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Sample records for area chubut province

  1. Tourism, Transnationality and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…

  2. The origin of Chubutolithes Ihering, ichnofossils from the Eocene and Oligocene of Chubut Province, Argentina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, T.M.; Ratcliffe, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    The distinctive trace fossil Chubutolithes gaimanensis n. ichnosp. occurs in Casamayoran (early Eocene) and Colhuehaupian (late Oligocene) alluvial rocks of the Sarmiento Formation in eastern Chubut Province, Argentina. Though known for nearly 70 years, its origin has remained obscure. Examination of new specimens and comparisons with modern analogs demonstrate that specimens of Chubutolithes represent the fossil nests of a mud-dauber (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Virtually identical nests are constructed today by mud-daubers in areas as disparate as southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and Nebraska, confirming that quite similar trace fossils can be produced by several different taxa in a higher taxonomic clade. No satisfactory ethological term exists for trace fossils that, like Chubutolithes, were constructed by organisms above, rather than within, a substrate or medium. The new term aedificichnia is proposed. Chubutolithes occurs in alluvial paleosols and is associated with a large terrestrial ichnofauna. These trace fossils include the nests of scarab beetles, compound nests of social insects, and burrows of earthworms. -Authors

  3. Population genetic analyses of the Powerplex(®) Fusion kit in a cosmopolitan sample of Chubut Province (Patagonia Argentina).

    PubMed

    Parolin, María Laura; Real, Luciano E; Martinazzo, Liza B; Basso, Néstor G

    2015-11-01

    Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 22 autosomal STR loci and DYS391 locus included in the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System kit were estimated in a sample of 770 unrelated individuals from Chubut Province, southern Patagonia. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed after Bonferroni's correction. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were >0.999999 and 0.999984, respectively. Comparisons with other worldwide populations were performed. The MDS obtained show a close biological relation between Chubut and Chile. The estimated interethnic admixture supports a high Native American contribution (46%) in the population sample of Chubut. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR and would provide a valuable contribution for identification tests and population genetic studies. PMID:26275612

  4. A new species of Pontonema (Oncholaimidae, Nematoda) and a redescription of Pontonema incisum Wieser, 1953 from Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gabriela; Russo, Virginia Lo; Pastor, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Pontonema golfonuevensis sp. nov. from Chubut Province, Argentina is described and a description of the male of Pontonema incisum Wieser, 1953 from Chubut and Santa Cruz Provinces is provided. Pontonema golfonuevensis sp. nov. is characterized by having the slender sub-ventral teeth 25 µm long located at 24 % of stoma length, a short, broad dorsal tooth at 60 % of stoma length, excretory pore opening at level of base of the buccal cavity, and by having a ventral precloacal sensory field with four papillae and a glandular sub-ventral area with seven papilliform sensillae. The male of P. incisum has long slender sub-ventral teeth at 36 % of stoma length, a short broad dorsal tooth at 72 % of stoma length, excretory pore about two buccal cavity lengths from the anterior end, and a ventral precloacal sensory field without papillae and a glandular sub-ventral area with twelve to fourteen papilliform sensillae. A key for identification of males of Pontonema is presented. PMID:26701536

  5. Parasites in rodent coprolites from the historical archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán, Chubut Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Haydée Sardella, Norma; Horacio Fugassa, Martín

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the parasitic remains that were found in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán (Chubut Province, 45 degrees 44'15''S, 70 degrees 25'9''W), which is assigned to the interface of the Araucanian and Tehuelche cultures, dated at 212 +/- 35 years B.P. The faecal material from two unidentified rodent species (X-10 and X-11) was collected from one human pelvic cavity found in a multiple burial. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. The X-10 coprolites were positive for eggs of Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and the X-11 faeces were positive for Pterygodermatites sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), Trichosomoides sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) and Monoecocestus sp. In this study, we discuss parasitic life cycles, the zoonotic importance of parasites and the behaviour of the aboriginal people. PMID:19274374

  6. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps

    PubMed Central

    Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966

  7. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  8. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  9. Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

  10. Geology of the Konakpinar--Sarica area, Sivas Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James; Sermin, Salim; Gencel, Ilker; Sengun, Metin; Ekren, Frank

    1972-01-01

    The junction of several major structures and stratigraphic sequences is in the Konakpinar-Sarica area of central Turkey. Most of the area is underlain by Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous limeston and siltstone, early Tertiary sedimentary rock, and remnants of younger volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits. The northeastern part of the area, however, is formed of serpentinite, of possible Cretaceous age, unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous conglomerate and siltstone that crop out extensively east of the area. The regional structure changes direction in the area. Folds and faults change across a northerly striking hinge line from northeast trends on the west to northwest trends on the east. A north-trending regional fault zone is a little east of the hinge line. The northern part of this fault zone and a northwest-striking fault, a possible thrust, east of it form the boundary between the two stratigraphic provinces. The area northeast of this boundary is cut by a series of vertical northwest-trending faults that are downdropped on the southwest. A large northeast-trending fault that is part of a broad fault zone that extends from the Mediterranean Sea northeastward to Divrigi is in the northwest corner of the area. Some thrust faults cut the Cretaceous rocks in the western part of the area; the Upper Jurassic limestone may be allochthonous. The only economic deposit known in the area is at the Otlukilise Iron Mine where iron is present in a sedimentary filling of sinkholesand as secondary replacement deposits in limestone at their borders. Minor deposits of chrome, copper, and coal also occur in the area.

  11. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach, San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each, and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between the labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; a small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed. PMID:26624196

  12. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Russo, Virginia Lo; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed. PMID:26623591

  13. Hydrology of area 3, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 3 of the Eastern Coal Province, 4,077 square miles of the lower Allegheny River basin in western Pennsylvania. Seventy-three streams were sampled three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and botom material samples were analyzed for metals. Sixteen streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins and in the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Benthic invertebrates were not found in 11 of 64 streams sampled. An additional 13 streams had low benthic invertebrate diversity indices. Low diversity indices were most common in the southern part of area 3. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 3. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, and Office of Water Data Coordination are explained. (USGS)

  14. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  15. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0032), in which... (76 FR 51934-51935, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0032), in which we announced the availability, for review... Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. Based...

  16. Initial English Language Teacher Education: Processes and Tensions towards a Unifying Curriculum in an Argentinian Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Dario Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective piece I discuss the process of developing a new unifying initial English language teacher education curriculum in the province of Chubut (Argentina). Trainers and trainees from different institutions were called to work on it with the aim of democratising curriculum development and enhancing involvement among agents. In the…

  17. Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season area burned. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.

  18. Hydrology of Area 6, Eastern Coal Province, Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Staubitz, W.W.; Sobashinski, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 6, the 1329 square-mile North Branch Potomac River basin. Area 6 comprises parts of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia and is almost evenly divided between two physiographic provinces. The allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province encompasses the western half of the area and contains coal-bearing rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area contains two coal-producing regions. Coal production from the area amounted to 3.8 million tons in 1978 and has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Area 6 has a continental, temperate climate and receives between 36 and 45 inches of precipitation depending on elevation. The soils of the area were formed from noncarbonate, sedimentary rocks and are generally of high acidity and low fertility. Forest land occupies over 80% of the land surface, whereas surface mining occupies only about 1.5% of the land surface. The area is drained entirely by the North Branch Potomac River. Water used in the area is mostly from surface-water resources. Ground-water accounts for only 0.5% of total water withdrawals. Seventy-two percent of ground-water withdrawals are used by the coal-mining industry. More than 140 miles of streams in Area 6 are affected by mine drainage. These streams are devoid of fish life and otherwise have severely reduced biological communities. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations and specific conductances were more than three times greater for streams draining coal mining areas than for streams draining unmined areas. The mean pH and net alkalinity of streams draining unmined areas were higher than those of streams draining mined areas. Although concentrations of trace metals in water and bottom sediments were generally low for streams draining both mined and unmined areas, those from unmined areas were noticeably higher.

  19. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI), hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention. PMID:27240391

  20. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  1. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  2. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  3. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  4. Population-Based Seroprevalence of Malaria in Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A Low Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Hatam, Gholam Reza; Nejati, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Shahriari Rad, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803) were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east) of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera. Results. The overall seroprevalence of malaria was 8.7% (70 out of 803 samples). A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and place of residence, where the highest rate of seropositivity was seen in Bandar Lengeh (west of the province). The highest seroprevalence of malaria (13.2%) was seen in the age group of 11–20 years and also in low educated individuals. Correlation between seropositivity and gender, age, and educational levels of the participants was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Findings of this study indicate that the rate of seropositivity to malaria in this area is not high and this might be linked to the success of malaria control programs during the last decades in the region. PMID:26543662

  5. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  6. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

  7. [Structure and function of township agroecosystems and their correlation in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Ke, Jinhu

    2002-06-01

    The structure and functions of 15 township agroecosystems in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province were investigated and studied. Both cluster analysis and correlation analysis were used to study the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems. The results showed that cluster analysis could reveal the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems, which was conducive for mastering the direction of holistic structural adjustment. Correlation analysis could identify the extent and direction of correlation between specific structural and functional indicators, which could serve as the basis for specific structural adjustment for optimization of functions. PMID:12216398

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  9. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  10. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-feng; Liu, Kang; Wang, Xiao-rong; Huang, Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources of atmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province. PMID:16465890

  11. Study of infectious conjunctivitis among children in rural areas of Qinghai province.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingfeng; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Mei; Tian, Lei; Labbé, Antoine; Hu, Ailian

    2016-06-01

    Infectious conjunctivitis is no longer a common eye disease in cities and developed areas, but in remote mountainous regions of China where living conditions are relatively under-developed, the occurrence of infectious conjunctivitis remains a public health issue. Here, we evaluate the ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among primary school students in the rural areas of Xunhua, Huangyuan, and Huzhu Counties in the Qinghai province of China, and report the microorganisms involved in causing infection. Of the 765 eligible primary school students, 694 participated to this study (a response rateof 90.7%), 381 boys and 313 girls, with a mean age of 7.52 years (range 7-9 years). A clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis was returned for 238 of the 694 children examined. The ratio of infectious conjunctivitis in Xunhua County (46.64%) was higher compared to that in Huangyuan (26.67%; P=0.03) and Huzhu Counties (23.61%; P=0.02). The leading cause of conjunctivitis was bacterial, followed by chlamydial and viral. Our results show that there is a high ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among rural primary school students in Qinghai province. PMID:27225258

  12. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  13. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  14. Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan province, southern Iran, 2002.

    PubMed

    Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Abaie, M R; Shahi, M; Yaaghoobi, F; Baghaii, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Zamani, G; Townson, H

    2006-02-01

    Anopheles stephensi Liston is an important malaria vector in Hormozgan province, where it is the most prevalent anopheline mosquito. It shows two annual activity peaks, one in spring and another in the autumn. In mountainous areas the second peak starts earlier than in coastal regions. Adults are endophilic and endophagic, but in the hot season when people sleep outside buildings they frequently bite outdoors. Larvae are found in a wide-range of habitats, both natural and man-made. All three biological forms of the species, occur in the province, i.e. An. stephensi stephensi (type form), An. stephensi mysorensis, and the intermediate form. An. stephensi mysorensis is found only in rural-mountainous areas, whereas the type and intermediate forms occur in urban-coastal regions and the rural plains, with the type form predominant. The presence of the type form in urban areas and mysorensis in rural areas is consistent with the available epidemiological data for malaria in the region and with the finding in India that the type form is an efficient malaria vector inhabiting urban areas whereas mysorensis is rural and has a lower vectorial capacity. Insecticide susceptibility tests on field collected adult mysorensis and adults from laboratory strains of the type and intermediate forms were carried out according to WHO standard methods. These showed that all three forms are susceptible to bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion, deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and lambdacyhalothrin, but are resistant to DDT and show low level of tolerance to dieldrin. Examination of the larvicidal activity of malathion, fenitrothion, temephos and chlorpyrifos at diagnostic doses showed that these stephensi forms are susceptible to all larvicides except fenitrothion. Irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides showed high levels of irritability to permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin, but low irritability to cyfluthrin and deltamethrin. The importance of these findings for the

  15. The Karoo igneous province — A problem area for inferring tectonic setting from basalt geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Andrew R.

    1987-06-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and associated intrusives are the major component of the Karoo igneous province. They are of Mesozoic age and constitute one of the world's classic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. It has been argued that most Karoo basalts have not undergone significant contamination with continental crust and that their lithospheric mantle source areas were enriched in incompatible minor and trace elements during the Proterozoic. The only exceptions to this are late-stage MORB-like dolerites near the present-day continental margins which are considered to be of asthenospheric origin. When data for the "southern" Karoo basalts are plotted on many of the geochemical discriminant diagrams which have been used to infer tectonic setting, essentially all of them would be classified as calc-alkali basalts (CAB's) or low-K tholeiites. Virtually none of them plot in the compositional fields designated as characteristic of "within-plate" basalts. There is little likelihood that the compositions of the Karoo basalts can be controlled by active subduction at the time of their eruption and no convincing evidence that a "subduction component" has been added to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the entire area in which the basalts crop out. It must be concluded that the mantle source areas for CAB's and the southern Karoo basalts have marked similarities. In contrast, the data for "northern" Karoo basalts largely plot in the "within-plate" field on geochemical discriminant diagrams. Available data suggest that the source composition and/or the restite mineralogy and degree of partial melting are different for southern and northern Karoo basalts. There is no evidence for any difference in tectonic setting between the southern and northern Karoo basalts at the time they were erupted. This appears to be clear evidence that specific mantle source characteristics and/or magmatic processes can vary within a single CFB province to an extent that renders at least

  16. [Effects of three kinds of molluscicides in fields of mountainous areas of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Gui; Li, Wen-Bao; Feng, Xi-Guang; Dong, Yi; Wu, Ming-Shou; Shao, Zong-Ti; Mu, Liang-Xian; Tian, Shu-Hui; Li, Ping; Gao, Li-Ping; Xiong, Kang; Dong, Xing-Qi

    2012-12-01

    The molluscicidal effects of 10% salt of quinoid- 2' ,5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (LDS) with dusting method, 26% amine molluscicide (MNSC) and 50% niclosamide (WPN) with insufflation method were tested in the fields of mountainous areas of Yunnan Province. After 7, 15 and 30 days of the tests, the death rates of snails, decline rates of living snail densities, and occurrence rates of frames with living snails of the 10% LDS group were 72.69%-87.16%, 74.10%-88.84%, and 20.00%-30.00%, respectively; those of the 26% MNSC group were 66.21%-91.06%, 69.55%-91.36%, and 19.44%-27.78% respectively; those of the 50% WPN group were 78.10%-90.18%, 82.44%-91.60%, 17.50%-20.00%, respectively. The results showed that the molluscicidal effects of 10% LDS, 26% MNSC and 50% WPN were basically equal. PMID:23593856

  17. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness. PMID:24734213

  18. Geology of Area A, Catak iron deposit, Egrigoz Mountains Kutahya Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James

    1972-01-01

    The Catak iron deposit consist of magnetite-bearing lenses distributed along the northeast-trending contact of the north end of. the Egrigoz granitic massif in Kutahya Province. Area A is near the northeast end of the deposit and contains three main irregular magnetite lenses. A body of talc-silicate hornfels, almost surrounded by quartzite and schist , lies a short distance from the contact with quartz monzonite and contains the magnetite-bearing lenses west-northwest to northwest-trending structural grain is expressed by schistosity, joints, shears, lithologic contacts and outcrop patterns, although the mineralized rock and general intrusive contact trend northeast. The ranges of the average content of Fe, Si, and S, determined from drill data are 33.54-53.95 percent; 5.86-12.25 percent; and. 8.33-9.49 percent, respectively.

  19. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

  20. Hydrology of area 58, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, T.H.; Kuhn, G.; Brooks, T.

    1987-01-01

    The topics encompass the complete physical and hydrologic setting of Area 58, located primarily in west-central Colorado in the Southern Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces. The headwaters of the Colorado and most of its tributaries originate in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of the area. Precipitation in the mountains can exceed 40 in annually, most of it as snow. Most of the runoff then is a result of snow melting in the spring. Surface water is the principal source of water supplies in the area, and irrigation is the major water use. Groundwater supplies are mainly from wells completed in alluvium or fractured bedrock. All coal mines in the basin but one are underground. Surface water quality is best in the mountains. Dissolved solids concentrations in the Colorado River increase an average of 647 mg/L as it flows through the area. The causes of this increase are nearly equally divided between natural sources and irrigation activities in the sedimentary basins. The climate in these basins is semi-arid, and the soils are not adequately leached. Concentrations of several major elements and trace elements in the groundwater can be large enough to limit water uses. Among those elements exceeding recommended or required standards for use are calcium, chromium, iron, manganese, and lead. 166 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy, represents the most important volcanic distric of Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic bodies: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas and range in composition from nephelinites to tholeiites. Often VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths (mainly harzburgites and lherzolite). This study reports petrological comparison between Marosticano xenoliths (new outcrop) and xenoliths from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas already studied by many Authors (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001, Gasperini et al., 2006). Mineral major elements analyses show that the Marosticano lherzolites and harzburgites reflect "more restitic" composition than the mantle domain beneath the other VVP districts (Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige). In fact, olivine and pyroxene of Marosticano xenoliths have the highest mg# values of the entire district (Marosticano→90-93; literature→86-92). At comparable mg# (45-85 wt%) Marosticano spinels tend to be higher in Cr2O3 (23-44 wt%) contents with respect to the other VVP sp (7-25 wt%). It is worth noting that, Ni contents of Marosticano olivines in both harzburgites and lherzolites are higher (2650-3620 ppm) than those of the Lessinean xenoliths (1500- 3450 ppm), and similar to that of Val d'Adige lherzolites (3000-3500 ppm), approaching the contents of Archean cratonic mantle (Kelemen, 1998). In turn, Lessinean olivines properly fall in the Ni-mg# Phanerozoic field. At fixed pressure of 15 kbar, the equilibration temperature of Marosticano xenoliths are similar (Brey & Köhler: 920-1120°C) to those of Lessini (O'Neill & Wall: 990-1110°C; Beccaluva et al., 2007), but higher than those of Val d'Adige (Wells: 909-956°C; Gasperini et al., 2006). Finally, Marosticano mantle fragment show similar relatively high

  2. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; and others

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  3. Avulsion at a drift-dominated mesotidal estuary: The Chubut River outlet, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico; Espinosa, Marcela; Rubio, Belén; Escandell, Alejandra; Gerpe, Marcela; Miglioranza, Karina; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico

    2015-10-01

    The Chubut River flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean, and is interrupted by a single dam built at the middle valley. The lower valley is dominated by the aggradation of an alluvial plain induced by a complex of spits that enclosed the inlet in the last 5000 years. The river has reduced its flow because the blocking of the upper basin by terminal moraines during the Upper Pleistocene. At least the last two marine transgressions have flooded this estuary, and contributed to the aggradation during regressions. The area is of particular interest in regard to irrigation channels practiced since the XIX century. Today, the mean monthly flow is less than 10 m3/s although peaks of 95 m3/s have been recorded in Gaiman in July 2001. The dynamics of the estuary is dominated by waves (wave-dominated estuary) as tidal effects attenuate in less than 5 km. Three vibracores were collected within this floodplain: (a) at Gaiman, an area without any effect of the sea (35 km from the coast); (b) at Trelew, at the former avulsion plain of the river (18 km from the coast); and (c) at Playa Magagna, a saltmarsh located 0.4 km from the beach. At the Gaiman core (1.54 m long) fresh-water epiphytic diatoms dominate (Epithemia sorex, Cocconeis placentula, Ulnaria ulna) suggesting the aggradation of an alluvial plain. The Trelew core (2.19 m long) was collected from a deltaic plain. It was composed by fine sand with organic matter at the base that evolved into silty layers to the top. Several unconformities and laminae with heavy minerals were detected by their geochemical composition analysed by micro X-ray fluorescence (Itrax XRF core scanner). Fine-sand laminated layers were perfectly detected by their high content in S and Cl. On the other hand, mud layers presented lower content in Mg and Al with increments in Ca and V. The core from the marsh area (1.67 m long) was analysed in terms of the diatom evolution in order to detect Holocene sea-level and salinity effects. The sand flats

  4. A Tenebrionid beetle's dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cheli, Germán H; Flores, Gustavo E; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-12-18

    The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005-2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  6. Research on the impact of impervious surface area on urban heat island in Jiangsu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingbao; Pan, Ping

    2011-10-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), vegetation index, and other surface characteristics that obtained from remote sensing data have been widely used to describe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, but through impervious surface area (ISA) to describe the phenomenon has only used in a few study areas in our country. In a high urbanization and high population density region like Jiangsu Province, a wide range of extraction of ISA to study its relationship with UHI is less. In this paper, we use multi-temporal remote sensing images as data sources, and extract ISA from it in a large-scale by using decision tree classifier (DTC) and linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Then combine the average surface temperature from the sixth band of Landsat TM by mono-window algorithm for spatial analysis, to assess the change of the urban heat island temperature amplitude and its relationship with the urban development density, size and ecological environment. Finally we use statistical methods to analyze the relationship between ISA, LST and UHI. The results show that ISA has a positive correlation with surface temperature. The ratio of ISA is higher and the difference value of the temperature is larger, thus the UHI will be more obvious.

  7. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile. PMID:23983361

  8. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area. PMID:19160059

  9. The transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1962-01-01

    This paper records the results of detailed studies carried out over a two-year period on the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika. The ecology of a variety of snail habitats is described; and data on the biology of the principal molluscan host (Bulinus (Physopsis) nasutus productus), on seasonal fluctuations in its population density and associated cercarial infection rates, on its response to desiccation and on other aspects of population dynamics are presented and discussed. Taking into consideration the seasonal fluctuation in snail numbers which occurs in the area and the snails' capacity to survive desiccation, it is considered that a substantial reduction in transmission of S. haematobium might be effected by application of a molluscicide timed so as to lower the population density before aestivation begins, followed by a second treatment when the habitats have been refilled by rainfall to reduce yet further the population that has survived the first treatment and subsequent desiccation. It is also suggested that a combination of methods directed against two stages in the schistosome life-cycle—the snail and the miracidium—by application of molluscicides and treatment of infected persons might be more efficacious than an attempt merely to reduce snail density and alter the population structure. PMID:14005428

  10. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  11. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  12. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; and others

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure. PMID:26739008

  14. Endoparasitic infections in dogs from rural areas in the Lobos District, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, Marcela Cecilia; Lavallén, Carla Mariela; Bongiovanni, Roberto; Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Elissondo, Celina; Yannarella, Francisco; Denegri, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are definite hosts for several zoonotic helminthes and protozoan. Rural areas from the Lobos District in the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are mainly used for livestock activity, increasing in this way the number of dogs on farms as well as the human risk of parasitic infections. The aims of this research were to evaluate the endoparasitic infections in dogs from farms in the Lobos District and analyze their zoonotic importance as well as several risk practices and habits of the rural population. Forty-two dog fecal samples obtained in 21 farms were analyzed through coproparasitological methods and coproantigen tests, which resulted in an overall parasite prevalence of 69.05% and 80.95% of the parasitized farms. The most frequent parasites were Trichuris vulpis and Eucoleus aerophila (26.19%), Echinococcus granulosus (19.05%), Uncinaria stenocephala and coccids (14.29%). The analysis of epidemiological files showed several habits of the rural population considered as risk factors associated with the presence of fecal samples parasitized and the presence of E. granulosus on the farms. It is clear that people involved with the farms studied were exposed to several helminthes that could cause serious diseases like cystic echinococcosis, which can become an important public health issue and affect the economy worldwide. PMID:23538502

  15. Exploration and Production of Diamond Deposits in Wafangdian Area of Liaoning Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    This paper is based on a study of several exploration reports and original field notebooks made available to us by Houxing Wang, new leader of The Sixth Geology Brigade of Liaoning Province. Aerial magnetic surveys were conducted over the southeastern peninsula of Liaoning in 1958 and 1959 to locate petroleum deposits. In 1973, a surface magnetic survey was performed by the Liaoning material deposits team. Guided by available magnetic data, The Sixth Geology Brigade collected heavy minerals in selected stream beds in 1974, followed by borehole methods the following year. A systematic diamond exploration program was established in 1976. Kimberlite pipes 51, 68 and 74 were discovered in 1977, more than five years after the diamond exploration project originated. Later studies of individual pipes were based on detailed observations of structural geology, fault systems, downhole methods, trenches, constructions of a series of cross sections covering a depth of up to 80 meters. Excavation of Pipe 50, one of the richest diamond deposits in the area, began in the early 1980's, and the pipe was depleted and closed in July, 2002. When we compared the bird's eyeview of the excavated hole with the original maps and cross sections prepared by the geologists of The Sixth Geology Brigade, we were astonished by the accuracy of every detail as predicted like a piece of art work.

  16. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  17. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself. PMID:26387311

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  19. Depositional Environments of Late Danian Plant Localities: Chubut Provice, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, E.; Slingerland, R. L.; Wilf, P.

    2010-12-01

    Diverse, well-preserved macroflora are observed within Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. These macroflora are the most well preserved early Paleocene flora from Gondwana and add new insight into the diversity and environments of that epoch. Two major sites of fossil preservation, Palacio de los Loros and Parque Provincial Ormachea, sit near the top of the Late Danian (65.5-61.7 Ma) Salamanca Formation. Understanding the depositional history of the Salamanca is important in characterizing paleoenvironments in which these flora lived and relating these Patagonian macroflora to concurrent Paleocene flora within the Gondwanan supercontinent. During a two week field season, twenty stratigraphic sections were measured along the outcrop belt at Palacio de los Loros and Ormachea Park as well as two minor sites; Las Flores, and Rancho Grande. Photo mosaics, laser ranger data, and stratigraphic columns were merged with elevated geologic maps and imported into Fledermaus to generate a 3-D visualization of facies relationships. Rock samples were also collected and will be thin sectioned and analyzed for petrography and grain size. The Salamanca Fm. consists of 7 facies, listed here in stratigraphically ascending order: 1)Transgressive sands, 2)Wispy-bedded claystone, 3)Banco Verde, 4)White Cross bedded sandstone, 5)Accretion set siltstone, 6)Transitional silty claystone and 7)Banco Negro. Based on these facies, the Salamanca Fm. is interpreted as a marine-shelf to brackish, tide-dominated, estuarine deposit. The base of the Salamanca Fm. rests on an unconformity representing a marine flooding surface and lower sections of the Salamanca, facies 1 and 2, contain abundant glauconite and fossils indicative of a marine shelf environment. These facies give way upwards to bi-directional trough cross bedded sandstones interspersed with flaser bedded sandy siltstones (facies 3 and 4) indicating a less marine estuary with strong flow regimes

  20. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  1. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  2. Excitation-emission matrices applied to the study of urban effluent discharges in the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Chiarandini Fiore, Jessica Paola; Scapini, María del Carmen; Olivieri, Alejandro César

    2013-08-01

    Natural and contaminated waters of the final reaches of the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina) were studied to obtain information about river organic matter and effects of domestic and industrial discharges (fishery effluents and sewages). Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEMs) were obtained from samples only filtered (0.45 μm) and diluted, if necessary, to avoid the inner filter effect. In addition, physicochemical parameters were measured to know the quality of the water and the effluents. Results show that EEMs allow a rapid and simple control of the effluents from fisheries and domestic sewage in Chubut River estuary, necessary to take management decisions. PMID:23325315

  3. Study on suitable distribution areas of Notopterygium incisum in Sichuan province based on remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue; Dong, Li-jun; Wen, Lu-jun; Peng, Wen-fu; Xu, Xin-liang; Fang, Qing-mao

    2015-07-01

    Notopterygium incisum is the important medicinal materials of the Tibetan-Qiang medical system in China, also one of the rare and endangered medicinal materials in the Plateau areas in the meantime. Taking the planting of in Sichuan province as an example, research on the N. incisum in Sichuan utilize remote sensing and GIS techniques, bind growth environment factor, including height factor, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, forest information, were chosen according to habitat conditions. And combine field measurement to verify. The results indicate that N. incisum resources in Sichuan province were mainly distributed in the alpine valley and the northwest of the plateau, which suitability distribution areas of 4145 km2 approximately and accounting for 2% of the total area. Suitability areas accounting for more than 2% of the respective total area in Heishui county, Lixian county, Xiaojin county, Kangding county, ect. According to the field investigation and the related document information record, drawn that the suitability distribution based on RS and GIS were corresponded with the actual distribution areas of N. incisum resources. It's feasible to divide the suitability distribution area of N. incisum using RS and GIS, which will provide a scientific basis for a comprehensive investigation of the distribution as well as its rational exploitation and protection. PMID:26697677

  4. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  5. Mineral chemistry of lava flows from Linga area of the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Sohini; Ray, Jyotisankar; Koeberl, Christian; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Banerjee, Mousumi

    2012-02-01

    Several basaltic lava flows have been identified in the study area in and around Linga, in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP) on the basis of distinctly developed structural zones defined by primary volcanic structures such as columnar joints and vesicles. These basaltic lava flows are spatially distributed in four different sectors, viz., (i) Bargona-Gadarwara (BG) sector (ii) Shikarpur-Linga (SL) sector (iii) Arjunvari-Survir Hill (AS) sector and (iv) Kukrachiman-Morand Hill (KM) sector. A three-tier classification scheme has been adopted for the characterization and classification of individual lava flows. Each lava flow consists of a Lower Colonnade Zone (LCZ) overlain by the Entablature Zone (EZ) and Upper Colonnade Zone (UCZ). The LCZ and UCZ grade into a distinct/indistinct Lower Vesicular Zone (LVZ) and Upper Vesicular Zone (UVZ), respectively. The LCZ and UCZ of the flows are characterized by columnar joints while the EZ is marked by multi-directional hackly jointing. The geometry of different joint patterns corresponds to different styles of cooling during solidification of lava flows. Detailed petrographic studies of the investigated lava flows reveal inequigranular phenocrystal basalts characterized by development of phenocrystal phases including plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, whereas groundmass composition is marked by tiny plagioclase, clinopyroxene, opaque mineral and glass. Electron microprobe analyses indicate that the olivine has a wide range ˜Fo22 to Fo66 revealing a wide spectrum of compositional variation. Pyroxene compositions are distinctly designated as Quad pyroxenes. Phenocrystal pyroxenes are mostly diopsidic, while the groundmass pyroxenes mainly correspond to augite with a minor pigeonite component. Pyroxene phenocrysts are characterized by a prominent Ti-enrichment. Phenocrystal plagioclase grains are calcic (An52.7-An72.9), whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An39.2-An61.6). Groundmass opaque

  6. Genovariation Study of Hantavirus in Main Endemic Areas of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Cai, Yanan; Wei, Yamei; Han, Xu; Han, Zhanying; Zhang, Yanbo; Qi, Shunxiang; Xu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease in Hebei Province. At present, cases from the northeast regions of the province account for >80% of the total incidences. However, studies that examine the region-specific genetic variations of the Hantavirus (HV), the causative pathogen for HFRS, have been lacking. Methods Rodents were collected in northeast Hebei Province from 2004 to 2013, and the HV strains used in this study were isolated in 1993. Lung tissues were isolated from the rodents and HV antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The M1 and M2 fragments of HV M region were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned into pMDl9-T vector, sequenced and compared with representative standard stains for homology and phylogenetic analysis. Result A total of 21 samples of HV antigen-positive were collected. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the 19 rodent lungs and two HV strains were positive for the SEO virus. 11 samples were chosen to sequence, and they shared 95.8%–99.8% in nucleotide homology, and 83.6%–99.2% when compared to the standard strains of SEO virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all strains were grouped into the same S3 subtype. Conclusion SEO was the major epidemic genotype of HV in the main HFRS endemic areas in Hebei Province, and S3 was the major subtype. There was minor genetic variation in HV over short term periods, while long term variations were higher. PMID:27442527

  7. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  8. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  9. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant. PMID:26164922

  10. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin. PMID:24766897

  11. Land subsidence of coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, China: historical review and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Q.; Yang, Y.; Yu, J.; Gong, X. L.

    2015-11-01

    Surface faults related to land subsidence have been observed in coastal cities, such as Nantong, Yancheng, and Lian Yungang, in Jiangsu Province (CAJS) since the early 1970s. Nowadays, increases flooding and rising sea levels are attributed to subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. In this work we present a brief description of land subsidence in CAJS, we examine the mechanisms of land subsidence induced mainly by groundwater pumping and its evolution and economic implications as well as the implemented measures by the local government to prevent new damage.

  12. [Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in faeces scattered in areas of Puna and Quebrada. Province of Jujuy, Argentina].

    PubMed

    de Costas, Silvia Frison; Matas, Norma Riveros; Ricoy, Gerardo; Sosa, Sonia; Santillan, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease common in livestock, caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, the dog being the principal definitive host. The province of Jujuy is an endemic area located in the Northwest of Argentina. Due to the restricted ecological conditions of Quebrada and Puna, the most important activity of the population is formal cattle pastoralism and transhumance, especially of sheep and camelids. The dog acquires the double function of company and shepherd in these communities. The objective of the present study was to conduct a diagnosis of the situation in areas of La Quebrada and Puna where the circulation of E. granulosus is suspected. Five hundred and twenty three (523) samples of canine fecal material scattered in the environment were collected from 2002 to 2012. Prevalence varied from 2% in Susques to 27.7% in Humahuaca, the largest in the province. In Tumbaya, prevalence was 21% in the year 2007, reaching 0% in the year 2010 but increasing again to 10.5% in the year 2011. These results may be related to health education on preventive measures and mass deworming held prior to sample taking in the year 2010. A prevalence between 19.4% and 2% was observed in the rest of the regions studied, suggesting that a lack of strategies for echinococcosis control has allowed the spread of the disease. PMID:25011588

  13. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  14. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government...

  15. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  16. Transfer characteristics of cobalt from soil to crops in the suburban areas of Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zheng, Haifeng; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Guo; Fenghua, Ding

    2010-11-01

    The bioavailability of cobalt and its transfer from soil to vegetables and rice were investigated. Among 312 soils collected from vegetable and paddy fields in the suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province, southeast China, total soil Co ranged from 3.5 to 21.7 mg kg(-1), indicating a slight accumulation compared with the background value of the province. DTPA extracted 0.1-8.5% of soil total Co. Total and DTPA-extractable Co correlated with soil pH, CEC, free Fe, total Mn, clay and silt content more significantly in paddy soils than in the soils from vegetable fields. The average Co concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables and rice were 15.4 microg kg(-1) and 15.5 microg kg(-1), respectively. The transfer factor (the ratio of plant Co to soil DTPA-extractable Co, TF(DTPA)) ranged from 0.003 to 0.126 with a median of 0.049. The TF(DTPA) decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > root vegetables > rice. The TF(DTPA) of all crops decreased with increasing DTPA-extractable Co. Increase in pH, CEC, organic matter, clay, silt, free iron and total Mn limited the soil-to-plant transfer of Co to varying degrees. The transfer of Co from the soils to the edible parts of the crops was lower than that of Zn, Cu and Cd, but higher than that of Pb in the same areas. The concentrations of Co in rice and vegetables in the study areas were considered to be safe for the local residents because of the slight anthropogenic input and the low transfer potential to the edible parts of Co from the soils. PMID:20615604

  17. Prevalence of Selenium, T-2 Toxin, and Deoxynivalenol in Kashin-Beck Disease Areas in Qinghai Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ronghui; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Senke; Dennis, Bannel Sando; He, Shanshan; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of selenium, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) areas and provide information for understanding the high prevalence of KBD in Qinghai Province. A total of 183 subjects were chosen in a KBD-prevalent county (Guide County) and a non-KBD county (Huangzhong County) in Qinghai Province, northwestern China, and the samples of wheat flour, soil, drinking water and blood, urine, and hair of children were collected from these residents. The selenium concentrations from all these sources were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The levels of T-2 toxin and DON contamination in the wheat flour samples were assayed using HPLC-MS/MS. The average selenium content in the soil, drinking water, and wheat flour samples from KBD areas were 26.93 ± 10.06 μg/kg, 0.097 ± 0.038 μg/L, and 9.50 ± 7.17 μg/kg, respectively. Among these, the selenium levels in the drinking water and wheat flour samples from the KBD endemic county were significantly lower than those from the non-KBD county. For the selenium nutrient status, only the hair selenium concentration of children from the KBD endemic county was significantly lower than that from the non-KBD county. The contents of T-2 toxin in all wheat samples were below the detection limit (0.4 μg/kg). The levels of DON contamination in wheat flour samples from KBD and non-KBD children's households within the KBD endemic county were relatively higher, with average levels of 302 ± 49 and 280 ± 48 μg/kg, respectively. The DON level of wheat flour samples from the children's households in the non-KBD county was significantly lower than that from the KBD endemic county. These results suggest that the lower selenium status in Guide County still remains. While the selenium nutritional status of the local children has improved to some extent, partly due to the introduction of food produce from nonlocal areas

  18. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  19. Using multi-temporal remote sensing for mining area monitoring and management: the Yunnan Province case study (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Tarolli, Paolo; Li, Ke; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-05-01

    Abundant mineral resource is the basis for high-speed social and economic development, and huge economic benefits promoted the rapid development of modern mining industry. However, mining leaves the most significant signature on the Earth, by strongly changing and influencing landscapes and eco-systems. Disasters like water/soil pollution, soil erosion, landslides and land subsidence are often induced by mining activities. Multi-temporal remote sensing surveys can offer a basis upon which develop methodologies for better understanding the influences of mining on landscapes and related Earth surface processes. The aim of the study is to monitor a mining area using multi-temporal remote sensing data, for discovering and evaluating the influence of the mining activities on the environment. Our research area is located in Yunnan Province, China, where open-pit mining activities have been going on for about 10 years. For the study area there is the availability of multi-temporal spatial adjusted remote sensing images (2001 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2009 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2011 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix, 2012 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix). Through photo interpretation, it was possible to collect the evolutions of mining area, and to recognize areas subject to erosion and landsliding. The results have been validated using field surveys carried out in 2011 and 2012. The multi-temporal image interpretation indicates that the mining activities started between 2001 and 2009, with a significant increasing of land degradation between 2009 and 2012. This study represents the first step of a long-term analysis of Yunnan Province mining area. The goal is to arrange a multi-sensor yearly survey using different platforms and technologies (e.g. ground GPS, Structure from Motion photogrammetric technique SfM, UAV, and airborne and terrestrial laser scanner), in order to better understand the landscape evolution of the area, and analyze in detail the Earth

  20. Vitellogenesis and changes in lipid and protein content of oocytes of Trophon geversianus (Neogastropoda: Muricidae) in Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Barra, Paula; Giménez, Juliana; Knack de Almeida, Henrique; Arrighetti, Florencia

    2014-03-01

    The reproductive cycle of Trophon geversianus (Pallas 1774) population from Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina, 42°33'S, 64°33'W) was studied using histochemical methods and digital image analysis. For such purpose, ovary samples were taken monthly between July 2006 and August 2007 and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sudan black B (to identify lipids) or Schiff's ninhydrin (to identify proteins). Four different gametogenic stages were described: oogonias, previtellogenic oocytes, early vitellogenic oocytes, and late vitellogenic oocytes. Two spawning events were registered; one between September and October 2006, and a second one between February and March 2007. Oocyte quality was determined by the changes in lipid and protein composition during gametogenesis. Through digital image analysis, a lipid and a protein indexes (LI and PI) were calculated. Significant differences were observed in LI over month sampled, contrarily to what PI showed. A significant and positive correlation was found between lipid and protein content and oocytes areas, indicating that these nutrients accumulate during the entire vitellogenesis. Also, when dividing the oocytes into two size groups, analysis indicates a positive correlation between LI and oocyte area for smaller area oocytes. This demonstrates that while proteins accumulate linearly throughout vitellogenesis process, lipids accumulate in two steps: first at a growing rate, secondly at constant rate. This information is essential to determine the nutritional requirements of brood stock individuals at hatcheries in this potential fishery resource that inhabits patagonian waters.

  1. A Tenebrionid beetle’s dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Cheli, Germán H.; Flores, Gustavo E.; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005–2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patag

  2. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation.

  3. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) and all... of that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly)....

  4. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-01-01

    Background Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the ‘Golden Triangle’, one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. Methods We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. Results We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9–1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8200–18 300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. Conclusion More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used. PMID:18922804

  5. Hydrology of Area 39, western region, interior coal province Kansas and Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.E.; Skelton, F.; Kenny, J.F.; Davis, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Area 39 has an area of about 10,500 sq mi and includes all or parts of 13 Kansas counties and 14 Missouri counties. Major streams draining the area are the Marais des Cygnes (Osage), South Grand, Little Osage, Blackwater, Blue, and Little Blue Rivers, which are tributaries of the Missouri River. Mean annual rainfall in Area 39 ranges from 34 inches in the west to > 40 inches in the east. Agriculture and forests are the predominant land uses. Streams, ponds, and reservoirs provide about 94% of the water used in the area. Groundwater supplies are limited except in the Missouri and Marais des Cygnes (Osage) River valleys where wells in unconsolidated deposits may yield from 100 to 2,000 gal/min, and in the southeast part of the area where wells in consolidated aquifers of Ordovician age yield up to 600 gal/min of good quality water. Strippable coal reserves are present in Pennsylvanian rocks throughout many parts of the area. Coal mining activity has increased sharply since the 1960's; this mining is subject to state and federal reclamation laws. Erosion, sedimentation, water quality degradation, decline in groundwater levels, and diversion of surface drainage are typical problems associated with surface coal mining. 98 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ferropicrite from the Lalibela area in the Ethiopian large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desta, M. T.; Ishiwatari, A.; Arai, S.; Akihiro, T.; Ayalew, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt lava flows near Lalibela in the Oligocene (~ 30 Ma) Ethiopian large igneous provence (LIP) are associated with ultratitaniferous transitional basalt and picrites of the second high-Ti (HT2) series. The dominant phenocryst in the studied samples is Mg-rich olivine (up to Mg# 88.4) with high CaO contents (to 0.42 wt. %) and kink band structure is absent, indicating that olivines are crystalized from a melt. Spinel inclusions and microphenocrysts are characterized by extremely high Cr# (79-84), moderate Mg# (18-51), moderate Fe3+# (11-26) and contains 3.6-14.8 wt. % TiO2. The clinopyroxene phenocrysts are Mg#=73-88, TiO2=0.84-2.9 wt. %, and Al2O3= 1.2-4.1 wt. % in the cores. The REE contents of clinopyroxenes display enrichment in LREE (LaN/YbN=1.2-1.9) and MREE (EuN/YbN=3.3-4.3) relative to HREE. Relative depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb and Zr) is also observed. In general, these trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene are similar with those of high-Ti 2 basalts. The estimated MgO content of liquid is about 23.5 wt. % and mantle potential temperature may have been as high as ~ 1638 OC. This temperature (Tp) is higher (by some 100 OC) than those estimated for the African-Arabian traps (~ 1520 OC). The studied samples exhibit very low Al2O3/TiO2 (1.8-2.2) and high Zr/Y (8.2-10.2) ratios. These may indicate the important role for garnet during melting and that the lavas were formed by small degree of partial melting which apparently contradicts to the high Cr# of spinel. In view of low Cr/Al ratio of the bulk rock, the high Cr# of spinel suggests very high temperature of the magma (and the plume). The origin of these ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt rocks could be attributed to high pressure partial melting of pyroxenite that possibly incorporate recycled oceanic crust components. Keywords: Ferropicrite, large igneous province, Oligocene, pyroxinite, Lalibela

  7. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  8. Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

  9. Magnetotelluric study of the Xuefeng mountain area, Hu'nan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Musen; Xue, Lingxiang; Wang, Yousheng; Zhu, Shengjun

    2016-03-01

    A magnetotelluric study was carried out in the Xuefeng mountain uplift belt and its western margins. A detailed investigation was made of the resistivity of the formations, and reliable data were obtained. The sedimentary cover and basement structure of the Xuefeng mountain area and the deep geological structure were analyzed in detail using magnetotelluric data from the two-dimensional inversion of the resistivity profile data in combination with regional gravity and magnetic data. It was concluded that the tectonic movements were characterized by basement detachment, and north-south ramp. The study area can be divided into a southern uplift zone, a southern thrust-faulted zone, a central uplift zone, and a northern depression zone. This work has provided geophysical evidence that can be used in future studies of the tectonics and petroleum geology of this region.

  10. Magnetotelluric study of the Xuefeng mountain area, Hu'nan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Musen; Xue, Lingxiang; Wang, Yousheng; Zhu, Shengjun

    2016-04-01

    A magnetotelluric study was carried out in the Xuefeng mountain uplift belt and its western margins. A detailed investigation was made of the resistivity of the formations, and reliable data were obtained. The sedimentary cover and basement structure of the Xuefeng mountain area and the deep geological structure were analyzed in detail using magnetotelluric data from the two-dimensional inversion of the resistivity profile data in combination with regional gravity and magnetic data. It was concluded that the tectonic movements were characterized by basement detachment, and north-south ramp. The study area can be divided into a southern uplift zone, a southern thrust-faulted zone, a central uplift zone, and a northern depression zone. This work has provided geophysical evidence that can be used in future studies of the tectonics and petroleum geology of this region.

  11. [Environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping'an; Huang, Huang; Yan, Huimin; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Huang, Xingguo

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the environmental cost of rice production is of significance for the sustainable development of agriculture and the set-up of green GDP accounting system. In this paper, the environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area, one of the main bread baskets in China, was evaluated from the aspects of pesticide pollution, chemical fertilizer pollution, greenhouse gases emission, plastic film persistence, paddyfield gleyization, and polderization. The results showed that in 1999, the total environmental cost of rice production in this area was 41.91 billion yuan, equivalent to 26.8% of its total agricultural production value, or 28.5% of the gross output of its planting industry. For the sustainable production of rice, the strategies for decrease environmental cost intrinsically were put forward. PMID:16471365

  12. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  13. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI. PMID:22720600

  14. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  15. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  16. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  17. Human parasitoses of the Malili area, South Sulawesi (Celebes) province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S W; Carney, W P; Van Peenen, P F; Russell, D; Saroso, J S

    1978-06-01

    A biomedical survey was conducted in 9 villages in the Malili area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blood specimens were examined for malaria and microfilariae; stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. Malaria parasitemias were rare; Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 10 and P. vivax in 11 of 985 blood smears. Malayan filariasis was endemic to all villages surveyed. The overall prevalence of detectable microfilaremias was 15%, varying from 34% in Kawata to 1% in Nuha. Microfilarial densities, expressed as MfD50 averaged 8.0 and varied from 1.1 in Timampu to 16.0 in Karabbe. Intestinal parasites were common. Although Schistosoma japonicum was not found, 97% of the examined had one or more intestinal parasites as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (74%), Trichuris trichiura (65%), hookworm (62%), Entamoeba coli (38%), Endolimax nana (10%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (4%), Entamoeba hartmanni (3%), Giardia lamblia (2%) Chilomastix mesnili (1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (1%). Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Hymenolepis nana eggs were detected once each and heterophyid-like eggs were detected twice. PMID:364674

  18. Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  19. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianli; Tan, Zhongming; Ren, Dafei; Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China. PMID:25954814

  20. A study of visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi province

    PubMed Central

    Sabzevari, Sadaf; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Dog is the main reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The present study was carried out to investigate visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi province. Thirty- nine owned dogs with dermal lesions were selected. During study, four of dogs were euthanized. The dermal smears, blood and tissue samples were collected and examined using parasitological, serological and molecular methods. A total of 39 examined dogs, leishman bodies were microscopically detected in 33.30% (13/39) of dermal smears. The sera samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibody against Leishmania infantum was detected in 26.00% (10/39) dogs. According to semi-nested PCR, DNA of Leishmania infantum was detected in 2.50% (1/39) of blood samples and in 75.00 % (3/4) of different tissues of euthanized dogs. BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99.00% similarity with kDNA of Leishmania infantum. Based on the results, it is concluded that visceral leishmaniasis due to L. infantum is distributed among household dogs of this area and it needs more surveillance to control the disease by public health and veterinary authorities. PMID:27226888

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of an Outbreak with Scrub Typhus in Previously Unrecognized Areas, Jiangsu Province, China 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China. PMID:25954814

  2. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  3. A study of visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi province.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Sadaf; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Dog is the main reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The present study was carried out to investigate visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi province. Thirty- nine owned dogs with dermal lesions were selected. During study, four of dogs were euthanized. The dermal smears, blood and tissue samples were collected and examined using parasitological, serological and molecular methods. A total of 39 examined dogs, leishman bodies were microscopically detected in 33.30% (13/39) of dermal smears. The sera samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibody against Leishmania infantum was detected in 26.00% (10/39) dogs. According to semi-nested PCR, DNA of Leishmania infantum was detected in 2.50% (1/39) of blood samples and in 75.00 % (3/4) of different tissues of euthanized dogs. BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99.00% similarity with kDNA of Leishmania infantum. Based on the results, it is concluded that visceral leishmaniasis due to L. infantum is distributed among household dogs of this area and it needs more surveillance to control the disease by public health and veterinary authorities. PMID:27226888

  4. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  5. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

  7. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  8. Molecular Analysis of Sarcocystis Spp. Isolated from Sheep (Ovis aries) in Babol Area, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    KALANTARI, Narges; KHAKSAR, Mohaddeseh; GHAFFARI, Salman; HAMIDEKISH, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed. Methods: Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward. Results: The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150). The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (∼1100 bp) from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%), six (20%) and four (13.3%) isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei. Conclusion: Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial. PMID:27095971

  9. Soil arsenic availability and the transfer of soil arsenic to crops in suburban areas in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui-Qing; Gao, Shu-Fang; Wang, Wei-Ling; Staunton, S; Wang, Guo

    2006-09-15

    The bioavailability, soil-to-plant transfer and associated health risks of arsenic in soils collected from paddy rice fields and vegetable fields in suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province were investigated. The total soil concentrations of arsenic ranged from 1.29 to 25.28 mg kg(-)(1) with a mean of 6.09 mg kg(-)(1). Available (NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable) arsenic content accounted for 0.7-38.2% of total soil arsenic and was significantly correlated with total soil arsenic content. For the vegetable soils, the available fraction (ratio of available As to total As) of arsenic decreased with decreasing silt (particle size 0.02-0.002 mm) and free iron (DCB extractable) contents and with increasing soil pH and organic matter content. The available fraction of arsenic in the paddy rice soils increased with increasing free iron and organic matter contents and decreasing soil pH and silt content. The correlation of NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable arsenic with the arsenic concentration of the vegetables was much better than that of total As. The transfer factor based on the soil available arsenic (TF(avail)) was chosen to compare the accumulation ability of the various crops. The TF(avail) values of rice grains (air-dried weight basis) ranged between 0.068 and 0.44 and were higher than those of the vegetables, ranging from 0.001 to 0.12. The accumulation ability of the crops decreased in the order of rice>radish>water spinach>celery>onion>taro>leaf mustard>fragrant-flowered garlic>pakchoi>Chinese cabbage>lettuce>garlic>cowpea>cauliflower>bottle gourd>towel gourd>eggplant. Daily consumption of rice and other As-rich vegetables could result in an excessive intake of arsenic, based on the provisional tolerable intake for adults for arsenic recommended by WHO. PMID:16624379

  10. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  11. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

  12. An Investigation on Soil Chemical Composition and Shallow Groundwater Condition in a Saline Area in Nakhon Panom Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2010-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin region is a potential salt-accumulated neighborhood. Several subbasin areas have been reported to have the saline soil problem and these include Lower Songkram River, Nam Oon Brook, Nam Thew Brook, and Namkam Brook. The study area is located on the lower of the Namkam River Basin mainly in 3 districts of the Nakhon Panom Province and these districts are Amphoe That Panom, Amphoe Nakae, and Amphoe Renu Nakhon. Soil salinity is found risen sparsely in some villages of these three districts. Generally, shallow groundwater is known to facilitate the distribution of dissolved salts away from the salinity sources and to pick up the salts to the top soils. Thus, groundwater plays a major role in salinity distribution everywhere. The objective of this research is to investigate the soil chemical composition and shallow groundwater evolution in the study area. Soil samples are analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The depth to groundwater, groundwater pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical resistivity (EC), and salinity are the parameters and the measurement takes place from October 2007 to present. There are 19 sampling locations distributed in the study area. The depth of the observation wells varies from 4 m to 40 m. Groundwater table is found to be up to 7 m below the groundwater surface and the depth is increasing from December to April. Groundwater pH is constantly less than 7 and greater than 4. Groundwater pH varies significantly between 10 mg/l to 45,000 mg/l and EC also differs between 10 µS/cm to 90,000 µS/cm. Most of groundwater sampled in the study area is slight blackish with salinity measured below 1.00 ppt and these are Ban Don Dang, Ban Wang Yang, Ban Na Khu, Ban Piman Ta, Pan Sala, and Ban Lao Tung. On the other hand, Ban Bo Dong Sorn and Ban Pra Song Noi have very saline shallow groundwater with salinity greater 1ppt. The results from the XRF show that SiO2 and Al2O3 are the main composition and the soil is

  13. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass burning is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland burning contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS Burned Area Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire burns in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland burned area estimations were calculated using the burned area pixel count (post-processing of MODIS Burned Area Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland burned area detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares burned from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares burned. The peak months for Cropland burned area detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba

  14. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  15. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province.

    PubMed

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:26140675

  16. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  17. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    PubMed Central

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:26140675

  18. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26608724

  19. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng

    2010-01-01

    Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available phosphorus (avail. P), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn. PMID:20616981

  20. Correlates of consistent condom use among recently initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Consistent use of condoms is the most effective method of preventing STIs including HIV. However, recent evidence suggests that limited knowledge about HIV prevention benefits from male circumcision leads to inconsistent condom use among traditionally circumcised men. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of consistent condom use and identify its psychosocial correlates to inform future HIV prevention strategies among traditionally circumcised men in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study using interviewer administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 1656 men who had undergone initiation and traditional male circumcision in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Logistic regression was used to evaluate univariate and multivariate relationships of psychosocial correlates with consistent condom use. Results The mean age of the participants was 21.4 years. About 45% belonged to the amaXhosa ethnic group, followed by 15.1% of the amaMpondo, 11.6% of the amaHlubi, and 27.9% from other ethnic groups. A total of 72.3% reported having a main sexual partner and of those 44.8% indicated having other sexual partners as well. About 49% reported consistent condom use and 80% used free government issued condoms, varies among ethnic groups. A total of 35.1% indicated having tested for HIV. Of those who tested for HIV, 46% reported inconsistent condom use when having sex with their sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a positive association between consistent condom use and the general knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use with main and casual sexual partners, subjective norm towards condom use with the main sexual partner, perceived self-efficacy towards condom use, positive self-esteem, beliefs about traditional male circumcision and STI protection, attitude towards gender based violence, and cultural alienation. Conclusions

  1. Incidence of oncological pathologies 2002-2010 in the southwestern Piedmont area, province of Vercelli, neighbouring municipalities of former nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Salerno, C; Marciani, P; Vanhaecht, K; Palin, L A; Panella, M

    2016-01-01

    The Vercelli Province counts two former nuclear installations: a radioactive waste disposal area in Saluggia and a former nuclear power plant in Trino. This study takes also into account four other neighbouring municipalities, counting 20,000 total inhabitants. We studied the incidence of neoplastic pathologies in the 2002-2010 period. The data sources were Hospital Discharge Form (SDO), histological reports from the Registry of Hospital Charts (RHC) and Italy's National Statistics Institute (ISTAT) reports, and the Cancer Register of Turin. The research highlights the excesses for all type of cancers (SIR=1,11; IC 1,04-1,18), including the ones of nervous system (SIR=2,23 IC 1,47-2,98), leukaemia (SIR=1,94 IC 1,35-2,52), and bones (SIR=12,0 IC 9,22-14,7), according to different aggregation levels by age, sex and housing area. Considering such results, previous studies, and the environmental and occupational risk factors in the area, we believe that further epidemiological and environmental studies should be conducted in this area. PMID:27297197

  2. Comparative study of lifestyles of residents in high and low risk areas for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China; with special reference to allium vegetables.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, T; Gao, C M; Ding, J H; Liu, T K; Li, M S; Tajima, K

    1999-11-01

    There is a low risk area for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China, where people frequently consume raw allium vegetables. As a first step epidemiological study to clarify the factors involved in the low incidence of gastric cancer, we conducted a comparative study of the ecological factors in a high risk area (HRA), Yangzhong, and a low risk area (LRA), Pizhou, using a questionnaire. Subjects were selected from the general population according to age and sex, and comprised 414 residents of the HRA and 425 residents of the LRA. Ecological factors were compared for the two areas by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, age-adjusted. Smoking and drinking habits were found to be more common in the LRA. On the other hand, allium vegetables were consumed in the LRA much more frequently, with high consumption of raw vegetables fruit, tomatoes, kidney beans and soybean products. People who consumed garlic en masse 3 times or more per week were 82% of men and 75% of women in the LRA, and 1% of men and women in the HRA. The results of the survey suggest that frequent consumption of allium vegetables, in addition to other anticancer foods, may be a factor in low mortality for gastric cancer. PMID:10616262

  3. From Schistosomiasis Vector Habitats Identification to Human Transmission Risk Mapping, in the Poyang Lake Area (Jiangxi Province, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, T.; Huber, C.; Yesou, H.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (Bilharzias) is the most frequent disease after malaria in the world. This disease hit 200 million people, and threats 600 million people. In China, Schistosomiasis japonicum, a serious communicable parasitic disease, is endemic along the Yangtze River basin, including monsoon lakes. Risky transmission areas are conditioned by the S. japonicum vector’s presence and human activities and presence. On Poyang Lake, marshlands are the principal area of its development. The aim of this work is to answer : Where are areas suitable for vector’s disease development ? Where and what are the human activities the most exposed to disease transmission ? Where are urban areas with the higher level of disease transmission risk ? How data crossing can be useful for identification of areas with the higher transmission risk level ?

  4. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  5. Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Duan, Song; Duan, Qixiang; Pu, Yongcheng; Yang, Yuecheng; Ding, Yingying; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. Method A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. Results In total, 455 (94.4%) out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03–7.43), ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06–4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34–7.62), higher education (OR1–6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99–3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09–5.06) and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67–4.32). About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16–25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22–49.60, OR26–35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06–7.35, OR36–45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57–7.58), hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00–3.97) and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19–7.58) were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. Conclusions High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading. PMID:23626712

  6. Magmatic conduit melt-fluid metallogenic system- A new Genetic Model for Xishimen Iron Deposit, Wuan area, Hebei province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SU, S.; Hou, J.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Xishimen Iron deposit is located in Wuan city, Hebei province, China. it is a typical skarn deposit, but some geological characteristics in the deposit cannot been explained by skarn model. We will try to reveal the genetic mechanism of the iron deposit¢s in this paper. Orebodys mainly occur along the boundary of diorite and metalimestone in the Xishimen iron deposit. Some orebodys intruded into diorites or limestones. There are vesicles in some massive ores. Magnetite from the lower part of orebody occur between diopside and tremolite as an intersititial minerals. Magnetites from upper part of the orebody are eqilibrium with calcite, apatite, Talc, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Magnetites coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite have more than 15000 ppm TiO2, and riched in SiO2. However, magnetites coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfides have 200 ppm- 400 ppm TiO2, and poored in SiO2. Magnetites coexisting with talc have highest Al2O3, MgO, and MnO. Magnetites coexisting with calcite and sulfide have lowest Al2O3, MnO and MgO. Trace element analysis results of magnetite show that magnetite coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite are riched in Ti and Ta, and depleted Nb and Y. Magnetite coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfide are usually have poor positive or no anomaly of Ti and Ta, and have poor positive anomaly of Nb, Hf, and Y. The analysis results of Fe isotope for ores and rocks in Xishimen iron deposit show that there is a negative correlation relationship between altitude and the value of Fe isotope. The heavy Fe isotopes of ores are richer in the lower part than in the upper part. The origin processes of Xishimen iron deposit are: (1) mafic-intermediate magma riched in iron reacted with limestone, and make the "iron magma" formation; (2) Fluids are added into the metallogenic system continuously, and "iron magma" was getting less density; (3) "iron magma" bearing fluids uplifting along magma conduit because of fluid superpressure

  7. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  8. A new frontier province offshore northwest Greenland: Structure, basin development, and petroleum potential of the Melville Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Hamann, N.E.

    1997-06-01

    In the Melville Bay area, offshore northwest Greenland, very large structures and sedimentary basins, which were predicted many years ago on the basis of magnetic and gravity data, have been confirmed by a recent reconnaissance seismic survey, with implications that are encouraging for petroleum exploration in the area. The Melville Bay area flanks a small ocean basin in Baffin Bay that is thought to have formed by oblique sea-floor spreading in the Eocene. There are two major, coast-parallel basins in the area. The inner basin, the Melville Bay Graben, is essentially a half graben with a maximum thickness of sediments exceeding 13 km. A complex fault-controlled ridge system separates this basin from the outer Kivioq Basin in which up to 7 km of sediments have accumulated. By analogy with onshore geology in the surrounding areas and well data from the continental shelves off southern west Greenland and Labrador to the south, it is expected that the first phase of rifting and sedimentation took place in the Early-middle Cretaceous, while a second phase of rifting took place in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene. Later, compression and inversion affected the northern part of the area, leading to the formation of large anticlinal structures. The existence of large tilted fault blocks and inversion anticlines provides grounds for anticipating the presence of large structural traps. Synrift sandstones and deeper water fans are expected to provide potential reservoirs, and correlatives of oil-prone source rocks known from the lower part of the upper Cenomanian-lower Maastrichtian Kanguk Formation in the Canadian Arctic may also have oil source properties in the Melville Bay area. Recent discoveries of live oil in the uppermost Cretaceous and lower Tertiary of onshore central west Greenland provide proof that oil has been generated in the region.

  9. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  10. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  11. The Construction Features of Traditional Settlements in the Middle Area of Jiangxi Province Basing on the Analysis of Tangyin Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    Based on general investigations and utilizing GIS software, missing historical data was hypothesized. From the perspectives of social and economic development, this paper tries to find the logic behind the formation and development of traditional settlements. Using systematic examination, the features of the town's overall layout, courtyard shape and building materials appear. Applying comparative analysis, this paper indicated the similarities and differences between Tangyin town and the other areas of Jiangxi, and add them to the construction logic of the middle area in Jiangxi to make the following construction activities much in order.

  12. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns. PMID:27112022

  13. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  14. [Soil heterotrophic respiration and its sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-hua; Chen, Fang-qing; Wang, Yuan; Li, Jun-qing

    2011-03-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to study the annual dynamics of soil heterotrophic respiration and soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China. At the same time, laboratory experiment was performed to study the heterotrophic respiration rate along soil profile, and the sensitivity of surface soil (0-5 cm) heterotrophic respiration to soil temperature and moisture. Then, a model was established to valuate the potential effects of warming change on the soil heterotrophic respiration in study area. In L. formosana and P. massoniana forests, the soil heterotrophic respiration rate in 0-5 cm layer was 2.39 and 2.62 times, and 2.01 and 2.94 times of that in 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers, respectively, illustrating that soil heterotrophic respiration mainly occurred in 0-5 cm surface layer. The temperature sensitivity factor (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm layers was 2.10, 1.86, and 1.78 in L. formosana forest, and 1.86, 1.77, and 1.44 in P. massoniana forest, respectively. The relationship between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and temperature (T) well fitted exponential function R = alphaexp (beta3T), and that between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and moisture (W) well fitted quadratic function R = a+bW+cW2. Therefore, the relationship of surface soil heterotrophic respiration with soil temperature and moisture could be described by the model lnR = a+bW+cW2 +dT+eT2, which suggested that the response of soil heterotrophic respiration to soil moisture was depended on soil temperature, i.e., the sensitivity decreased with decreasing soil temperature. The calculation of the annual soil heterotrophic respiration rate in the two forests with the established model showed that the calculated respiration rate was a slightly higher in L. formosana forest but close to the measured one in P. massoniana forest, illustrating the applied

  15. [Annual Reports for the Academic Year 1980-81 from 49 States, the District of Columbia and 3 Canadian Provinces Focusing on Problems, Issues, Achievements and Other Areas of Interest to the Postsecondary Education Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berve, Nancy M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Annual reports are presented for the academic year 1980-1981 from 49 states (except Maine), the District of Columbia, and three Canadian provinces focusing on problems, issues, achievements, and other areas of interest to the postsecondary education community. Specific topics include the following: long-range plans for higher education,…

  16. Environmental sustainability and scenarios of urbanization in arid area: a case study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Suocheng; You, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2004-11-01

    Northwestern China, located in the hinterland of the Asia-European continent, is composed of arid and semi-arid areas, with a very vulnerable natural environment and a long history of oasis economy. Implementation of the new policy of development of Western China resulted in both economic progress and environmental crisis. This article, using Wuwei City as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of energy, pollution discharge, transportation, food, industry and urbanization. Polestar language, the model developed and used by the Global Scenario Group, was applied to simulate the development of the study area. The results revealed that Wuwei city would reach a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional development patterns in the next ten to twenty years. Therefore, a sustainable scenario was recommended in the urbanization of Wuwei, and appropriate suggestions were also put forward to the policy makers.

  17. Ecology of Hantaan virus at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Lee, In Yong; Gu, Se Hun; Park, Yon Mi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Song, Jin-Won

    2009-12-01

    The Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) in the Republic of Korea consists of dirt roads, barren training areas, and forested hillsides adjacent to linear and broad expanses of tall grasses, herbaceous, and scrub vegetation. Of the six species of small mammals, the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, was the most frequently captured (96.1%). Apodemus agrarius capture rates varied from 17.7 to 33.2% during three trapping periods. Gravid females were observed during November-December 2006 (8.4%) and March 2007 (5.1%). In 2005, the overall seroprevalence of Hantaan virus (HTNV) was high (34.4%) and lower during surveys in 2006 (14.2%) and 2007 (13.8%). Seroprevalence was directly correlated with weight increase of A. agrarius. PMID:20836826

  18. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  19. Losses Assessment of Crops due to Typhoon Disaster in China Coastal Areas —— A Case Study of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, W.; Fang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability which quantifies the loss ratio under different hazard intensity is an important feature of the natural disaster system and has important significance to natural disaster risk assessment. Agriculture is an outdoor industry with high risk of meteorological disasters. The strong winds, heavy rain and storm surge are main typhoon hazard factors to crops. To provide a quantitative research method for the loss evaluation of crops due to typhoon disaster we first revised two vulnerability curves for crops under comprehensive intensity of typhoon based on the simulated hazard data and loss data related to historical typhoon events landing on China from 1949 to 2014;and then established a storm surge vulnerability matrix of crops regarding Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province as the study area ; finally, we put forward three storm surge fragility curves for crops representing different states of loss. The results can effectively describe the typhoon vulnerability for crops in China coastal areas so as to provide the input to post-disaster loss assessments and catastrophe modeling applications.

  20. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R.

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  1. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  2. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case. PMID:25555623

  3. High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in reservoir hosts in four districts of Khon Kaen Province, an opisthorchiasis endemic area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aunpromma, Surasit; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Papirom, Pittaya; Kanjampa, Prapan; Tesana, Smarn; Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn

    2012-03-01

    Khon Kaen, a northeastern province of Thailand, has been considered as one of the human opisthorchiasis endemic areas with continuing high prevalence. Unsuccessful eradication of the disease is probably from the culture of eating raw and undercooked fish of local residence and the parasitic persistency in animal reservoir hosts, such as cats and dogs. In cooperation with the other human opisthorchiasis control programs in an endemic area of 29 villages in Ban Haet, Ban Phai, Chonnabot and Muncha Khiri Districts, Khon Kaen, this study investigated the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection using a formalin-ether sedimentation method as the gold standard, and hematology and blood chemistry of the reservoir hosts in this endemic area. The results showed that cats had much higher prevalence (76 of 214, 35.51%) than dogs (3 of 821, 0.37%). Hematology between the infected and uninfected cats was not different. Complete blood count and biochemistry reflected some altered hepatic functions. However, only severely infected cats showed apparent clinical signs, including lethargy, diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharges. Moreover, the ultrasonogram of infected cats with very high egg per gram (>1500 EPG) showed apparent thickening of the gall bladder wall with hyperechoicity of hepatic parenchyma. This study suggests that cat is the most important animal reservoir of human opisthorchiasis, especially in this endemic area. It is also interesting that villages with infection are mostly located in the vicinity of Chi River and two large water reservoirs (Lawa and Nong Kongkaew Lakes), but people without infection were away from Chi River, on the south of Kudkhow Lake. Further investigation on this particular geofactor is essential for effective opisthorchiasis control programs. PMID:21843654

  4. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  5. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment. PMID:22864550

  6. Eco-Environmental Assessment and Analysis of Tonglvshan Mining Area in Daye City, Hubei Province Based on Spatiotemporal Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. M.; He, G. J.; Wang, M. M.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jiao, W. L.; Peng, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Liu, H. C.; Long, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI), Vegetation Index (VI), Water Network Density Index (WNDI), and Land Degradation Index (LDI). The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard "Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation" HJ/T192-2006 and the "Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion" SL 190-96. Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal analysis of the type and area of land

  7. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    points distributed over a large area around the canal and the results of numerical simulations, the main hydrological changes include: (1) Incorporation of new boundary conditions. The groundwater flow, previously controlled by the oscillating sea level and by the lagoon level, has been altered introducing a line of minimum potential along the canal. The water level in the canal oscillates according to the variations in the levels of the sea and the lagoon. (2) The gypsum bedrock that behaves as an anisotropic aquifer, is drained by a channel in which the flow, essentially controlled by the tidal regime, discharges two times a day towards the sea and towards the lagoon. (3) The canal that works as a drainage trench, has caused the lowering of the water table. The local distortion of the piezometric surface has modified the flow direction and increased the gradient and flow rate. At the flanks of the canal, the groundwater that used to flow towards the sea, now has been captured by the excavation and circulates towards the canal. The sense of this flow is influenced by the piezometric changes caused by the tidal variations. (4) As a consequence of the lowering of the water table (of the order of a few decimetres) near the banks of the canal, slow subhorizontal phreatic flows have been replaced by more rapid downward vadose flows. These hydrological changes have induced the reactivation-acceleration of internal erosion and collapse processes leading to the generation of a large number of sinkholes in the vicinity of the canal. The lowering in the water table involves an increase in the effective weight of the sediments previously situated in the saturated zone due to the loss of buoyancy. Additionally, downward vadose flows and more rapid water circulation in the saturated zone towards the canal favour the flushing out of the sediments filling voids and the downward migration of cover material towards the underlying paleokarst. Most likely the continuous oscillations of

  8. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. PMID:21635640

  9. Mercury methylation in rice paddies and its possible controlling factors in the Hg mining area, Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Shang, Lihai; Yan, Haiyu; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Understanding mercury (Hg) methylation/demethylation processes and the factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production within the rice paddy ecosystem of Hg mining areas is critical to assess the risk of MeHg contamination in rice grain. Two typical Hg-contaminated mining sites, a current-day artisanal site (Gouxi) and an abandoned site (Wukeng), were chosen in this study. We qualified the in situ specific methylation/demethylation rate constants in rice paddy soil during a complete rice-growing season. Our results demonstrate that MeHg levels in rice paddy soil were a function of both methylation and demethylation processes and the net methylation potential in the rice paddy soil reflected the measured MeHg production at any time point. Sulfate stimulating the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was a potentially important metabolic pathway for Hg methylation in rice paddies. We suggest that bioavailable Hg derived from new atmospheric deposition appears to be the primary factor regulating net MeHg production in rice paddies. PMID:27176759

  10. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  11. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed. PMID:26661960

  12. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV. PMID:16293995

  13. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Dong, Shikui; Peng, Mingchun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world. The basin has been strongly affected by human activities, particularly by dam construction. This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China, where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed. To identify the vegetation composition and structure, we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010. We found that the forest, shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside. In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity. In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley. At high altitude, the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found. As a result of dam construction and operation, the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed. Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats. The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  14. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  15. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  16. Crustal structure and tectonic provinces of the Riiser-Larsen Sea area (East Antarctica): results of geophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.; Grikurov, G.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Sand, M.; Golynsky, A.; Aleshkova, N.

    2008-06-01

    About 16,000 km of multichannel seismic (MCS), gravity and magnetic data and 28 sonobuoys were acquired in the Riiser-Larsen Sea Basin and across the Gunnerus and Astrid Ridges, to study their crustal structure. The study area has contrasting basement morphologies and crustal thicknesses. The crust ranges in thickness from about 35 km under the Riiser-Larsen Sea shelf, 26 28 km under the Gunnerus Ridge, 12 17 km under the Astrid Ridge, and 9.5 10 km under the deep-water basin. A 50-km-wide block with increased density and magnetization is modeled from potential field data in the upper crust of the inshore zone and is interpreted as associated with emplacement of mafic intrusions into the continental margin of the southern Riiser-Larsen Sea. In addition to previously mapped seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in the western Riiser-Larsen Sea, a linear succession from M2 to M16 is identified in the eastern Riiser-Larsen Sea. In the southwestern Riiser-Larsen Sea, a symmetric succession from M24B to 24n with the central anomaly M23 is recognized. This succession is obliquely truncated by younger lineation M22 M22n. It is proposed that seafloor spreading stopped at about M23 time and reoriented to the M22 opening direction. The seismic stratigraphy model of the Riiser-Larsen Sea includes five reflecting horizons that bound six seismic units. Ages of seismic units are determined from onlap geometry to magnetically dated oceanic basement and from tracing horizons to other parts of the southern Indian Ocean. The seaward edge of stretched and attenuated continental crust in the southern Riiser-Larsen Sea and the landward edge of unequivocal oceanic crust are mapped based on structural and geophysical characteristics. In the eastern Riiser-Larsen Sea the boundary between oceanic and stretched continental crust is better defined and is interpreted as a strike-slip fault lying along a sheared margin.

  17. The associations of heavy metals with crystalline iron oxides in the polluted soils around the mining areas in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui; Tan, Nianhao; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Juju; Liang, Xiaoliang; Qu, Mingkai; Feng, Xionghan; Qiu, Guohong; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In current selective sequential extraction (SSE) methods, heavy metals associated well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides are not well defined and considered, and usually fall into residual forms, which actually make their mobility and environmental risk underestimated. This study compared various fractions of heavy metals in samples of mining tailings and nearby soils under different land uses in Guangdong Province of China. Iron oxides in these soils were mainly Al-substituted goethites and/or hematites. Independent of the land uses, the percentages of various Cd fractions in the soils decrease in the order of well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated (27.2-91.2%) > residual (2.1-37.0%) > reducible FeMn oxides (3.2-45.7%) > exchangeable (1.0-28.2%) > organic-associated form (0-5.1%). Pb mainly existes in the residual fraction (25.9-74.5%), followed by crystalline iron oxyhydroxides-associated (0.4-69.0%) and reducible fractions (2.4-40.4%). Zn mainly exists in the residual fraction (25.4-85.9%), followed by the well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated fraction (6.4-55.0%). However, Cu mainly existes in the residual form and the fractionation of Cu varies obviously between samples. The association of these metals with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides in the soils decreases in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. These results suggest that in heavy-metal-polluted weathered soils in tropical and subtropical areas enriched with iron oxides, it is essential to assess potential bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals bound to well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides with appropriate procedures in the fractionation measurement. The modified Tessier method present here can be used to quantify the fractions of heavy metals in such areas. PMID:27427775

  18. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  19. Field relation, geochemistry and origin of the Xinglonggou volcanic rocks in Beipiao area, Liaoning Province (China): Reappraisal on the foundering of lower continental crust of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Su-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Our large scale geological mapping in the Beipiao area, western Liaoning Province, the North China Craton, shows that the exposed "Xinglonggou Formation" is not a monoclinal stratum, but a suit of strongly deformed volcanic rocks intruded by some small plugs. Consequently, two rock groups are categorized for the "Xinglonggou Formation" in the Beipiao area, according to their field relation, petrography, and geochemical characteristics. The group 1 rocks are blackish and fresh, and cut across the deformed group 2 volcanic rocks. Meanwhile, the group 1 rocks exhibit characteristics of higher magnesium number (Mg# ⩾ 60), calcium content (CaO > 5 wt.%), and Sr/Y ratio (>60), but lower potassium (K2O < 2 wt.%) and Rb contents (<40 ppm). Among these rocks, most of them have higher Cs but lower Li content. Geochemically, the group 1 rocks belong to high-SiO2 adakite (HSA). On the contrary, the group 2 is composed of intermediate and acid volcanic rocks, which are brownish or greenish and strongly folded. Compared with the group 1 rocks, they have higher potassium (K2O > 2 wt.%) and Rb contents, but lower Mg# (<60) and calcium content (most samples CaO < 5 wt.%); meanwhile, they have lower Sr/Y ratios (in general <60), and lower Cs but higher Li contents. According to their near zero ɛNd(t) value and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, as well as the enrichment of U and Th relative to LREE, neither the group 1 or the group 2 rocks result from the partial melting of the lower crust of North China Craton. The group 1 HSAs are generated by melting of the subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Pacific plate; otherwise, the group 2 rocks are derivatives of the magma originated from a slab-derived melt metasomatised mantle.

  20. Source identification of eight heavy metals in grassland soils by multivariate analysis from the Baicheng-Songyuan area, Jilin Province, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yuan; Guo, Jia; Chai, Sheli; Cai, Jing; Xue, Linfu; Zhang, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of the concentration, chemical speciation and source of heavy metals in soils is an imperative for pollution monitoring and the potential risk assessment of the metals to animal and human health. A total of 154 surface horizons and 53 underlying horizons of grassland soil were collected from the Baicheng-Songyuan area in Jilin Province, Northeast China, in which the concentrations and chemical fractionations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in grassland topsoil were 7.2, 0.072, 35, 16.7, 0.014, 15.2, 18.3 and 35 mg kg(-)(1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, and those averaged contents were lower than their China Environmental Quality Standard values for the Soils, implying that heavy metal concentrations in the studied soils were of the safety levels. The mobility sequence of the heavy metals based on the sum of the soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound and humic acid-bound fractions among the seven fractions decreased in the order of Cd 50.4%)>Hg (39.8%)>Cu (26.5%)>As (19.9%)>Zn (19.1%)>Ni (15.9%)>Pb (14.1%)>Cr (4.3%), suggesting Cd and Hg may pose more potential risk of soil contamination than other metals. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg had the similar lithogenic sources, however, Cd and Hg were more relevant to organic matter than other heavy metals, which was confirmed by the chemical speciation analysis of the metals. The study provides a base for local authority in the studied area to monitor the long term accession of heavy metals into grassland soil. PMID:25911049

  1. Prognostic Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma—A Population-Based Study in Golestan Province, Iran, a High Incidence Area

    PubMed Central

    Aghcheli, Karim; Marjani, Haji-Amin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Islami, Farhad; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Ghavamnasiri, Mohammad-Reza; Razaei, Ezzatollah; Khalilipour, Elias; Mohtashami, Samira; Makhdoomi, Yasha; Rajabzadeh, Rabea; Merat, Shahin; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Golestan Province in northern Iran is an area with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to investigate prognostic factors for ESCC and survival of cases in Golestan, on which little data were available. We followed-up 426 ESCC cases participating in a population-based case-control study. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard models. Median survival was 7 months. Age at diagnosis was inversely associated with survival, but the association was disappeared with adjustment for treatment. Residing in urban areas (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54–0.90) and being of non-Turkmen ethnic groups (HR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61–0.96) were associated with better prognosis. In contrast to other types of tobacco use, nass (a smokeless tobacco product) chewing was associated with a slightly poorer prognosis even in models adjusted for other factors including stage of disease and treatment (HR = 1.38; 95% CI 0.99–1.92). Opium use was associated with poorer prognosis in crude analyses but not in adjusted models. Almost all of potentially curative treatments were associated with longer survival. Prognosis of ESCC in Golestan is very poor. Easier access to treatment facilities may improve the prognosis of ESCC in Golestan. The observed association between nass chewing and poorer prognosis needs further investigations; this association may suggest a possible role for ingestion of nass constituents in prognosis of ESCC. PMID:21811567

  2. Prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--a population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran, a high incidence area.

    PubMed

    Aghcheli, Karim; Marjani, Haji-Amin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Islami, Farhad; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Ghavamnasiri, Mohammad-Reza; Razaei, Ezzatollah; Khalilipour, Elias; Mohtashami, Samira; Makhdoomi, Yasha; Rajabzadeh, Rabea; Merat, Shahin; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Golestan Province in northern Iran is an area with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to investigate prognostic factors for ESCC and survival of cases in Golestan, on which little data were available. We followed-up 426 ESCC cases participating in a population-based case-control study. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard models. Median survival was 7 months. Age at diagnosis was inversely associated with survival, but the association was disappeared with adjustment for treatment. Residing in urban areas (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.90) and being of non-Turkmen ethnic groups (HR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.96) were associated with better prognosis. In contrast to other types of tobacco use, nass (a smokeless tobacco product) chewing was associated with a slightly poorer prognosis even in models adjusted for other factors including stage of disease and treatment (HR = 1.38; 95% CI 0.99-1.92). Opium use was associated with poorer prognosis in crude analyses but not in adjusted models. Almost all of potentially curative treatments were associated with longer survival. Prognosis of ESCC in Golestan is very poor. Easier access to treatment facilities may improve the prognosis of ESCC in Golestan. The observed association between nass chewing and poorer prognosis needs further investigations; this association may suggest a possible role for ingestion of nass constituents in prognosis of ESCC. PMID:21811567

  3. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  4. Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Yu, Dong-Bao; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. Methodology Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. Principal Findings We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. Conclusions/Significance There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached. PMID:23936580

  5. Assessing environmental soil quality in rural areas : A base line study in the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands and reflections on soil monitoring network designs.

    PubMed

    van Gaans, P F; Vriend, S P; Bleyerveld, S; Schrage, G; Vos, A

    1995-01-01

    A base line study into the environmental quality of soils in the rural areas of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands, was performed. The polder-landscape in this area was developed in a complex history of floodings and land-reclamation. Samples from 67 sites, at a density of roughly one per 25 km(2), were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in addition to a physicochemical characterization by pH(KCl), dry solids, organic matter, and clay content. At about 2/3 of the sites samples were taken at more than one depth. Fluoride and pesticides were determined in partly overlapping selections of 30 samples. Four land use classes were distinguished (arable land, grass land, orchards, uncultivated), and samples were labelled by region within the province. Data evaluation was aided by a recursive statistical approach, whereby statistical tests confirm and strengthen geochemical reasoning. Single- and multivariate statistics were used both as exploratory tools and as a measure of significance and relevance of conditions and processes. In general the environmental quality of the soils is satisfactory. Exceedence of the legal standards for natural background values at more than one site occurs for Cd, Cu, Hg and the pesticides DDT/DDE, dieldrin and HCH, at most by a factor of three. High levels of Hg appear related to arable land use; enhanced levels of Cu are found in orchards. High Cd levels primarily seem to follow a regional or geological pattern; yet, a relation with arable land use and clayey soils cannot be excluded. Pesticides are not detected in grass land, incidence is highest in orchards as well as in uncultivated areas. DDT levels appear to be generally inherited from the past. Variation in soil type as described by the macro physico-chemical characteristics is essential in explaining the variation in concentration level of the potential contaminants. Variations with depth also appear largely related to concurrent variation in soil properties. For As

  6. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanzhong; Ma, Junwei; Yan, Hongxia; Ren, Yuqing; Wang, Beibei; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao

    2016-04-01

    Incidental oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway by which human intake contaminants in both soil and indoor dust, and this is especially true for children as they frequently exhibit hand-to-mouth behaviour. Research on comprehensive health risk caused by incidental ingestion of both soil and indoor dust is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the arsenic concentration and to characterize the health risks due to arsenic (As) exposure via soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province within central China. Soil and indoor dust samples were collected from schools and residential locations and bioaccessibility of arsenic in these samples was determined by a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). The total arsenic content in indoor dust samples was 1.78-2.60 times that measured in soil samples. The mean As bioaccessibility ranged from 75.4% to 83.2% in indoor dust samples and from 13.8% to 20.2% in soil samples. A Pearson's analysis showed that As bioaccessibility was significantly correlated with Fe and Al in soil and indoor dust, respectively, and activity patterns of children were utilised in the assessment of health risk via incidental ingestion of soil and indoor dust. The results suggest no non-carcinogenic health risks (HQ<1) or acceptable carcinogenic health risks (1×10(-6)areas were 1.59-1.95 times those for children in rural areas. The HQ and CR values for children three to five years of age were 1.40-1.47 times those for children six to nine years of age. The health risk accounting for bioaccessibility was only 50.8-59.8% of that obtained without consideration of bioaccessibility. PMID:26707184

  7. Assessing the Effect of an Integrated Control Strategy for Schistosomiasis Japonica Emphasizing Bovines in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Yu, Chuan-Hua; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Yan-Yan; Li, Ren-Dong; Qiu, Juan; Liu, Zong-Chuan; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; He, Hong-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). In contrast, there were no statistically significant reductions of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails from 2008 to 2011 in the control group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001) and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period. Conclusions/Significance The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405. PMID:23516656

  8. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  9. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas

  10. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  11. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed. PMID:27395671

  12. The Emergence and Maintenance of Vector-Borne Diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B.

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  13. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  14. Cosmic markers, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the KT sections in the Anjar Area of the Deccan large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Gallet, Y.; Rocchia, R.; Féraud, G.; Robin, E.; Hofmann, C.; Bhandari, N.; Ghevariya, Z. G.

    2000-10-01

    Bhandari et al. [Bhandari et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 (1995) 433-436; Bhandari et al., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 307 (1996) 417-424] reported the discovery of iridium-bearing sediments sandwiched between basalt flows in the Anjar area (Kutch province, India). They concluded that the signature of the K/T impact had been recorded and that onset of volcanism in the Deccan traps preceded the K/T boundary, excluding the possibility of a causal connection. This paper reports complementary analyses of Anjar outcrops by a joint Indo-French team, where we focused on cosmic markers (iridium and spinels) in the intertrappean sediments and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the lava flows. Anomalous Ir concentrations (up to 0.4 ng/g) are confirmed, with up to three thin and patchy enriched layers which cannot be traced throughout the exposed sections. Despite careful search, no Ni-rich spinels were found. Eight basalt samples provided 40Ar/ 39Ar results, four on plagioclase bulk samples, four on whole rocks. Spectra for whole rocks all indicate some amount of disturbance, and ages based on plagioclase bulk samples seem to be consistently more reliable [Hofmann et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 180 (2000) 13-28]. The three flows underlying the Ir-bearing sediments are dated at ˜66.5 Ma, and two overlying flows at ˜65 Ma. Magnetic analyses (both thermal and by alternating fields) uncovered clear reversed primary components in the upper flows, and more disturbed normal components in the lower flows, with evidence for an additional reversed component. There are reports [Bajpai, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 37 (1996) 313-319; Bajpai, J. Geol. Soc. London 157 (2000) 257-260] that the intertrappean sediments contain uppermost Maastrichtian dinosaur and ostracod remains above the uppermost Ir-bearing level, and may not be mechanically disturbed. We propose the following scenario to interpret these multiple field and analytical observations. Deccan trap volcanism started within

  15. Granite, gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves in the Gejiu area, Yunnan Province, China: a case of two-stage mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Mao, Jingwen; Rusk, Brian G.

    2012-10-01

    Geochronological, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd, and zircon Hf isotopic analyses were carried out on the Jiasha Gabbro, mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) and host Longchahe Granite samples from the Gejiu area in the southeast Yunnan province, SW China, with the aim of characterizing their petrogenesis. Compositional zoning is evident in the gabbro body as the cumulate textures and mineral proportions in the gabbro interior are distinct from the gabbro margin. The Longchahe Granite largely comprises metaluminous quartz monzonite with distinctive K-feldspar megacrysts, but also contains a minor component of peraluminous leucogranite. The MME have spheroidal to elongated/lenticular shapes with sharp, crenulated and occasionally diffuse contacts with the host granite, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of mafic magma globules within the cooler host felsic magma. Field observations, geochronology, geochemistry, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions point to a complex petrogenesis for this granite-MME-gabbro association. Zircon 206Pb/238U ages determined by LA-ICP-MS for a mafic enclave, its host granite and the gabbro body are 83.1 ± 0.9 Ma, 83.1 ± 0.4 Ma and 83.2 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively, indicating coeval crystallization of these igneous rock units. Crystal fractionation processes can explain much of the compositional diversity of the Jiasha Gabbro. The geochemical features of the gabbro, such as high Mg# (up to 70) and Cr (up to 327 ppm), enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Ba, K2O) and LREEs, and depletion in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), together with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.708-0.709 and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.23 to -6.45), indicate they were derived from a mantle source that had undergone previous enrichment, possibly by subduction components. The Longchahe Granite has a large range of SiO2 (59.87-74.94 wt%), is distinctly alkaline in composition, and has Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i > 0.712, ɛNd(t) = -6.93 to -7

  16. Monitoring Temporal Evolution of the Presence Intermediate Host of the Schistosomiasis and its Risk Transmission Based on Dragon Times Series in Poyang Lake Area Jiangxi Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Tiphanie; Lai, Xijun; Huber, Claire; Chen, Xiaoling; Uribe, Carlos; Huang, Shifeng; LaCaux, Jean-Pierre; LaFaye, Murielle; Yesou, Herve

    2010-12-01

    Earth Observation data were used for mapping potential Schistosomiasis japonica distribution, within Poyang Lake (Jiangxi Province, PR China), as well as transmission risk associated with fishing activities. Areas suitable for the development of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum, were derived from submersion time parameters and vegetation community indicators. Monthly maps showing the annual dynamic of potential O. hupensis presence areas were obtained from December 2005 to December 2008. Human potential transmission risk was handled through the mapping of settlements and the identification of the principal human activity sensitive to transmission: fishing in the central part of Poyang Lake. Finally, data crossing of the different parameters highlight the potential risk of transmission in most of the fishing nets areas.

  17. Community perception of quality of (primary) health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mashego, T A B; Peltzer, K

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary) health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants). Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1) conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy), (2) technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes), (3) health care facility, (4) health care organisation, (5) drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment), and (6) waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients) and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action. PMID:16045107

  18. New Integrated Strategy Emphasizing Infection Source Control to Curb Schistosomiasis japonica in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: Findings from an Eight-Year Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Liu, Jian-Bing; Huang, Xi-Bao; Cai, Shun-Xiang; Su, Zheng-Ming; Zhong, Rong; Zou, Li; Miao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly the regions along the middle and lower reach of the Yangtze River in four provinces (Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Anhui). The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a new integrated strategy emphasizing infection source control to curb schistosomiasis in marshland regions. Methods In a longitudinal study, we implemented an integrated control strategy emphasizing infection source control in 16 villages from 2005 through 2012 in marshland regions of Hubei province. The interventions included removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands, providing farmers with mechanized farm equipment, improving sanitation by supplying tap water, building lavatories and latrines, praziquantel chemotherapy, controlling snails, and environmental modification. Results Following the integrated control strategy designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infection, the prevalence of human S. japonicum infection declined from 1.7% in 2005 to 0.4% in 2012 (P<0.001). Reductions were also observed in both sexes, across all age groups, and among high risk occupations. Moreover, the prevalence of bovine S. japonicum infection decreased from 11.7% in 2005 to 0.6% in 2012 (P<0.001). In addition, all the 16 villages achieved the national criteria of infection control in 2008. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the integrated strategy was likely effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. PMID:24587030

  19. Utilization of the Local Government Health Insurance Scheme (JKA) for Maternal Health Services Among Women Living in Underdeveloped Areas of Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kesuma, Zurnila Marli; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2015-04-01

    Aceh province of Indonesia created its own health coverage scheme called Jaminan Kesehatan Aceh (JKA) to cover Aceh's populations who were not registered under insurance for the poor (Jamkesmas). This study aims to compare the utilization rate of maternal health care (MHC) services and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) before JKA, during the transition period, and after JKA had been established. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from June 2011 to July 2012. Utilization of MHC services and CPR during the 3 periods was assessed using a questionnaire. The Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used to examine the association between period and coverage. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine utilization and type of service, period of service, and type of scheme. Coverage of utilization of skilled birth attendants significantly improved among the JKA holders (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.89). JKA, thus, has shown its positive impact. PMID:24566605

  20. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants <6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of

  1. [Coupling analysis of agro-ecolomic system in gully area of Loess Plateau in 1949-2008: a case study in Changwu County of Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Hao, Ming-de; Xu, Jin-peng

    2011-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the coercing and dynamic evolution relationships between agro-economic system and agro-ecological system, and by using modified entropy method, the weight of each evaluation index for the agro-ecolomic system in Changwu County of Shaanxi Province was determined, and, by employing coupling degree model, the coupling processes of agro-ecolomic system in the gullyarea of Loess Plateau were investigated. From 1949 to 2008, the agro-ecolomic system in the County experienced three stages of "traditional extensive agriculture", "agricultural mechanization", and "agricultural pre-modernization". In corresponding to the implement of national macro policies, the coupling degree of the agro-ecolomic system reached two peaks standing for utmost increasing phase and three valleys standing for coordinate development phase. Periods 1955-1961 and 1984-1992 were the utmost increasing phases of the coupling degree; periods 1962-1965 and 1981-1983 were the rapid transition periods responding to the national-wide policies controlling; while periods 1949-1954 and 1966-1980 were the low-level coordinated development phases. Since 1993, the system had been in the harmonious phase by a spiral development. At present, the system had a potential risk of changing from the harmonious phase to the utmost development phase. Appropriate agricultural policies and better external environment could promote the stable development of the agro-ecolomic system on a harmonious level; otherwise, a retrogressive system might be expected. PMID:21657035

  2. Sedimentary paleoenvironments of fossil platyrrhine localities, Miocene Pinturas Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    root systems of trees. A fossil nest of a nasutitermitine termite in the lower sequence of the formation indicates the presence of tropical forest. Climatic conditions may have been drier during deposition of the barchanoid paleodunes in early late Pinturas time, or the dunes might reflect drier source areas or have simply encroached on areas of highland forest. Fossil mammals are abundant in Pinturas sediments, and attritional concentrations of them were recognized in the upper parts of paleosols and on the floors of erosional scours. Radiometric dates indicate that the fossil mammals (including platyrrhine primates) occurring in the lower and middle parts of the formation may range in age from about 16-6 to younger than 13-3 Ma (million years ago) (Santacrucian and, almost certainly, Friasian land-mammal ages). This age range is somewhat younger than previous estimates, and suggests that the Pinturas faunas correlate broadly with those from the type Santa Cruz Formation, with the presumed position of the type Friasian, and with the base of the marine Gaiman Formation in the lower valley of the Rio Chubut.

  3. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P < 0.05) differences while other OCPs show no significant differences between historical cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied. PMID:26645233

  4. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  5. [The prevalence of risk factors for coronary arteriosclerosis in the urban areas of the Argentine Patagonia. A multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Coniglio, R I; Dahinten, E; Vidal, E J; Salgueiro, A M; Otero, J C; Vásquez, L A; Marcheselli, C; Zavaley, S

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know the prevalence of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in the urban south area of Argentina in order to implement the prevention of this disease. In 330 males and 322 females of Viedma and Cipolletti (Province of Rio Negro), and Comodoro Rivadavia (Province of Chubut), we determined total cholesterol (CT), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (CHDL), LDL cholesterol (CLDL), uric acid (AcU), systolic pressure (PS), diastolic pressure (PD), cigarette smokers (Cig), and body mass index (BMI). Laboratories were coordinated as to methodology and quality control. Between 30 and 50 years of age, the prevalence of risk factors was greater in males than females; 27.3% of males vs 16.0 of females had CT > or = 240 mg/dl (p < 0.05), 30.5% vs 19.7%, had CLDL > or = 160 mg/dl (p < 0.05), 10.3% vs 5.9%, had CHDL < 35 mg/dl, 8.9% vs 4.2% had PS > 145 mmHg, 9.0% vs 5.9%, had PD > 90 mm Hg, 33.6% vs 23.4%, had Cig > or = 10/d (p < 0.05), 26.0% vs 13.8% had TG > 170 mg/dl (p < 0.05), 30.5% vs 22.4%, had BMI > 27 Kg/m2 (p < 0.05) (Figs. 2-3). This difference between sexes was not significant over 50 years of age, when the prevalence of factors increased in both sexes. In Figure 4, 41.5% of males and 34.5% of females had one primary risk factor, 13.0% of males and 9.9% of females had two factors and 1.5% of males had three. The following main combinations of two primary risk factors was observed: between 30 and 50 years of age, 10.3% of males and 3.7% of females had CLDL > or = 160 mg/dl and Cig > or = 10/d (p < 0.01); over 50 years, 19.5% of females and 11.8% of males had CLDL > or = 160 mg/dl and PS > 145 mm Hg (NS). We suggest that operatives of education for the prevention of high cholesterol, no smoking and control of high blood pressure, are needed specially in young men. PMID:1340881

  6. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Caspian Basin, Middle Caspian Basin, North Ustyurt Basin, and South Caspian Basin Provinces, Caspian Sea Area, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 19.6 billion barrels of crude oil, 243 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 9.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the Caspian Sea area, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  8. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  9. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Farmyard manures: the major agronomic sources of heavy metals in the Philippi Horticultural Area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, Marÿke; Müller, Francuois; Raitt, Lincoln; Aalbers, Johannes; Cyster, Lilburne; Brendonck, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal toxicity in agro-ecosystems is a global problem. Recently, it has been indicated that the soils used for agriculture and the fresh produce grown on these soils in the Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) contains heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations thereof in South Africa. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and vegetables produced in the PHA, as well as to determine the major agronomic sources of these metals in this area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 6.6, 6.6, and 46 mg/kg, respectively. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the vegetables also exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The biggest agronomic contributors of these heavy metals to the soils in the PHA were found to be the farmyard manures. Knowing what the major sources of these heavy metals are, it is important to determine ways to mitigate the inputs thereof, as well as to remove existing concentrations from the soils without contaminating the groundwater resources in the area. PMID:26508018

  11. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  12. Expediting support for the pregnant mothers to obtain antenatal care at public health facilities in rural areas of Balochistan province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Ghaffar, Najma; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick; Mureed, Sheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, and compare relative importance of, factors associated with antenatal care (ANC) utilization in rural Balochistan, toward framing a policy to increase such utilization. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 513 pregnant women in Jhal Magsi District, Balochistan, in 2011. A standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were evaluated with generalized linear models (Poisson distribution and log link). Results: Prevalence of any ANC was only 14.4%. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were all important determinants of ANC utilization. Reinforcing factors were clearly most important, husband’s support for ANC was more important than support from other community members. Among predisposing factors, higher income, education, occupation, and better knowledge regarding benefits of ANC were positively and statistically significantly associated with ANC However increased number of children showed negative association. Complications free pregnancy showed positive significant association with ANC at public health facility among enabling factors. Conclusion: It is very important to increase antenatal care utilization in the study area and similar areas. Policy to achieve this should focus on enhancing support from the husband. PMID:26150867

  13. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance. PMID:24954235

  14. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  15. Mantle heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean granite-greenstone belts - Evidence from Nd isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake area, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal evolution in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario is studied in terms of geochemical characteristics. The Nd isotope data are examined for heterogeneity of the Archean mantle, and the Sm/Nd depletion of the mantle is analyzed. The Nd isotope systematics of individual rock suites is investigated in order to understand the difference between crust and mantle sources; the precursors and petrogenetic processes are discussed. The correlation between SiO2 content and Nd values is considered. Rapid recycling of crustal components, which were previously derived from depleted mantle sources, is suggested based on the similarity of the initial Nd isotopic composition for both mantle-derived and crustally-derived rocks.

  16. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-08-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature-disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature-disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes ( I2= 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  17. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  18. Middle-Late Devonian radiolarians from Klaeng District, Rayong Province, southeastern Thailand: Geotectonic significance of the Rayong area as a continental margin of the Sibumasu Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2015-05-01

    A fine clastics-siliceous succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet, approximately 20 km southwest of Klaeng, Rayong area, southeastern Thailand was examined based on lithology, radiolarian biostratigraphy, and geological correlation. In the study section, thinly bedded chert layers are intercalated with black carbonaceous shale, light-colored tuffaceous shale, brown glassy tuff, and quartz-rich sandstone layers. A horizon of the chert in the section yielded poorly preserved radiolarians, however, several forms including Palaeoscenidium cladophorum Deflandre, Stigmosphaerostylus cf. pusilla (Hinde), and Entactiniidae gen. et spp. indet. were identified. This fauna is probably referable to the Middle-Late Devonian. The study section had been assigned to various stratigraphic units, such as Silurian-Devonian or Carboniferous-Permian, due to a poor fossil occurrence. However, the occurrence of the Devonian radiolarians in this study provides concrete evidence for the sedimentary age of the succession, and supports assignment to the Silurian-Devonian. Although the study succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet is coeval with the Devonian part of the Fang chert, northern Thailand, the lithological assemblage is dissimilar, and the post-Devonian radiolarian chert is absent. These lithological, chronological, and stratigraphic results indicate that the depositional environment of the study section was close to the continental margin, such as a continental slope or rise.

  19. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature–disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature–disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes (I2 = 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  20. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  1. Concentration of organochlorine in egg yolk and reproductive success of Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1758) at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keithmaleesatti, S; Thirakhupt, K; Pradatsudarasar, A; Varanusupakul, P; Kitana, N; Robson, M

    2007-09-01

    Contaminant analyses in animal eggs have illustrated the benefit of wildlife as indicators of xenobiotic contamination in natural habitats. In 2002, concentrations of 16 organochlorine insecticides were measured in egg yolk and the reproductive success of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, was studied in a population at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area Bang Pahan District, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand. Only 4,4'-dichloro diphenylethane (4,4'-DDE) was detected in the yolk of all samples (n=12) at the concentrations ranging from 33.4 to 116.0 ng/gwetwt. Mean eggshell thickness (n=24) was 0.261+/-0.005 mm. Relationships between the concentrations of 4,4'-DDE and eggshell thickness as well as the reproductive success at all stages were not found (P>0.05). Rather, major factors potentially influencing the decline of reproductive success observed during the field study may include strong wind, predators, intraspecific and interspecific competitions. PMID:17081607

  2. An analysis of risk factors of non-fatal drowning among children in rural areas of Guangdong Province, China: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drowning is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children, yet non-fatal drowning remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore potential modifiable risk factors of non-fatal drowning among children in rural areas of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was first conducted to obtain non-fatal drowning cases, and 7432 students in grades three to eight from 17 schools participated in the cross sectional survey. Of these, 805 students reported that they experienced non-fatal drowning in the previous year. Then 368 cases were selected randomly to participate in a 1:1 matched case-control study. Each drowning case was matched by one control with the same sex and similar age (the gap less than 2 years) who was selected randomly from the same class. Results Boys were more likely to be involved in non-fatal drowning. Non-fatal drowning most often happened in the afternoon (65.1%) and natural bodies of water were the most common sites of drowning (71.1%). Swimming, diving and playing in natural waters were the leading activities that preceded non-fatal drowning. The significant risk factors for non-fatal drowning were swimming in natural waters without adult supervision (OR = 3.40, 95% CI: 1.92-6.03), playing in or beside natural waters (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.17-3.70) and poor swimming skills (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.14-6.62). However, the following variables were protective factors: supervisor aged 30 years or over (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.49) and no water activities (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.70). Conclusions The reduction in dangerous water activities, swimming training and enhancement in supervision among children might decrease the risk of non-fatal drowning. PMID:20334694

  3. An application of mathematical models to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control (Chaco Area - Salta Province - Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, J. B.; Antón, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Ríos, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behaviour. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and five alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three multicriteria decision methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are fully described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the Graph of

  4. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  5. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control for the Chaco Area in Salta Province (Argentine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, J. B.; Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behavior. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and six alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three Multicriteria Decision Methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, the MATHCAD8 algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the

  6. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  7. Provenance of lateritic bauxite deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen area, Northern Guizhou Province, China: LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Huang, Zhilong; Fan, Hongpeng; Ye, Lin; Jin, Zhongguo

    2013-07-01

    The provenance of the large and super-large scale bauxite deposits developed in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen (WZD) alumina metallogenic province in the Yangtze Block of South China is poorly understood. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from bauxite ores and the underlying Hanjiadian Group in the WZD area provide new constrains on the provenance of the WZD bauxite and provide new insight on the bauxite ore-forming process. The ages of the detrital zircons in the bauxites and the zircons in the Hanjiadian Group are similar suggesting that the bauxites are genetically related to the Hanjiadian sediments. The detrital zircon populations of the four samples studied show four primary age peaks: 2600-2400 Ma, 1900-1700 Ma, 1300-700 Ma and 700-400 Ma. The age distribution of detrital zircons indicates that they are probably derived from various sources including Neoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Paleoproterozoic, Archean and some minor Paleozoic sources. The most abundant age population contains a continuous range of ages from 1300 to 700 Ma, ages consistent with subduction-related magmatic activities (1000-740 Ma) along the western margin of the Yangtze Block and the worldwide Grenville orogenic events (1300-1000 Ma). Thus, it is suggested that the main provenances of the WZD bauxite and the Hanjiadian Group are the Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western Yangtze Block and the Grenville-age igneous rocks in the southern Cathaysia Block. In addition, this work verifies that the global Grenville orogenic events and subduction-related magmatic activities associated with the Yangtze Block had a significant influence on the formation of the WZD bauxite deposits.

  8. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Proterozoic metaclastic-sedimentary rocks in Hainan Province of South China: New constraints on the depositional time, source area, and tectonic setting of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Hu, Guocheng; Yu, Liangliang; Wu, Chuanjun; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cai, Jianxin; Shan, Qiang; Hou, Maozhou; Chen, Huayong

    2015-12-01

    The Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, located at Hainan Province of South China, is well known for high-grade hematite-rich Fe ores and also two Precambrian host successions, i.e. the Shilu Group and the overlying Shihuiding Formation. This district has been interpreted as a banded iron formation (BIF) deposit-type, but its depositional time, source area and depositional setting have been in debate due to poor geochronological work. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating aided by cathodoluminescence imaging has been carried out on both the Shilu Group and Shihuiding Formation. Most of the zircon grains from both the successions are subrounded to rounded in morphology and have age spectra between 2000 Ma and 900 Ma with two predominant peaks at ca. 1460-1340 Ma and 1070 Ma, and three subordinate peaks at ca. 1740-1660 Ma, 1220 Ma and 970 Ma. The similar age distribution suggests the same depositional system for both successions. Linked to the geological and paleontological signatures, the Shihuiding Formation is better re-interpreted as the top, i.e. Seventh member of the Shilu Group, rather than a distinct Formation. The youngest statistical zircon age peaks for both successions, i.e. ca. 1070-970 Ma may define the maximum depositional time of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. At least two erosional sources are required for deposition of the studied detrital zircons, with one proximal to provide the least abraded zircons and the other distal or recycled to offer the largely abraded zircons. The predominance of rounded or subrounded zircons over angular zircons probably implies a relatively stable tectonic setting during deposition. Given the Precambrian tectonics of Hainan Island, a retro-arc foreland basin is proposed for the deposition of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. In comparison with those from the South China and other typical Grenvillian orogens, the detrital zircon age populations reveal that Hainan Island had crystalline basement similar to neither the Yangtze

  9. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  10. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  11. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  12. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  13. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  14. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  15. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  16. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China. PMID:21442998

  17. Language Planning from below: The Case of the Xhariep District of the Free State Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Theodorus

    2010-01-01

    The Xhariep District is the largest district municipality of the Free State Province of South Africa, covering 26% of the total land surface of this province. It comprises three local municipalities, namely Letsemeng, Kopanong and Mohokare and contains a total of 17 towns. The District is a multilingual area, with Afrikaans (37.1%) and Sotho…

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  19. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  20. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  1. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  2. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Never Smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an Area of High Incidence of Esophageal Cancer – a Cross-Sectional Study with Repeated Measurement of Urinary 1-OHPG in Two Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Strickland, Paul; Phillips, David H.; Pourshams, Akram; Fazel-Tabar Malekshah, Akbar; Godschalk, Roger; Jafari, Elham; Etemadi, Arash; Abubaker, Salahadin; Kamangar, Farin; Straif, Kurt; Møller, Henrik; Schüz, Joachim; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference = 0.40). In winter, red meat intake (β = 0.208; P = 0.03), processed meat intake (β = 0.218; P = 0.02), and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (“null” genotype: β = 0.228; P = 0.02) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA + GA genotypes: β = –0.256; P = 0.008) showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (> weekly versus never: β = 0.203; P = 0.04), second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β = 0.254; P = 0.01), and GSTM1-02 “null” genotype (β = 0.198; P = 0.04) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT + TT versus CC: β = –0.218; P = 0.03) showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs. PMID:22655262

  3. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  4. The Impact of Educators' Skills and Training on the Delivery of Music in the Learning Area Arts and Culture within Two Districts of the Gauteng Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopper, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article is the documentation of a sub-research question of a larger empirical study that employed quantitative methods to identify variables that are impacting on the delivery of music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa extrapolated from questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that educators lack specialisation in…

  5. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  6. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  7. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, P. ); Burgisser, H. ); Yassin, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  8. Effects of highway runoff on streamflow and water quality in the Sevenmile Creek basin, a rural area in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, July 1981 to July 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of water-quality data from streams that receive stormwater runoff from a segment of Interstate Highway 85 in North Carolina indicated increased levels of many constituents compared to levels in nearby undeveloped basins. Additional data collected from a network of dry and wet atmospheric deposition collectors, lysimeter samples, soil surveys, wind measurements, and road sweepings helped define the general sources and migration of chemical substances near the highway. The eight study basins, located in a rural area in the Piedmont of North Carolina, had a combined area of 17.5 square miles and drained a 4.8-mile-long segment of the interstate. The average traffic flow along this section was 25,000 vehicles per day. During storm runoff, streamflow in basins traversed by the highway rose and fell more rapidly than that in the undeveloped basins. This more rapid response is due to the impervious, paved area of the basins and the manmade drainage systems designed to rapidly move water off the highway. Alkalinity, specific conductance, and concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride were greater at the highway stations than in the undeveloped basins as a result of highway salting for control of ice. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved and total nitrogen peaked at the beginning of each storm event. The data indicated that, for the study basins, highway runoff had little or no effect on suspended sediment, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. However, the pH at all stations decreased during stormflow because the rainfall drained off by the streams had pH values less than 5.7. High metals concentrations were found in the soils within 100 feet of the highway and in the soil water infiltrating the soil zone. Chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc concentrations in the streams near the highway generally were above the maximum levels recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the protection of aquatic life. Lead and

  9. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  10. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  11. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  12. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    different geohazards in urban and rural areas. These works will be recorded in monthly reports. Informations will be disseminated through a specific program of activities (audiovisual broadcasts, monthly reports posted to internet, conferences, workshops, etc.).

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ruilin; Wei, Kuangrong; Xia, Liang; Xu, Yanjun; Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province by analyzing the cancer data of selected population-based cancer registries in Guangdong province in 2012. Methods Eight of nine population-based cancer registries submitted cancer data to the Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Guangdong CDC), whose data met the data quality criteria were included for analysis. The statistics of selected registries, stratified by areas, gender, age and cancer types, were used to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province according to the population data in Guangdong province. Segi’s population and the national census population in 2000 were used for calculating the age-standardized rates (ASR). Results A total of 15,084,942 people, accounted for 17.47% of all population in Guangdong province, were covered in 8 selected population-based cancer registries in 2012. The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 72.84% and 0.87%, respectively, and the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio was 0.56. It was estimated that there were 211,300 new cancer cases and 117,300 cancer deaths. The incidence crude rate (CR), the ASR by Chinese standard population (ASRC) and by world standard population (ASRW), and the accumulated rate (AR) (0.74 years) were 250.20/100,000 (265.39/100,000 in males, 234.29/100,000 in females), 207.04/100,000, 201.34/100,000 and 22.91%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The incidence CR and ASRC were 267.25/100,000 and 221.43/100,000 in urban areas, and 215.51/100,000 and 178.77/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The death CR, ASRC, ASRW and AR (0.74 years) were 148.44/100,000 (190.95/100,000 in males, 105.06/100,000 in females), 103.73/100,000, 102.44/100,000 and 11.68%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The death CR and ASRC were 164.57/100,000 and 105.46/100,000 in urban areas

  14. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  15. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  16. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  17. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  18. The Kanin-Timan-Pechora province of Late Devonian intraplate magmatism (position and size)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the distribution of basalts, dolerites, and tuffs in the Kanin-Timan-Pechora large igneous province was completed by generalization of data of geological surveys and analysis of the data of deep drilling. The province appears like a nonisometric ellipse and extends northwestward for a distance of nearly 850 km at the width of 250-500 km. Its area is nearly 285 000 km2. The area of the volcanic rocks is about 85 500 km2. The volume of eruptive material alone could be equal to 1000-1200 km3. The age of formation of the traps corresponds to the late period of activity of the process and was less than 7 mln. y. The formation of the province was result of the action of short-lived and low intensity plumes. But it was one of the episodes of the Late Devonian superplume event in the East European platform. The province is separated by an amagmatic area from neighboring magmatic provinces of the same age. The distance between borders of the provinces is 200-400 km.

  19. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  20. Application of the empirical orthogonal function to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Gunardi, Utami, Herni; Nurjani, Emilya; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Aluicius, Irwan Endrayanto; Christiawan, Titus

    2016-02-01

    We consider the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province, Indonesia. The EOF is one of the important methods to study the dominant pattern of the data using dimension reduction technique. EOF makes possible to reduce the huge dimension of observed data into a smaller one without losing its significant information in order to figures the whole data. The methods is also known as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which is conducted to find the pattern of the data. DIY Province is one of the province in Indonesia which has special characteristics related to the rainfall pattern. This province has an active volcano, karst, highlands, and also some lower area including beach. This province is bounded by the Indonesian ocean which is one of the important factor to provide the rainfall. We use at least ten years rainfall monthly data of all stations in this area and study the rainfall characteristics based on the four regencies of the province. EOF analysis is conducted to analyze data in order to decide the station groups which have similar characters.

  1. Lessons from malaria control to elimination: case study in Hainan and Yunnan provinces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi-Gui; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Li, Mei; Feng, Xin-Yu; Tang, Lin-Hua; Wang, Shan-Qing; Yang, Heng-Lin; Gao, Qi; Kramer, Randall; Ernest, Tambo; Yap, Peiling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Reduction patterns of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria transmission and the role of an integrated strategy of case management and vector control are compared between different ecological zones. The epidemiology of malaria in Hainan and Yunnan provinces was disparate, even though distinct malaria control strategies have been adapted to different situations based on risk group, vector behaviours, local health infrastructure, and environmental conditions. The island Hainan appears to be victorious in eliminating malaria. However, there is still a long way to go to prevent the reintroduction of malaria in Hainan province and eliminating malaria in the border areas of Yunnan province. This review of the experiences and challenges from malaria control to elimination in Hainan and Yunnan provinces of southern China will provide a basis for the future elimination of malaria in the whole country. PMID:25476881

  2. Louisianian province demonstration report. EMAP-estuaries: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Brooks, G.T.; Heitmuller, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The report summarizes the Louisianian Demonstration Project conducted by the Estuaries Resource Group of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program initiated by EPA to integrate efforts of governmental agencies in evaluations of status and trends of ecological resources of the U.S. The Louisianian Province represents a single biogeographic area corresponding to the Gulf of Mexico. The demonstration project was conducted during July and August 1991, using a probability-based sampling design to evaluate the condition of Gulf of Mexico estuarine resources. The assessment is preliminary and its findings should be confirmed by subsequent years of sampling in the Louisianian Province, which extends from Rio Grande, Texas, to Anclote Anchorage, Florida.

  3. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  4. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:26983198

  5. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  6. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

  7. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  8. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura Edith

    2013-03-01

    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  9. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  10. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.