Tachibana, Eri; Aoki, Kazuma

    2012-12-01

    Snowpack samples were collected from a snow pit sequence (6 m in depth) at the Murodo-Daira site near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, an outflow region of Asian dusts. The snow samples were analyzed for a homologous series of low molecular weight normal (C1-C10) and branched (iC4-iC6) monocarboxylic acids as well as aromatic (benzoic) and hydroxy (glycolic and lactic) acids, together with major inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The molecular distributions of organic acids were characterized by a predominance of acetic (range 7.8-76.4 ng g-1-snow, av. 34.8 ng g-1) or formic acid (2.6-48.1 ng g-1, 27.7 ng g-1), followed by propionic acid (0.6-5.2 ng g-1, 2.8 ng g-1). Concentrations of normal organic acids generally decreased with an increase in carbon chain length, although nonanoic acid (C9) showed a maximum in the range of C5-C10. Higher concentrations were found in the snowpack samples containing dust layer. Benzoic acid (0.18-4.1 ng g-1, 1.4 ng g-1) showed positive correlation with nitrate (r = 0.70), sulfate (0.67), Na+ (0.78), Ca2+ (0.86) and Mg+ (0.75), suggesting that this aromatic acid is involved with anthropogenic sources and Asian dusts. Higher concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- were found in the dusty snow samples. We found a weak positive correlation (r = 0.43) between formic acid and Ca2+, suggesting that gaseous formic acid may react with Asian dusts in the atmosphere during long-range transport. However, acetic acid did not show any positive correlations with major inorganic ions. Hydroxyacids (0.03-5.7 ng g-1, 1.5 ng g-1) were more abundant in the granular and dusty snow. Total monocarboxylic acids (16-130 ng g-1, 74 ng g-1) were found to account for 1-6% of DOC (270-1500 ng g-1, 630 ng g-1) in the snow samples.

  13. Evaluation of Potential Hydrocarbon Transport at the UC-4 Emplacement Hole, Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad F.; Papelis, Charalambos; Pohll, Greg; Sloop, Derek

    1998-09-30

    Emplacement hole UC-4 was drilled in 1969 at the Central Nevada Test Area and left filled with drilling mud. Surface characterization samples collected from abandoned mud pits in the area yielded elevated concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon, thereby raising a concern that the mud-filled emplacement hole may be leaching hydrocarbons into alluvial aquifers. This study was initiated to address this concern. An analytical solution for flow near a wellbore was used to calculate the amount of time it would take for a contaminant to move through the mud-filled well and into the surrounding aquifer. No hydraulic data are available from the emplacement hole; therefore, ranges of hydraulic conductivity and porosity were used in 100 Monte Carlo realizations to estimate a median travel time. Laboratory experiments were performed on samples collected from the central mud pit to determine the hydrocarbon release function for the bentonite drilling mud. The median contaminant breakthrough took about 12,000 years to travel 10 m, while the initial breakthrough took about 300 years and the final breakthrough took about 33,000 years. At a distance of about 10 m away from the emplacement hole, transport velocity is dominated by the hydraulics of the aquifer and not by the emplacement hole hydraulics. It would take an additional 45,500 years for the contaminant to travel 800 m to the U.S. Department of Energy land exclusion boundary. Travel times were primarily affected by the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the drilling mud, then by the hydraulic conductivity, porosity and hydraulic gradient of the alluvial aquifer, followed by the hydrocarbon release function.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  15. An Approach to Assessing Flood Risk in Low-lying Paddy Areas of Japan considering Economic Damage on Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2013-12-01

    Hiroki Minakawa, Takao Masumoto National Institute for Rural Engineering (NIRE), NARO, Japan Flooding is one type of nature disaster, and is caused by heavy rainfall events. In the future, the risk of flooding is predicted to increase due to global climate change. Immediate measures such as strengthening drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more frequent flooding, so a quantitative evaluation method of flood risks is needed to discuss countermeasure against these problems. At the same time, rice is an important crop for food production in Japan. However, paddy fields are often damaged by flooding because they are principally spread in lower part of the basin. Therefore, it is also important to assess the damages to paddy fields. This study discusses a method for evaluating a relationship between the risk of flood damage and the scale of heavy rainfall. We also developed a method of estimating the economic effect of a reduction in rice yield by flooding. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level in channels and paddies. Next, heavy rainfall data for drainage analyses were generated by using a diurnal rainfall pattern generator. The generator can create hourly data of heavy rainfall, and internal pattern of them is different each. These data were input to the drainage model to estimate flood risk. Simultaneously, we tried to clarify economic losses of a rice yields caused by flooding. Here, the reduction scale in rice yield which shows relations between flooding situation (e.g. water level, duration of submersion etc.) and damage of rice is available to calculate reduction of rice yield. In this study, we created new reduction scales through a pseudo-flooding experiment under real inundation conditions. The methodology of the experiment was as follow: We chose the popular Japanese rice cultivar Koshihikari for this experiment. An experimental arena was

  16. The geological record of prehistorical tsunami at a coastal area of Beppu Bay in eastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Chiba, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Okuwaki, R.; Takeda, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunamis are typically generated by plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones, but also vertical displacement associated with intraplate earthquakes. Historical written records documented that coasts of Beppu Bay, eastern Kyushu, Japan was devastated by a tsunami associated with the AD 1596 Keicho-Bungo earthquake (M7.0). It is considered that the earthquake occurred at submarine active faults in the bay. The aim of this study is to unravel the occurrence age and source of tsunamis that struck the coast of the bay in prehistorical ages. This study may also make a contribution to the understanding of tsunami-generating system at submarine active faults. We conducted a coring survey at paddy fields along the north coast of the bay. The 10 cm thick muddy sand layer with a few granules (hereinafter, sand layer), bounded by sharp contacts, was evident in the 1.7 m long sediment core taken at 700 m from the shoreline. Plant materials obtained from mud above the sand layer was dated to 1880-2000 cal. yr BP. Sharp contacts between sand and surrounding muds imply that the sand layer is formed by a sudden event. Existence of mud clast in the sand layer indicates erosion of surface mud. There were no brackish-marine diatoms in surrounding mud, but they accounted for 5-6% of the total within the sand layer, indicating that the sand grains were sourced at least in part from brackish-marine environment. Mean grain size/sorting of the sand layer and beach sand were 2.31/0.94 and 2.03/0.41 phi. The difference in sorting probably suggests that the sand layer partly contains the onshore sediments eroded in inundation process. Additional coring surveys would clarify the distribution of prehistorical tsunami deposits and source of past tsunamis.

  17. Geomorphic evidence of active faults growth in the Norcia seismic area (central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Fault-growth by segment linkage is one of the fundamental processes controlling the evolution, in both time and the space, of fault systems. In fact, step-like trajectories shown by length-displacement diagrams for individual fault arrays suggest that the development of evolved structures result by the linkage of single fault segments. The type of interaction between faults and the rate at which faults reactivate not only control the long term tectonic evolution of an area, but also influence the seismic hazard, as earthquake recurrence intervals tend to decrease as fault slip rate increase. The use of Geomorphological investigations represents an important tool to constrain the latest history of active faults. In this case, attention has to be given to recognize morphostructural, historical, environmental features at the surface, since they record the long-term seismic behavior due to the fault growth processes (Tondi and Cello, 2003). The aim of this work is to investigate the long term morphotectonic evolution of a well know seismic area in the central Apennines: the Norcia intramontane basin (Aringoli et al., 2005). The activity of the Norcia seismic area is characterized by moderate events and by strong earthquakes with maximum intensities of X-XI degrees MCS and equivalent magnitudes around 6.5±7.0 (CPTI, 2004). Based on the morphostructural features as well as on the historical seismicity of the area, we may divide the Norcia seismic area into three minor basins roughly NW-SE oriented: the Preci sub-basin in the north; the S. Scolastica and the Castel S. Maria sub-basins in the south. The wider basin (S. Scolastica) is separated from the other two by ridges transversally oriented with respect the basins themselves; they are the geomorphological response to the tectonic deformation which characterizes the whole area. Other geomorphological evidences of tectonic activity are represented by deformation of old summit erosional surfaces, hydrographic network

  18. Tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Soares, Danusa Dias; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Marubayashi, Umeko

    2007-03-30

    To assess the effects of increased hypothalamic tryptophan (TRP) availability on 5-HT content in preoptic area on thermoregulation and work production during exercise on treadmill, 20.3 microM of L-TRP (n=7) or 0.15M NaCl (n=6) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of male Wistar rats immediately before the animals started running (18 m min(-1) 5% inclination). Exercise time to fatigue (min), and workload (kgm) were analysed. Core temperature was measured by telemetry. At fatigue, brains were quickly removed and preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HP), frontal cortex (FC), hippocampi (HC) were rapidly dissected and frozen immediately in dry ice. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured by HPLC. TRP-exercised rats showed the highest content of 5-HT in the POA and the lowest in the hippocampi compared to the rested and SAL-exercised rats. An inverse relationship between TF and a direct correlation with body temperature changes and POA-5HT levels were observed. A correlation between HC 5-HT content and TF was also found. However, there was no correlation between HC 5-HT content and changes in Tb at fatigue. Finally, our results bring further evidences that increased 5-HT content in POA is involved with an increase in heat production during exercise. In addition, the direct correlation of 5-HT level in hippocampi and TF of TRP-exercised rats suggests that this brain area is also related to motor activity control during exercise. In conclusion, our data indicated that tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area. PMID:17280786

  19. Coseismic uplift and fault model of marine active faults in 1729 AD revealed by fossilized intertidal sessile organisms along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Oda, M.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Noto Peninsula is located in the backarc region of southwest Japan and is characterized by geomorphologic features formed by active tectonics and glacial eustasy through the Quaternary. Pleistocene marine terraces along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula indicate uplift in the coastal area through the late Quaternary (Ota and Hirakawa, 1979). Recently, an active fault zone on the seafloor off the coast was found and was divided into four segments, Monzen-oki, Saruyama-oki, Wajima-oki, and Suzu-oki, from west to east (Inoue and Okamura, 2010). We investigated vertical displacement along the coast using intertidal sessile organisms at nine sites on the rocky coast. We measured the height of fossilized Pomatoleios kraussii by GPS surveying together with a sea-level change curve, and dated them using the AMS 14C method. The vertical displacements and dates at the sites implied that coastal uplift occurred along 20 km of coastline, corresponding to the Wajima-oki segment zone, and most likely between 1600 and 1800 AD. This is coincident with seismic damage in this area in 1729 AD recorded in historical documents. We constructed a fault model with three rectangular faults in a homogeneous elastic half-space and estimated the optimal net slip and rake by a non-linear inversion method (Matsu'ura and Hasegawa, 1987). The best fit to the estimated vertical displacements is provided by a net slip of 1.8 m with a rake of 90° for the western fault plane and a net slip of 0.6 m with a rake of 90° for the center and the eastern fault planes. The moment magnitude (Mw) calculated from these parameters with a rigidity of 30 GPa is 6.6. We compared the elevation distribution of the former shorelines based on coastal terraces and the 1729 earthquake uplifts. Assuming that the coastal uplift is caused by the cumulative crustal deformation produced by the same size event as the 1729 earthquake, the average recurrence interval of the events is estimated to be 1700 years.

  20. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  2. 75 FR 70023 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... clerical errors in a Notice that published in the Federal Register on November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69122). 1... Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease Sales for the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program... Planning Area (CPA) lease sales in the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program. The proposed sales are in the Gulf...

  3. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Styles of trap development in Caddo limestone in Bend Arch area, north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, J.L. )

    1987-02-01

    The Lower Pennsylvanian Caddo limestone has been a prolific hydrocarbon producer in the Bend arch area of north-central Texas since the early 1900s and continues to be a major exploration target although it is in a mature province. Early explorationists understood the Caddo's large potential when the James pool was discovered in Young County in 1917. Initial flows were greater than 1,000 BOPD in some wells, and field development with additional infill drilling and waterfloods continued into the early 1980s. James pool has produced more than 2 million bbl of oil as of December 1985. Fields in jack, Throckmorton, and Archer Counties had recorded similar successes by the 1940s. The early caddo discoveries were made before singlefold seismic mapping was available, and were based on sparse subsurface control. By the 1950s and 1960s, seismic and subsurface data were more commonly used in the hunt for Caddo reservoirs. Most exploration concepts held that all Caddo traps were structural. Recent studies showed that structural, stratigraphic, and combination traps are common in the Caddo. This study presents examples of each trap type in the Bend arch area, where 49 million bbl of oil has been discovered in the Caddo, and focuses on the current exploration methods.

  5. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  6. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  7. Birmingham and central Alabama area seen in Earth Resources Exp. Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Birmingham and central Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Birminham industrial complex, with a population of nearly 850,000, is the light gray area nestled in the valley between the northeast-trending ridges that rae prominent topographic features in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The narrow ridges and adjacent valleys reflect folded and faulted sedimentary rocks. Bankhead lake, formed by a dam on the Black Warrior River, appears as bright blue west of Birmingham. Two lakes are formed by dams on the Goosa River East of Birmingham. Federal and state highways appear as thin white lines and are easily identified. Power line clearings are visible in the center of the picture along the Goosa River, and can be traced northwestward to northern parts of Birmingham. The predominant deep red color of the picture is d

  8. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  9. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  10. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  11. Agrometeorological conditions of grassland vegetation in central Mongolia and their impact for leaf area growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shin; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kaihotsu, Ichirow; Davaa, Gambo; Oyunbaatar, Dambarajaa; Natsagdorj, Luvsan; Oki, Taikan

    2004-11-01

    The long-term observation of surface heat and water budget and hydrometeorological elements has been carried out over a grassland site at Arvaikheer (46.23°N, 102.82°E) in central Mongolia as the framework of the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment-Asian Automatic Weather Station Network (GAME-AAN). The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between vegetation and climate using long-term data (1982-2000) of satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) and climatic data observed at Arvaikheer. Furthermore, we aimed to reveal physical process by comparing soil moisture and heat and water budgets in 1999 and 2000 as a case study of good and poor vegetation growth. Significant positive correlations with 99% confidence levels were found for July precipitation (P) and the LAI in July (0.538), August (0.826), and September (0.564). Composite analysis for five highest (H5) and lowest (L5) LAI years showed the significant positive anomalies of P in July and LAI in July and August for H5. In June and July 1999, soil moisture and P values were higher than values in 2000; this pattern was reversed in August and September. The mean LAI during the 1999 growing season (1.0) was about twice that of 2000 (0.6). In 1999 the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to P (ET/P) and change of stored soil moisture (ΔW) to P (ΔW/P) were 0.79 and 0.15, respectively. In 2000, ET/P and ΔW/P were 0.94 and 0.0, respectively. These results suggest that the P and ΔW before July had the most influent on grass growth in central Mongolia.

  12. What Triggers a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area? Implications for Preventing the Spread of HIV Infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Takano, Misao; Matsumoto, Shoko; Koyama, Miki; Sugino, Yuko; Ogane, Miwa; Ikeda, Kazuko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Japan has not succeeded in reducing the annual number of new HIV-infected patients, although the prevalence of HIV infection is low (0.02%). Methods A single-center observational study was conducted at the largest HIV clinic in Tokyo, which treats 15% of the total patients in Japan, to determine the reasons for having diagnostic tests in newly infected individuals. HIV-infected patients who visited our clinic for the first time between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Results The 598 study patients comprised one-third of the total reported number of new patients in Tokyo during the study period. 76% were Japanese MSM. The reasons for being tested which led to the diagnosis was voluntary testing in 32%, existing diseases in 53% (AIDS-defining diseases in 22%, sexually transmitted infections (STI) in 8%, diseases other than AIDS or STIs in 23%) and routine pre-surgery or on admission screening in 15%. 52% and 74% of the study patients and patients presented with AIDS, respectively, had never been tested. The median CD4 count in patients with history of previous testing (315/μL) was significantly higher than that of patients who had never been tested (203/μL, p<0.001). Conclusions Only 32% of the newly HIV diagnosed patients were diagnosed because of voluntary testing, and 53% were diagnosed due to presence of other diseases. These results remain unchanged from our previous report 10 years earlier (2000–2004) on newly diagnosed patients at the same clinic. HIV testing has not been widely used by newly diagnosed patients in the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:26606382

  13. Silicification of pelitic schist in the Iwakuni-Yanai area of the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan: Origin of competent layers in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabayashi, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    2003-12-01

    Bright-layer reflections have been imaged at about 15-20 km depth in fore-arc region of southwest Japan, and most of the epicenter distributes above the bright-layer (Ito, 1999). To understand the cause of a seismic bright-layer with the mechanism of large inland earthquake, we studied the low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan. The Ryoke belt in the Iwakuni-Yanai area is underlain by Jurassic accretionary complex and their metamorphosed equivalents. They were intruded by Cretaceous granitic rocks. Five metamorphic zones can be difined by mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks as a regional metamorphism before the intrusion; chlorite, chlorite-biotite, biotite, cordierite and sillimanite zones from north to south (Ikeda, 1993). Silicified rocks have been found in pelitic schist of the biotite zone and northernmost part of the cordierite zone. The pelitic schist is dark in color but silicification turned it to be pale gray or milky white. Silicified pelitic schist is mainly composed of fine-grained quartz and minor muscovite and biotite. The silicified pelitic schist forms layers or lenticular bodies several to fifty meters in thickness. The boundary between silicified rock layer and underlying pelitic schist is fairly distinct but that between the overlying pelitic schist is gradual. Quartz veins crossing high angles with schistosity were preferentially developed in the silicified rock layers, while schistosity-parallel quartz veins, which underwent plastic flow, were observed in the pelitic schist. En echelon quartz vein and fishnet-like quartz veins are characteristic of silicified rock layers. This mode of occurrence of quartz veins indicates competence of silicified rock layers relative to pelitic schist. Rock boundary with high competence contrast is probably a good reflector of seismic waves. Bright-layer reflections would arise from silicified rock layers if those are distributed in the deep crust to a considerable extent.

  14. [Migration between rural peripheral areas and urban central areas in Africa: a theoretical and empirical study of migration using the example of Nairobi].

    PubMed

    Vorlaufer, K

    1984-01-01

    Migration between rural peripheral areas and urban central areas is analyzed using the city of Nairobi, Kenya, as an example. The study is based on official Kenyan data for 1969-1979. The role of Nairobi as a focal point for both centripetal and centrifugal migration is discussed, and the volume, intensity, and direction of migration streams are examined. An attempt is also made to evaluate this migration in terms of modernization and dependency theories. PMID:12340512

  15. Water for cranberry culture in the Cranmoor area of central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Louis J.

    1972-01-01

    The Cranmoor area of central Wisconsin is the principal cranberry producing area of the State. Cranberries are grown in only about 2.5 square miles of an 80-square-mile marsh and swamp in the Cranberry Creek basin. Cranberry growers have built reservoirs and ditches throughout 25 square miles of marsh for better management of the area's natural water supply. Additional water is diverted into the basin to supplement the cranberry needs. In the 1966-67 hydrologic budget for Cranberry Creek basin, annual inputs were 27.8 inches of precipitation, 3.8 inches of surface-water diversion into the basin, and 1.1 inches decrease in stored water. Annual outputs were. 20.8 inches of evapotranspiration, 11.7 inches of runoff, and 0.2 inch of groundwater outflow. During the 1966-67 period, precipitation averaged about 3 inches per year below normal. The water used for cranberry culture is almost exclusively surface water. Efficient management of the basin's water supply, plus intermittent diversions of about 100 cubic feet per second from outside the basin, provide cranberry growers with a sufficient quantity of water. Although the quantity of surface water is adequate, the pH (generally 5.7-6.7) is slightly high for optimum use. Dissolved oxygen is slightly low, generally between 4 and 10 milligrams per liter. The water is soft; iron and manganese contents vary seasonally, being high in winter and summer and low in spring. Additional supplies of surface water can be obtained by increasing diversions from outside the basin and by increasing reservoir capacity within the basin. Ground water, although not presently used for cranberries, is available in the central, southern, and eastern parts of the basin, where the thickness of the saturated alluvium exceeds 50 feet. Well yields in these areas might be as much as 1,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Additionally, well yields of as much as 1,000 gpm may be expected from saturated alluvium southeast of Cranberry Creek basin. Where

  16. Mudflow and Associated Environmental Fluctuation on Deep Seafloor Caused by Swarm Earthquakes Observed by a Cabled Observatory in Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, R.; Goto, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Mizutani, K.

    2006-12-01

    Mudflow, which accompanied an earthquake that occurred east off Izu Peninsula in Sagami Bay, central Japan at 02:50 JST on April 21st in 2006, was observed by video cameras of a cabled observatory which was installed on seafloor at the depth of 1175 m in Sagami Bay. Although swarm earthquakes have occurred repeatedly at the source region of the earthquake, it is since 1998 that an earthquake as large as M 5 occurred. The environmental fluctuations associated with the mudflow were also observed by sensors which were attached to the observatory. Mudflows associated with earthquakes were also observed in 1997 and in 1998. However, the observatory was replaced in 2000 and some of the installed sensors at those times were different from the present ones. This time the observation was carried out by two video cameras, a seismometer, a CTD sensor, a transmissometer, an ADCP and a gamma ray sensor. Electric potential difference between the underwater cable ends (between the observatory and the land station in Hatsushima Island which are about 8 km apart) was also observed. In addition, observation by a hydrophone was done and possibly the fall sound of the pebbles associated with the mudflow could be heard, though a lot of electric noises were mixed regrettably. Video images showed that the mudflow arrived at 02:54 JST, about 4 minutes later than the occurrence of the earthquake. Significant change in light transmission observed by the transmissometer occurred at 02:57 JST and water current velocity observed by the ADCP reached 27 cm/s at maximum at 03:23 JST. Those data indicate that the mudflow passed from the slope, which is located west of the observatory, to the northeastern direction. The mudflow continued more than one hour and associated fluctuations were also observed at horizontal components of the seismometer and the water temperature. The significant increase of about 20 mV in the cable ends electric potential difference occurred at 03:09 JST. It was about 14

  17. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  18. Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.; Stieve, A.

    1992-03-01

    Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

  19. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene. PMID:25440135

  20. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  1. An Analysis of Background Factors Influencing Selection of Residency Facility for Dental Students in Universities Located in Rural Areas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    H, Kono; H, Sasahara; S, Furukawa; N, Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Japan, since 2006, participation in a 1-year residency programme by all dentists who have passed the National Board Dental Examination has been mandatory. Therefore, a ‘matching system’ has become necessary for dental students in their final year to decide their desired residency facility, but the rate of matching in dental schools located in rural areas is still low. Aim : The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the background factors influencing the selection of residency facilities by dental students in rural areas to facilitate the training of dentists working in local communities. Methods : Using the matching results from 554 final-year students of Kagoshima University Faculty of Dentistry from 2005 to 2013, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on the background factors of the subjects. Results : Concerning the selection of the residency facility, it was verified that there were strong background factors for subjects to select residency facilities in their hometown, but compared with subjects from other regions, those from Kinki and Kanto regions did not select residency facilities in their hometown. Compared with males, a significantly higher number of females selected residency facilities in their hometown. A significantly higher number of subjects who repeated a school year selected the residency facility of their alma mater. Conclusion : In dental schools of national universities located in provinces, the establishment of a quota system for students from the region, where possible, is one of the most effective steps for securing future dental trainees. PMID:26140061

  2. Shear wave anisotropy beneath the volcanic front in South Kyushu area, Japan: Development of C-type olivine CPO under H2O-rich conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Tadashi; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Mizukami, Tomoyuki

    2013-08-01

    wave splitting from local intermediate-depth earthquakes is investigated to detect the anisotropic structure in the mantle wedge beneath the South Kyushu area, Japan. We observed shear wave splitting with NEE-SWW to NWW-SEE polarization directions and delay times of 0.04-0.63 s. Trench-normal shear wave polarization anisotropy with a delay time greater than 0.3 s probably overlaps in the high VP/VS region at a depth of 100-150 km beneath the volcanic front. Model calculations for the cause of the anisotropy suggest that the development of "C-type" olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) with a trench-parallel b axis concentration and a trench-normal a axis concentration best reproduces observations compared to A-, B-, or E-type olivine CPOs and antigorite CPO. We conclude that a thick anisotropic layer, approximately 50 km, is formed by concentration of interstitial fluid in peridotite. We briefly discuss the mechanism carrying water to the deep mantle wedge. A possible explanation is that interstitial fluids in the mantle wedge are effectively released because of a decrease in dihedral angles of olivine-fluid interfaces at 150 km depth. Our results imply a close relation between the high density of explosive volcanoes in the South Kyushu area and the underlying water-rich mantle.

  3. Comparison between Observed Tsunami Heights and Numerical Simulation of the 1854 Ansei-Tokai Earthquake Tsunami in Gokasho Bay, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruhashi, R.; Satake, K.; Heidarzadeh, M.; Harada, T.

    2014-12-01

     Gokasho Bay is a blockade inner bay which has typical ria coasts and drowned valleys. It is located in the central Kii Peninsula and faces the Nankai Trough subduction zone. This Kumano-nada coastal area has been repeatedly striked by historical great tsunamis. For the 1854 Ansei-Tokai earthquake and its tsunami, there are comparatively many historical records including historical documents and oral traditions for tsunami behavior and damages along the coast. Based on these records, a total of 42 tsunami heights were measured by using a laser range finder and a hand level on the basis of spot elevation given by 1/2500 topographical maps. The average inundation height of whole bay area was approximately 4 - 5 m. On the whole, in the closed-off section of the bay, large values were obtained. For example, the average value in Gokasho-ura town area was 4 m, and the maximum run-up height along the Gokasho river was 6.8 m. Particularly in Konsa, located in the most closed-off section of the bay, tsunami heights ranged between 4 - 11 m, and were higher than those in other districts. It was comparatively high along the eastern coast and eastern baymouth. We simulate the distribution of the tsunami wave heights using numerical modeling, and compare the simulation results and above-mentioned actual historical data and results of our field survey. Based on fault models by Ando (1975), Aida (1981), and Annaka et al. (2003), the tsunami simulation was performed. After comparing the calculated results by three fault models, the wave height based on the model by Annaka et al. (2003) was found to have better agreement with observations. Moreover, the wave height values in a closed-off section of bay and at the eastern baymouth are high consistent with our survey data.

  4. Tectonic and structural setting of the northeastern central Gulf of Suez area using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2016-03-01

    Cumulative qualitative and quantitative analysis of the filtered regional and residual magnetic components of the northeastern central area of the Gulf of Suez, as well as images of the second vertical derivatives of the reduced to the northern magnetic pole map of the total magnetic intensity field images, supplemented with the available geologic information, enabled the precise delineation of the detailed structural configuration of the basement complex, which consequently illustrated the structural deformational pattern of the overlying sedimentary succession. The basement tectonic map reflects a series of N-S to NNW-SSE oriented belts of high and low basement structures. These structures are interrupted by a set of NE-SW crossing diagonal faults having varying throws and creating promising blocks for exploration. An often remarkable correlation between the reduced to the magnetic pole map and the basement relief map is noted, in particular the outline of various oil fields. A larger number of the tilted fault blocks and basement culminations have been outlined and numerous interesting exploration prospects are indicated, which appear to warrant further follow up investigation.

  5. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  6. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  7. [Pollution characteristics of platinum group elements in road dust in central urban area of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ling; Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Hao, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-03-01

    In order to survey platinum group elements (PGEs) contamination in central urban area of Beijing, dust samples were collected from the second ring road in December 2009. The road samples were digested with aqua regia and separated and purified with cation exchange resin, and the resulting solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the concentrations of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust ranged from 17.40-458.75 ng x g(-1) (126.66 ng x g(-1)), 10.04-182.89 ng x g(-1) (65.25 ng x g(-1)), 4.00-68.04 ng x g(-1) (22.67 ng x g(-1)) respectively. In comparison with international cities, Pd and Rh concentrations in Beijing road dust were middle level and Pt concentration was lower. Pd concentration was rapidly increased in recent years. The concentrations of PGEs in four locations of the second ring road were arranged in the following order: West approximately East > North > South, which were controlled with the traffic intensity. Size partitioning indicated that the 0.125-0.25 mm fraction had the higher PGEs concentrations than other fractions and the < 0.063 mm fraction had the lower PGEs concentration. These data suggest that autocatalyst PGEs flux estimates into the environment will be significantly underestimated if only a fine grain size fraction (< 0.063 mm) is analyzed. PMID:21634172

  8. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  9. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  10. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  11. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  12. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  13. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  14. Hydrogeochemical investigations in a drained lake area: the case of Xynias basin (Central Greece).

    PubMed

    Charizopoulos, Nikos; Zagana, Eleni; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    In Xynias drained Lake Basin's area, central Greece, a hydrogeochemical research took place including groundwater sampling from 30 sampling sites, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis. Groundwaters present Ca-Mg-HCO3 as the dominant hydrochemical type, while their majority is mixed waters with non-dominant ion. They are classified as moderately hard to hard and are characterized by oxidizing conditions. They are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, siderite, and magnesite and oversaturated in respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. Nitrate concentration ranges from 4.4 to 107.4 mg/L, meanwhile 13.3 % of the samples exceed the European Community (E.C.) drinking water permissible limit. The trace elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cd present values of 30, 80, 57, and 50 %, respectively, above the maximum permissible limit set by E.C. Accordingly, the majority of the groundwaters are considered unsuitable for drinking water needs. Sodium adsorption ratio values (0.04-3.98) and the electrical conductivity (227-1200 μS/cm) classify groundwaters as suitable for irrigation uses, presenting low risk and medium soil alkalization risk. Factor analysis shows that geogenic processes associated with the former lacustrine environment and anthropogenic influences with the use of fertilizers are the major factors that characterized the chemical composition of the groundwaters. PMID:27450374

  15. Seismic hazard assessment in central Ionian Islands area (Greece) based on stress release models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Irene; Tsaklidis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2011-08-01

    The long-term probabilistic seismic hazard of central Ionian Islands (Greece) is studied through the application of stress release models. In order to identify statistically distinct regions, the study area is divided into two subareas, namely Kefalonia and Lefkada, on the basis of seismotectonic properties. Previous results evidenced the existence of stress transfer and interaction between the Kefalonia and Lefkada fault segments. For the consideration of stress transfer and interaction, the linked stress release model is applied. A new model is proposed, where the hazard rate function in terms of X(t) has the form of the Weibull distribution. The fitted models are evaluated through residual analysis and the best of them is selected through the Akaike information criterion. Based on AIC, the results demonstrate that the simple stress release model fits the Ionian data better than the non-homogeneous Poisson and the Weibull models. Finally, the thinning simulation method is applied in order to produce simulated data and proceed to forecasting.

  16. Model analysis of seasonal variation of PM2.5 across Japan and its reginal-scale transport in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kohei; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Pan, Xiaole; Komazaki, Yuichi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, an atmospheric environmental standard for PM2.5 was newly introduced in September 2009. According to one year of data observed at ambient air quality monitoring stations in Japan main islands in fiscal 2010, PM2.5 concentrations exceed the environmental standard at the large part of monitoring stations. In particular, concentration levels at almost all the monitoring stations in the western part of Japan exceed the standard value. Besides Japan main islands, PM2.5 concentrations monitored at Fukue Island, a remote island in the most western part of Japan and close to the Asian continent, clearly exceeds the short-term standard value. These results suggest that regional-scale transport in East Asia affects the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 across Japan. To investigate seasonal variations of PM2.5 and estimate the influence of trans-boundary air pollution in East Asia, we performed emission sensitivity simulations for the full year 2010 by using a chemical transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting model /Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The source regions in East Asia were divided into six areas: Japan, Korean Peninsula, northeast China, central north China, central south China, and south China. In each sensitivity simulation, the anthropogenic emission was reduced by 20% in each source region. The sensitivity of each source region was obtained by taking the difference of simulated PM2.5 concentration between each sensitivity and base run. The model generally well reproduces the seasonal variation pattern of PM2.5 concentrations across Japan; in the western part of Japan, PM2.5 concentration decreases in summer, whereas it increases during summer in the eastern part of Japan. However, the absolute concentrations were underestimated by the model in the entire Japan throughout the year. We estimated the relative contributions from each source region to annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in Japan. The contribution of domestic

  17. Ambient noise tomography in the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area, NE Japan: implications for geofluids and seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Jun; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the earthquake generation in volcanic areas, it is important to investigate the presence of geofluids in the uppermost crust. We applied ambient noise tomography to the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area and constructed a detailed 3-D S-wave velocity ( V s) model using continuous records from a dense seismic network and surrounding stations. The low-velocity zones were found beneath Naruko Volcano, Onikobe Caldera, and Mt. Kurikoma. The low-velocity zone beneath Onikobe Caldera may correspond to a magma reservoir, which is also characterized by surrounding S-wave reflectors. The molten magma originates from the upwelling flows in the mantle wedge. We also conducted the relocation of aftershocks of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake by double-difference tomography based on the obtained velocity model. Beneath Mt. Kurikoma, aftershock distribution delineates one of the unfavorably oriented fault planes of the main shock, which implies that the low-velocity zone around the fault plane is related to the presence of overpressurized fluid.

  18. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  19. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-04-01

    > axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the mainshock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the mainshock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the mainshock had existed even before the mainshock, although we don't know why it was formed. Unfavorable orientation of the mainshock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  20. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region. PMID:20830516

  1. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and

  2. Spatiotemporal model for crustal deformation around the focal area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake, northeastern Japan, estimated by GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzono, M.; McCaffrey, R.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.; Iinuma, T.; Tachibana, K.; Sato, T.

    2009-12-01

    Applying the program tDEFNODE [McCaffrey, GRL09] to model elastic lithospheric block rotations and strains, and locking or coseismic slip on block-bounding faults, we model GPS and InSAR data of crustal deformation before and after the 2008 M7.2 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake (IMEQ). The epicenter of the IMEQ is located in a high strain rate zone along the Ou Backbone Range (OBR) in northeastern Japan, where volcanic front runs subparallel to the Japan Trench. Along eastern and western margin of the OBR, major inland active faults have been growing. In order to clarify detailed strain field around these active faults, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) installed 7 new continuous GPS sites with ~5 km spacing across the Dedana Fault (DF), which is a part of the eastern marginal active faults, in October 2007. Because the DF is located at only ~20 km northeast from the hypocenter of the IMEQ, the detailed coseismic and postseismic crustal deformation was obtained at these GPS sites [Ohta et al., EPS08; Iinuma et al., GRL09]. Takada et al. [EPS09] also estimated coseismic faults from InSAR with pixel-offset method. These studies, however, handled each data independently. We unify both GPS and InSAR data to model crustal deformation over inter-, co-, and post-seismic period using tDEFNODE. This code interprets geodetic timeseries data by assuming elastic block rotation, transient phenomena such as slow slip, and coseismic slip, on the block boundary faults. We use timeseries data obtained by continuous GPS networks conducted by JNES, Tohoku University, Geographical Survey Institute (GSI), National Astronomical Observatory (NAO), and IGS from 2006 to June 2009, together with a temporal network for postseismic deformation installed by Japanese University Consortium for GPS Research (JUNCO). InSAR data is obtained by analyzing images of ALOS/PALSAR mission. We presumed three blocks in the study area divided by two boundary faults. We expressed the time

  3. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents living in an area affected by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kanzo; Suzuki, Koya; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Sasaki, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the area affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami for 3 years immediately following the disaster. Children and adolescents graded four to nine and attending school in the Pacific coastal area of northern Japan were included in a total of four serial prevalence investigations: the first at 6 months after the earthquake/tsunami (I, n = 434) and additional surveys at 1 year (II, n = 437), 2 years (III, n = 401), and 3 years (IV, n = 365) after the earthquake. Students were also required to undergo assessment of their accelerometer-determined daily steps and sedentary time using a self-administrated questionnaire. Accelerometer-determined median daily steps of children and adolescents were significantly different (p < 0.05) on both weekdays and weekends over 3 years. The median daily steps of children of both genders on weekdays and those of girls on weekends at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. In addition, the median daily steps of adolescents on weekdays among girls and weekends among boys at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. It appears that children and adolescents who survive the earthquake and tsunami experience a decrease in physical activity levels. Future research should elucidate longitudinal demographic and sociocultural factors that contribute to changes in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the areas affected by these disasters. PMID:26844143

  4. Satellite estimation of leaf area index across the east Siberia and the northern Japan from 1998 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Delbart, N.; Suzuki, R.; Kushida, K.; Ito, A.

    2011-12-01

    Reliable monitoring of the leaf area index (LAI) is required to further understand the carbon, water, and energy cycles of forests. Kobayashi et al. VOL. 115, G01002, doi:10.1029/2009JG000939, JGR (2010) proposed a satellite-based method to estimate the overstory LAI (LAIo) separately from the understory LAI (LAIu) for larch forests covering eastern Siberia. Their method utilizes the seasonal increase in normalized difference water index (NDWI) for LAI estimation. The relationship between NDVI and LAI was calibrated by a three-dimensional radiative transfer model. The objectives of this study are (1) to extend the analysis to the whole observation period of SPOT-VEGETATION, from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to validate the LAI data sets by the ground-based overstory larch LAI measurements that were obtained at a Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) in Kushiro watershed (43o 22'N, 144o22') in the summer of 2011. The ground-based LAI was estimated from the gap fractions along four 30-m long transects at Japanese larch. The estimated effective LAI and apparent clumping index at the site was 1.29, and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the LAI of the site was about 1.7. The ten-year's time series LAI shows interannual variations in LAI in particular in 2008 when the large-scale flooding occurred.

  5. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V. ); Temples, T.J. ); Fallaw, W.C. . Dept. of Geology); Snipes, D.S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America.

  6. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  7. Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention. PMID:23034263

  8. Vertical Seismic Profiling at riser drilling site in the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake, Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, R.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    A series of scientific drilling expeditions is in operation in the Nankai Trough to reveal the faulting mechanism of the magathrust earthquakes, through clarifying composition, fine structure, mechanical behavior, and environmental variables of the seismogenic faults. In the studied area, extensive seismic surveys for site characterization have been made to image detailed geometry of the fault complex in the accretionary prism as well as Vp distribution around the faults. Although these previous surveys provided invaluable information for understanding seismotectonic processes in this subduction zone, more complete knowledge is needed to be acquired to predict dynamic behavior of the faults, such as geometrical irregularities in short wavelength, Vs and seismic attenuation which are sensitive to fluid distribution in and around fault zones. It is expected that estimation of these parameters would be improved considerably by a seismic exploration using a vertical array of seismographs installed in a deep borehole (VSP: vertical seismic profiling). In July 2009, we made a VSP at one of the drilling sites located just above the rupture area of the 1994 Tonankai Earthquake (M 8.1), during the IODP Exp.319. The well site of our VSP was made by the riser drilling of D/V Chikyu. The seismic array, lowered from Chikyu into the hole, was composed of a three-component accelerometer and vertical separation of the array elements was 15.12 m. The VSP was composed of offset VSP and zero-offset VSP. In the offset VSP, a tuned airgun array towed by R/V Kairei was shot along one straight line (walk-away VSP) and another circular line (walk-around VSP) and seismic signals were recorded by an array consisting of 16 elements installed from 907 to 1,135 m in depth from seafloor. The object of the walk-away VSP is to obtain fine image of the faults using reflection arrivals with less attenuation. It is also expected to obtain spatial variation of Vs from arrival time tomography of

  9. Seismic Microzonation of Urban areas in India - A case study from Jabalpur, Central India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is seismically one of the most active regions in the world, having experienced four earthquakes of magnitude greater than 8.0 during the last century. This has necessitated detailed Seismic Microzonation approaches for assessment of seismic hazard and risk potential of several highly populated Indian mega-cities that face the wrath of future earthquakes. A multi-disciplinary and multi-Institutional pilot study was launched in the Jabalpur urban area in Central India for a realistic assessment of seismic hazard and the associated risk to the region. Ground amplification at local sites in the frequency range of 0.1 - 10 Hz was obtained at more than 100 sites in and around Jabalpur using the conventional Nakamura technique to estimate the predominant frequencies and the site amplification at those frequencies for each site. A strong correlation is seen between the predominant frequencies and the ground conditions, like the local geology, the composition of the top soil cover, its thickness and impedance contrast with respect to the basement, etc. To validate these results, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique was adopted, coupled with refraction measurements over short profiles (~100m). This has resulted in detailed shear velocity images of the shallow subsurface, which are crucial for estimation of the amplification of seismic signals propagating through the medium. Based on these results synthetic seismograms were generated using a hybrid method comprising normal mode summation for the regional 1D structure and the Finite difference approach for site specific 2D structure of the medium. Local site amplifications expressed as the Response Spectral Ratios (RSR) - the ratio of 2D to 1D ground acceleration response - were estimated. In general, the RSR values correlated well with the composition and thickness of the upper soil cover. The alluvial filled region in the northwestern part of Jabalpur having soil thickness up to 30

  10. External effective radiation dose to workers in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the third year after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Sakumi, Akira; Miyagawa, Ryu; Tamari, Yuki; Nawa, Kanabu; Sakura, Osamu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, Iitate Village has continued to be classified as a deliberate evacuation area, in which residents are estimated to receive an annual additional effective radiation dose of >20 mSv. Some companies still operate in Iitate Village, with a special permit from the Cabinet Office Team in Charge of Assisting the Lives of Disaster Victims. In this study, we measured the annual effective radiation dose to workers in Iitate Village from 15 January to 13 December 2013. The workers stayed in Iitate for 10 h and left the village for the remaining 14 h each working day. They worked for 5 days each week in Iitate Village, but stayed outside of the village for the remaining 2 days each week. We found that the effective radiation dose of 70% of the workers was <2 mSv, including natural radiation; the maximum dose was 3.6 mSv. We estimated the potential annual additional effective radiation dose if people returned full-time to Iitate. Our analysis supports the plan for people to return to their home village at the end of 2017. PMID:26661855

  11. External effective radiation dose to workers in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the third year after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakumi, Akira; Miyagawa, Ryu; Tamari, Yuki; Nawa, Kanabu; Sakura, Osamu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, Iitate Village has continued to be classified as a deliberate evacuation area, in which residents are estimated to receive an annual additional effective radiation dose of >20 mSv. Some companies still operate in Iitate Village, with a special permit from the Cabinet Office Team in Charge of Assisting the Lives of Disaster Victims. In this study, we measured the annual effective radiation dose to workers in Iitate Village from 15 January to 13 December 2013. The workers stayed in Iitate for 10 h and left the village for the remaining 14 h each working day. They worked for 5 days each week in Iitate Village, but stayed outside of the village for the remaining 2 days each week. We found that the effective radiation dose of 70% of the workers was <2 mSv, including natural radiation; the maximum dose was 3.6 mSv. We estimated the potential annual additional effective radiation dose if people returned full-time to Iitate. Our analysis supports the plan for people to return to their home village at the end of 2017. PMID:26661855

  12. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western...

  15. Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network: A Reflective Summary of Four Years of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mary Gendernalik

    This article traces the development of the Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network Initiative (PDSNI), which began in 1998 as a collaboration between the Department of Teacher Development at Augusta State University, Georgia, and four adjacent school systems. The collaboration's mission was to cultivate a network…

  16. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease Sales for the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program...) Lease Sale 222 in the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program. The proposed sales are in the Gulf of Mexico's WPA... 2012, before the end of the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program. A SEIS is deemed appropriate to...

  17. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and describes the…

  18. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  19. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  20. Geologic and isostatic map of the Nenana Basin area, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, G.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Stanley, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The Nenana Basin area is a prospective petroleum province in central Alaska, and this geologic and isostatic gravity map is part of a petroleum resource assessment of the area. The geology was compiled from published sources (Chapman and others, 1971, 1975a, 1975b, 1982; Chapman and Yeend, 1981; Csejtey and others, 1986; Jones and others, 1983; Pewe and others, 1966; Reed, 1961; and Weber and others, 1992), as shown on the index map (map sheet). Map units are organized and presented according to the scheme of lithotectonic terranes proposed by Jones and others (1987) and Silberling and Jones (1984); we recognize, however, that this terrane scheme is controversial and likely to be revised in the future. In some cases, we combined certain terranes because we were unable to match the terrane boundaries given by Jones and others (1987) and Silberling and Jones (1984) with specific faults shown on existing geologic maps. Postaccretion cover deposits represent overlap assemblages that depositionally overlie accreted terranes. Plutonic igneous rocks shown on this map include several plutons that are clearly postaccretionary, based on isotopic ages and (or) field relations. It is possible that some of the plutons predate accretion, but this has not been demonstrated. According to Jones and others (1982), the terranes in the area of our map were assembled during late Mesozoic or earliest Cenozoic time. The gravity contours are derived from data used in earlier compilations (Barnes, 1961, 1977; Hackett, 1981; Valin and others, 1991; Frost and Stanley, 1991) that are supplemented by some National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data along the Alaska Pipeline level line (W.E. Strange, written commun., 1980). The earlier compilations were used for simple Bouguer maps, prepared primarily by non-digital methods, and are superseded by this map. The present map is the result of digital processing that includes the 1967 Geodetic Reference System, the IGSN-71

  1. Seismic high attenuation area beneath the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (M7.2) and Mt. Chokai in NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikasho, K.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Hayami, E.; Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2011-12-01

    volcanic front of NE Japan. This anomaly seems to connect the high attenuation area just below the volcanoes of the focal area. This distribution beneath Mt. Chokai corresponds with the distribution of the seismic low velocity zone (Okada et al., 2010). The seismicity is active around the boundary with the low-Qs and high-Qs and/or in high-Qs anomaly. The low-frequency earthquakes are distributed in the edge of the high attenuation area in the lower crust below the volcanoes.

  2. [A clinical study on tuberculosis among young adults in Japan: analysis on patients admitted to national hospitals in Kanto- and Kinki-areas in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Hideki; Yonemaru, Makoto; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Sasaki, Yuka; Toyoda, Emiko; Yamagishi, Fumio; Kudoh, Koichiro; Kurasawa, Takuya; Ito, Masami; Kawashiro, Takeo; Sakatani, Mitsunori; Mori, Masashi

    2003-08-01

    Considering the high social activity, the trend of tuberculosis among young adults appears to be one of the key factors that influence the future morbidity rate of tuberculosis in Japan. To investigate its current characteristics, we analyzed new cases of tuberculosis aged 20 to 29 who were admitted to 7 national hospitals in Kanto- and Kinki-areas during the period of January 1st to December 31st, 2000. Data on the following items were compiled: sex, age, body height and weight, nationality; background factors such as life style, complications; course of the disease before the diagnosis; result of PPD skin test; severity of the disease estimated by the amount of M. tuberculosis in sputum and the grade of chest X-ray findings; therapeutic regimens and the response rate. Data were collected from 234 patients (129 males and 105 females) and the results were as follows: 1) about 80% of the patients were symptomatic and in 50% of patients who presented with cough, more than one month was needed before establishing the diagnosis as TB, 2) the disease was found in advanced stage in more than half of the patients, 3) foreigner patients, most of them were from Kanto-area, accounted for 11%, and were in advanced stage, some with drug-resistant tuberculosis, 4) INH resistance was noted in 7.7%, 5) pyrazinamide was included in the therapeutic regimens in 84.0% of the smear positive patients, 6) the admission period was within 90 days in 63.7% of the patients, however, the duration of treatment was 6 months in only 48.0% of patients who were treated with regimens containing pyrazinamide. More efforts for early detection of patients is needed to prevent the transmission of the disease, and more extensive use of directly observed therapy is essential for the prevention of dropout. We also argued about the shortening of the admission and duration of treatment in these patients. PMID:14509224

  3. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  4. 16ch high-resolution seismic reflection surveys on the active fault of upper fore-arc slope off Okinawa Island, central Ryukyu Island Arc, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Sato, T.; Tuzino, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH08 (from 28th July to 29th August 2008) and GH09 (from 16th July to 17th August 2009) were carried out around Okinawa Island, which is located on the central Ryukyu Island Arc. More than 4,500 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these two cruises by the GI-gun (355cu. inch) or the Cluster-gun (30+30 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. Survey area in the southeast off Okinawa Island is located on the upper fore-arc slope. Seismic reflections of the upper fore-arc slope show a distinct reflector which may represent erosional unconformable surface. The distinct reflector had tilted southeastward and was overlain by the stratified sediments. No obvious deformation such as the fold and faults parallel to the Ryukyu Trench axis was found under the upper slope. In contrast, some active faults which were perpendicular to the Ryukyu Trench axis (NW-SE direction) were observed. The most conspicuous normal fault was found on north off Okinawa Island. The fault with 70-80°dipping toward northeast has been active since the early Pleistocene inferred from seismic stratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biochronology. The maximum displacement reaches to 0.7 s two way travel time in depth. An average of maximum vertical displace component of the normal fault may reach up to ten cm/1000 years. Seismic profiles indicate that the tilting of Ryukyu Island Arc forward to the Ryukyu Trench plays the important role of formation of the fault in a NW-SE direction.

  5. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  7. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  9. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan

    2003-09-02

    The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model

  10. Three-dimensional resistivity characterization of a coastal area: Application of Grounded Electrical-Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey data from Kujukuri Beach, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Allah, Sabry; Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Jomori, Akira; Yuuki, Youichi; Fomenko, Elena; Kiho, Kenzo; Kaieda, Hideshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro

    2013-12-01

    An airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey using the Grounded Electrical-Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetic (GREATEM) system was conducted over the Kujukuri coastal plain in southeast Japan to assess the system's ability to accurately describe the geological structure beneath shallow seawater. To obtain high-quality data with an optimized signal-to-noise ratio, a series of data processing techniques were used to obtain the final transient response curves from the field survey data. These steps included movement correction, coordinate transformation, the removal of local noise, data stacking, and signal portion extraction. We performed numerical forward modeling to generate a three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure model from the GREATEM data. This model was developed from an initial one-dimensional (1D) resistivity structure that was also inverted from the GREATEM field survey data. We modified a 3D electromagnetic forward-modeling scheme based on a finite-difference staggered-grid method and used it to calculate the response of the 3D resistivity model along each survey line. We verified the model by examining the fit of the magnetic-transient responses between field data and the 3D forward-model computed data, the latter of which were convolved with the measured system responses of the corresponding data set. The inverted 3D resistivity structures showed that the GREATEM system has the capability to map resistivity structures as far as 800 m offshore and as deep as 300-350 m underground in coastal areas of relatively shallow seawater depth (5-10 m).

  11. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  12. Impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the IL28B gene in patients positive for anti-HCV antibody in an HCV hyperendemic area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oda, Kohei; Uto, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Kotaro; Ido, Akio; Kusumoto, Kazunori; Shimoda, Kazuya; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Stuver, Sherri O; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2014-11-01

    The influence of genetic variation at the interleukin-28B (IL28B) locus on the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to examine whether an IL28B polymorphism (rs8099917) is associated with natural clearance of HCV and with disease parameters of HCV infection in an HCV hyperendemic area of Japan. The patients were 502 anti-HCV antibody-positive residents who participated in liver disease screening program from 2002 to 2004. Patients who underwent interferon-based therapy or had hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. Of these patients, 149 were negative for HCV RNA (prior infection) and 353 were positive for HCV RNA or HCV core antigen (HCV carriers). In multivariate analysis, the IL28B TT genotype was a predictor for prior HCV infection. In addition, nine of the patients with prior HCV infection were positive for anti-HCV antibody with positive for HCV core antigen or HCV RNA before 2001, and these nine patients all had the IL28B TT genotype. Furthermore, the IL28B TT genotype was associated independently with higher HCV core antigen levels in HCV carriers. In contrast, the IL28B genotype did not affect the biochemical markers, such as alanine aminotransferase, hepatic fibrosis markers, and α-fetoprotein, and the degree of hepatic fibrosis assessed by transient elastography in HCV carriers. We concluded that IL28B polymorphism (TT genotype) is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV and conversely with high viral loads in HCV carriers. In contrast, the IL28B genotype does not affect disease progression such as hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25100136

  13. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  14. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  15. Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando Area, Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.; Bradner, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells exist in Orange County, central Florida. The rate of recharge through drainage wells is limited by the rate of surface flow to the wells; the hydraulic properties of weirs, overflow pipes, and well casings; or the water level above the top of the casing. The rate commonly is not limited by the hydraulic properties of the very transmissive aquifer system.

  16. 78 FR 36571 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...This notice extends through July 18, 2013, the post-sale evaluation period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227. BOEM will complete the evaluation process for all bids received in this sale by July 18, 2013. This action is necessary due to resource limitations resulting from sequestration. BOEM is unable to pay overtime to expedite the bid review process, including the......

  17. 77 FR 29683 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Sale; 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...On Wednesday, June 20, 2012, BOEM will open and publicly announce bids received for the blocks offered in Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Sale 216/222, in accordance with provisions of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) (43 U.S.C. 1331-1356, as amended) and the regulations issued thereunder (30 CFR part 556). The CPA Sale 216/222 Package contains information essential to potential bidders,......

  18. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE

  19. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright areas, central Alaska, June 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Abraham, Jared D.; Voss, Clifford I.; Astley, Beth N.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright study areas in central Alaska. These data were collected to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of permafrost at the time of the survey. These data were also collected to evaluate the effectiveness of these geophysical methods at mapping permafrost geometry and to better define the physical properties of the subsurface in discontinuous permafrost areas. This report releases digital data associated with these surveys. Inverted resistivity depth sections are also provided in this data release, and data processing and inversion methods are discussed.

  20. Revisiting the high temperature metamorphic field gradient of the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan): New constraints from the Iwakuni-Yanai area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Etienne; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Hirajima, Takao; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Ikeda, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the origin of the metamorphic field gradient exposed in the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan) - the type locality for low pressure/high temperature (LP/HT) conditions - based on combined structural, petrological and geochronological data from the Iwakuni-Yanai area (W Ryoke). In this area metasedimentary rocks pass from schist in the north to partly migmatitic paragneiss in the south, and are surrounded by numerous granitoid bodies. Three deformation phases are emphasized; an accretionary-stage or burial deformation of weak intensity (D0), a vertical shortening (D1) which generated a subhorizontal, locally extensional foliation in the southern gneiss zone, and E-W upright folding (D2) which reworked both the northern schist and southern gneiss zones. Crystallization-deformation relationships indicate that, in the schist zone, most andalusite, cordierite and mica porphyroblasts formed after D0 and before D1. Syn-D1 mineral assemblages define E-W trending metamorphic zones with increasing grade from north to south, and rare syn-D2 parageneses reveal a similar pattern. Continuous magmatic activity lasted from ca. 105 to 94 Ma. The oldest granitoids (Shimokuhara, Soo, Namera), found in the western part of the belt, were emplaced below schistose rocks at 105-100 Ma. Subsequently, syn- to post-D1 granodiorite (Gamano) intruded concordantly with the foliation of southern, high-grade gneissic rocks from 100 to 94 Ma. A large, syn-D1 pluton (Kibe) intruded the center of the belt at 98 Ma, whereas a younger granite (Iwakuni) and its satellite dykes were emplaced to the northeast at 96-94 Ma. Constraints on the timing of D1 (103-99 Ma) and the likely diachronous D2 phase (100-94 Ma) suggest a deformation continuum during magma intrusion and metamorphism. We conclude that the exposed metamorphic field gradient is an apparent, but fortuitous, alignment of P-T data resulting from spatially and temporally distinct thermal events. Peak temperature conditions in the relatively

  1. Early delta inhabitants: Reconstruction of Late Saalian landscape and habitation history of Flevoland and the Gelderse Vallei area (central Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Biggelaar, Don; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Balen, Ronald; Kolen, Jan; Verpoorte, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Prior to the maximum southward extension of the Fennoscandian ice sheet (MIS 6, ~150 ka) the central Netherlands was part of a large delta which was inhabited by hunter-gathers. The Middle Palaeolithic flint artefacts left by these early inhabitants of the central Netherlands occur in ice-pushed ridges surrounding the Gelderse Vallei area. These ridges contain pushed alluvial deposits from the rivers Rhine and Meuse. Given the occurrence of the Middle Palaeolithic flint artefacts in the ice-pushed ridges surrounding the Gelderse Vallei area and the knowledge that the ice-pushed ridges continue into the subsurface of Flevoland, we hypothesize that the area of Middle Palaeolithic habitation has a northward extension, via the study area towards the mouth of the river Rhine into a proglacial lake in the current North Sea Basin. To test this hypothesis we have analysed high-quality coring data of pushed Rhine and Meuse alluvial deposits in the subsurface of Almere and correlated to the Middle Palaeolithic artefact-bearing layer exposed in quarries in the Gelderse Vallei area.

  2. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. PMID:26569554

  3. New data on Berriasian biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and sedimentology in the Belogorsk area (Central Crimea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkadiev, V. V.; Baraboshkin, E. Yu.; Bagaeva, M. I.; Bogdanova, T. N.; Guzhikov, A. Yu.; Manikin, A. G.; Piskunov, V. K.; Platonov, E. S.; Savel'eva, Yu. N.; Feodorova, A. A.; Shurekova, O. V.

    2015-03-01

    The most complete composite Berriasian bio- and magnetostratigraphic section of central Crimea is characterized for the first time with a description of the contact between the carbonate Bedenekyr and terrigenous Bechku formations. The section contains all the standard ammonite zones: jacobi, occitanica, and boissieri. The Malbosiceras chaperi Beds are attributed to the occitanica Zone. The Berriasian section is characterized by six foraminiferal assemblages, ostracods (Costacythere khiamii-Hechticythere belbekensis and Costaythere drushchitzi-Reticythere marfenini beds), and dinocysts (Phobercysta neocomica Beds). The magnetostratigraphic section contains analogs of Chrons M17 and M16 reliably correlated with ammonite zones. On the basis of paleomagnetic data, the Berriasian section of central Crimea is correlated with coeval sections of the Mediterranean Region. The sedimenological analysis confirms accumulation of Berriasian sediments mostly in shallow shelf environments of the carbonate platform.

  4. Crop identification and acreage estimation over large geographic areas using LANDSAT MSS data. [south central Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The comparison between the acreage estimates for the April LANDSAT data and the USDA Statistical Reporting Service estimates show no significant difference for the south central crop reporting district in Kansas. A paired-t test with an alpha = .05 was run comparing the percentages of wheat in each county. The results of their test showed no significant difference between the two estimates for wheat.

  5. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  6. Deep geometry and evolution of the northern part of Itoigwa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system, Central Japan, revealed by Seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Iwasaki, T.; Matsuta, N.; Takeda, T.; Kawasaki, S.; Kozawa, T.; Elouai, D.; Hirata, N.; Kawanaka, T.

    2003-12-01

    The northern Fossa Magna (NFM) is a Miocene rift system produced in the final stages of the opening of the Sea of Japan. It divides the major structure of Japan into SW and NE portions. The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) bounds the western part of the northern Fossa Magna and forms an active fault system showing the one of the largest slip rates in the Japanese islands. Based on the paleo-seismological data, the ISTL active fault system was evaluated to have the highest seismic risk among active faults within inland Japan. A quantitative understanding of active tectonic processes, including crustal deformation and related destructive earthquakes, is important in reducing seismic hazards through precise estimation of strong ground motions. The structure of the crust, especially the deep geometry of active fault systems, is the most important piece information required to construct such a dynamic model. In this context, the seismic reflection profiling was performed across the northern part of the ISTL active fault system by three seismic lines. Obtained seismic sections are interpreted based on the pattern of reflectors, surface geology and velocity model by refraction analysis, using the balanced cross section technique. The 68-km-long Itoshizu 2002 seismic section across the northern middle part of the ISTL active fault system suggest that the Miocene NFM basin was formed by an east dipping normal fault with shallow flat (6 km), deeper ramp (6 15 km) and deeper flat at 15 km in depth. This unique geometry is interpreted that this low-angle normal fault was produced by Miocene high thermal regime, estimated from the thick volcanic rocks at the base of the basin fill. Namely, the normal fault reflects the brittle-ductile boundary in Miocene. Consequently, since the Pliocene, the basin fill was strongly folded by the reverse faulting along the pre-existing normal faults in the Pre-Neogene rocks. The reverse faults in the basin fill produced fault

  7. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji

    2014-05-01

    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  8. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  9. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  10. Separate estimation of N export into baseline N leakage without disturbance and N loss due to insect defoliation in a pine forest watershed in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Naoko, Tokuchi; Nobuhito, Ohte; Ken'ichi, Osaka; Masanori, Katsuyama

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is caused by a non-native pest that has spread extensively throughout Japan. Previous research has indicated that most infected trees have died and the litter deposited has resulted in changes to stream-water chemistry, particularly increased nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations. In this study, we divided stream nitrogen (N) export into N loss due to PWD and baseline N leakage without disturbance based on long-term monitoring. The annual N export was 110.0 mol N ha(-1) year(-1) in 1990 and 749.8 mol N ha(-1) year(-1) in 1997, and had decreased to 37.0 mol N ha(-1) year(-1) in 2005. N export under PWD influence was estimated to be 3697 mol N ha(-1), and N loss due to PWD was 2810 mol N ha(-1). N loss due to PWD was three times larger than baseline N leakage for the disturbed period. These changes in plant-herbivore relationships could affect N status in a forest ecosystem. So-called "semi-natural" disturbances related to non-native species invasion and increases of atmospheric N deposition caused by human activity will increase. Long-term monitoring studies of various aspects are necessary to offer insight into this ecosystem. PMID:22454049

  11. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  12. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  13. Central household -- a good way for family planning in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Z

    1991-08-01

    Family planning implementation in Xinggou Township of Donggou County, Liaoning Province, and Shanghai, China is discussed. The successful approach in Liaoning Province was the 1984 establishment of central households for family planning, in which women of childbearing age are gathered together for FP activities. The female head of the household is designated as group leader of the central household, and must be of high prestige, honest, a good organizer, fairly well educated, and enthusiastic about FP. As a result, the planned birth rate has been maintained at 100% since 1985. In 1989 there were only 11 induced abortions. Among all women of childbearing age, 90% were IUD users. The central households have been commended for their accomplishments. In recent years, the education of women of childbearing age was attained. Learning covered basic population theory, healthy birthing and child rearing, laws and regulations on FP, the trend in population growth, and awareness of resources/per capita. Farmers favored science films, FP lectures, knowledge competitions, and performances. Another accomplishment was in the combining FP information with information on economic development. As a result of information dissemination, farmers learned about local resources and production information such as farming techniques and processing of agricultural products. A complete information network was formed by group leaders, Fp workers, and other people. Central households provide contraceptive and birth control services, childbearing and child rearing support, a babysitting service, and a medical service for women and children. Family planning success in Shanghai, China is evidenced in the birth rate in 1990 of 10.25/1000, a rate of natural increase of 3.51/1000, and recognition as the best in the country. Family planning target administration begun in 1989, publicity, and education contributed to the success. Publicity workers are effective. By 1990 5 million had received basic FP

  14. Territorial dynamics and boundary effects in a protected area of the Central Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Las Heras, Paloma; Fernández-Sañudo, Paloma; López-Estébanez, Nieves; Roldán, María José

    2011-03-01

    We analysed the main changes in land use over a 21 year period within the perimeter of a Protected Natural Area (PNA) and outside this perimeter. The area is characterised by its Mediterranean mid-mountain landscape and its piedmont, which extends almost as far as the city of Madrid. We employed cartography of land use and plant formation from 1980 and 2001. We identified land uses and their changes in this time period in order to determine the principal territorial dynamics (scrub encroachment, urban development, forest encroachment, new pastures and new crops). Subsequently, we performed a comparative analysis between the changes inside and those outside the protected area. The results show that there is a boundary effect between the protected area and the surrounding zone, which is more notable in the areas where urban development has intensified. This kind of research serves to establish whether or not a PNA contributes to protecting and conserving natural resources as compared to what occurs in the unprotected surrounding area, which tends to be subjected to more aggressive dynamics.

  15. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  16. Limbic areas are functionally decoupled and visual cortex takes a more central role during fear conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Lithari, Chrysa; Moratti, Stephan; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Going beyond the focus on isolated brain regions (e.g. amygdala), recent neuroimaging studies on fear conditioning point to the relevance of a network of mutually interacting brain regions. In the present MEG study we used Graph Theory to uncover changes in the architecture of the brain functional network shaped by fear conditioning. Firstly, induced power analysis revealed differences in local cortical excitability (lower alpha and beta power) between CS+ and CS- localized to somatosensory cortex and insula. What is more striking however is that the graph theoretical measures unveiled a re-organization of brain functional connections, not evident using conventional power analysis. Subcortical fear-related structures exhibited reduced connectivity with temporal and frontal areas rendering the overall brain functional network more sparse during fear conditioning. At the same time, the calcarine took on a more central role in the network. Interestingly, the more the connectivity of limbic areas is reduced, the more central the role of the occipital cortex becomes. We speculated that both, the reduced coupling in some regions and the emerging centrality of others, contribute to the efficient processing of fear-relevant information during fear learning. PMID:27381479

  17. Limbic areas are functionally decoupled and visual cortex takes a more central role during fear conditioning in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lithari, Chrysa; Moratti, Stephan; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Going beyond the focus on isolated brain regions (e.g. amygdala), recent neuroimaging studies on fear conditioning point to the relevance of a network of mutually interacting brain regions. In the present MEG study we used Graph Theory to uncover changes in the architecture of the brain functional network shaped by fear conditioning. Firstly, induced power analysis revealed differences in local cortical excitability (lower alpha and beta power) between CS+ and CS− localized to somatosensory cortex and insula. What is more striking however is that the graph theoretical measures unveiled a re-organization of brain functional connections, not evident using conventional power analysis. Subcortical fear-related structures exhibited reduced connectivity with temporal and frontal areas rendering the overall brain functional network more sparse during fear conditioning. At the same time, the calcarine took on a more central role in the network. Interestingly, the more the connectivity of limbic areas is reduced, the more central the role of the occipital cortex becomes. We speculated that both, the reduced coupling in some regions and the emerging centrality of others, contribute to the efficient processing of fear-relevant information during fear learning. PMID:27381479

  18. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  19. [The origin of long-distance water supply in the central German area and its significance from a hygienic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Malyska, G

    1994-08-01

    By means of the climatic, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the middle German area the unfavorable water household also due to anthropogenic influences caused through mining and industry will be described. These conditions have, already in the first half of this century, lead to disadvantages concerning the drinking water supply for the population in this territory. Based on older ideas for improving the water supply in the middle German area the long-distance water supply system Elbaue-Ostharz was built after the 2. world war using the water supplies of the river Bode in the Harz, of the Elbaue as well as water from the Dübener Heide to overcome the bad water supply situation in middle Germany. In this connection the efforts of the public health service for improving the drinking water quality in the former country of Sachsen-Anhalt in the DDR will be described. Due to an increased connection of the population in the middle German area with local central water supplies as well as with the long-distance water supply up to 1990 92% of the population could be supplied with drinking water from central water supplies. Nevertheless it was not possible to manage all problems of drinking water quality up to 1990. These problems concerned local central water supplies due to not existing or inadequate plants for water refinement in waterworks and poor conditions of the drinking water pipe nets. Despite all an increasing improvement of the drinking water could be registered as a result of decrease in drinking water consumption, the shutting of water works with water catchments on hygienic unfavorable places, the refurbishment of water works and the further connection from communes with long-distance water supplies. At present and in future too the long-distance water supply will be necessary for the middle German area to guarantee a sufficient quantity as well as quality of drinking water for the population in this territory. PMID:7802894

  20. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  1. Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

    2014-07-15

    The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. PMID:24934441

  2. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  3. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  4. Exploration for areas suitable for ground-water development, central Connecticut Valley lowlands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    Drilling and geophysical borehole logs for a 25-sq-mi section of the Connecticut River valley lowlands area of Amherst, Hadley, and Sunderland, Massachusetts, indicate that the area is mostly underlain by fine-grained lacustrine deposits. Nine test wells ranging in depth from 100 to 303 ft completely penetrate the unconsolidated valley fill. Geophysical logs indicate that the lacustrine deposits grade from clay to slightly coarser silt or fine sand with increasing depth. Seismic-refraction surveys indicate bedrock surfaces ranging from 138 to 476 ft below land surface. Interpretation of a continuous seismic-reflection profile on 10.8 mi of the Connecticut River indicates some areas where coarse deposits may underlie the fine-grained lake deposits. These deposits appear to range in thickness from 0 to 165 ft. Bedrock surfaces with elevations down to 190 ft below sea level also were indicated. Water is presently being withdrawn from limited and irregularly distributed sand and gravel deposits for municipal supplies. These deposits may be continuous with previously mapped surficial ice-contact sand and gravel deposits. Areas that are most favorable for future groundwater exploration are mainly in the southern part of the area, between the Connecticut River and the Holyoke Range. (USGS)

  5. Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

    2014-04-15

    The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

  6. Age dating and flow path evaluation of groundwater by SF6 and microbe in the foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Sakakibara, Koichi; Umei, Yohei; Ohara, Kazuma

    2016-04-01

    A variety of industries are developed at the foot of volcanic mountains in Japan and the groundwater is major source for industrial activity in those regions. The age of groundwater has been estimated to be from 10 to 30 years in Mt. Fuji regions by using 36Cl and 3H. However, the age has not been evaluated using SF6 with higher time resolution in these regions. Also, the total number of prokaryotes shows a specific value in each spring water, suggesting different path and age of the groundwater. Therefore, we aim to estimate residence time and the groundwater flow in three dimensions using the multi-tracers approach; CFCs, SF6, the total number of prokaryotes, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium. We collected totally 25 spring water samples in Mt. Fuji and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium, CFCs, SF6. The apparent age of the spring water was estimated to be ranging from 4 to 19 years at the foot of Mt. Fuji. These results are reasonable as considering the existed age data by36Cl (Tosaki, 2008) in this region. The spring water with younger age tends to show higher total number of prokaryotes, suggesting that the groundwater flows dominantly through the shallow and young lava with the higher total number of prokaryotes, leads to younger age. Focusing on a specific spring water, the seasonal change of SF6 and total number of prokaryotes were monitored. The spring water showed a younger age and higher total number of prokaryotes during the high water flow season, whereas it showed an older age and lower total number of prokaryotes. Therefore, the total number of prokaryotes shows a good negative correlation with the residence time of the spring/ groundwater in space and time. This shows a possibility that the total number of prokaryotes could be a useful tracer of groundwater for time and space in the three dimensions information.

  7. Central Nervous System Effects of the Second-Generation Antihistamines Marketed in Japan -Review of Inter-Drug Differences Using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR)-

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Tatsuya; Kono, Takeshi; Hindmarch, Ian; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Murakami, Aya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Second-generation antihistamines (AHs) have, in general, fewer sedative effects than the first-generation. However, important inter-drug differences remain in the degree of cognitive and/or psychomotor impairment. The extent to which a particular compound causes disruption can be conveniently compared, to all other AHs, using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR). Although the PIR can differentiate the relative impairment caused by individual drugs, there is no indication of the reliability of the ratios obtained. Objective To calculate the PIRs –together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), as an index of reliability– and compare AHs currently, or soon to be, available in Japan, with respect to their intrinsic capacity to cause impairment. Methods Results from studies of cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mequitazine, and olopatadine were included in the PIR calculations. All data utilised came from crossover studies in healthy volunteers which were randomised and placebo and positive-internal controlled. Existing databases from studies reporting the sedative effects of AHs on objective (speed, accuracy, memory) and subjective (feeling) psychometrics were augmented, via results from suitable studies published after the previous reviews. The null value for a PIR was one. Results A total of 45 studies were finally included for this review. Of the AHs assessed, fexofenadine, ebastine, and levocetirizine showed a PIR for objective tests of 0. However, only fexofenadine (PIR = 0.49) had an upper limit of the 95% CI of less than 1. Fexofenadine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, olopatadine, loratadine, and mequitazine all had a PIR for subjective ratings of 0, but the upper limits of the 95% CIs were all in excess of 1, although fexofenadine (PIR = 2.57) was the lowest. Conclusions The results show that there are differences between second-generation AHs in the extent of sedation produced. However

  8. Mafic mantle sources indicated by the olivine-spinifex basalt-ferropicrite lavas in the accreted Permian oceanic LIP fragments and Miocene low-Ni basalt and adakite lavas in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, A.; Ichiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Katsuragi, T.; Tsuchihashi, H.

    2008-12-01

    Melting of mafic (eclogitic) rocks in the peridotite mantle diapir may be important to generate a large quantity of magma in a short period of time as required for the LIP basaltic magmatism (e.g. Takahashi et al. 1998; EPSL, 162, 63-). Ferropicritic rocks also occur in some LIPs, and Ichiyama et al. (2006; Lithos, 89, 47-) propose a non-peridotitic, Ti- and Fe-rich eclogitic source (recycled oceanic ferrogabbro?) entrained in the peridotitic LIP mantle plume for the origin of ferropicritic rocks, that occur with olivine-spinifex basalt (Ichiyama et al., 2007; Island Arc, 16, 493-) in a Permian LIP fragment that was captured in the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex in central Japan. Although Ti-poor ferrokomatiitic magma might form through high- degree melting of a primitive chondritic mantle (25wt% MgO and 25wt% Fe+FeO), Ti- and HFSE-rich ferropicritic and meimechitic magmas can not form in this way. On the other hand, Miocene volcanic rocks distributed along the Japan Sea coast of central Japan also represent a product of large-scale arc magmatism that happened coeval to the spreading of the Japan Sea floor. The chemical and isotopic signatures of the magmas are consistent with the secular change of tectonic setting from continental arc (22- 20 Ma) to island arc (15-11 Ma) (Shuto et al. 2006; Lithos, 86, 1-). Some adakites have already been found from these Miocene volcanic rocks by Shuto"fs group, and mafic rock melting in either subducting slab or lower arc crust has been proposed. We have recently found a wide distribution of low-Ni basalt from Fukui City. The low-Ni basalt contains olivine phenocrysts which are one order of magnitude poorer in Ni (less than 0.02 wt% NiO at Fo87) than those in normal basalt (more than 0.2 wt% NiO at Fo87). The rock is also poor in bulk-rock Ni, rich in K and Ti, and may have formed from an olivine-free pyroxenitic source. Close association of adakite and low-Ni basalt with normal tholeiitic basalt, calc-alkaline andesite

  9. Geology and hydrology of the 300 Area and vicinity, Hanford Site, South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, D. R.; Poeter, E. P.

    1991-10-01

    The following report summarizes the findings of a joint Washington State University (WSU) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) research team that investigated the geology and hydrogeology of the 300 Area during FY 87-89. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate existing data and identify new and innovative techniques and/or methods necessary to characterize the 300 Area geology and hydrogeology. Site characterization of the 300 Area demands the close integration of geologic and hydrogeologic research to achieve the most meaningful results. Geologic aspects of the research focused on the identification and analysis of both small- (i.e., sedimentary-textural characteristics) and large-scale (i.e., lithofacies and architectural elements) aquifer heterogeneities and on the derivation of fundamental compositional (i.e., mineralogy and geochemistry) data to assist in identification of marker beds. Hydrogeologic aspects of the research focused on identification and refinement of hydraulically significant, three-dimensional aquifer units termed hydrofacies and on preliminary inverse modeling of ground water flow in the 300 Area. Hydrofacies are fundamental units that will aid in site characterization, development of monitoring programs, and design of remedial action. Inverse modeling is used to improve estimates of the values of hydraulic parameters associated with each hydrofacies. The WSU/CSM research team identified two major shortcomings of the geologic and hydrogeologic data base for the 300 Area. First, the quality of geologic data from 300 Area drilling is far below that necessary to characterize either the geology or hydrogeology of the suprabasalt strata. Second, the limited number of field-scale aquifer tests and the veritable lack of hydraulic testing of discrete aquifer intervals greatly limit attempts to accurately identify basic hydraulic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and/or specific yield.

  10. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline. PMID:25160351

  11. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  12. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  13. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity. PMID:25958175

  14. Increased parasitism of limpets by a trematode metacercaria in fisheries management areas of central Chile: effects on host growth and reproduction : management areas and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Marcela; Pulgar, José M; Orellana, Nathalie; Patricio Ojeda, F; García-Huidobro, M Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The rapid increase in body size and abundance of most species inside Management and Exploitations Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs) has led to the proposal of these areas as a good complement for achieving the conservation objectives of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, when evaluating MEABRs and MPAs as conservation and/or management tools, their impact upon parasite populations has rarely been considered, despite the fact that epidemiological theory suggests an increased susceptibility to parasitism under high population abundance. We evaluated the effects of MEABRs on the parasite abundance of Proctoeces lintoni and its impact on the growth of the host limpet Fissurella crassa in central Chile. Parasitic magnitude was higher inside MEABRs than in Open-Access Areas, and parasitized limpets showed a greater shell length, muscular foot biomass, and gonadosomatic index compared to non-parasitized limpets of the same age. Our results suggest that the life cycle of P. lintoni and, consequently, its trophic links have been strengthened inside MEABRs. The increased growth rate could reduce the time required to reach the minimum catch size and increase the reproductive and muscular output of the host population. Thus, parasitism should be considered in the conservation and management of economically important mollusk hosts. PMID:24142461

  15. STRUCTURE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN NATIVE AND CONVERTED SAVANNA AREAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brazilian savannas (Cerrado) have suffered drastic changes in land use with major conversion of native areas to agriculture since 1960. Burning, both due to natural conditions and as a human-induced practice, is a common event during the dry season (April to September) and plays ...

  16. Anderson Canyon--A Classic Area in South-Central Idaho for Teaching Alpine Glacial Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Rachel Krebs

    1988-01-01

    Describes a source of diversity and enrichment for summer field experiences. Presents information on the geographic and geologic setting, glacial history and record, relative dating of deposits, and use for student experience. Tables include a generalized location of the area, summary of moraine morphology, and pictures. (RT)

  17. PHLEBOTOMINE FAUNA (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN AREA OF FISHING TOURISM IN CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; da Rocha, Hilda Carlos; Cristaldo, Geucira; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify behavioral aspects of the sandfly fauna of a fishing tourism area in the municipality of Bonito (MS). Monthly captures were undertaken from December 2009 to November 2010, using automatic CDC type light traps, from 18h00 to 06h00, in a forested area, a savannah area, peridomiciles and animal shelters near peridomiciliary areas. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most frequent out of a total of 6,699 specimens collected, belonging to 16 species, followed by Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Lutzomyia longipalpis, found in all the environments investigated, though in their greatest numbers in the animal shelters. Ny. whitmani exhibited its highest frequencies during the dry months, coincident with the fishing season, when the risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis for tourists and inhabitants increases. Noteworthy was the finding of two species naturally infected by flagellates: Ny. whitmani and Pa. bigeniculata. The local population and visiting tourists should be warned of the threat posed by leishmaniasis and the health authorities alerted to the need for adopting environmental sanitary measures, especially regarding such animal shelters as they seem to provide favorable conditions to the proliferation, maintenance and breeding opportunities of phlebotomines. PMID:26200964

  18. Vegetated treatment area effectiveness at reducing nutrient runoff from small swine operations in central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous modeling and field studies have evaluated the effectiveness of vegetative treatment systems in treating runoff from animal feeding operations; however, none have evaluated the effectiveness of vegetative treatment areas (VTA’s) receiving direct runoff from small swine operations during natu...

  19. PHLEBOTOMINE FAUNA (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN AREA OF FISHING TOURISM IN CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    BRILHANTE, Andreia Fernandes; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; GALATI, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; da ROCHA, Hilda Carlos; CRISTALDO, Geucira; NUNES, Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify behavioral aspects of the sandfly fauna of a fishing tourism area in the municipality of Bonito (MS). Monthly captures were undertaken from December 2009 to November 2010, using automatic CDC type light traps, from 18h00 to 06h00, in a forested area, a savannah area, peridomiciles and animal shelters near peridomiciliary areas. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most frequent out of a total of 6,699 specimens collected, belonging to 16 species, followed by Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Lutzomyia longipalpis, found in all the environments investigated, though in their greatest numbers in the animal shelters. Ny. whitmani exhibited its highest frequencies during the dry months, coincident with the fishing season, when the risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis for tourists and inhabitants increases. Noteworthy was the finding of two species naturally infected by flagellates: Ny. whitmani and Pa. bigeniculata. The local population and visiting tourists should be warned of the threat posed by leishmaniasis and the health authorities alerted to the need for adopting environmental sanitary measures, especially regarding such animal shelters as they seem to provide favorable conditions to the proliferation, maintenance and breeding opportunities of phlebotomines. PMID:26200964

  20. Analysis and simulation of ground-water flow in Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent areas of central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    1996-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge is an uplands recharge area in central Florida that contains many sinkhole lakes. Below-normal rainfall and increased pumping of ground water have resulted in declines both in ground-water levels and in the water levels of many of the ridge lakes. A digital flow model was developed for a 3,526 square-mile area to help understand the current (1990) ground-water flow system and its response to future ground-water withdrawals. The ground-water flow system in the Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent area of central Florida consists of a sequence of sedimentary aquifers and confining units. The uppermost water-bearing unit of the study area is the surficial aquifer. This aquifer is generally unconfined and is composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer is underlain by the confined intermediate aquifer and confining units which consists of up to three water-bearing units composed of interbedded clastics and carbonate rocks. The lowermost unit of the ground- water flow system, the confined Upper Floridan aquifer, consists of a thick, hydraulically connected sequence of carbonate rocks. The Upper Floridan aquifer is about 1,200 to 1,400 feet thick and is the primary source for ground-water withdrawals in the study area. The generalized ground-water flow system of the Lake Wales Ridge is that water moves downward from the surficial aquifer to the intermediate aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the central area, primarily under the ridges, with minor amounts of water flow under the flatlands. The water flows laterally away fromn the central area, downgradient to discharge areas to the west, east, and south, and locally along valleys of major streams. Upward leakage occurs along valleys of major streams. The model was initially calibrated to the steady-state conditions representing September 1989. The resulting calibrated hydrologic parameters were then tested by simulating transient conditions for the period October 1989 through 1990. A

  1. Late Holocene and present-day fluvial morphodynamics in small catchment areas of Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englhard, Michael; Damm, Bodo; Frechen, Manfred; Terhorst, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    During the past decades strong runoff events repeatedly occurred in small drainage basins of the European low mountains. In numerous events runoff was connected with erosion and transport of extensive bed load. Runoff events were predominantly triggered by rainstorms, which were limited to the catchment areas. They partly caused severe economic loss. The present study focuses on fluvial morphodynamics in northern Hesse and Lower Saxony. In this area runoff and transport of bed load occurred in small tributary catchment areas of the Fulda, Werra and Oberweser rivers. In general, the small drainage basins are used by agriculture and forestry. Drainage channels are developed as gullies and are incised into solid bedrock, Quaternary hillslope sediments, alluvial fills, and anthropogenic deposits. Vertical incision into the bedrock may amount to 1 meter per event. Furthermore, in single cases sediment discharge amounted to 16.000 m³ in addition to the suspension load. On the base of historical analyses about 50 severe runoff events with a maximum frequency of 10 events during 1965 are recorded during the past 150 years in the study area. Field survey, sedimentological analyses and dating reveal intensive runoff processes since the Neolithic age in a comparable catchment area. In this context potsherds could be dated to the Linear Pottery culture, which were detected in an alluvial cone of the "Rehgraben gully", close to the city of.Kassel. Furthermore, findings of fossil wood were recovered in the same alluvial cone. Radiocarbon dating reveals calibrated ages which are for the most parts younger than AD. In younger sediments we suppose the severe runoff event of 1342. Current studies in the catchment area of the Rehgraben aim to distinguish different processes of the fluvial morphodynamics on a temporal scale and to estimate potential Holocene erosional rates. References Damm, B., 2004. Geschiebe führende und murfähige Wildbäche in Mittelgebirgsr

  2. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  3. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  4. Difference of Ecosystem and Hydrological control on Long-term water quality between adjacent subcatchments in a forested catchment in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuyama, M.; Iwasaki, K.; Nagano, R.; Takaki, K.; Tanaka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We have been monitoring the water quality in the Kiryu Experimental Watershed (KEW; 5.99 ha), Japan, and four subcatchments for more than 20 years. The climate of KEW is warm temperate. The artificially planted Japanese Cypress around 1960 covers whole of the KEW. The geology of KEW is weathered granite. The concentrations of SiO2 and Na, which are mainly supplied from weathering processes, in streamwater were different between the catchments, and the difference was controlled by hydrological conditions in each catchment; in the catchment where shallow groundwater contribution to the streamflow is large, the concentrations were lower. Conversely, in the catchment where deep, bedrock groundwater contribution is large, these concentrations were higher. The K+ concentration which cycles between soil and plants showed clear seasonal variations and the differences between the catchments were small. Considering the long-term trend of streamwater chemistry, the electric conductivity (EC), Cl-, and SO42- concentrations have been gradually decreasing during recent 10 years in all catchments. On the other hand, the NO3- concentration has been commonly increasing in recent 5 years in all catchment. The difference of concentrations between the catchments were depending on the difference of the redox condition caused by soil sediment. One of the subcatchments experienced the disturbance in early 90's and subsequent increase of NO3- concentration, and the residence tine distribution shows the effects of the disturbance is still remaining. Recently, the disturbance is expanding in another subcatchment, and one of the reason of the disturbance is soil erosion. Moreover, the streamwater NO3- concentrations are also gradually increasing even in undisturbed catchments. These facts imply that this 50-year-old unmanaged artificial forest may start degrading, and the biogeochemical cycle may start changing. The long-term dynamics of streamwater chemistry is a good diagnosis tool of the

  5. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  6. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  8. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  9. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  10. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Anita G.; Poole, Forrest G.; Repetski, John E.

    2003-12-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest.

  11. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, Miguel Angel

    1996-01-01

    The micrometeorological methods of energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation probably are suitable for determining evapotranspiration from unforested sites, but the aerodynamic effects of tall tree canopies need to be considered when the methods are used for forested sites. Potential evapotranspiration methods might not yield reliable estimates of evapotranspiration for all areas of native vegetation. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration ranged from 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site to 1,060 millimeters for a pine flatwood site.

  12. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  13. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  14. Ground-water conditions in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.K.; Young, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive groundwater development in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, Cassia County, Idaho, has resulted in rapid water-level declines and establishment of two critical groundwater areas. A northwest-trending fault in nearly coincident with the boundary between the two critical groundwater areas. Southwest of the fault, water levels in limestone are as much as 200 feet higher than those in silicic volcanics northeast of the fault, which indicates the fault is an effective barrier to groundwater movement. Results of an aquifer test in limestone southwest of the fault further indicate no hydraulic connection with the silicic volcanics aquifer northeast of the fault. Water levels in wells completed in limestone and silicic volcanics aquifers have declined 5 and 5.5 feet per year since 1977. Groundwater withdrawals in 1980 were about 60,000 acre-free from the silicic volcanics aquifer and, between 1977 and 1982, averaged about 5,300 acre-feet per year from the limestone aquifer. Annual recharge to the silicic volcanics aquifer is between about 10,000 and 26,000 acre-feet; recharge to the limestone aquifer is near 4,000 acre-feet. Limited water-quality data indicate the groundwater is chemically suitable for irrigation and domestic use. (USGS)

  15. The impact of armed conflict on protected-area efficacy in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    de Merode, Emmanuel; Smith, Kes Hillman; Homewood, Katherine; Pettifor, Richard; Rowcliffe, Marcus; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2007-06-22

    What determines the vulnerability of protected areas, a fundamental component of biodiversity conservation, to political instability and warfare? We investigated the efficacy of park protection at Garamba National Park (Democratic Republic of Congo) before, during and after a period of armed conflict. Previous analysis has shown that bushmeat hunting in the park increased fivefold during the conflict, but then declined, in conjunction with changes in the sociopolitical structures (social institutions) that controlled the local bushmeat trade. We used park patrol records to investigate whether these changes were facilitated by a disruption to anti-poaching patrols. Contrary to expectation, anti-poaching patrols remained frequent during the conflict (as bushmeat offtake increased) and decreased afterwards (when bushmeat hunting also declined). These results indicate that bushmeat extraction was determined primarily by the social institutions. Although we found a demonstrable effect of anti-poaching patrols on hunting pressure, even a fourfold increase in patrol frequency would have been insufficient to cope with wartime poaching levels. Thus, anti-poaching patrols alone may not always be the most cost-effective means of managing protected areas, and protected-area efficacy might be enhanced by also working with those institutions that already play a role in regulating local natural-resource use. PMID:17360251

  16. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  17. Monitoring of arsenic, boron and mercury by lichen and soil analysis in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (central Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S.

    1997-12-31

    Epiphytic lichens and top-soils from the Mt. Amiata geothermal field (central Italy) were analyzed for their As, B and Hg content. Three areas were selected: (1) Abbadia S. Salvatore, where a large Hg mine with smelting and roasting plant was located; (2) Piancastagnaio, where there are geothermal power plants; (3) a remo