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Sample records for area community health

  1. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    PubMed

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs. PMID:24280858

  2. The effect of breast cancer health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice: a community health center catchment area.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664

  3. Enhancing the Care Continuum in Rural Areas: Survey of Community Health Center-Rural Hospital Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Michael E.; Xirasagar, Sudha; Elder, Keith T.; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Community Health Centers (CHCs) and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) play a significant role in providing health services for rural residents across the United States. Purpose: The overall goal of this study was to identify the CAHs that have collaborations with CHCs, as well as to recognize the content of the collaborations and the…

  4. Geographic variations in sleep duration: a multilevel analysis from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C; Subramanian, S V; Piccolo, Rebecca; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep plays an important role in health and varies by social determinants. Little is known, however, about geographic variations in sleep and the role of individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors. Methods We used a multilevel modelling approach to quantify neighbourhood variation in self-reported sleep duration (very short <5 h; short 5–6.9 h; normative 7–8.9 h; long ≥9 h) among 3591 participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We determined whether geographic variations persisted with control for individual-level demographic, socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors. We then determined the role of neighbourhood SES (nSES) in geographic variations. Additional models considered individual health factors. Results Between neighbourhood differences accounted for a substantial portion of total variability in sleep duration. Neighbourhood variation persisted with control for demographics, SES and lifestyle factors. These characteristics accounted for a portion (6–20%) of between-neighbourhood variance in very short, short and long sleep, while nSES accounted for the majority of the remaining between-neighbourhood variances. Low and medium nSES were associated with very short and short sleep (eg, very short sleep OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.14 for low vs high nSES), but not long sleep. Further inclusion of health factors did not appreciably increase the amount of between-neighbourhood variance explained nor did it alter associations. Conclusions Sleep duration varied by neighbourhood in a diverse urban setting in the northeastern USA. Individual-level demographics, SES and lifestyle factors explained some geographic variability, while nSES explained a substantial amount. Mechanisms associated with nSES should be examined in future studies to help understand and reduce geographic variations in sleep. PMID:25199880

  5. Traffic-related air pollution and sleep in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks. PMID:24984980

  6. Do patients choose community health services (CHS) for first treatment in China? Results from a community health survey in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Changmin; Luo, Zhenni; Fang, Pengqian; Zhang, Fengfan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the government has paid more attention to the development of community health service (CHS) in urban areas in China. Therefore, determining if it plays important roles and establishing methods to evaluate the effects of CHS are critical emphases in research. This study measured the effects of CHS through the choices of patients and their evaluation of CHS, and aimed to contribute to the development of primary health services. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the questionnaire with a random sample of 865 patients in CHS institutions from five provinces in China. Pearson's Chi square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyze influencing factors that are associated with the patients' choices and evaluations. A total of 62.2 % of the patients would choose CHS for their first treatment. Patient choice was mainly affected by the following: (1) social demographic factors of the patients, namely, age, educational level, medical insurance, and survey areas; (2) evaluation of CHS by the patients: convenience, reasonable charges, and attitude of the doctors. In addition, the patients showed more satisfaction with convenience, waiting time, and communication with doctors, and less satisfaction with the medical charges, drug costs, and medical equipment of CHS. Through the results, we suggest that the government should provide more regard to the convenience, reasonable charges, and the attitude of the doctors as important factors to attract the patients to CHS. The government should also exert efforts to reduce the medical charges (especially the drug costs) for CHS. PMID:23636415

  7. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  8. Community health advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana

    2006-01-01

    Competing health needs of diverse populations and ever shrinking resources available to support these needs often serve as the impetus for the initiation of advocacy efforts to improve community health. However, perceptions of what constitutes a community differ, as do approaches to advocacy itself. This glossary addresses five key questions: (1) What is advocacy?; (2) What is meant by community?; (3) What are the different approaches to community health advocacy?; (4) How are priorities established in the face of competing health advocacy goals?; (5) How can community health advocacy efforts be evaluated?; and (6) What challenges may be encountered in advocating for community health? Each of these issues could serve as the basis for a text on that subject alone. Accordingly, this article is not meant to be comprehensive text on these issues but is, instead, intended to highlight key foundational issues. And, although advocacy efforts can be conducted by individuals, this article focuses specifically on advocacy efforts of communities, however they may be defined and characterised. PMID:16698972

  9. The Communities First (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities

    PubMed Central

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. ‘Communities First’ is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents’ mental health and social cohesion. Methods and analysis A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18–74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. Ethics and dissemination This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in

  10. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  11. The role of community organizations in the transformation of the health services delivery system in the Montreal metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Frohlich, K L

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the Montreal Regional Health and Social Services Board began a major process of change to its health care system. This transformation places particular emphasis on primary health care and increases the role of local community services centres (CLSCs) and community organizations (COs). In order to understand this process as experienced by COs, the present exploratory study was conducted during the summer and fall of 1996. We targeted 12 COs, 4 CLSCs, the Quebec Federation of CLSCs, and the Montreal CLSC Working Group. Semi-structured group interviews and CO documents were used as sources of information. Most participants believe in the need for change but feel that the strategies and implementation have been mismanaged. COs are feeling the pressure to professionalize and specialize current and future services. The "social economy" appears to be gaining momentum in the health sector. PMID:10910565

  12. A measure of community health needs and actions in a rural area of Iraq. The Abu-al-Khasib experience.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Sugathan, T N; Ramankutty, P; Alkafajei, A M; Antony, R; George, A; Habib, O S; Yacoub, A A; Mahmood, D A; Ajeel, N A

    1982-01-01

    A longitudinal enquiry was carried out among randomly selected households in four villages in Abu-al-Khasib district of Iraq, to study health needs as perceived by the community and actions people take when the need arises. Almost three-quarters of the spells of sickness as perceived by the community were among mothers and children. Most of the morbidity was found to be within the scope of preventive services at the local health centre level. Health centre services were underutilised. Only half of the spells of sickness were reported to the local health centres for medical care; a reason for this phenomenon is the emerging preference for care at the hands of clinical specialists. The action the community takes when a health need arises depends on their perception and this is determined by rapid social and educational development. The need to increase demand for normal care, especially that of mother and child, is stressed; this care may be strengthened through introduction of a domiciliary component. PMID:7179469

  13. Biogeographic Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Total Body Adiposity among African-American Females: The Boston Area Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Fang, Shona C.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Florez, Jose C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Methods We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. Results We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002) with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003) with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time. Conclusion Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women. PMID:25875902

  14. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  15. Community health for Rwandan refugees.

    PubMed

    Plummer, M

    1995-12-01

    Health education and disease prevention programs are essential elements in every health care system. We normally envision community health programs in urban and rural settings across Canada. However, health education and disease prevention have also become a fundamental part of the health care system for refugee communities around the world. PMID:8713152

  16. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  17. Linking community health improvement with clinical strategies.

    PubMed

    Hattis, P; Matheny, P

    2001-01-01

    In most health care organizations, there is a separation between community health improvement (CHI) efforts and other strategic goals--in particular, clinical care strategies. By carefully managing their approach to CHI, health care organizations can successfully link these areas and reap significant tangible and intangible rewards, including cost savings and better outcomes of care. PMID:11372277

  18. Diagnosis of malaria in a remote area of the Philippines: comparison of techniques and their acceptance by health workers and the community.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, D.; Go, R.; Miguel, C.; Walker, J.; Cacal, L.; Saul, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacies of remote symptom-based diagnosis of malaria, rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy in an area of low endemicity in the Philippines. METHODS: In Trial I, 350 symptomatic patients were tested within their villages using malaria Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)/Plasmodium vivax (Pv) immunochromatographic tests (ICT tests) and blood films stored and read under local conditions. The slides were later restained and read. In Trial II, unsupervised volunteer barangay health workers prepared ICT tests and slides after brief training. These slides were read at rural health units. Twenty-seven barangay health workers and 72 community members were later questioned about the three diagnostic strategies. FINDINGS: A history of fever alone was sensitive (95.4%) but poorly specific (16.5%) for predicting parasitaemia. The inclusion of other symptoms reduced the sensitivity to below 85%, while specificity remained low. The axillary temperature was poorly predictive. ICT tests achieved high sensitivity (97.9%) but many cases indicated as positive by ICT tests were negative by microscopy. Further analysis of these cases in Trial I indicated that ICT tests were detecting low-level parasitaemias missed by microscopy, and that local microscopy had poor accuracy. ICT tests were well accepted and accurately performed by barangay health workers. CONCLUSION: These tests meet a strong desire in the community for blood-based diagnosis and may increase the compliance and treatment-seeking behaviour of patients. PMID:11693975

  19. The Ramathibodi Community Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, Prem; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The Ramathibodi Faculty of Medicine in Bangkok, Thailand, has developed a teaching and research program in community health aimed at brining the institution into close association with the health needs of the country. (Editor)

  20. Curriculum for Community Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Paula S.

    The Community Outreach Curriculum described in this paper is designed to prepare community health aides employed through the Outreach Department of Pima County (Arizona) Indian Health Inc., (PCIHI), which consists of two medical clinics on two separate reservations. The first sections of the paper describe PCIHI, provide a rationale for the…

  1. Many ways of community health.

    PubMed

    Joseph, T

    1988-03-01

    The community health approach to health care has been widely recognized as the right alternative for ensuring health to the poor millions in developing nations. In India too, governmental as well as voluntary efforts are made for the promotion of community health. In the evolution of a health care system, this approach has emerged through a process of dialogue between the medical and the social sciences in an effort to make the health care system relevant and and responsive to the socio-political-economic realities in the society. Different approaches have been identified in community health. These are: Medical, Health extension, and Comprehensive. The Medical Approach considers health as the absence of diseases. Health is achieved by medical interventions based on modern sciences and technology and medicine, and sees the role of the community (the people) as one of responding to the directions given by the medical professionals. The Health Extension Approach is based on a critique medical approach. It accepts the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health as the total physical, mental, and social well being of the individual. Mere advancement of medical technology and the sophistication of services would not bring health to the majority of people--especially the poor. There should be a planned redistribution of health care facilities to reach the vastness of the society. The Comprehensive Approach views health as total well being in the context of the situational realities of the individual. Health--the state of well being--is also a human condition, which does not improve either by providing more services or by mobilizing the community for providing more health services. It improves only by having the community take control and responsibility for decisions about how to mobilize. PMID:12179470

  2. Afghan Health Education Project: a community survey.

    PubMed

    Lipson, J G; Omidian, P A; Paul, S M

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the health concerns and needs for health education in the Afghan refugee and immigrant community of the San Francisco Bay Area. The study used a telephone survey, seven community meetings and a survey administered to 196 Afghan families through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed qualitatively and statistically. Health problems of most concern are mental health problems and stress related to past refugee trauma and loss, current occupational and economic problems, and culture conflict. Physical health problems include heart disease, diabetes and dental problems. Needed health education topics include dealing with stress, heart health, nutrition, raising children in the United States (particularly adolescents), aging in the United States, and diabetes. Using coalition building and involving Afghans in their community assessment, we found that the Afghan community is eager for culture- and language-appropriate health education programs through videos, television, lectures, and written materials. Brief health education talks in community meetings and a health fair revealed enthusiasm and willingness to consider health promotion and disease-prevention practices. PMID:7596962

  3. Community health assessment. The first step in community health planning.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face a paradigm shift: from planning service delivery to population-based community health planning. Comprehensive community health planning is a two-step process: assessment and action, in that order. Assessment identifies community problems and resources; action follows planning, which determines which of those problems should be addressed with which resources. This paper provides an overview of the community assessment process. The first challenge in launching a community health initiative is to identify and recruit partners drawn from the ranks of prominent community organizations, such as school boards, public health agencies, and elected officials. The best enlistment strategies are those that empower persons outside the hospital to take visible control. Defining the community is the first step in analyzing the community. It is important that everyone involved in the assessment process agree on the definition, which should take in those characteristics that make the community unique, including its social systems, environmental factors, and demographics. The next step in the process is developing a community health profile, a set of key community indicators or measures that will help you set priorities, document successes and failures, and monitor trends. There are a number of models available to consult in developing indicators, whether traditional, medically oriented determinants of health or broader parameters, such as housing and public safety. Criteria for selecting indicators include validity, stability and reliability, and responsiveness. Most indicators will be developed using secondary, or already existing, sources of data, such as census data, Medicare and Medicaid files, police records, and hospital admission and exit records. Conducting the community assessment involves putting together a list of problems to be solved and a list of available resources, both of which can be compiled using the same four-step process of gathering and

  4. Extension for Community Health Outcomes-hepatitis C: Small steps carve big footprints in the allocation of scarce resources for hepatitis C virus treatment to remote developing areas

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Veysel; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Kahveci, Ali M; Mutrux, Rachel; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major health problem throughout the world. HCV patients living in rural areas are less fortunate than their counterparts residing in populous urbanized regions. The lack of medical resources and properly trained medical personnel in rural regions make it especially burdensome for HCV patients seeking treatment. Dr. Sanjeev Arora at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center took initiative to resolve the issue at hand by developing a model named Project Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO). ECHO connects primary care providers (PCPs), usually family medicine physicians, in local communities with specialists. ECHO providers test the efficacy of treatment given using the ECHO model vs that at academic medical centers. The ECHO model has produced promising results such that the sustained virologic response rates for both types of sites were near-equivalent. Show Me ECHO was adapted from Project ECHO to train PCPs in Missouri and equip them with the tools and skills to properly treat and diagnose HCV in a timely manner. This healthcare model can be implemented for treating other common infections and chronic diseases. Telemedicine is the direction healthcare is headed for the next several decades. It has potential to be applied in developing countries to alleviate agony and despair resulting from limited resources and lack of access to expert medical care. PMID:27099651

  5. Extension for Community Health Outcomes-hepatitis C: Small steps carve big footprints in the allocation of scarce resources for hepatitis C virus treatment to remote developing areas.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Veysel; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Kahveci, Ali M; Mutrux, Rachel; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2016-04-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major health problem throughout the world. HCV patients living in rural areas are less fortunate than their counterparts residing in populous urbanized regions. The lack of medical resources and properly trained medical personnel in rural regions make it especially burdensome for HCV patients seeking treatment. Dr. Sanjeev Arora at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center took initiative to resolve the issue at hand by developing a model named Project Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO). ECHO connects primary care providers (PCPs), usually family medicine physicians, in local communities with specialists. ECHO providers test the efficacy of treatment given using the ECHO model vs that at academic medical centers. The ECHO model has produced promising results such that the sustained virologic response rates for both types of sites were near-equivalent. Show Me ECHO was adapted from Project ECHO to train PCPs in Missouri and equip them with the tools and skills to properly treat and diagnose HCV in a timely manner. This healthcare model can be implemented for treating other common infections and chronic diseases. Telemedicine is the direction healthcare is headed for the next several decades. It has potential to be applied in developing countries to alleviate agony and despair resulting from limited resources and lack of access to expert medical care. PMID:27099651

  6. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  7. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  8. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  9. Pakistan's community health workers.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, B; Amarsi, Y; Carpio, B

    1997-05-01

    Pakistan's health characteristics are worse than those of other Asian countries at similar stages of development. Its mortality rate for children under five is 139 per 1,000, and its maternal mortality is 60 per 10,000. Malnutrition in women and children is widespread; 50 per cent of children under five are stunted. Pakistan's population growth rate of 3.1 per cent per year is among the highest in Asia. The high population growth rate and poor health status of many people call for extensive health care services, but, unfortunately, health services do not reach most of the people of Pakistan. Partly because the training of doctors and nurses is lengthy and expensive, there is an acute shortage of health care providers, especially women. Although female health professionals are preferred for caring for women, cultural constraints inhibit women from seeking education. Such is the multifaceted dilemma in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan. PMID:9223980

  10. Preserving community in health care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, E J; Emanuel, L L

    1997-02-01

    There are two prominent trends in health care today: first, increasing demands for accountabilty, and second, increasing provision of care through managed care organizations. These trends promote the question: What form of account-ability is appropriate to managed care plans? Accountability is the process by which a party justifies its actions and policies. Components of accountability include parties that can be held or hold others accountable, domains and content areas being assessed, and procedures of assessment. Traditionally, the professional model of accountability has operated in medical care. In this model, physicians establish the standards of accountability and hold each other accountable through professional organizations. This form of accountability seems outdated and inapplicable to managed care plans. The alternatives are the economic and the political models of accountability. In the economic model, medicine becomes more like a commodity, and "exit" (consumers changing providers for reasons of cost and quality) is the dominant procedure of accountability. In the political model, medicine becomes more like a community good, and "voice" (citizens communicating their views in public forums or on policy committees, or in elections for representatives) is the dominant procedure of accountability. The economic model's advantages affirm American individualism, make minimal demands on consumers, and use a powerful incentive, money. Its disadvantages undermine health care as a nonmarket good, undermine individual autonomy, undermine good medical practice, impose significant demands on consumers to be informed, sustain differentials of power, and use indirect procedures of accountability. The political model's advantages affirm health care as a matter of justice, permit selecting domains other than price and quality for accountability, reinforce good medical practice, and equalize power between patients and physicians. Its disadvantages include inefficiency in

  11. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care

  12. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  13. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first

  14. Promoting health, building community.

    PubMed

    Artis, Bobby

    2005-01-01

    As part of its mission to honor human dignity and to care for the poor and vulnerable, Catholic Healthcare Partners (CHP), Cincinnati, has made a systemwide commitment to address housing needs in the communities it serves. A priority for the system is providing safe, affordable housing options for the low-income elderly. CHP's approach goes beyond "bricks and mortar," however. The system aims not only to provide a home for senior adults but also to enrich their lives. Through various activities and support services, CHP's senior living complexes in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee offer residents an opportunity to live in a vibrant community. CHP facilities have developed a variety of initiatives to enhance residents' lives. Among these are: spiritual care services, nurses who serve as a resource to low-income elders, a short-stay shelter for seniors in transition, a service referral program, and therapy to help elders remain independent. In order to offer these comprehensive services to senior adults, CHP relies on partnerships with a variety of organizations and on funding from both the federal government and private investors. Especially as the nation's population ages, CHP continues to make its housing ministry a strategic priority. PMID:15807065

  15. Community-based delivery of maternal care in conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma: perspectives from lay maternal health workers.

    PubMed

    Teela, Katherine C; Mullany, Luke C; Lee, Catherine I; Poh, Eh; Paw, Palae; Masenior, Nicole; Maung, Cynthia; Beyrer, Chris; Lee, Thomas J

    2009-04-01

    In settings where active conflict, resource scarcity, and logistical constraints prevail, provision of maternal health services within health centers and hospitals is unfeasible and alternative community-based strategies are needed. In eastern Burma, such conditions necessitated implementation of the "Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Worker" (MOM) project, which has employed a community-based approach to increase access to essential maternal health services including emergency obstetric care. Lay Maternal Health Workers (MHWs) are central to the MOM service delivery model and, because they are accessible to both the communities inside Burma and to outside project managers, they serve as key informants for the project. Their insights can facilitate program and policy efforts to overcome critical delays and insufficient management of maternal complications linked to maternal mortality. Focus group discussions (n=9), in-depth interviews (n=18), and detailed case studies (n=14) were collected from MHWs during centralized project management meetings in February and October of 2007. Five case studies are presented to characterize and interpret the realities of reproductive health work in a conflict-affected setting. Findings highlight the process of building supportive networks and staff ownership of the MOM project, accessing and gaining community trust and participation to achieve timely delivery of care, and overcoming challenges to manage and appropriately deliver essential health services. They suggest that some emergency obstetric care services that are conventionally delivered only within healthcare settings might be feasible in community or home-based settings when alternatives are not available. This paper provides an opportunity to hear directly from community-based workers in a conflict setting, perspectives seldom documented in the scientific literature. A rights-based approach to service delivery and its suitability in settings where human rights violations

  16. Adult Learning, Community Education, and Public Health: Making the Connection through Community Health Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Community health education does more than educate communities about health. In the most basic form, community health education seeks to enable citizens to assume responsibility for their own and their community's health through an understanding of their community's health problems and the societal influences that act upon them. Many community…

  17. Does Level of Social Capital Predict Perceived Health in a Community?—A Study of Adult Residents of Low-income Areas of Francistown, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and describes the relationships among neighbourhood characteristics, social capital, and health outcomes among low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. Using an explanatory correlational research design to explore the relationships among the study variables, data were collected from 388 low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. The study further examined the role of social capital on the environmental quality for the overall health and quality of life and the psychological, physical and level of independence domains of health. Several studies have explored these relationships but currently no study has explored this relationship in Africa and Botswana in particular. Selected concepts from social capital theory and stress theory were used as a conceptual framework. Using linear and multiple regression models, results of the study showed that social capital did not correlate with the overall health and quality of life and the level of independence domain of health but positively correlated with psychological well-being. Social capital negatively predicted physical health. Hierarchical moderated multiple-regression analyses were conducted to examine the moderating role of social capital. To the contrary, social capital did not moderate the effects of chronic community stressors on all health outcomes. Social capital, however, moderated the effects of the poor environmental quality on level of independence and physical health outcomes but not on the psychological and overall health and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of considering the role of social capital, especially in low-income communities. PMID:19761081

  18. Small area variations in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, J; Gittelsohn

    1973-12-14

    Health information about total populations is a prerequisite for sound decision-making and planning in the health care field. Experience with a population-based health data system in Vermont reveals that there are wide variations in resource input, utilization of services, and expenditures among neighboring communities. Results show prima facie inequalities in the input of resources that are associated with income transfer from areas of lower expenditure to areas of higher expenditure. Variations in utilization indicate that there is considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness of different levels of aggregate, as well as specific kinds of, health services. Informed choices in the public regulation of the health care sector require knowledge of the relation between medical care systems and the population groups being served, and they should take into account the effect of regulation on equality and effectiveness. When population-based data on small areas are available, decisions to expand hospitals, currently based on institutional pressures, can take into account a community's regional ranking in regard to bed input and utilization rates. Proposals by hospitals for unit price increases and the regulation of the actuarial rate of insurance programs can be evaluated in terms of per capita expenditures and income transfer between geographically defined populations. The PSRO's can evaluate the wide variations in level of services among residents of different communities. Coordinated exercise of the authority vested in these regulatory programs may lead to explicit strategies to deal directly with inequality and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of health care delivery. Population-based health information systems, because they can provide information on the performance of health care systems and regulatory agencies, are an important step in the development of rational public policy for health. PMID:4750608

  19. Partnership for community health development.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, G

    1993-01-01

    A programme of community health development is reported from two villages in Haiti. It involves close cooperation between a district hospital, a local dispensary, and, most importantly, the inhabitants themselves. The programme is simple, financially realistic, adapted to local conditions, and linked to activities designed to meet basic requirements, such as those of food production and water supply. PMID:8185759

  20. Reading Area Community College Community Needs Assessment Telephone Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

    A telephone survey was conducted in 1981 at Reading Area Community College (RACC) to determine the educational needs of the community, particularly those of prospective students and employers. More specifically, the study sought to determine how the Berks County community perceived the quality of education provided at RACC and to ascertain the…

  1. Community financing of health care.

    PubMed

    Carrin, G

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses ways to lesson the restrictions on health development in sub-Saharan Africa caused by limited public health budgets. Health improvements can be funded by the implementation of health insurance, the use of foreign aid, the raising of taxes, the reallocation of public money, and direct contributions by users or households either in the form of charges for services received or prepayments for future services. Community financing, i.e. the direct financing of health care by households in villages or distinct urban communities, is seen as preferable to a national or regional plan. When community financing is chosen, a choice must then be made between direct payment, fee-for-service, and prepayment (insurance) systems. The 3 systems, using the example of an essential drugs program, are described. Theoretically, with direct payment the government receives full cost recovery, and the patients receive the drugs they need, thereby improving their health. Of course the poor may not be able to purchase the drugs, therefore a subsidy system must be worked out at the community level. Fee-for-service means charging for a consultation or course of treatment, including drugs. A sliding scale of fees or discounts for certain types of consultations (e.g. pre-and post natal) can be used. In fee-for-service the risk is shared; because the cost of drugs is financed by the fees, those who receive costly treatments are subsidized by those whose treatments are relatively inexpensive. With prepayment or health insurance the risk of illness is shifted from the patient to the insurance firm or state. 2 issues make insurance plans hard to implement. When patients are covered by insurance, they may demand "too much" medical care (moral hazard) and thus premiums may be too small to cover treatment costs. On the other hand, people in low-risk groups may be unwilling to pay a higher premium, thus leading to adverse selection. Eventually, premiums may rise to the point where

  2. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  3. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level sociodemographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2,764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  4. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  5. Patient Moderator Interaction in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W.; Hartzler, Andrea; Pratt, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of people visit online health communities to share experiences and seek health information. Although studies have enumerated reasons for patients’ visits to online communities for health information from peers, we know little about how patients gain health information from the moderators in these communities. We qualitatively analyze 480 patient and moderator posts from six communities to understand how moderators fulfill patients’ information needs. Our findings show that patients use the community as an integral part of their health management practices. Based on our results, we suggest enhancements to moderated online health communities for their unique role to support patient care. PMID:24551364

  6. Expertise in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    McMurray, A

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on a study of expertise in community health nursing. The objective of the study was to develop a model of expertise derived from identification of the characteristics and factors influencing clinical expertise in community health nurses (CHNs) practicing in district nursing, school health, and child health. Participant observations, individual interviews, and written retrospective accounts of clinical episodes were analyzed from 37 nurses (10 novices within the first year of community practice and 27 experts identified by peers and colleagues). The data identified the expert as someone in whom the following characteristics operate synchronously: knowledge; empathy; appropriate communication; holistic understanding; an ability to get right to the problem at hand; and self-confidence in her or his perceptions, judgments, and intervention strategies. The findings suggest that there is a combination of factors which influences the development of expertise. These include educational factors, personal factors, and experience. These factors are incorporated into the model of expertise. The data also suggest that, in order to educate for expert levels of practice, the educational process must be designed to stimulate the learner's perceptual as well as analytic abilities. This can best be achieved through clinical practice opportunities and through demonstrations and case studies which stimulate inferential and intuitive thinking in students. PMID:1624980

  7. Area Community College and Area Vocational School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    The purpose of this guideline is to assist in the planning process, to encourage good school plant design, and to serve as criteria in the evaluation of area community college and area vocational school plans. It is divided into the following five sections--(1) area plant planning, (2) area sites, (3) physical facilities, (4) service systems, and…

  8. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  9. Community perception of quality of (primary) health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mashego, T A B; Peltzer, K

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary) health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants). Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1) conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy), (2) technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes), (3) health care facility, (4) health care organisation, (5) drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment), and (6) waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients) and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action. PMID:16045107

  10. Community Mental Health Ideology, Dogmatism, and Political-Economic Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frank; Schulberg, Herbert C.

    1969-01-01

    Indications are that degree of adherence to philosophy of community mental health among area board members, as measured by the Community Mental Health Ideology Scale and the five-term form of the Political-Economic-Conservatism Scale, is significantly negatively correlated with dogmatism and conservatism. (Author/CJ)

  11. Health Care Marketing: Role Evolution of the Community Health Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syre, Thomas R.; Wilson, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses role delineation in the health education profession, defines and presents principles of health care marketing, describes marketing plan development, and examines major ethical issues associated with health care marketing when utilized by community health educators. A marketing plan format for community health education is…

  12. Health care in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Padeken, D; Sotiriou, D; Boddy, K; Gerzer, R

    1995-02-01

    Migration from space medicine toward telemedicine services is described by potential application areas in highly populated and remote areas of Europe. Special emphasis is laid upon links between mobile patient monitoring and health care in remote areas. Pilot projects are described for home (mobile) monitoring of newborn infants endangered by sudden infant death (SID) and adults suffering from sleep apnoea. Health care in remote areas is described by the "TeleClinic-project" which will link national nodes for telemedicine services in several European states for the mobile European citizen. Another project describes the future potential of robotics for semiautonomous ultrasound diagnostics and for realtime interaction of remote experts with diagnostics and therapy. PMID:7790809

  13. Collaborative Community: Health Education Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Setta

    2004-01-01

    Four community colleges in Western Massachusetts--Berkshire Community College (BCC), Greenfield Community College (GCC), Holyoke Community College (HCC), and Springfield Technical Community College (STCC)--have created a collaborative Web site, at www.healthprograms.org, to present information on allied health associate degrees or certificate…

  14. Community Colleges, Health-Related Social Problems, and the Community Services Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald Dean

    The major objective of the persent research was to determine the degree of commitment to community service in the area of health related social problems on the part of public community colleges. Specifically, the study sought to determine if these institutions have a responsibility for assisting in the amelioration of health-related problems. The…

  15. Financing geriatric programs in community health centers.

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, D E; Ray, S; List, N; Duggar, B

    1991-01-01

    There are approximately 600 Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs) providing preventive and primary health care services principally to medically underserved rural and urban areas across the United States. The need to develop geriatric programs within C/MHCs is clear. Less clear is how and under what circumstances a comprehensive geriatric program can be adequately financed. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the Public Health Service contracted with La Jolla Management Corporation and Duke University Center on Aging to identify successful techniques for obtaining funding by examining 10 "good practice" C/MHC geriatric programs. The results from this study indicated that effective techniques included using a variety of funding sources, maintaining accurate cost-per-user information, developing a marketing strategy and user incentives, collaborating with the area agency on aging and other community organizations, and developing special services for the elderly. Developing cost-per-user information allowed for identifying appropriate "drawing card" services, negotiating sound reimbursement rates and contracts with other providers, and assessing the financial impact of changing service mixes. A marketing strategy was used to enhance the ability of the centers to provide a comprehensive package of services. Collaboration with the area agency on aging and other community organizations and volunteers in the aging network was found to help establish referral networks and subsequently increase the number of elderly patients served. Finally, development of special services for the elderly, such as adult day care, case management, and health education, was found to increase program visibility, opportunities to work with the network of services for the aging, and clinical utilization. PMID:1908588

  16. Lessons in Community Health Activism

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study employed historical methodologies to explore the means through which the Maternity Care Coalition used grassroots activism to dismantle the power structures and other obstacles that contributed to high infant mortality rates in Philadelphia’s health districts 5 and 6 during the 1980s. Infant mortality within the black community has been a persistent phenomenon in the United States. Refusing to accept poverty as a major determinant of infant mortality within marginalized populations of women, activists during the 1980s harnessed momentum from a postcivil rights context and sought alternative methods toward change and improvement of infant mortality rates. PMID:24892861

  17. [Community health agent program: perception by patients and health service workers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Flávia Mauad; Matos, Patrícia Elizabeth de Souza; Tomita, Nilce Emy

    2004-01-01

    Two basic premises of Brazil's Community Health Agents Program (PACS) are to value the family and community to which the program belongs and to encourage their participation in health promotion and disease prevention. This study focused on the work developed by PACS in Bauru, São Paulo State, as perceived by the community health agents and the families served by them. As the study's point of departure, 22 community health agents and 22 representatives of families were interviewed, randomly selected according to residential micro-areas. Two focus groups were formed according to the PACS to which the community agents and families belonged. Qualitative analysis of the answers demonstrated agreement between the perceptions by community health agents and the community in the two focus groups. However, the two focus groups differed from each other. Distinct realities were observed in the two communities, thereby orienting new program actions and handling of local difficulties. PMID:15029321

  18. Bridging the Gap Between Community Health and School Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The responsibility for community health should be shared and coordinated among schools, parents, and health agencies. Children's knowledge and skills should be developed so that they too can promote personal good health. Issues and strategies are discussed. (BJV)

  19. Modeling duration of time lived in a residence, a community and mobility in rural areas of Merced and Ventura, California to assess potential health risks to airborne contaminants.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey; Price, Paul; vanWesenbeeck, Ian; Kaplan, William; Holden, Larry; Ross, John; Landenberger, Bryce

    2016-11-01

    A de novo population mobility survey of 800 households (random digit dialing-based phone interviews) was conducted in high demand areas of the agricultural fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in Merced and Ventura counties of California. The survey included approximately 20 questions relating to the length of time individuals had lived in the high demand areas in each county, and also relating to weekly and annual mobility patterns. Lifetime inhalation exposures to 1,3-D are determined, in part, by the number of years individuals spend in an area where the fumigant is used. The purpose of the survey was to provide location-specific data for probabilistic modeling of long-term inhalation exposures to 1,3-D. The survey found that the majority of residents do not live in a high demand area or in the same house (99.99%) for 70years (a default assumption used by some regulatory agencies). It was also observed that residents move frequently and are mobile day-to-day and week-to-week, within the use area. Finally, estimates of total residency duration, derived from the survey results indicate that median times spent within a high demand area (which could include more than one residential location) were 18 and 26years for Ventura and Merced high demand areas, respectively. The average time spent in the high demand areas was 22 and 27years for the Ventura and Merced community, respectively. Less than 0.01% of the populations in either of the high demand areas spend 70years in the same house. PMID:27436777

  20. THE ROLE OF TEACHERS AND COMMUNITY WORKERS IN DEPRESSED AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARGURBER, CARL L.

    THE NEED FOR COMPENSATORY EDUCATION IN AND THE NECESSITY OF PROVIDING OUTSTANDING TEACHERS AND COMMUNITY WORKERS FOR DEPRESSED AREAS ARE DISCUSSED. DISADVANTAGED YOUTH ARE CHARACERIZED BY THEIR NONPURPOSEFUL ACTIVITY, INDIFFERENCE TO RESPONSIBLITY, POOR HEALTH HABITS, POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND READING HABITS, LIMITED EXPERIENCES AND CONTACTS…

  1. The community leaders institute: an innovative program to train community leaders in health research.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J

    2013-03-01

    An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration result in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited.This article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. On the basis of two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm used by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees. PMID:23348087

  2. Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise. PMID:23875568

  3. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  4. Considering place in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    Bender, Amy; Clune, Laurie; Guruge, Sepali

    2007-09-01

    When a geographic location is assigned meaning, it becomes a place. The authors argue that place matters as both geographical location and lived experience. They extend the current conceptualization of nursing geography to encompass community health nursing and address intricacies of community nursing practice and research that often go unnoticed. They do so by exploring the notion of place in home and community, including the structural/spatial dimensions of the nurse-client relationship. The authors review the health geography literatures, then discuss the implications for practice and research in community health. They invite community health nurses to critically examine their practice and research with reference to such issues as the power of the nurse, marginalized places as determinants of health, and how best to care for clients living in diverse community settings. PMID:17970458

  5. Considering place in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    Bender, Amy; Clune, Laurie; Guruge, Sepali

    2009-03-01

    When a geographic location is assigned meaning, it becomes a place. The authors argue that place matters as both geographical location and lived experience.They extend the current conceptualization of nursing geography to encompass community health nursing and address intricacies of community nursing practice and research that often go unnoticed. They do so by exploring the notion of place in home and community, including the structural/spatial dimensions of the nurse-client relationship. The authors review the health geography literatures, then discuss the implications for practice and research in community health. They invite community health nurses to critically examine their practice and research with reference to such issues as the power of the nurse, marginalized places as determinants of health, and how best to care for clients living in diverse community settings. PMID:19485049

  6. Lessons on sustainability for community health projects.

    PubMed

    Aubel, J; Samba-Ndure, K

    1996-01-01

    In the Gambia a community-based strategy was tested, in which a traditional snack food was promoted as a dietary supplement to improve women's nutrition during pregnancy. The results suggest how community nutrition programmes can be designed so as to favour sustainability. By and large, the lessons learned are also applicable to other types of community health programme. PMID:8820144

  7. Building Community for Effective Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Engstrom, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Health promotion on campuses has two audiences or targets: individuals and the community. Through strategies of leadership, consensus development, and community service, college and university communities cannot only change social norms, but more critically, found and nurture a flexible, gentle network of caring and connectedness that pulls people…

  8. The Yaffo Community Mental Health Center.

    PubMed

    Kleinhauz, M; Beran, B

    1978-01-01

    The Yaffo Mental Health Center was intended as a model for the implementation of the Israel national program for community psychiatry. The principles governing the function of the community mental health center are set out and the various component (if integrated) service structures are described. PMID:555502

  9. Marketing and Community Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferniany, Isaac W.; Garove, William E.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a marketing approach can be applied to community mental health centers. Marketing is a management orientation of providing services for, not to, patients in a systematic manner, which can help mental health centers improve services, strengthen community image, achieve financial independence and aid in staff recruitment. (Author)

  10. Developing Community Health Worker Diabetes Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…

  11. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

  12. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621

  13. Weaving Clinical Expertise in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Many patients visit online health communities to receive support. In face-to-face support groups, health professionals facilitate peer-patients exchanging experience while adding their clinical expertise when necessary. However, the large scale of online health communities makes it challenging for such health professional moderators’ involvement to happen. To address this challenge of delivering clinical expertise to where patients need them, we explore the idea of semi-automatically providing clinical expertise in online health communities. We interviewed 14 clinicians showing them example peer-patient conversation threads. From the interviews, we examined the ideal practice of clinicians providing expertise to patients. The clinicians continuously assessed when peer-patients were providing appropriate support, what kinds of clinical help they could give online, and when to defer to patients’ healthcare providers. The findings inform requirements for building a semi-automated system delivering clinical expertise in online health communities. PMID:26413582

  14. Environmental and Community Health. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. This book is divided into two parts: Part…

  15. Community Response to a Public Health Threat-VEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, John L.; Vuturo, Anthony F.

    1975-01-01

    After identifying the mosquito as the Venezuelan equine encephalitis vector, health officials worked with the community to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. By educating the public first, cooperation was received in opening drainage areas and stocking water collection areas with mosquito eating fish to interrupt the host-vector-recipient cycle.…

  16. Ethiopia's health extension program: improving health through community involvement.

    PubMed

    Banteyerga, Hailom

    2011-07-01

    The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010. PMID:21778960

  17. [Health promotion in the Pankararu indigenous community].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334

  18. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health.

    PubMed

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  19. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  20. Health and Taxes: Hospitals, Community Health and the IRS.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act created new conditions of federal tax exemption for nonprofit hospitals, including a requirement that hospitals conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every three years to identify significant health needs in their communities and then develop and implement a strategy responding to those needs. As a result, hospitals must now do more than provide charity care to their patients in exchange for the benefits of tax exemption. The CHNA requirement has the potential both to prompt a radical change in hospitals' relationship to their communities and to enlist hospitals as meaningful contributors to community health improvement initiatives. Final regulations issued in December 2014 clarify hospitals' obligations under the CHNA requirement, but could do more to facilitate hospitals' engagement in collaborative community health projects. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has a rich opportunity, while hospitals are still learning to conduct CHNAs, to develop guidance establishing clear but flexible expectations for how providers should assess and address community needs. This Article urges the IRS to seize that opportunity by refining its regulatory framework for the CHNA requirement. Specifically, the IRS should more robustly promote transparency, accountability, community engagement, and collaboration while simultaneously leaving hospitals a good degree of flexibility. By promoting alignment between hospitals' regulatory compliance activities and broader community health improvement initiatives, the IRS could play a meaningful role in efforts to reorient our system towards promoting health and not simply treating illness. PMID:27363258

  1. Listening to Community Health Workers: How Ethnographic Research Can Inform Positive Relationships Among Community Health Workers, Health Institutions, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-01-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs’ desires for alleviation of their own and others’ economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions. PMID:24625167

  2. A Health Education Program for Underserved Community Youth Led by Health Professions Students

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ann Ryan; Christensen, Carla; Lust, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To develop and implement a health fair and educational sessions for elementary school children led by health professions students. Design The structure and process were developed with elementary school administration to determine the health topics to be covered. Students and faculty members created a “hands-on,” youth-oriented health fair and interactive health educational sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on learning outcomes from the underserved child population and health professions students. Assessment The health fair and educational sessions increased awareness of underserved youth in the areas of critical health behaviors, purposeful education on health issues facing their community, and exposure to careers in various health professions. The activities provided meaningful learning experiences for the health professions students. Conclusion The health education program model is an excellent way to teach health education, communication and critical thinking skills, and service learning to health professions students. PMID:19885067

  3. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  4. Health care philanthropies: how communities can participate.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    When a nonprofit hospital or health plan converts to for-profit status, the value of its assets endows a charitable foundation. As a result, billions of health care dollars are being shifted into new philanthropic institutions with an explicit mission to "improve the health of the community." But this issue of States of Health argues that mission can only be accomplished if consumers are involved significantly in the conversion process. PMID:11503873

  5. Quality Assurance in Community Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racusin, Robert; Krell, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages to various methods of assuring quality and accountability in community mental health centers are discussed. Examples are external structure review, peer monitoring, and site visitation. (LAB)

  6. Assessing Financial Health in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.; Head, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    In this age of educational accountability, there is an increasing emphasis on assessment and institutional effectiveness, not only in the academic arena but also in other aspects of community college operation, such as fiscal health and stability, revenue generation, resource allocation, facilities, workforce development, and community enrichment…

  7. Sexual health needs and the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sue

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals have particular vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. Globally, reasons for this include physiological factors, discrimination and poor understanding of their sexual health needs. In many countries LGBT individuals are not able to exercise fully their rights to health care. This raises public health concerns for the LGBT community and the wider population. This article explores these issues, and makes recommendations for the healthcare profession to address health inequalities and promote improved health outcomes for LGBT populations. This article aims to promote an evidence-based approach that focuses on rights and public health issues. PMID:23641652

  8. Community Health Needs Assessment: Potential for Population Health Improvement.

    PubMed

    Pennel, Cara L; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Burdine, James N; Matarrita-Cascante, David; Wang, Jia

    2016-06-01

    Derived from various health care policies and initiatives, the concept of population health has been newly adopted by health care and medicine. In particular, it has been suggested that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision that requires nonprofit hospitals to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) and implement strategies to address health priorities has the potential to improve population health. A mixed methods study design was used to examine the potential for population health improvements to occur through the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-mandated nonprofit hospital CHNA and planning processes. Methods involved a 2-phased approach composed of (1) content analysis of 95 CHNA/implementation strategies reports and (2) interviews with key informants, consultants, and community stakeholders involved in CHNA and planning processes. Although this is a great opportunity for the nonprofit hospital assessment and planning processes to influence population health outcomes, the findings from the first 3-year assessment and planning cycle (2011-2013) suggest this is unlikely. As nonprofit hospitals begin the second 3-year assessment and planning cycle, this article offers recommendations to increase the potential for nonprofit hospitals to improve population health. These recommendations include clarifying the purpose of IRS CHNA regulations, engaging community stakeholders in collaborative assessment and planning, understanding disease etiology and identifying and addressing broader determinants of health, adopting a public health assessment and planning model, and emphasizing population health improvement. (Population Health Management 2016;19:178-186). PMID:26440370

  9. The impact of pollution from a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, on the health of fish-eating communities in the area: an environmental health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, J; Ehrlich, R

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the human health risk associated with fish consumption in a contaminated area downstream from a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population consisted of fish consumers living in close proximity to the u'Mgeni River and the Inanda Dam downstream from the plant. A control group was selected from the area upstream from the mercury plant as far as the Nagle Dam. Total daily mercury consumption per kilogram body weight per day was calculated for each person included in the study. These data were compared with the tolerable daily intake standard published by the World Health Organization, as well as to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose. Human hair samples obtained from the study population and a control group were analysed for mercury content. The results of the risk estimation indicated that the study population is at risk. Human hair samples, however, indicated that dangerous levels of mercury had not yet been consumed. Humans in this study area could be subject to an excessive health risk from mercury as a result of their fish consumption. Fish mercury levels in the contaminated area should be monitored closely. PMID:11260786

  10. An alternative strategy in community health care: community-oriented primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kark, S L; Kark, E

    1983-08-01

    The need for alternative strategies in providing personal health services in the community is discussed in relation to Israel, which has a widespread network of community-based curative clinics and preventive family health centers. Community-oriented primary health care (C-OPHC) is the major alternative strategy, which has been developed and evaluated by the Hadassah Teaching and Research Health Center in Kiryat Hayovel, a neighborhood of Jerusalem. The case for adapting this C-OPHC approach throughout the country is presented in a review of existing primary health care services. PMID:6885360

  11. State of evaluation: community health workers.

    PubMed

    Nemcek, Mary Ann; Sabatier, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Disparity groups, especially racial and ethnic minority groups, are at greater risk for poor health yet experience numerous obstacles in accessing health care. Community health workers (CHWs) are indigenous, trusted, and respected members of the underserved community. They can serve as a bridge between peers and health professionals. Use of CHWs has fluctuated since the federal government first endorsed their use for expanded health access to the underserved in the 1960s. National demands to eliminate health disparities and recent socioeconomic pressures have focused attention on use of CHWs to improve community health. Still, underutilization exists due to, in part, a lack of understanding of the CHW concept and a dearth of evaluation literature on CHWs. This article describes the CHW concept, provides a summary of CHW evaluation literature, and suggests quality care indicators to strengthen evaluation. The review of evaluation research relating to CHWs provides a preliminary state of the science for nurses to begin building an evidence-based practice. Quality of care indicators pertinent to CHW are summarized from the existing evaluation literature. The three best practice domains (therapeutic alliance, risk reduction and health care utilization) are proposed along with suggestions for using quality indicators to improve evaluation. A reduction in health disparities can occur with enhanced CHW utilization. PMID:12823786

  12. The Assessment of a Community's Mental Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex; Simons, Lynn Stanley

    In this study social indicators and survey measures were used to predict three-year service utilization rates at a community mental health center on a geographic basis. Ten social indicators were selected from available census tract statistics and seven survey measures were taken from an epidemiological survey of the catchment area of the mental…

  13. Rush Health Systems and Meridian Community College: People Serving People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    Meridian Community College and Rush Health Systems are partners in delivering training focused on Rush's mission statement of hospital-wide commitment to "excellence in service management." Rush and MCC have delivered customized classes in the following areas: medical billing, leadership management, computer training, admissions clerk, and…

  14. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-07-15

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  15. 2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean. PMID:26430619

  17. Development and formative evaluation of an innovative mHealth intervention for improving coverage of community-based maternal, newborn and child health services in rural areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Dhiren; Gopalan, Ravi; Shah, Shobha; Venkatraman, Sethuraman; Desai, Gayatri; Desai, Shrey; Shah, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background A new cadre of village-based frontline health workers, called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), was created in India. However, coverage of selected community-based maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services remains low. Objective This article describes the process of development and formative evaluation of a complex mHealth intervention (ImTeCHO) to increase the coverage of proven MNCH services in rural India by improving the performance of ASHAs. Design The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing complex interventions was used. Gaps were identified in the usual care provided by ASHAs, based on a literature search, and SEWA Rural's1 three decades of grassroots experience. The components of the intervention (mHealth strategies) were designed to overcome the gaps in care. The intervention, in the form of the ImTeCHO mobile phone and web application, along with the delivery model, was developed to incorporate these mHealth strategies. The intervention was piloted through 45 ASHAs among 45 villages in Gujarat (population: 45,000) over 7 months in 2013 to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and usefulness of the intervention and to identify barriers to its delivery. Results Inadequate supervision and support to ASHAs were noted as a gap in usual care, resulting in low coverage of selected MNCH services and care received by complicated cases. Therefore, the ImTeCHO application was developed to integrate mHealth strategies in the form of job aid to ASHAs to assist with scheduling, behavior change communication, diagnosis, and patient management, along with supervision and support of ASHAs. During the pilot, the intervention and its delivery were found to be largely acceptable, feasible, and useful. A few changes were made to the intervention and its delivery, including 1) a new helpline for ASHAs, 2) further simplification of processes within the ImTeCHO incentive management system and 3) additional web-based features for

  18. The community need index. A new tool pinpoints health care disparities in communities throughout the nation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Richard; Barsi, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Catholic Healthcare West, San Francisco (CHW), has developed a national Community Need Index (CNI) in partnership with Solucient, an information products company, to help health care organizations, not-for-profits, and policymakers identify and address barriers to health care access in their communities. The CNI aggregates five socioeconomic indicators long known to contribute to health disparity--income, culture/language, education, housing status, and insurance coverage--and applies them to every zip code in the United States. Each zip code is then given a score ranging from 1.0 (low need) to 5.0 (high need). Residents of communities with the highest CNI scores were shown to be twice as likely to experience preventable hospitalization for manageable conditions--such as ear infections, pneumonia or congestive heart failure--as communities with the lowest CNI scores. The CNI provides compelling evidence for addressing socioeconomic barriers when considering health policy and local health planning. The tool highlights health care disparities between geographic regions and illustrates the acute needs of several notable geographies, including inner city and rural areas.Further, it should enable health care providers, policymakers, and others to allocate resources where they are most needed, using a standardized, quantitative tool. The CNI provides CHW with an important means to strategically allocate resources where it will be most effective in maintaining a healthy community. PMID:16092512

  19. Volunteers in Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet gives detailed accounts of mental health programs in operation around the nation. A total of nine different types of activities is included. "Helping Children" describes a program whereby students from nearby colleges give troubled children, at home, an experience in friendship by serving as big brothers or sisters. "Helping the…

  20. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery. PMID:22552425

  1. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions. PMID:27379424

  2. [Community education in perinatal health].

    PubMed

    Ortigosa-corona, E; Martinez-sanchez, C

    1990-01-01

    The National Institute of Perinatology develops educational programs for the population using its services in order to promote positive behavior related to reproduction. One of the most frequently observed problems during prenatal control is patient abandonment of the services offered by health institutions. We present an investigation of the relationship between the educational program for pregnant women offered by the Institute and compliance with prenatal care. A group of 215 patients elected to participate in the educational program. The program consisted of themes on the evolution and culmination of the pregnancy, preparation for nursing, nutrition, developmental milestones, and dental health. Another group was selected at the same time, equal in size to the first but without participation in the course, as a control group. Both groups contained patients categorized in the 3 perinatal risk groups accepted by the Institute. PMID:12283076

  3. New directions for community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Kipp, M F

    1987-01-01

    Community Mental Health Centers and other quasi-public authorities are operating within a larger health market characterized by the rapid unfolding of a number of key trends in consumer behavior, provider supply, and financing. Each of these trends, though not readily apparent, is strongly reflected in the specialty mental health sector. Mental health managers are faced with fundamental choices about the direction of their respective organizations and the adequacy of their resources to proceed. Mr. Kipp outlines the market dynamics at issue, describes three basic alternatives, and offers some guidelines for management in charting a course. PMID:10287206

  4. Transboundary effects on health care services in the European Community.

    PubMed

    du Pré, F M

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the rights that community law gives to the medical and allied professions to exercise their professional activities in a member state other than their state of origin. Firstly, the scope of the general economic provisions of the European Community (EC) Treaty is broadly described. Secondly, the specific rules of the EC secondary legislation concerning the harmonization of the national legislations on professional qualifications in the health care sector are reviewed. Lastly, an example is given of the application of these rules in the health care sector by the Court of Justice of the European Community. It is submitted that the exercise of these rights can contribute to transboundary cooperation within the EC in the rendering of health care services to patients in the member states. This is specially relevant in frontier areas. PMID:8377626

  5. Ethical considerations in community oral health.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-05-01

    As the public's oral health care needs increase in complexity, there is renewed attention to the ethical dimensions of community oral health decision making and the development of public health ethics in teaching and research in dentistry. Despite their reduction globally, oral diseases persist with a particular distribution pattern that is a reflection of the increasingly widespread inequality in access to community oral health preventive and dental care. This is due to differences in the appropriateness, availability, accessibility, and acceptability of oral health education and the care provided. This article provides an overview of community oral health from an ethical perspective, including the importance of equity, human rights, and social justice in providing oral health care to the underserved. The need for a paradigm shift from highly technical and individualistic dental training curricula is discussed, together with the need to instill a holistic approach to ethical and social responsibility in new dental graduates. It concludes with some possible strategies, using the overarching principles of ethics and bioethics that are applicable to practice among vulnerable populations. PMID:25941240

  6. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  7. Catholic health care's community-benefit role.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Carol

    2005-06-16

    "While contemporary Catholic health care and other not-for-profit health care institutions excel in quality, innovation and technology, they remain community-benefit organizations, founded and sustained because of community need," Sister Carol Keehan, a Daughter of Charity who chairs the board of trustees of the Catholic Health Association of the United States, said in May 26 testimony in Washington before the House Ways and Means Committee, which conducted a hearing on the tax-exempt hospital sector. Keehan chairs the board of Sacred Heart Health System in Pensacola, Fla. She spoke the day after Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, announced that the Senate Finance Committee, which he chairs, had asked 10 nonprofit hospitals or health systems to account for their charitable activities in light of their tax-exempt status. Rep. Bill Thomas, R-Calif., chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, said at the House hearing that "the standards for tax exemption are not just an academic debate." In reviewing the broad ways Catholic hospitals benefit local communities, Keehan stressed that the services of Catholic hospitals are not provided "to justify continued tax exemption" but because serving communities in this way is integral to their identity and mission. Keehan's text follows. PMID:16178107

  8. [A Review of Taiwan's Community Mental Health Policies: Current Developments and Future Prospect].

    PubMed

    Yao, Ching-Teng

    2015-08-01

    Community mental health is an important area of public health. This study initially elaborates from the perspective of community psychology the concept and basis of the practice of community mental health work, including the importance of prevention over treatment, of valuing personal advantages and capabilities, and of adopting an ecological perspective, a respect for diversity, empowerment, and scientific cooperation and integration. Subsequently, this paper reviews the history of the development of community mental health work in Taiwan and of the operations, developmental issues, and difficulties currently faced by community mental health centers. Finally, this paper addresses the future prospects for community mental health work in Taiwan in hopes that the government will attach greater importance to related policies and implementation plans, optimize the service and delivery systems of community mental health organizations, reinforce community mental health education, develop effective community mental health promotion strategies, provide accessible and continuous direct services, integrate community mental health resources, and support the families of mental health patients in order to consolidate and better promote community-based mental health work. PMID:26242430

  9. Women's health is a community issue.

    PubMed

    Irvin, A

    1997-01-01

    When a member of the Community Life Project in Nigeria led a group of women in a discussion about HIV/AIDS, the women reported that they understood that condom use is the best means of protection but that they were unable to negotiate condom use with their husbands. Even if the women were economically independent, they would rather face the risk of HIV/AIDS than divorce. Thus, efforts to improve women's health have not generated much change on the local level. This can also be seen by the facts that current programs have failed to reduce the numbers of women dying from pregnancy-related causes each year, nearly 3000 women die from tuberculosis each day, women suffer occupational health risks, and domestic violence is an important determinant of health problems for women. Because women lack power in many societies, efforts to effect individual change may be blocked by a woman's particular circumstances. Thus, the involvement of entire communities is necessary to improve the conditions affecting women's health. Community-level discussions may open the door for couples to discuss sexuality and gender-based issues as well as safer sex behavior. Despite the important role they can play, women's community health groups face stiff challenges because of a lack of knowledge or training and because of the difficulty in overcoming gender-based discrimination. The Hesperian Foundation's publication, "Where Women Have No Doctor," is an excellent resource for understanding how poverty and gender issues affect women's health. The book contains practical information, promotes a model of community-based responses to problems with social origins, and shares experiences of grassroots groups world-wide. PMID:12292725

  10. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for research, policy and practice

  11. Developing a Student Community Health Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, team-approach program has been developed at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, in which students (1) apply principles of community research, (2) join a multidisciplinary team, (3) identify components of a service agency, (4) become involved in its working, and (5) demonstrate the incorporation of health education…

  12. Beyond the horizon: the role of academic health centers in improving the health of rural communities.

    PubMed

    Gazewood, John D; Rollins, Lisa K; Galazka, Sim S

    2006-09-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) face increasing pressures from federal, state, and community stakeholders to fulfill their social missions to the communities they serve. Yet, in the 21st century, rural communities in the United States face an array of health care problems, including a shortage of physicians, health problems that disproportionately affect rural populations, a need to improve quality of care, and health disparities related to disproportionate levels of poverty and shifting demographics. AHCs have a key role to play in addressing these issues. AHCs can increase physician supply by targeting their admissions policies and educational programs. Specific health concerns of rural populations can be further addressed through increased use of telemedicine consultations. By partnering with providers in rural areas and through the use of innovative technologies, AHCs can help rural providers increase the quality of care. Partnerships with rural communities provide opportunities for participatory research to address health disparities. In addition, collaboration between AHCs, regional planning agencies, and rural communities can lead to mutually beneficial outcomes. At a time when many AHCs are operating in an environment with dwindling resources, it is even more critical for AHCs to build creative partnerships to help meet the needs of their regional communities. PMID:16936482

  13. Canadian community pharmacists’ use of digital health technologies in practice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. Methods: In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Results: Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. Discussion: There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Conclusion: Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx. PMID:26798376

  14. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479

  15. Community health nursing vision for 2020: shaping the future.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Ruth; Ganann, Rebecca; Brooks, Sandy; McGugan, Jennifer; Dalla Bona, Kim; Betker, Claire; Dilworth, Katie; Parton, Laurie; Reid-Haughian, Cheryl; Slepkov, Marlene; Watson, Cori

    2011-12-01

    As health care is shifting from hospital to community, community health nurses (CHNs) are directly affected. This descriptive qualitative study sought to understand priority issues currently facing CHNs, explore development of a national vision for community health nursing, and develop recommendations to shape the future of the profession moving toward the year 2020. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted across Canada. Five key themes were identified: community health nursing in crisis now, a flawed health care system, responding to the public, vision for the future, and CHNs as solution makers. Key recommendations include developing a common definition and vision of community health nursing, collaborating on an aggressive plan to shift to a primary health care system, developing a comprehensive social marketing strategy, refocusing basic baccalaureate education, enhancing the capacity of community health researchers and knowledge in community health nursing, and establishing a community health nursing center of excellence. PMID:20660926

  16. How community mental health centers are coping.

    PubMed

    Okin, R L

    1984-11-01

    Many community mental health centers have had to operate with less funding in the past several years, especially since the advent of block grant funding. Evidence is now accumulating that some centers have had to decrease their overall level of services and staffing. Others have attempted to adjust by increasing their clinician caseloads, closing their satellite facilities, and de-emphasizing services that fail to generate adequate fees and third-party reimbursements, such as consultation and education, partial hospitalization, and programs for children and the elderly. In contrast, and partly as a result of the increased authority of the states over the community mental health centers program, services for the severely and chronically mentally ill appear to be receiving higher priority. This development will require that centers improve their access to the general health care sector, maintain and improve their relationships with academic institutions, and increase the number, responsibilities, and rewards of the psychiatrists they employ. PMID:6500524

  17. Institutionalization of Community Partnerships: The Challenge for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Zapka, Jane; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan; Stuart, Gail W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Current public health priorities emphasize the elimination of health disparities, translational research, and transdisciplinary and community alliances. The Center for Community Health Partnerships is a proactive initiative to address new paradigms and priorities in health care through institutionalization of community-university partnerships. This report highlights innovative strategies and lessons learned. PMID:23698666

  18. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health Part V: Community Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Masi, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the author examines multicultural health issues from a community perspective, dealing with relationships between cultural communities and health-care systems in terms of: hospitals and health-care institutions, family and social supports, social norms, and community-health programs. PMID:21248882

  19. The Natural Area: Teaching Tool and Community Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Roger M.; Grimm, Floyd M., III

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the properties desirable in a natural area to be used as a teaching tool in college courses such as general biology, botany, zoology, entomology, and ecology. Describes the use of a natural area at Harford Community College, Maryland, and outlines the community involvement in planning and utilizing the area. (JR)

  20. Community Health Crisis: Solving the Nurse Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Erie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), California, the major provider of nursing graduates to the Sacramento area, addressed the issue of the nursing shortage crisis. LRCCD faced the dual issues of student/faculty ratio restrictions of 10/1 and funding that accommodated a 40/1 ratio. Describes LRCCD's new off-campus,…

  1. [Community health worker: a core element of health actions].

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Araújo, Flávia Ferreira; Martins, Laiara Versiani; Nobre, Lívia Lícia Rafael; Araújo, Fabrícia Magalhães; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão

    2013-07-01

    This research sought to identify the actions developed by the Community Health Worker (CHW) in the context of family health in Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research was conducted under the Program of Education through Work for Health-PET-SAÚDE, and is a quantitative study and census together with 241 CHWs. Most of them make family registrations and home visits, identify families with health risks and inform the health team. They also instruct families about available health services, arrange referrals and schedule consultations/exams, perform health education and teamwork reflections. Some also assist in the clinical environment. The majority who provide health education and those who are responsible for the referrals feel that they are professionally qualified for such tasks. CHWs are a core element of health actions, but the scope of performance requires investment in professional training to maintain the quality of the work executed by them in surveillance activities and teamwork reflection. In this way, the CHW can be jointly responsible for primary care and integrate the system of health care administration. PMID:23827919

  2. [Community nutrition strategy project: an innovation in community health].

    PubMed

    Diallo, I; Ndiaye, B; Pouye, A; Gaye, I A; Sy, A; Sarr, R; Tall-Dia, A

    1998-01-01

    The strategy of the community nutrition project is based on the utilization of the community development structures to deliver the nutrition services. These structures, represented in Senegal by youth associations, women groups, GIEs and NGOs, are part of the decentralization process, and as such play an important role in health and health development activities in poor urban districts. The Community Nutrition Project (CNP), funded for five years by the World Bank, German Cooperation (KFW), World Food Program (WFP) and the Senegalese government aims to halt further deterioration in the nutrition status of the most vulnerable groups in the poorest urban districts of Senegal. All nutrition services and particularly the IEC services have been entirely contracted out the first year to 76 GIEs involving 323 unemployed persons, operating as micro-enterprises "MIC" and 17 "GIEs" of unemployed physicians, pharmacists, and social workers for a total of 34 persons, organized as "maître d'Oeuvre communautaires "MOC", in charge of the supervision tasks. Each community nutrition center recruits and monitors every six months 460 to 600 beneficiaries composed of women at six months of pregnancy, lactating mother of children under 6 months, and a group of children aged from 6 to 35 months old. An average of 87% of registered children in the nutrition centers are weekly or monthly weighted. Thus the proportion of malnourished children in cohort of children followed from January to July 1996 has decreased from 70% to 25% within six months. The malnutrition rate has been reduced up to 65% after six months. PMID:10797950

  3. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  4. Community Health Nursing through a Global Lens.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Norma; Dallwig, Amber; Abbott, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Nursing (N456) is a required senior clinical course in the undergraduate nursing curriculum at the University of Michigan in which students learn to assess and address the health of populations and communities. In 2012, we began our efforts to internationalize the curriculum using a globally engaged nursing education framework. Our goal is for all students to have an intercultural learning experience understanding that all students are unable to travel internationally. Therefore, this intercultural learning was implemented through a range of experiences including actual immersion, virtual activities (videoconferencing) and interventions with local vulnerable populations. Grants were obtained to provide immersion experiences in Quito, Ecuador and New Delhi, India. Several technologies were initiated with partner nursing schools in Leogane, Haiti and New Delhi, India. Weekly videoconferencing utilizing BlueJeans software and exchange of knowledge through the Knowledge Gateway facilitated intercultural exchange of knowledge and culture. Local clinical groups work with a variety of vulnerable populations. A private blog was developed for all sections to share community assessment data from local and international communities. Qualitative evaluation data was collected for local and international students to begin to assess cultural competence and student learning. Analysis of data documented increased awareness of culture and identified the many positive benefits of interaction with a global partner. PMID:25980716

  5. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  6. Dimensions of Leadership among Community College Health Career Program Department Chairs and Implications for Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platz-Wiechert, Lynn Marie

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in community colleges, the projected need for health career workers, and the central position of the department chair in higher education, this study explored dimensions of leadership as identified by health career department chairs in five Illinois community colleges. Areas of study included: (a) professional profiles of health…

  7. Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. WHO Offset Publication No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Designed for trainers of community health workers, these guidelines are intended to help them instruct, in a practical way, those workers in how to improve nutrition in their areas. The book is divided into nine modules, each concerned with a different aspect of the community health worker's training. Each module first sets forth the learning…

  8. Perceptions of Health, Health Care and Community-Oriented Health Interventions in Poor Urban Communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city’s major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  9. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  10. Port Allegany Asbestos Health Program: a community response to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, E C; Deuschle, K W; Bosch, S; Fischer, E; Rohl, A N; Selikoff, I J

    1984-01-01

    The Port Allegany Asbestos Health Program (PAAHP) is a unique, community-run program that resulted from the successful cooperative efforts of a labor union, a corporation, community health care providers, and a medical school. PAAHP's goal is to develop a permanent community health organization that will use the most advanced existing knowledge to mitigate the adverse health effects anticipated as a result of the use of amosite asbestos in a Port Allegany, Pa. factory. All 1,188 persons employed by the factory during the years 1964-72 and the 3,000-4,000 persons in household contact with them are eligible for the program. PAAHP's major services are intensive medical surveillance, smoking cessation assistance, health education for participants, and continuing education for area physicians about asbestos-related diseases. One of the program's policies is not to disturb the usual patterns of medical care. If further testing or treatment is needed, patients are referred to their usual personal physicians. PAAHP does not provide ordinary medical care or medical insurance. Across the nation, the number of workers estimated to have been exposed to asbestos is more than 20 million, and their household contacts are estimated to be about three to four times that number. Adverse health effects resulting from asbestos exposure include elevated risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal tumors, and asbestosis. The problem requires the development of public health solutions. PAAHP has demonstrated the feasibility of a community-based model as one useful approach. PMID:6424168

  11. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  12. The Health of the School Nurse Community: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christeson, Elisabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    School nursing is based on a conceptual foundation of community health nursing. Using community health nursing as a reference point, this article describes a viewpoint of school nurses as the population of care. With this perspective, school nurses will better understand how to foster the health of their community. Developed on the basis of…

  13. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  14. Bellevue Community College Service Area Census 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Cora

    The Bellevue Community College (BCC) Service Area 2000 Data Book includes the following demographic information on the BCC Service Area: total population; race and ethnicity descriptive statistics; Hispanic and Latino population demographics; age and gender distributions; household data; and the service area zip codes, areas, and school districts.…

  15. Exploring Social Quality and Community Health Outcomes: An Ecological Model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life is widely used as a measure of individual well-being in developed countries. Social quality (SQ), however, describes how favorable the socioenvironmental components are that impact the life chance of an individual. Despite the associations between SQ, including institutional capacity and citizen capacity, and other community indicators, the impact of SQ on community health status has not been fully examined. This study investigated the interrelationships among institutional capacity, citizen capacity, and their associations with community-level health indicators such as mortality and suicide among 230 local governments in South Korea. Under the principles of conceptual suitability, clarity, reliability, consistency, changeability, and comparability, a total of 81 SQ indicators were collected, and 19 indicators of the 81 indicators were selected. The 19 indicators were transformed by the imputation of missing values, standardization, and geographic information system transformation. It was found that the health outcome of local government was superior as social welfare, political participation, and education were higher. According to the result of the regression analysis based on the regional type, social welfare had the most influence on the health level of local government in both metropolises and small-/medium-sized cities. In addition, education and political participation had a positive effect on the health indicator of local metropolis government. However, SQ indicators did not have any meaningful influence at the county level. Therefore, small- and medium-sized cities need to promote the collective health of the local government through improving social welfare, and metropolises need to consider the complex relationship among other indicators while increasing the level of social welfare and education. Meanwhile, counties need to develop health indicators that reflect aged population characteristics and social environment of rural areas

  16. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N = 52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

  17. Role Development of Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Squires, Allison P.; Bixby, Rebecca A.; Larson, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Research evaluating community health worker (CHW) programs inherently involves these natural community leaders in the research process, and often represents community-based participatory research (CBPR). Interpreting the results of CHW intervention studies and replicating their findings requires knowledge of how CHWs are selected and trained. Methods A summative content analysis was performed to evaluate the description of CHW selection and training in the existing literature. First-level coding focused on contextual information about CHW programs. Second-level coding identified themes related to the selection and training of CHWs. Results There was inconsistent reporting of selection and training processes for CHWs in the existing literature. Common selection criteria included personal qualities desired of CHWs. Training processes for CHWs were more frequently reported. Wide variation in the length and content of CHW training exists in the reviewed studies. A conceptual model is presented for the role development of CHWs based on the results of this review, which is intended to guide future reporting of CHW programs in the intervention literature. Conclusions Consistent reporting of CHW selection and training will allow consumers of intervention research to better interpret study findings. A standard approach to reporting selection and training processes will also more effectively guide the design and implementation of future CHW programs. All community-based researchers must find a balance between describing the research process and reporting more traditional scientific content. The current conceptual model provides a guide for standard reporting in the CHW literature. PMID:19896028

  18. Telemedicine: Health Care for Isolated Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lead article discusses the results of a series of experiments in rural Alaska in which telemedicine was used to improve the delivery of health care to isolated populations. The author, Dennis Foote, also discusses the implications of these experiments for planning telemedicine systems in other areas. Satellite communication and a centralized…

  19. Community Health Workers as Agents of Health Promotion: Analyzing Thailand's Village Health Volunteer Program.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, S D; Emmerling, D; Fisher, E B; Tanasugarn, C

    2015-08-01

    The village health volunteers (VHVs) have been a regular part of Thailand's health system since the 1960s. Despite widespread recognition, little research has been conducted to describe VHV activities, the settings in which VHVs provide help, how the program is administered, and how changing politics and health problems in Thailand have influenced the program. In order to understand the roles and practices of the VHVs, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups with VHVs, community leaders and members, and public health officials in three semi-urban communities in central Thailand. Using the Social Ecological Framework, we mapped factors that influenced how the VHVs provided support, including governmental oversight, collaboration with public health officials, and community trust. These influences are discussed as "points of consideration," which help to identify the strengths and tensions within the VHV program and best practices in supporting and assessing community health worker efforts. PMID:25744815

  20. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  1. Community matters - why outbreak responses need to integrate health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Reddy, K Srikanth

    2016-03-01

    Communities are characterized by common interests, common ecology, and common social system or structure. These characteristics, qualities, and processes involved in the community affect both health behaviors and health outcomes during disease outbreaks. Hence, health promotion theorists and practitioners emphasize working 'with' rather than 'on' communities. They believe health promotion, with all its experiences in community mobilization, empowerment, and health literacy programs, should be part of disease prevention and control efforts from the very beginning. Health promotion knowledge needs to be fully integrated into infectious disease control, especially in the context of outbreaks. PMID:26518038

  2. Function Model for Community Health Service Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong

    In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.

  3. Exercises in Emergency Preparedness for Health Professionals in Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Blossom, H. John; Sandrock, Christian; Mitchell, Brenda; Brandstein, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Health professionals in community settings are generally unprepared for disasters. From 2006 to 2008 the California Statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) program conducted 90 table top exercises in community practice sites in 18 counties. The exercises arranged and facilitated by AHEC trained local coordinators and trainers were designed to assist health professionals in developing and applying their practice site emergency plans using simulated events about pandemic influenza or other emergencies. Of the 1,496 multidisciplinary health professionals and staff participating in the exercises, 1,176 (79%) completed learner evaluation forms with 92–98% of participants rating the training experiences as good to excellent. A few reported helpful effects when applying their training to a real time local disaster. Assessments of the status of clinic emergency plans using 15 criteria were conducted at three intervals: when the exercises were scheduled, immediately before the exercises, and for one-third of sites, three months after the exercise. All sites made improvements in their emergency plans with some or all of the plan criteria. Of the sites having follow up, most (N = 23) were community health centers that made statistically significant changes in two-thirds of the plan criteria (P = .001–.046). Following the exercises, after action reports were completed for 88 sites and noted strengths, weaknesses, and plans for improvements in their emergency plans Most sites (72–90%) showed improvements in how to activate their plans, the roles of their staff, and how to participate in a coordinated response. Challenges in scheduling exercises included time constraints and lack of resources among busy health professionals. Technical assistance and considerations of clinic schedules mitigated these issues. The multidisciplinary table top exercises proved to be an effective means to develop or improve clinic emergency plans and enhance the dialogue and

  4. Writing to learn in community health nursing: the aggregate.

    PubMed

    Baumann, L C; Schmelzer, M O

    1994-08-01

    Writing to learn is a strategy that can be used to develop competencies of undergraduate students for the practice of community health nursing. It provides an opportunity for students to apply community health theory in a paper that integrates health status indicators, primary prevention, and aggregate-focused nursing interventions. It also develops students' writings abilities and creative approaches to community health nursing practice in a clinically applicable manner, thereby facilitating synthesis of professional principles and practices. PMID:7937498

  5. [Community participation. Some perspectives on professional involvement in health programs].

    PubMed

    Pérez Mendoza, S; Ascanio, S V

    1990-01-01

    Action Community regarding health is but part of a long-term project started out back in the 1960. As far as Latin America was concerned the so-called experience did not work out; notwithstanding, it has become an Attention-Getter among the countries of the area once again. How so? Because of the Primary-Approach. Understood as an approach based on the global development of society, self-involvement lies at the cornerstone of the whole process. The health section gives full measure of the primary-approach theoretical framework and propose alternatives to get it of the ground. Professionals from the health section aim at "self-involvement" as activity performed willingly. Besides as it were, it should be supervised by experts. Nowadays the venezuelan government promotes action community claiming it will endorse the Primary-Approach on health granted the national health system bill is approved. Amid such context dentistry most meet the challenge of upcoming changes, so must fellow-dentists who, in the end, will dominate center stage. The process must narrow down to actions with will stem from its own dynamics along the way. Needless to say, these actions can not be easily foreseen, let alone do they guarantee success. PMID:2131730

  6. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery. PMID:24720659

  7. Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

    2014-01-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. PMID:25262748

  8. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  9. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  10. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  11. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  12. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  13. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  14. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  15. National Study on Community College Health. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    This is a report on a national survey of community colleges conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in 2000. The survey was designed to identify various community health programs, centers, classes, and services related to HIV/AIDS that community colleges administered, partnered, or sponsored. The study surveyed 1,100…

  16. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314

  17. Attitudes toward community mental health care: the contact paradox revisited.

    PubMed

    Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Bracke, P

    2013-06-01

    Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. PMID:23179045

  18. Community experiences and perceptions of reproductive health vouchers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on demand-side health care financing approaches such as output-based aid (OBA) programs have focused on evaluating the role of the programs improving such outcomes as utilization of services and quality of services with limited focus on the experiences and perceptions of the target communities. This paper examines community members’ views of the output-based aid voucher program in Kenya. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2010 among 1,336 women aged 15-49 years living in the catchment areas of contracted health facilities in three districts participating in the voucher program (Kisumu, Kiambu and Kitui). Twenty seven focus group discussions were conducted with voucher users, non-users, opinion leaders and voucher distributors in the three districts as well as in Nairobi. Analysis of the quantitative data involved frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting framework analysis and further triangulation of themes across respondents. Results Majority (84%) of survey respondents had heard about the safe motherhood voucher compared to 24% and 1% that had heard about the family planning and gender-based violence recovery services (GBVRS) vouchers respectively. Similarly, 20% of the respondents had used the safe motherhood voucher compared to 2% for family planning and none for the GBVRS vouchers. From the community members’ perspectives, the voucher program is associated with improvements in access to health services for poor women, improved quality of care, and empowerment of women to make health care decisions. However, community members cited difficulties in accessing some accredited health facilities, limitations with the system of selling vouchers, lack of male involvement in women’s reproductive health issues, and poor understanding of the benefits associated with purchasing the voucher. Conclusion The findings of this paper showed that the voucher program in Kenya is

  19. Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

  20. Appalachian Women's Perceptions of Their Community's Health Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Decades of behavioral research suggest that awareness of health threats is a necessary precursor to engage in health promotion and disease prevention, findings that can be extended to the community level. Purpose: We sought to better understand local perspectives on the main health concerns of rural Appalachian communities in order to…

  1. Using Community Health Assessment to Teach and Explore Health Status Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…

  2. The Shifting Sands of Health Care Delivery: Curriculum Revision and Integration of Community Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Cynthia O'Neill; Baldwin, Joan H.; Abegglen, JoAnn; Callister, Lynn C.

    1999-01-01

    Brigham Young University's nursing curriculum was revised to reflect the community-driven nature of primary health care. Curricular threads of inquiry, practice, stewardship, spirituality, and service are the framework for integrating community health nursing practice. (SK)

  3. Facilitating communities in designing and using their own community health impact assessment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Colleen; Ghosh, Sebanti; Eaton, Susan L.

    2011-07-15

    Reducing health inequities and improving the health of communities require an informed public that is aware of the social determinants of health and how policies and programs have an impact on the health of their communities. People Assessing Their Health (PATH) is a process that uses community-driven health impact assessment to build the capacity of people to become active participants in the decisions that affect the well-being of their community. The PATH process is both a health promotion and a community development approach that builds people's ability to bring critical analysis to a situation and to engage in effective social action to bring about desired change. Because it increases analytical skills and provides communities with their own unique tool to assess the potential impact of projects, programs or policies on the health and well-being of their community it is an empowering process. PATH was originally used in three communities in northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada in 1996 when the Canadian health care system was being restructured to a more decentralized system. Since then it has been used in other communities in Nova Scotia and India. This paper will describe the PATH process and the use of the community health impact assessment as well as the methodology used in the PATH process. The lessons learned from PATH's experiences of building capacity among the community in Canada and India will be presented.

  4. The New Hampshire public health network: creating local public health infrastructure through community-driven partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kassler, William J; Goldsberry, Yvonne P

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, under the auspices of the Turning Point program, New Hampshire's public health stakeholders convened a strategic planning process to transform the state public health system. What emerged was a fundamental vision that the public health system could only be improved by strengthening the capacity of local communities to address local health issues. A plan was developed to create regional public health structures, in areas with no local health departments, to deliver essential public health services at the local level. Seven years later, that plan has become the New Hampshire Public Health Network. The network now covers 67% of the New Hampshire population and includes 113 (48%) cities and towns. Pre- and postevaluations to assess local public health infrastructure at the inception of the program and following 2 years of funding and technical assistance showed significant improvement in local public health capacity and performance. This article describes the development of local public health structures in New Hampshire where none had previously existed. PMID:15711445

  5. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  6. Electronic networks, community intermediaries, and the public's health.

    PubMed Central

    Milio, N

    1996-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to assist disadvantaged communities in gaining access to mainstream resources, and to a new kind of community health-supporting infrastructure. Federal and state information technology policy will affect how and how well community institutions can reach their goals, collaborate with service agencies, and effectively advocate investing essential, health-supporting resources in their communities. The current information technology focus of the health professions is institution and provider-oriented. It should have a wider scope to include community-based organizations. Laborious efforts undertaken by community-based organizations (CBOs) with only a patchwork of resources and without policy support suggest their value to the public's health. Increasingly burdened public health organizations should examine the public health interest in closing the gap between IT-poor and IT-rich organizations and develop a strategy for building inclusive electronic webs with CBOs. PMID:8826628

  7. Electronic networks, community intermediaries, and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Milio, N

    1996-04-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to assist disadvantaged communities in gaining access to mainstream resources, and to a new kind of community health-supporting infrastructure. Federal and state information technology policy will affect how and how well community institutions can reach their goals, collaborate with service agencies, and effectively advocate investing essential, health-supporting resources in their communities. The current information technology focus of the health professions is institution and provider-oriented. It should have a wider scope to include community-based organizations. Laborious efforts undertaken by community-based organizations (CBOs) with only a patchwork of resources and without policy support suggest their value to the public's health. Increasingly burdened public health organizations should examine the public health interest in closing the gap between IT-poor and IT-rich organizations and develop a strategy for building inclusive electronic webs with CBOs. PMID:8826628

  8. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Benjamin J.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  9. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin J; Wang, Sheila K; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G; Wang, Wesley Y; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-25

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  10. A Community Health Education System to meet the health needs of Indo-Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ratnaike, R N; Chinner, T L

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a Community Health Education System which is cost-effective, sustainable, strongly community-based, and directed at improving the health status of rural women in Indo-china (Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam). The system is developed through a series of steps which are concerned with the education of Community Health Education Units (in national ministries of health) and, at the village level, among community health workers, women's groups, and other women. The ultimate aim is the establishment of a community health education program in Indochinese villages. PMID:1602046

  11. Community Health Workers as a Component of the Health Care Team.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Gunn, Veronica L

    2015-10-01

    In restructuring the delivery of primary care to improve the wellness of a community, every community must review its own circumstances for factors such as resources and capacities, health concerns, social and political perspectives, and competing priorities. Strengthening the health care team with community health workers to create a patient-centered medical home can enhance health care access and outcomes. Community health workers can serve as critical connectors between health systems and communities; they facilitate access to and improve quality and culturally sensitive medical care, emphasizing preventive and primary care. PMID:26318954

  12. From theory to practice: community health nursing in a public health neighborhood team.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, L O; Schultz, P R

    2000-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team in a local public health district tested its ability to implement the core public health functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance by changing its practice to a community-driven model of building partnerships for health with groups and communities in a designated locale. Evaluation of this innovation revealed that the public health nurse members of the team enacted their community health nursing knowledge to strengthen agency to cocreate health. Interdisciplinary collaboration was essential to the team's community mobilization efforts. Additional findings suggested that this organizational innovation was associated with developing a more participatory organizational climate, increasing system effectiveness, and building community capacity. PMID:11104324

  13. Area Community College and Area Vocational School. Construction Guidelines. Revised 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Construction guidelines are presented to assist in the planning process, to encourage good school plant design, and to serve as criteria in the evaluation of area community college and area vocational school plans. Consideration is given to various aspects of area plant planning and area site size and development. Guidelines are presented for…

  14. Growing urban health: community gardening in South-East Toronto.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Sarah; Yeudall, Fiona; Taron, Carolin; Reynolds, Jennifer; Skinner, Ana

    2007-06-01

    This article describes results from an investigation of the health impacts of community gardening, using Toronto, Ontario as a case study. According to community members and local service organizations, these gardens have a number of positive health benefits. However, few studies have explicitly focused on the health impacts of community gardens, and many of those did not ask community gardeners directly about their experiences in community gardening. This article sets out to fill this gap by describing the results of a community-based research project that collected data on the perceived health impacts of community gardening through participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results suggest that community gardens were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits, including improved access to food, improved nutrition, increased physical activity and improved mental health. Community gardens were also seen to promote social health and community cohesion. These benefits were set against a backdrop of insecure land tenure and access, bureaucratic resistance, concerns about soil contamination and a lack of awareness and understanding by community members and decision-makers. Results also highlight the need for ongoing resources to support gardens in these many roles. PMID:17324956

  15. Identity Theft in Community Mental Health Patients

    PubMed Central

    Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented. PMID:20806029

  16. Building trusting relationships in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ha, Sejin; Widdows, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates consumers' use of online health communities (OHCs) for healthcare from a relationship building perspective based on the commitment-trust theory of relationships. The study proposes that perspective taking, empathic concern, self-efficacy, and network density affect the development of both cognitive and affective trust, which together determine OHC members' membership continuance intention (MCI) and knowledge contribution. Data collected from eight existing OHCs (N=255) were utilized to test the hypothesized model. Results show that perspective taking and self-efficacy can increase cognitive trust and affective trust, respectively. Network density contributes to cognitive and affective trust. Both cognitive trust and affective trust influence MCI, while only affective trust impacts members' knowledge contribution behaviors. PMID:23786170

  17. The future of community health trusts.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    1996-02-01

    In summary therefore, I believe Community/Mental Health Trusts must: Work closely with purchasers/contracts in context. Focus local services in GP surgeries or own homes. Dispose of unnecessary estate. Concentrate on what they do best. Meet customer needs, improve customers' perceptions and market and publicise services. Cut out restrictive professional practices and increase staff flexibility, information systems etc. Develop customer relations, contracting, business planning. Identify ¿niche' (minority/specialist) markets (including social care). Develop active Quality Assurance, Clinical Audit, outcomes, research programmes. Create effective organisation and management style (Empowerment, delivery). Minimise costs (Value For Money, minimise internal expenditure, rationalise estate, streamline management). Maximise income. Build alliances. Develop user empowerment, advocacy etc. Finally, whatever the future holds we must keep our eye on the ball - the patient - and ensure their needs are paramount over professions and organisations. PMID:8683541

  18. Diabetes Training for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A 2.5-month diabetes education training for community health workers (CHWs) was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Methods Training methods used included case studies, role-playing, and lectures. Exams were used throughout the training for its evaluation. Teaching was delivered by different ways: a one day American Diabetes Association (ADA) course; a five day Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP); Conversation Maps; and a series of seven National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) diabetes education booklets. Results Qualitative and quantitative evaluative methods were used during and after the training. The CHWs’ diabetes knowledge was evaluated by a pre- and post-test Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ). The post-test was conducted one week after completing the training. The findings showed that the diabetes knowledge of the CHWs increased. Conclusions Diabetes competencies and evaluative tools need to be developed specific for CHWs as a way to standardize all CHW diabetes trainings. PMID:27110434

  19. Boston's Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Schlaff, A L

    1991-01-01

    The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion is a program designed to promote changes in individual behavior and community relationships to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the many problems affecting poor, minority communities in the United States. Problems of particular concern to be addressed by the program include violence, injuries, substance abuse, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infant mortality, child abuse and neglect, and cardiovascular disease. The failure of traditional health promotion approaches to poor communities has created a literature supporting community-based action directed at broad social forces. The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion uses a variety of models--community participation, community organization, empowerment education, and community-oriented primary care--to encourage new coalitions that can ameliorate the social isolation and health-averse social norms linked to poverty and poor health. The program uses local residents trained as lay health workers to deliver home-based health services and to help create the necessary partnerships, linkages, and communication networks to foster the reorganization of the community to better address its health problems. PMID:1902312

  20. A model for community health care in rural Java.

    PubMed

    Hendrate, L

    1981-01-01

    This article describes a method of conveying health care to poor villages by training residents for part-time voluntary service, combined with localized health insurance covering both local medicines and the fees for a nearby health center. The project began under the auspices of the Foundation for Christian Hospitals in Hurakarta, in Central Java. The village of Klampok has a population of 5,614, mostly farm workers. Health services are supplied by the Emmanuel Health Center. Although the program was granted funds for jeeps, buildings, instruments, and personnel, the center lacked community participation. Health workers developed a strategy of communication and understanding of the village to encourage participation. Implementation of the strategy included 2 elements: the village health cadre, voluntary workers from the community selected by the community; and the village health insurance scheme, in which each household partially pays for the overall health service, and credit is extended. Rather than being distributors of health care, the project staff sees itself as a stimulant and enabler of the community being able to accept the responsibility of handling its own health problems. This Indonesian experience has proven itself replicable in that health cadre systems have spread to several surrounding villages. To make community health care participation a viable plan both the health personnel and community leaders need to be oriented and motivated to the idea. PMID:12278505

  1. HealthPartners adopts community business model to deepen focus on nonclinical factors of health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Isham, George J; Zimmerman, Donna J; Kindig, David A; Hornseth, Gary W

    2013-08-01

    Clinical care contributes only 20 percent to overall health outcomes, according to a population health model developed at the University of Wisconsin. Factors contributing to the remainder include lifestyle behaviors, the physical environment, and social and economic forces--all generally considered outside the realm of care. In 2010 Minnesota-based HealthPartners decided to target nonclinical community health factors as a formal part of its strategic business plan to improve public health in the Twin Cities area. The strategy included creating partnerships with businesses and institutions that are generally unaccustomed to working together or considering how their actions could help improve community health. This article describes efforts to promote healthy eating in schools, reduce the stigma of mental illness, improve end-of-life decision making, and strengthen an inner-city neighborhood. Although still in their early stages, the partnerships can serve as encouragement for organizations inside and outside health care that are considering undertaking similar efforts in their markets. PMID:23918490

  2. The community health worker cultural mentoring project: preparing professional students for team work with health workers from urban communities.

    PubMed

    Sherwen, Laurie N; Schwolsky-Fitch, Elena; Rodriquez, Romelia; Horta, Greg; Lopez, Ivanna

    2007-01-01

    Community Health Workers or CHWs (also known by a variety of alternative titles) are health workers drawn from communities to provide access to care for members of their communities. CHWs have been documented as effective in delivering a variety of services in a culturally-sensitive manner, and in providing a bridge between health professionals and underserved or minority communities. Yet, CHWs have not been well incorporated into interdisciplinary health care teams. The majority of health professionals are not even aware of the possible role and skills of CHWs. Believing that the best time to educate professionals about this valuable health worker and ensure that CHWs become part of interdisciplinary health care teams is during the student years, the Hunter College Schools of the Health Professions, and the Community Health Worker Network of New York City developed a pilot project, the Community Health Worker Cultural Mentoring Project. Community Health Workers, who were members of the Network, served as "community mentors" for health professions students drawn from the programs of community health education, nursing, and nutrition. CHWs worked with faculty of selected courses in each of the professional programs, and served as panelists in these courses, presenting information about health beliefs and alternative health practices of diverse cultural groups in communities of New York City. Class sessions were first held in the fall of 2004; subsequent sessions were held in following semesters. Approximately 40 students participated in 7 classes, with 6 CHWs serving as mentors - two per class. At the end of the classroom presentations, students wrote reflections relating to their understanding of the CHW role and relevance for their future interdisciplinary practice. The majority of reflections met the goal of increasing professional students' understanding of the CHW role and skills. At this point, quantitative and qualitative data will need to be collected to

  3. The changing scene in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harris, M D

    1988-09-01

    The DRGs and their aftermath have had an effect on all who are involved with home health care services, including the patient and provider. The staff of home health agencies must be competent, caring professionals who must also be able to cope with the regulatory issues that affect patient care. The effects on patients and families have also increased. Today's health care environment is requiring that they be responsible for self-care programs for many hi-tech procedures as well as care for those who are terminally ill. They are discovering that reimbursement is not available for the many services that they consider necessary, but that third-party payers consider these services to be of a custodial nature and, therefore, nonreimbursable. The effect on physicians is an increased amount of paperwork for home care services, as a result of frequent admissions to and discharges from service and changes in the frequency of visits or treatment plans. There is also the need for the timely signing of the required forms for agencies to meet the requirements of the Medicare program. The effects on the agencies include attempting to maintain financial solvency while providing quality health care services; maintaining staff morale and productivity; making hi-tech services available at an increased cost on a 24-hour basis by qualified staff to remain competitive; and guaranteeing safe, sound policies and procedures for patients and staff. Certainly the advent of DRGs has also had an impact on the nursing profession as it relates to home health care. The benefits of community health nursing identified in the past are no longer applicable in 1988. The job characteristics have changed and are no longer as attractive as they once were to nurses. In a recent publication I said there are times when I feel that I know what a swimmer experiences when being pounded by unrelenting waves in a rough surf. There is hardly time to catch your breath before the next wave hits. The DRG aftermath

  4. Community-oriented integrated mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of cost containment in NHS and social care organisations – together with integration as a policy priority – make this a key moment for fresh ways of thinking about how to commission and provide community-based integrated services that meet the challenge of local accountability and citizen participation. This is nowhere more important than in mental health. Primary care with its local orientation is properly at the heart of this agenda, but there is a need for new forms of leadership for collaboration in the sector. In this context, the contribution of general practitioner (GP) networks is likely to be fundamental. This paper is a brief discussion of some of the issues associated with GP networks and mental health, set in the context of a round table discussion with three sets of participants at a 2014 London Journal of Primary Care/Royal College of General Practitioners conference. The conference provided a forum for capturing a diversity of experience and knowledge and for turning this into a force for critical transformation. This paper describes a contribution to the day. PMID:25949738

  5. Community perceptions of health and chronic disease in South Indian rural transitional communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Arabella K. M.; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. Design We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. Conclusions In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years. PMID:25669238

  6. Health promotion community development and the tyranny of individualism.

    PubMed

    Shiell, A; Hawe, P

    1996-01-01

    Economic evaluation of health promotion poses few major difficulties when the theoretical approach of the programme and the evaluation of cost and benefits are confined within the context of the individual. Methodological individualism has a long history in economics and the techniques of microeconomics are well suited to the examination of individually focused behaviour change programmes. However, new developments in community health promotion pose special challenges. These programmes have the community, not the individual, as the focus of programme theory and "community' means something completely different from the sum of individuals. Community empowerment and promotion of the community's capacity to deal with health issues are the goals of such programmes. To reflect these notions, sense of community and community competence should be considered as "functionings', an extra-welfarist constituent of well-being. Their inclusion as outcomes of community health promotion requires a shift from individualist utilitarian economics into a communitarian framework which respects the programme's notion of community. If health economics fails to develop new constructs to deal with these new approaches in health promotion, the application of existing techniques to community programmes will mislead health decision makers about their value and potential. PMID:8817298

  7. Accountable Communities for Health: Moving From Providing Accountable Care to Creating Health.

    PubMed

    Tipirneni, Renuka; Vickery, Katherine Diaz; Ehlinger, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Lessons from community-oriented primary care in the United States can offer insights into how we could improve population health by integrating the public health, social service, and health care sectors to form accountable communities for health (ACHs). Unlike traditional accountable care organizations (ACOs) that address population health from a health care perspective, ACHs address health from a community perspective and consider the total investment in health across all sectors. The approach embeds the ACO in a community context where multiple stakeholders come together to share responsibility for tackling multiple determinants of health. ACOs using the ACH model provide a roadmap for embedding health care in communities in a way that uniquely addresses local social determinants of health. PMID:26195684

  8. Functional health pattern assessment: a seasonal migrant farmworker community.

    PubMed

    Decker, S D; Knight, L

    1990-01-01

    A broad-based needs assessment of a migrant farmworker community was conducted using the community functional health pattern tool (Gikow & Kucharski, 1987) and Porter's (1987) factor-isolating theory of population group diagnosis. Data analysis revealed numerous health needs in all 10 functional health patterns and an urgent need for accessible primary prevention programs. A mobile outreach program to the migrant camps was seen as the most effective way to provide education, screening, and health care. PMID:2401903

  9. The Impact of Integrating Community Advocacy Into Community Health Worker Roles on Health-Focused Organizations and Community Health Workers in Southern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Kenneth; Sabo, Samantha; Verdugo, Lorena; Carvajal, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Organizational environments may encourage community health workers (CHWs) to engage community members in improving their communities. We conducted open-ended interviews and focus groups to explore how participation in the Acción intervention, which trained CHWs in community advocacy, affected organizational capacity to support their CHWs. Supervisors described improved organizational recognition and trust of CHWs. Organizational leaders reported organizational benefits and increased appreciation of CHW leadership. Both expressed increased interest in future advocacy trainings. Limiting factors included organizational mission, CHW position descriptions, and funding. Findings indicate that, with training and funding, CHW community advocacy can be integrated into organizations with congruent missions. PMID:26049654

  10. Lessons Learnt From the Model of Instructional System for Training Community Health Workers in Rural Health Houses of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many experts believe that the “health houses” of Iran have had major effects in increasing health status of Iranian rural community. One of the factors, which was critical to this success is the employment of young women and men from rural communities who serve as multipurpose health workers. They participate in a two-year task-oriented training course. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to describe the model of training behvarzes as the community health workers who deliver health services to the health houses of Iran. This description included the specific method of recruiting these CHWs, strategies and methods of their training which is different from general academic education. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study design was utilized for this analysis in six areas. These areas have been selected according to the expert opinions and experiences of the Center for Health Networks Management. Results: The results showed the specific method of student selection and clear objectives and standards of training related to the health needs of the community. Recruitment of native human resources, the relationship between training and performance are the characteristics, which have been made this system more efficient and responsive to the health system needs. Conclusions: Development of the job and task analysis to ensure providing the right training needs, applying more evidences through different studies for reforms, more decentralized equipped system with decision-making tools have been proposed for development. PMID:25838935

  11. The role of community representatives on health service committees: staff expectations vs. reality.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sally; Johnston, Lynda; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE This paper examines staff views about legitimacy of different roles for community representatives sitting on health service committees as part of a formal Community Participation Program (CPP) in an Area Health Service (AHS) in Australia. DESIGN A cross-sectional survey using a self-completed questionnaire by staff on committees with community representation in the AHS in 2008. SETTING The study site has a population of approximately 1.4 million and covers 6000 km(2) . The population is ethnically and socio-economically diverse. RESULTS There are generally positive staff attitudes at this AHS for community participation as part of the CPP with positive impacts identified, including on service delivery and the conduct of health service meetings. Most saw community representatives having legitimate roles in representing the community, improving communication between the health service and the community and providing constructive feedback. However, staff expectations about the community's role on committees do not match the reality they say they observe and less than half the staff thought the community and health service agree on the role of community representatives. CONCLUSIONS As well as reviewing and enhancing training and support for representatives and staff as part of the CPP, there is a need to question staff expectations about community members who sit on health service committees and whether these expectations are shared by other key stakeholders, most notably the community representatives themselves. These expectations have implications for the CPP and for similar programs designed to engage community members on committees and working groups with health professionals. PMID:21029280

  12. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  13. Improving Child Health Services: Lessons Learned from Nine Community Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, William D.

    One of the major reasons many children do not receive efficient, effective health care is that much of public spending for child health services has been funneled through categorical funding programs. The Child Health Initiative provided an opportunity to learn how different communities would approach improving child health services through…

  14. Lantern parades in the development of arts in community health.

    PubMed

    White, Mike; Robson, Mary

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the development of two annual lantern parades as case examples of arts in community health, which the authors define as a distinct area of activity operating mainly outside of acute healthcare settings, characterised by the use of participatory arts to promote health. The parades took place in Gateshead 1994-2006 and later in Stockton-on-Tees from 2009 to the present, and the paper reflects on the factors that made for the success of the Gateshead parade and also the problems that led to its demise. It then describes and assesses the Stockton parade, and the benefits and challenges of a workshop ethos of 'positive regard' with reference to interview data gathered from adult volunteers and school staff. It considers the potential of this annual 'tradition' to shape communal memories that identify with place, and it sets out its aspirations for future programme and research. PMID:25483617

  15. Community Management That Works: How to Build and Sustain a Thriving Online Health Community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals, patients, caregivers, family, friends, and other supporters are increasingly joining online health communities to share information and find support. But social Web (Web 2.0) technology alone does not create a successful online community. Building and sustaining a successful community requires an enabler and strategic community management. Community management is more than moderation. The developmental life cycle of a community has four stages: inception, establishment, maturity, and mitosis. Each stage presents distinct characteristics and management needs. This paper describes the community management strategies, resources, and expertise needed to build and maintain a thriving online health community; introduces some of the challenges; and provides a guide for health organizations considering this undertaking. The paper draws on insights from an ongoing study and observation of online communities as well as experience managing and consulting a variety of online health communities. Discussion includes effective community building practices relevant to each stage, such as outreach and relationship building, data collection, content creation, and other proven techniques that ensure the survival and steady growth of an online health community. PMID:23759312

  16. [Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick. PMID:20839542

  17. Community health program evaluation using accreditation as a framework.

    PubMed

    Severance, Janet Hahn

    2009-03-01

    Increasingly, health system leaders seek to determine whether community health interventions make a difference to individuals in the community. However, community health improvement is difficult to measure, and health system staff may not be familiar with evaluation research methods. Health care organizations can improve their evaluation efforts relatively easily by building on what they already know: the Joint Commission accreditation process. By using accreditation as a framework, community health evaluation may be seen as more approachable when viewed through that lens. This article provides a framework for practical approaches to program planning, evaluation, and sustainability. Joint Commission accreditation functions (chapters) are similar to health program goals. Standards are similar to program objectives. Elements of performance are similar to activities or methods. Scoring comparisons are similar to measures. PMID:19116229

  18. Development of the Community Health Improvement Navigator Database of Interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brita; Stanojevich, Joel; Stange, Paul; Jiwani, Nafisa; King, Raymond; Koo, Denise

    2016-02-26

    With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the requirements for hospitals to achieve tax-exempt status include performing a triennial community health needs assessment and developing a plan to address identified needs. To address community health needs, multisector collaborative efforts to improve both health care and non-health care determinants of health outcomes have been the most effective and sustainable. In 2015, CDC released the Community Health Improvement Navigator to facilitate the development of these efforts. This report describes the development of the database of interventions included in the Community Health Improvement Navigator. The database of interventions allows the user to easily search for multisector, collaborative, evidence-based interventions to address the underlying causes of the greatest morbidity and mortality in the United States: tobacco use and exposure, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. PMID:26917110

  19. Developing Learning Communities in Health and Human Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Karen L.; Dawkins, Phyllis W.

    2007-01-01

    Learning communities in health and human performance are creative approaches to traditional academic outcomes. Learning communities are becoming increasingly widespread in a variety of contexts, and there is extensive evidence suggesting that effective learning communities have important benefits for students as well as faculty. In this article,…

  20. A Community Health Approach to Asthma in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss-Randall, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a leading cause of school absenteeism in the United States, especially in poor and minority communities, where prevalence and hospitalization rates are significantly higher than average. A community health approach can help poorer school districts hire full-time nurses and access other health resources.

  1. A Community Mental Health Approach to Drug Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Richard; Freedman, Alfred

    The nature of the historical changes in the presumed stereo-types of drug users in the United States, and the associated policy changes, are described in this report which takes a community health viewpoint of drug use while concurrently dealing with the individual. Eight case histories illustrate the community mental health approach in action.…

  2. Service Learning and Community Health Nursing: A Natural Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn P.; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Community health nursing students performed community assessments and proposed and implemented service learning projects that addressed adolescent smoking in middle schools, home safety for elderly persons, industrial worker health, and sexual abuse of teenaged girls. Students learned to apply epidemiological research methods, mobilize resources,…

  3. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  4. Identifying Rural Health Care Needs Using Community Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Patricia L.; Miller, Marlene E.; Offutt, Sue M.; Gibbens, Brad P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Community input can lead to better-defined goals in an organization. With this in mind, the Center for Rural Health at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences embarked on a series of 13 meetings with representatives of organizations serving rural communities, including 5 Native American reservations. Purpose:…

  5. Communities within Communities: Changing "Residential" Areas at Cultus Lake, British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halseth, Greg

    1993-01-01

    A community survey examined socioeconomic characteristics and community participation patterns in a rural Canadian area in which recreational cottages were being converted to full-time homes by urban retirees. Compared to long-time residents, "converters" were more likely to be older and more educated, to have no children at home, and to have a…

  6. Health Concerns in Communities and the Wider Benefits of Learning. Perspectives from Practice in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    A study examined the ways a group of people experiencing poverty, poor housing, and stress assessed the impact of these factors on their health through participating in a course called "Health Issues in the Community." It involved people from a range of socioeconomically excluded areas and groups throughout Scotland in identifying and…

  7. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

  8. Partnership for Health Care: An Academic Nursing Center in a Rural Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMone, Priscilla; McDaniel, Roxanne W.; Sullivan, Toni J.

    1998-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Columbia Sinclair School of Nursing collaborates with Moberly Area Community College in providing holistic health care services to rural college students. This academic nursing center is based on nursing models rather than medical models of health. (JOW)

  9. The Art and Process of Negotiation: An Area Health Education Center Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Umar A.

    The negotiating relationship of a medical school and a community-based organization is examined, based on the point of view of a negotiator and the California Area Health Education Center (AHEC) System model. The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act (1974) funds medical schools to negotiate the use of a portion of their educational…

  10. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process. PMID:12289002

  11. The Health and Well-Being of Children in Rural Areas: A Portrait of the Nation 2007. The National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provides a unique resource with which to analyze the health status, health care use, activities, and family and community environments experienced by children in rural and urban areas. The NSCH was designed to measure the health and well-being of children from birth through age 17 in the United…

  12. Community Health Risk Assessment of Primary Aluminum Smelter Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Larivière, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. We consider in this article how to assess community health risks associated with primary aluminum smelter emissions. Methods: We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose–response relationships of the principal hazardous agents emitted. Results: On the basis of representative measured community exposure levels, we were able to make rough estimates on health risks associated with specific agents and categorize these as none, low, medium, or high. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a rough-estimate community Health Risk Assessment for individual smelters on the basis of information available in the epidemiological literature and local community exposure data. PMID:24806724

  13. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  14. Developing a health promotion program for faith-based communities.

    PubMed

    Kotecki, Catherine Nuss

    2002-04-01

    The article describes the partnership formed between community outreach programs, a school of nursing, and hospitals to implement Healthy People 2010 goals in urban, faith-based communities. To date this program has provided health promotion programs to 125 people from more than 18 congregations in the context of their faith setting. The program has allowed congregants to develop ministry strategies to meet health care needs within the congregation and community. The article provides overall program goals, specific lesson plans, and evaluation strategies. Outcome measures include an increase in health promotion knowledge, participant satisfaction, and improved health in congregations. PMID:11913228

  15. Knowledge and Behavioral Effects in Cardiovascular Health: Community Health Worker Health Disparities Initiative, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Margarita; Yang, Manshu; Evensen, Christian; Windham, Amy; Ortiz, Gloria; Tracy, Rachel; Ivy, Edward Donnell

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and disparities in cardiovascular health exist among African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, and Filipinos. The Community Health Worker Health Disparities Initiative of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) includes culturally tailored curricula taught by community health workers (CHWs) to improve knowledge and heart-healthy behaviors in these racial/ethnic groups. Methods We used data from 1,004 community participants in a 10-session curriculum taught by CHWs at 15 sites to evaluate the NHLBI’s health disparities initiative by using a 1-group pretest–posttest design. The curriculum addressed identification and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. We used linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed effects models to examine results. Results Average participant age was 48; 75% were female, 50% were Hispanic, 35% were African American, 8% were Filipino, and 7% were American Indian. Twenty-three percent reported a history of diabetes, and 37% reported a family history of heart disease. Correct pretest to posttest knowledge scores increased from 48% to 74% for heart healthy knowledge. The percentage of participants at the action or maintenance stage of behavior change increased from 41% to 85%. Conclusion Using the CHW model to implement community education with culturally tailored curricula may improve heart health knowledge and behaviors among minorities. Further studies should examine the influence of such programs on clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24524426

  16. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  17. Selecting alternative strategies for community health education in guineaworm control.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Ramakrishna, J; Akpovi, S U; Adeniyi, J D

    1984-01-01

    Community health education strategies in guineaworm control can be applied at several intervention levels. Community development mobilizes local resources to provide safe water supplies such as wells. Mass education in schools and communities can teach personal protection measures such as filtering water. Training of volunteer community health workers produces front line staff, who by being culturally in tune with the community can demonstrate and promote the use of appropriate prevention and treatment measures. Advocacy assists community members to express their needs to government and ministry decision makers. All of these strategies have been applied in a community health education/primary health care program in Idere, Ibarapa District, Oyo State. Community development for well construction was found to be a long-term strategy that first must overcome problems of village organization and resource location. Mass education, to be effective, must have a simple and acceptable technology to promote. Trained village health workers must overcome traditional beliefs that inhibit use of preventive and treatment measures. Advocacy requires basic political education of community leaders. A variety of health education strategies is needed to address short- and long-term priorities as well as to overcome the different barriers to guineaworm control. PMID:20841266

  18. The reach and rationale for community health fairs

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate; Liang, Annie; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica; Navarro, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos living in the United States account for one-third of the uninsured population and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and financial barriers to accessing health care services. Community health fairs have developed to address the unmet need for no- and low-cost services that target prevention and education among underserved communities. The current research describes an ongoing effort in a community in southern California and examines the barriers to health care among participants registering to receive free breast health screenings, one of the major services offered at a 2010 health fair. A total of 186 adult Latina women completed a brief questionnaire assessing their health care utilization and self-reported barriers to engaging in preventive and screening services. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported never receiving or having more than 2 years passing since receiving a preventive health check-up. Participants identified cost (64.5%) and knowledge of locations for services (52.3%) as the primary barriers to engaging in routine health care services. Engaging with health professionals represents a leading way in which adults obtain health information and health fairs offering cancer health screenings represent a culturally appropriate venue for increased cancer health equity. Implications of the current research for future health fairs and their role in community cancer education are discussed. PMID:23907787

  19. A Door-to-Door Needs Assessment to Guide a Community-Campus Health Partnership and Contribute to Community Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold

    2006-01-01

    A community-campus health partnership was formed in 1999. To determine health partnership priorities, it was collaboratively decided that an assessment of the community's health needs and interests was necessary. This article describes a community-based participatory research project: namely, a door-to-door survey to assess community health needs…

  20. Project TEACH: A Capacity-Building Training Program for Community-Based Organizations and Public Health Agencies.

    PubMed

    Sauaia, Angela; Tuitt, Nicole R; Kaufman, Carol E; Hunt, Cerise; Ledezma-Amorosi, Mariana; Byers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Project TEACH (Teaching Equity to Advance Community Health) is a capacity-building training program to empower community-based organizations and regional public health agencies to develop data-driven, evidence-based, outcomes-focused public health interventions. TEACH delivers training modules on topics such as logic models, health data, social determinants of health, evidence-based interventions, and program evaluation. Cohorts of 7 to 12 community-based organizations and regional public health agencies in each of the 6 Colorado Area Health Education Centers service areas participate in a 2-day training program tailored to their specific needs. From July 2008 to December 2011, TEACH trained 94 organizations and agencies across Colorado. Training modules were well received and resulted in significant improvement in knowledge in core content areas, as well as accomplishment of self-proposed organizational goals, grant applications/awards, and several community-academic partnerships. PMID:23480898

  1. Constructing a Health and Social Indicator Framework for Indigenous Community Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Elisabeth; Cargo, Margaret D.; Daniel, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Health and social indicators that capture the distinct historical, social, and cultural contexts of Indigenous communities can play an important role in informing the planning and delivery of community interventions. There is currently considerable interest in cataloguing and vetting meaningful community-level health and social indicators that…

  2. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  3. A Community Approach: School-Based Health Care Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Rueben C.

    1980-01-01

    School based health care systems are a viable alternative to existing health care delivery methods because they can improve the health of all children, especially those that are indigent and living in medically underserved areas. (JD)

  4. A community based approach in developing health policies: implications for Asia-Pacific nations.

    PubMed

    Koseki, L K

    1988-01-01

    Only a few state in the US have followed up on the Nation's 1990 health objectives and almost all used professional experts and planners to do so. Hawaii has taken the extra step and involved the community in studying and preparing its health objectives. Hawaii used the US Public Health Service's framework which included preventive health services, health protection, and health promotion. Some of the priority areas under preventive health services included family planning, pregnancy and infant health, and sexually transmitted diseases. In 1985, the State organized 15 groups each studying a different health priority area with 8-20 members each from the community and various organizations. Members consisted of public health professionals (31%), health professionals from private voluntary organizations (15%), practicing physicians (13%), voluntary health associations members (11%), university faculty (8%) and the remaining members represented the military, health care institutions, business, labor, State Department of Education, and special interest groups. The study groups met monthly and arrived at 92 high, 82 medium, and 27 low priority areas. At each of 3 public forums, 5 different study groups presented their findings. Prior to the Governor's Conference on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, each participant received a preconference report consisting of detailed summaries of each study group's findings. After the conference, the study groups met again to incorporate conference feedback into their final working papers. In December 1988, the Department of Health hosted a conference to evaluate progress and developments relating to achieving the state's health objectives. Broad based community involvement and intersectorial cooperation and political commitment in health planning are essential to meeting health objectives, policies, and actions. PMID:3179109

  5. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  6. Making health data maps: a case study of a community/university research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, David L; Mason, Robin; Robertson, Ann; Frank, John; Glazier, Richard; Purdon, Lorraine; Amrhein, Carl G; Chaudhuri, Nita; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Gozdyra, Peter; Hulchanski, David; Moldofsky, Byron; Thompson, Maureen; Wright, Robert

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community/university research project in Canada. The goal of the project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development of community health information resources and community/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history of community/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and employed an interdisciplinary applied research and action design. Specific project objectives were to: (1) develop via active community/university collaboration a geographic information system (GIS) for ready access to routinely collected health data, and to study logistical, conceptual and technical problems encountered during system development; and (2) to document and analyze issues that can emerge in the process of community/university research collaboration. System development involved iteration through community user assessment of need, development or refinement of the GIS, and assessment of the GIS by community users. Collaborative process assessment entailed analysis of archival material, interviews with investigators and participant observation. Over the course of the project, a system was successfully developed, and favorably assessed by users. System development problems fell into four main areas: maintaining user involvement in system development, understanding and integrating data, bringing disparate data sources together, and making use of assembled data. Major themes emerging from the community/university collaborative research process included separate community and university cultures, time as an important issue for all involved, and the impact of uncertainty and ambiguity on the collaborative process. PMID:12365530

  7. The Ife South Breastfeeding Project: training community health extension workers to promote and manage breastfeeding in rural communities.

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Adetugbo, A. A.; Adebawa, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a project to promote exclusive breastfeeding in rural communities through the training of community health extension workers in rural Nigeria. A workshop for the trainers was organized for health workers in the study area; subsequently, these trainers ran district-level training workshops. In the study area perinatal facilities, early initiation of breastfeeding has increased compared with those in the control area (P < 0.001). Also, the trained health workers had significantly better knowledge about breastfeeding than their untrained colleagues in both the study (P < 0.001) and control areas (P < 0.001), and more often recommended timely initiation and exclusive breastfeeding than the controls (P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that the training programme and the study area were the only significant variables that were predictors of breastfeeding knowledge (P < 0.001). Appropriate education of health extension workers can therefore contribute significantly to the promotion of breastfeeding in rural communities. PMID:9342891

  8. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  9. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  10. Mid-Plains Community College Area Human Resources Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Plains Community Coll. Area, North Platte, NE. Office of Institutional Research.

    This Human Resource Development Plan represents an effort to systematize human resources and personnel development at Mid-Plains Community College Area (MPCCA). The need for creating such a plan was specifically cited by North Central consultant evaluators, and a Human Resources Development (HRD) Steering Committee was established in spring 1994…

  11. Faith Community Nursing: Supporting Mental Health during Life Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Anaebere, Ann Kiki; DeLilly, Carol Rose

    2013-01-01

    Faith Community Nurses consider community cultural practices an essential component in understanding how to effectively support an individual’s mental health during important life transitions. Additionally, as part of their practice, Faith Community Nurses seek to understand how religious beliefs and life transitions such as marriage, divorce, birth, death, and illness impact on spiritual and mental health care. The emotional tolls of family separations due to wars, unexpected life events, or planned transitions are pivotal time-points for the implementation of Faith Community Nursing interventions to support mental health. As we witness a worldwide declining economy, nationally high unemployment rates, a decline in health care resources, and reduced access to treatment, medication, and nutritious foods, Faith Community Nursing care will be a valuable asset to various religious communities. It is our intent to examine briefly the historical and cultural uses of Faith Community Nurses, as well as examine the concept of transitions to better understand how Faith Community Nurses can be utilized as agents to support mental health for diverse faith communities during key life events. PMID:22545641

  12. Anishinabe youth perceptions about community health: toward environmental repossession.

    PubMed

    Big-Canoe, Katie; Richmond, Chantelle A M

    2014-03-01

    This community-based research applied environmental dispossession as a theoretical framework for understanding Anishinabe youth perceptions about health, social relationships and contemporary Anishinabe way of life in Northern Ontario, Canada. Qualitative interviews with 19 youth reveal considerable worry about their community's health. Youth perceive changes in the Anishinabe way of life, including decreased access to their traditional lands, to be central to poor health at the community level. Youth emphasized the importance of social relationships for fostering healthy behaviours and developing community wide initiatives that will provide opportunities for reconnecting to land, and for learning and practicing Indigenous Knowledge. This study builds on the growing body of decolonizing research with Indigenous communities, and it concludes by offering the concept of environmental repossession as a way forward for studies on the Indigenous environment-health interface. PMID:24440804

  13. [Community participation in health: the challenge in Chile].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Claudio A; López, Jairo J Vanegas

    2010-02-01

    Health care reforms implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last 20 years have viewed community participation as a system-wide component. Nonetheless, these reform efforts have yet to break through the conceptual and operational barriers holding back the development and expansion of community participation. In Chile, changes introduced to the health care system are far from achieving any real participation from the community. Therefore, the consumer's role needs to be redefined from merely controlling the parts, to reaching across the whole system in a way that consumer input might identify and quickly correct any possible shortcomings in the health system's design, as well as its operations. With this in mind, the main challenges are to strengthen coordination among the various promotion and participation commitments, as well as community control, and to generate data and other evidence to assess the impact of community participation in health strategies. PMID:20339619

  14. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  15. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  16. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  17. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  18. Cooperative Health Occupation Education (Course Outline), The Life Span and Community Health: 3099.10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade twlve. SUBJECT MATTER: The physical development and needs, as well as the psychological development and needs of the individual from infancy to old age. The health of the community is studied in terms of communicable diseases, immunology, resources available for the optimal health of any community (including health services…

  19. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  20. Species-area relationships in Mediterranean-climate plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the best-fit model of species-area relationships for Mediterranean-type plant communities and evaluate how community structure affects these species-area models. Location: Data were collected from California shrublands and woodlands and compared with literature reports for other Mediterranean-climate regions. Methods: The number of species was recorded from 1, 100 and 1000 m2 nested plots. Best fit to the power model or exponential model was determined by comparing adjusted r2 values from the least squares regression, pattern of residuals, homoscedasticity across scales, and semi-log slopes at 1-100 m2 and 100-1000 m2. Dominance-diversity curves were tested for fit to the lognormal model, MacArthur's broken stick model, and the geometric and harmonic series. Results: Early successional Western Australia and California shrublands represented the extremes and provide an interesting contrast as the exponential model was the best fit for the former, and the power model for the latter, despite similar total species richness. We hypothesize that structural differences in these communities account for the different species-area curves and are tied to patterns of dominance, equitability and life form distribution. Dominance-diversity relationships for Western Australian heathlands exhibited a close fit to MacArthur's broken stick model, indicating more equitable distribution of species. In contrast, Californian shrublands, both postfire and mature stands, were best fit by the geometric model indicating strong dominance and many minor subordinate species. These regions differ in life form distribution, with annuals being a major component of diversity in early successional Californian shrublands although they are largely lacking in mature stands. Both young and old Australian heathlands are dominated by perennials, and annuals are largely absent. Inherent in all of these ecosystems is cyclical disequilibrium caused by periodic fires. The potential for

  1. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  2. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  4. Community Oriented Videotapes-Action Tools for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazes, Peter M.; Snyder, David

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the four-year-old Health Education Project (HEP) established at the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in Newark. Notes the use of bilingual, community-oriented videotapes as teaching tools to inform consumers about critical health care information and explores the use of these tapes with health education discussion groups.…

  5. Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

  6. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed. PMID:26753881

  7. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, World Health, Grades 7, 8, and 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The interweaving of personal and community health with world health are referred to in this prototype curriculum, to show students in grades 7-9 that health problems of individual nations are health problems of the world. Specific curriculum content studies: (1) factors influencing world health (population, culture, family structure, economic…

  8. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  9. The need of community health centers for international medical graduates.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, L D; Konrad, T R; Miller, J S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether community health centers need international medical graduates to fill staff positions. METHODS: The authors surveyed 100 community health center administrators to learn about their perceptions of international medical graduates. RESULTS: Nationally, about one quarter of community health centers depend on international medical graduates to fill physician vacancies; most of these centers foresee unfilled positions in the event of a cutback. CONCLUSIONS: Policies calling for a national reduction in the supply of international medical graduates need to be balanced by an understanding of these individuals' role in reducing local physician shortages. PMID:10511843

  10. The Willow Hill Community Health Assessment: Assessing the Needs of Children in a Former Slave Community.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Moya L; Jackson, Gayle; Jackson, Alvin; Hardy, DeShannon; Gupta, Akrati

    2015-10-01

    The overall purpose of this community needs assessment was to explore the perceptions of health and educational needs among youth residing in a rural Georgia community, document existing assets that could be utilized to meet those needs, and to identify socioeconomic barriers and facilitators in health education. A sequential mixed method design was used. Intercept surveys were conducted followed by individual, key informant interviews and a focus group. Survey data was entered into an Excel spreadsheet and SPSS for analysis and descriptive statistics including means and frequencies were calculated. For qualitative interviews, full transcripts were created from audio-recordings and uploaded into NVivo for content analysis. Several health issues were highlighted by the Willow Hill/Portal Georgia community members, including teachers, parents, youth and Willow Hill Heritage and Renaissance Center board members. Some of the health issues identified by youth in the community were low levels of physical activity, obesity, diabetes, lack of healthy food choices, and access to health care services. Including the issues identified by youth, the parents, teachers and board members identified additional health issues in the community such as asthma, hygiene and lack of dental and eye care facilities. Overall, there is a need for better infrastructure and awareness among community members. Utilizing identified assets, including active community leaders, involved faith-based organizations, commitment of community members, presence of land resources, and commitment to physical activity and sports, could modify the current community landscape. PMID:26264907

  11. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  12. Using community-based participatory mixed methods research to understand preconception health in African American communities of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni

    2013-12-01

    The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170

  13. Community participation in health activities in an Amazon community of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauil, M C; de Azevedo, A C

    1978-01-01

    This article describes community participation in a comprehensive eight-year health program at Porto Nacional, a town in Brazils Amazon region. The authors discuss various techniques employed to encourage community participation, indicate methods used to resolve low-key conflicts in a positive manner, describe the major contributions made by community participation in this program, and present a number of conclusions considered applicable to other communities in this part of Brazil. PMID:698459

  14. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA Community Community Governing Body... City of Klawock Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village Meyers Chuck N/A Pelican City of Pelican...

  15. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA community Community governing body.... Klawock City of Klawock. Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village. Meyers Chuck N/A. Pelican City of...

  16. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA community Community governing body.... Klawock City of Klawock. Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village. Meyers Chuck N/A. Pelican City of...

  17. Health politics meets post-modernism: its meaning and implications for community health organizing.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, P V

    1994-01-01

    In this article, post-modern theory is described and applied to health politics with examples from community health organizing, social movements, and health promotion. Post-modernism questions conventional assumptions about concepts such as representation, participation, empowerment, community, identity, causality, accountability, responsibility, authority, and roles in community health promotion (those of expert, leader, and organizer). I compare post-modern social movements with their modern counterparts: the organizational forms, leadership styles, and substantive intellectual orientations of the two differ. I explain the social planning, community development, and social action models of community health organizing, comparing them with the priorities of post-modern social movements, and show the similarities and differences between them as to structural preferences, process, and strategies. Finally, and most importantly, I present the implicit lessons that post-modernism offers to health politics and outline the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to health politics. PMID:8077633

  18. Health care challenge in coal mines community.

    PubMed

    Golay, M S

    1992-01-01

    The present paper depicts salient features of environment and living conditions with the comparison of various diseases prevalent among underground coal miners, surface workers, asbestos mine workers and general population of Jharia-Dhanbad coalfield as conducted by CMRS during the past few years. The investigations on coal miners' community comprise of different morbid conditions with respiratory (22%), Pneumoconiosis (11.6%), Skin (35%), Eye (29%), Intestinal parasitic infestation (44.6%), Anaemia (42%), Immunostatus (V.D.R.L. Positive-19.9%), Status of injuries and Blood pressure, Water-borne diseases, housing facilities and excreta disposal. The paper also includes the analysis of disease pattern obtained from hospital records of two coal mines which depicts 19.1%, 24.7% and 16% members of coal miners' families suffering from disorder with respiratory, gastro-intestinal and fever respectively. With speedy industrialization of the country, the mining of coal resource comes first in the chain of socio-economic development. The speedy human industrial activities are based on 80% steam, metallurgical and thermal electrical energy which hinges on coal wings. The coal has also gradually occupied all the phases of social life, our clothes, books, newspapers, cooking gas, chemical paints, dye stuff, oil phenyl, Benzene, Naphthalene, Coal tar, scents and various types of unaccountable products come out from coal derivatives and pushed to serve in the today's market for our daily exigencies. Every day one finds a new coal based industry is coming up in the area. The coal is utilized in two hundred ways in our various walks of social life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10130926

  19. In health care reform, who cares for the community?

    PubMed

    Sigmond, R; Seay, J D

    1994-01-01

    Health care reform has again focused the issues of ownership and mission of organizations in the health care field. Some believe that universal entitlement will eventually make both charitable patient care and the nonprofit form of organization obsolete. Others believe that special treatment of nonprofit organizations does not depend on charity at all; rather that the nonprofit form has social value in and of itself. The authors reflect a different point of view. They suggest that with reform, community benefit as the modern expression of a charitable mission will become ever more important in achieving the nation's health care goals. They believe that nonprofit organizations will continue to be entitled to special treatment only if their missions and programs extend beyond care of patients and entitled populations to focus also on care of communities. Any health organization's investment in disciplined community initiatives encompasses all the people in targeted communities, including those served by competing organizations. Without tax exemption, an organization committed to community care initiatives will be at a competitive disadvantage under the proposed community rated capitation payment system. Rather than abandoning the community benefit standard for tax exemption, health care reform calls for more systematic management of community care initiatives by nonprofit organizations and also of tax-exemption eligibility by the IRS. PMID:10135183

  20. The reach and rationale for community health fairs.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate; Liang, Annie; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica; Navarro, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Latinos living in the USA account for one third of the uninsured population and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and financial barriers to accessing healthcare services. Community health fairs have developed to address the unmet need for no- and low-cost services that target prevention and education among underserved communities. The current research describes an ongoing effort in a community in Southern California and examines the barriers to health care among participants registering to receive free breast health screenings, one of the major services offered at a 2010 health fair. A total of 186 adult Latina women completed a brief questionnaire assessing their healthcare utilization and self-reported barriers to engaging in preventive and screening services. Approximately two thirds of the participants reported never receiving or having more than 2 years passing since receiving a preventive health check-up. Participants identified cost (64.5%) and knowledge of locations for services (52.3%) as the primary barriers to engaging in routine healthcare services. Engaging with health professionals represents a leading way in which adults obtain health information; health fairs offering cancer health screenings represent a culturally appropriate venue for increased cancer health equity. Implications of the current research for future health fairs and their role in community cancer education are discussed. PMID:23907787

  1. Three evaluation methods of a community health advocate program.

    PubMed

    Rodney, M; Clasen, C; Goldman, G; Markert, R; Deane, D

    1998-10-01

    The title Community Health Advocate (CHA) is one of thirty or more titles used throughout the world for an indigenous outreach worker who is trusted and respected in his or her community and who serves as a bridge between peers and health professionals. In 1992, the Center for Healthy Communities in Dayton, Ohio developed a program to train as Advocates people indigenous to the communities in which they would be working. Since the first CHAs began work in January 1993, the effectiveness of the program has been evaluated from three perspectives: the Community Health Advocates, the managers/directors of the community sites at which the CHAs work, and the clients with whom the CHAs work. Advocates indicated that the training program adequately prepared them for their roles and functions. They also identified systematic frustrations and barriers that made it more difficult for them to perform their job. Community site directors and community leaders indicated that the CHAs were considered a positive force in meeting client needs and facilitating independence, and were very effective in outreach and coordination of resources. A survey of CHA clients revealed an overwhelmingly positive response to the Advocate's work, validating the belief that CHAs can fill an important niche in the health care community. The three evaluation processes described in this paper helped to document the need for and the effectiveness of this program and can serve as a model for similar programs. PMID:9793834

  2. Community health nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and involvement in abortion services.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Swanson, J; Oakley, D

    1994-01-01

    To learn more about the abortion-related experiences and value orientation of nurses, questionnaires were mailed to 1900 randomly selected community health nurses in the US; 844 (45%) responded. Although only 7% worked in settings where abortions are performed, half provide abortion counseling or referral. Their knowledge about the epidemiology of abortion in the US and recent abortion-related legislation was inadequate, and only 28.6% had received training about the clinical aspects of abortion in nursing school. Respondents' attitudes toward induced abortion were generally supportive; 82.0% believed federal funds should be provided for the procedure, 81.6% agreed women in the first trimester of pregnancy should have the right to choose abortion, and 70.3% supported abortion on demand. However, 27.8% indicated that abortion services in their communities were being negatively impacted by anti-abortion groups; only 9.7% felt that pro-choice groups were having a significant impact in their area. 56.0% reported they had been involved in some political activity relating to abortion, largely voting for a pro-abortion rights candidate or writing letters to legislators. 56.4& indicated they would vote against a candidate they otherwise supported if his or her views on abortion were unacceptable. 21.9% and 16.8% of nurses were involved with local or national Planned Parenthood; under 3% were members of anti-abortion groups. In-service training programs on the abortion issue are recommended to enable community health nurses to expand their counseling and political advocacy skills. PMID:7849540

  3. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people visit online health communities to seek health information. In these communities, people share experiences and information with others, often complemented with links to different websites. Understanding how people share websites can help us understand patients’ needs in online health communities and improve how peer patients share health information online. Objective Our goal was to understand (1) what kinds of websites are shared, (2) information quality of the shared websites, (3) who shares websites, (4) community differences in website-sharing behavior, and (5) the contexts in which patients share websites. We aimed to find practical applications and implications of website-sharing practices in online health communities. Methods We used regular expressions to extract URLs from 10 WebMD online health communities. We then categorized the URLs based on their top-level domains. We counted the number of trust codes (eg, accredited agencies’ formal evaluation and PubMed authors’ institutions) for each website to assess information quality. We used descriptive statistics to determine website-sharing activities. To understand the context of the URL being discussed, we conducted a simple random selection of 5 threads that contained at least one post with URLs from each community. Gathering all other posts in these threads resulted in 387 posts for open coding analysis with the goal of understanding motivations and situations in which website sharing occurred. Results We extracted a total of 25,448 websites. The majority of the shared websites were .com (59.16%, 15,056/25,448) and WebMD internal (23.2%, 5905/25,448) websites; the least shared websites were social media websites (0.15%, 39/25,448). High-posting community members and moderators posted more websites with trust codes than low-posting community members did. The heart disease community had the highest percentage of websites containing trust codes compared to

  4. The academic health center and the healthy community.

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, J; Vana, J E

    1994-01-01

    US medical care reflects the priorities and influence of academic health centers. This paper describes the leadership role assumed by one academic health center, the State University at Buffalo's School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its eight affiliated hospitals, to serve its region by promoting shared governance in educating graduate physicians and in influencing the cost and quality of patient care. Cooperation among hospitals, health insurance payers, the business community, state government, and physicians helped establish priorities to meet community needs and reduce duplication of resources and services; to train more primary care physicians; to introduce shared governance into rural health care delivery; to develop a regional management information system; and to implement health policy. This approach, spearheaded by an academic health center without walls, may serve as a model for other academic health centers as they adapt to health care reform. PMID:8017527

  5. Citizen participation in the governance of community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, J G

    1981-01-01

    The article reviews theory undergoing citizen participation in governance and presents several models of governance. A mail survey of 220 community mental health centers revealed that most centers did not meet the participant requirements of Public Law 94-63 for broad representation of the catchment area in governance or the functional requirements for decision-making, nor did boards incorporate other typical approaches to participation. This breakdown in implementation of the law can be interpreted as a twofold problem of organizational adaptation an power redistribution. Policy solutions would need to take both these cases into account. Incremental strategies alone are unlikely to create sufficient impact. Organizational development focused on building new models of governance and direct efforts to mobilize and empower citizens are suggested. PMID:7226739

  6. Quality and Electronic Health Records in Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Adoption and use of health information technology, the electronic health record (EHR) in particular, has the potential to help improve the quality of care, increase patient safety, and reduce health care costs. Unfortunately, adoption and use of health information technology has been slow, especially when compared to the adoption and use of…

  7. Health Literacy Innovations in California Community College Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenia, Joanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is a national public health problem contributing to adverse health outcomes and increasing healthcare costs. Both health and educational systems are intervention points for improvement; however, there is paucity in empirical research regarding the role of educational systems. This needs assessment study explored health…

  8. Local politicization of Primary Health Care as an instrument for development: a case study of community health workers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, P A; Freund, P J

    1985-01-01

    The integrated approach of the Primary Health Care Concept has obvious implications for development. In view of Zambia's commitment to Primary Health Care it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of present institutional frameworks and the problems that may arise in shifting towards community responsibility for the provision of health. It is often assumed that the Primary Health Care approach of working through the community should be free of serious implementation problems. However, experience from community participation projects in a wide variety fields carried out in many countries, including Zambia has shown that failure to account for local institutional arrangements and political interests has hindered success. This article presents the theoretical issues involved in community participation research, reviews relevant literature and presents a case study of a community health worker in Western Province, Zambia. The case study derives from an on-going UNICEF/Government of Zambia sponsored project which is monitoring and evaluating the impact of child health and nutrition services in rural areas. The study illustrates some of the problems encountered by a CHW because of clashes with local political interests. An alternative model is proposed which if implemented can help alleviate and/or avoid these types of conflicts. PMID:4012349

  9. Health Issues in the Latino Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Ed.; Molina, Carlos W., Ed.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 6 parts. Part 1, "Latino Populations in the United States," includes: (1) "Latino Health Policy: Beyond Demographic Determinism" (Angelo Falcon, Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, and Carlos W. Molina); (2) "Latino Health Status" (Olivia Carter-Pokras and Ruth Enid Zambrana); and (3) "Latino Access To Health Care: The Role…

  10. Connecting Allied Health Students to Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, W. Kent; Mishoe, Shelley C.; Taft, Arthur A.; Campbell, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Statewide studies indicate a continuing shortfall of personnel in several allied health disciplines in rural Georgia. National trends indicate lagging enrollment in allied health education programs, suggesting that the workforce shortages will worsen. Purpose: This article describes the efforts of the School of Allied Health Sciences at…

  11. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  12. Functionalism and holism: community nurses' perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Baxter, R

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that was designed to explore and examine the perceptions of two groups of newly qualified community nurses about the factors they considered to be embedded within the concepts of health, health-enhancing behaviours at individual, family and community levels and their 'innermost self'. The research was exploratory in nature, and included two sample groups: group 1 comprised 16 newly qualified health visitors; group 2 comprised 16 newly qualified community mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The group of health visitors perceived health in terms of physical fitness and functional states. At a global level they perceived the need to provide education on health matters. They gave generously to 'charities' and perceived the 'inner self' as 'that part that matters'. The group of community mental health nurses perceived health in terms of holism and being states. Their concept of health was related to listening to each individual's perception of what is 'right' and 'health-enhancing' for them. At a global level they considered the protection of the ozone layer and the promotion of a just and equitable society which focused on the reduction of poverty, to be key health-enhancing activities. They perceived their 'innermost self' to be 'that part of me that makes life worth living', and the soul. The findings have implications for developing new and creative approaches for teaching the holistic concept of health and healing. Educational activities could be designed which strive to ensure that nurses themselves have safe and health embracing opportunities for exploring all the elements that are embedded within the topic of health. Their role in facilitating holistic health promoting activities for all clients also needs to be addressed. PMID:11820541

  13. The public health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations on local communities.

    PubMed

    Greger, Michael; Koneswaran, Gowri

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs. PMID:20010001

  14. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members. PMID:25954470

  15. Cost-effectiveness of the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition by community health workers in southern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh. PMID:22879522

  16. Community-wide Implementation of Health Information Technology: The Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative Experience

    PubMed Central

    Goroll, Allan H.; Simon, Steven R.; Tripathi, Micky; Ascenzo, Carl; Bates, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative (MAeHC) was formed to improve patient safety and quality of care by promoting the use of health information technology through community-based implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchange. The Collaborative has recently implemented EHRs in a diverse set of competitively selected communities, encompassing nearly 500 physicians serving over 500,000 patients. Targeting both EHR implementation and health information exchange at the community level has identified numerous challenges and strategies for overcoming them. This article describes the formation and implementation phases of the Collaborative, focusing on barriers identified, lessons learned, and policy issues. PMID:18952937

  17. Upgrading Health Technology Curriculum: A Community Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Sharon; Merlino, Ann

    1976-01-01

    Describes the phased development of a program in Blood Transfusion Technology at Staten Island Community College of the City University of New York. Presents a detailed outline of the instructional content of the course. (SL)

  18. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  19. Primary health care in support of community development.

    PubMed

    Ferrinho, P; Robb, D; Cornielje, H; Rex, G

    1993-01-01

    A community development approach has been adopted in the outreach component of the work of the Alexandra Health Centre in South Africa. The importance of local township organizations has been recognized and the Centre is seen not only as providing technical solutions but also as helping people to achieve improved living conditions. This requires clear motivation, rigorous management, purposeful action by teams of health staff, and planning in conjunction with the community. PMID:8185757

  20. Community Size as a Factor in Health Partnerships in Community Parks and Recreation, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Mowen, Andrew J.; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although partnerships between park and recreation agencies and health agencies are prevalent, little research has examined partnership characteristics and effectiveness among communities of different sizes. The objective of this study was to determine whether park and recreation leaders’ perceptions of partnership characteristics, effectiveness, and outcomes vary by community size. Methods A web-based survey was completed in 2007 by 1,217 National Recreation and Park Association members. Community size was divided into 4 categories: very small, small, medium, and large. Questions measured agencies’ recognition of the need for partnerships, their level of experience, and the effectiveness and outcomes of partnerships. Results Larger communities were significantly more likely to recognize the need for and have more experience with partnerships than smaller communities. Very small and large communities partnered significantly more often with senior services, nonprofit health promotion agencies, and public health agencies than did small and medium ones. Large and small communities were significantly more likely than very small and medium communities to agree that their decision making in partnerships is inclusive and that they have clearly defined goals and objectives. Large communities were significantly more likely than very small communities to report that their partnership helped leverage resources, make policy changes, meet their mission statement, and link to funding opportunities. Conclusion Community size shapes partnership practices, effectiveness, and outcomes. Very small communities are disadvantaged in developing and managing health partnerships. Increasing education, training, and funding opportunities for small and rural park and recreation agencies may enable them to more effectively partner with organizations to address community health concerns. PMID:23886043

  1. COMMUNITY PLANNING FOR HEALTH EDUCATION AND WELFARE, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, KANARDY L.

    THE ANNOATATED BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PREPARED ESPECIALLY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PUBLIC WELFARE AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING. IT MAY ALSO BE OF ASSISTANCE TO OTHERS INTERESTED IN HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. THE SELECTED REFERENCES ON BASIC CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES IN COMMUNITY PLANNING AND RELATED SUBJECTS ARE GENERALLY AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC…

  2. Community ownership and program continuation following a health demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Bracht, N; Finnegan, J R; Rissel, C; Weisbrod, R; Gleason, J; Corbett, J; Veblen-Mortenson, S

    1994-06-01

    Community ownership and maintenance of heart health programs was a major study goal of the Minnesota Heart Health Program (MHHP), a community-based National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (NIH)-funded demonstration project. A partnership between the University of Minnesota and three Upper Midwest intervention communities was initiated in 1981. Local citizen boards were instrumental in planning, implementing and incorporating programs. Through an 8 year process of community organization, training and volunteer involvement, MHHP educational program responsibility was transferred to existing community-based groups and organizations. In 1989, when federal funding was withdrawn, 70% of all heart health intervention programs initiated by MHHP were being continued by local sponsors and supported by local funds. By 1992, maintenance of programs had decreased to an average 60%. Differential results of program incorporation among the three intervention communities are presented including findings on community sectors that most frequently sponsored programs. Factors that facilitate or impede local ownership are discussed. Research on longer-term maintenance of heart health programs in the three communities continues. PMID:10150448

  3. Community Organization and Mental Health; The Woodlawn Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Lewis, Judith A.

    A paraprofessional training program designed to provide community controlled mental health services to the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois, is described in this monograph. The neighborhood and The Woodlawn Organization (T.W.O.A), a self help project formed in early 1960, are described from an historical perspective. Some of the areas…

  4. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  5. Mental Health Training and the Hospice Community: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Charles A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes a national survey of the hospice community. Results indicated that the hospice community is attempting to meet the mental health training needs of its paid staff members and volunteers. However, more than half expressed a need for further training and a more systematic and comprehensive curriculum. (Author)

  6. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Though there are at least 12.4 million community college students, accounting for 44% of all undergraduates within the United States (Cohen & Brawer, 2008), little academic research has explored the mental health needs of community college students as a distinct population ( Floyd, 2003; Townsend & LaPaglia, 2000; Townsend, Donaldson,…

  7. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  8. 10. Looking northwest at the "community" area at the center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Looking northwest at the "community" area at the center of the store, and beyond at the main sales counters along the west wall; metal sheathing to protect the wood floor from the former heating stove can be seen in the foreground, and a wooden drawer unit for seeds is beyond the chairs - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  9. Global Health Watch Canada? Mobilizing the Canadian public health community around a global health advocacy agenda.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Labonte, Ronald; Orbinski, James

    2006-01-01

    Growing poverty, collapsing health care systems, the AIDS pandemic and the widening of health and health care inequities within and between countries all point to the limited success of global public health interventions over the past few decades. Notwithstanding the efforts of multilateral agencies such as the World Health Organization and the many existing contributions from the Canadian community of health professionals, this commentary argues and appeals for further action particularly in relation to the social and political impediments to better health and justice. Specifically, it calls for the development of a robust instrument to assess the impact of Canada as a whole on the state of global health, and to monitor the performance of key Canadian institutions. It is suggested that such an instrument would result in a process that enhances global citizenship and public accountability, and buttresses the efforts of civil society to forge trans-national links in pursuit of a fairer and healthier world. Public health professionals, by virtue of their social standing as well as the nature and tools of their discipline, should be at the forefront of such civic efforts. PMID:16620004

  10. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  11. Development of critically reflective dialogues in communities of health professionals.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change over time, through a study of two dialogues each from six different communities of veterinary health professionals. Change was studied from the perspective of observations, through analysing transcripts of dialogues, and from the perspective of community members' perceptions, through an evaluative discussion with members. The results showed that some communities became more open about mistakes, a finding that is related to an increase in trust. Other observed aspects of CRD seemed to be fairly stable over time. Community members perceived research utilisation and asking for and giving feedback to have been increased. From an analysis of perceptions of the community members it emerged that limited interaction could be associated with the epistemological conceptions of community members. PMID:22976456

  12. Urban community health workers: selection, training, practice and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ramontja, R M; Wagstaff, L A; Khomo, N E

    1998-09-01

    The role, desirability and success of community health workers is debated. Conflicting reports have highlighted important concerns and provided guidelines. Particular issues identified are the necessity for both community and health professional input to determine needs and to ensure an acceptable selection process, training, support and accountability. Such steps were followed in the Greater Soweto Maternal Child Project. These are described together with the results achieved. Eight trained Soweto community health workers centered at Chiawelo Clinic and providing home based and neighbourhood health care undertake supervised Tuberculosis treatment, tracing of immunisation defaulters, and health education based on GOBI FFF (Grant JP, UNICEF:1985;94) and "Facts for Life" (UNICEF 1989-1993). They form a link between the community and government health care services and also other available resources. Over a period of 26 months, working from their own homes, they provided 14,254 health related services and in addition undertook 14,501 neighbourhood home visits. They were responsible for 8,710 referrals to the clinic or other relevant agencies for assistance. Incremental training has included HIV/AIDS counselling, advice on family planning with regular report back sessions and discussions. Participatory management involves all major role players. The community health workers have the approval and support of the Local Soweto Health Authority, the Civic Association and the communities they serve. On completion of the project, all were redeployed into local health service posts where it is intended that they form the nucleus of an expanding service. Delegation of selected tasks allows for cost effective functioning of more highly trained staff, an improved service and better use of available resources. PMID:11040587

  13. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization. PMID:19843702

  14. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  15. Health Education Community Health Teaching Supports. Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This handbook contains suggested teaching activities, student worksheets, background information, and a list of basic resources for teachers of health education. Topics covered are mortality rate, health promotion, sexually transmitted diseases, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and major dimensions of health. Included in the handbook is…

  16. A Community Health Record: Improving Health Through Multisector Collaboration, Information Sharing, and Technology.

    PubMed

    King, Raymond J; Garrett, Nedra; Kriseman, Jeffrey; Crum, Melvin; Rafalski, Edward M; Sweat, David; Frazier, Renee; Schearer, Sue; Cutts, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for developing a community health record to bring stakeholders, information, and technology together to collectively improve the health of a community. It is both social and technical in nature and presents an iterative and participatory process for achieving multisector collaboration and information sharing. It proposes a methodology and infrastructure for bringing multisector stakeholders and their information together to inform, target, monitor, and evaluate community health initiatives. The community health record is defined as both the proposed framework and a tool or system for integrating and transforming multisector data into actionable information. It is informed by the electronic health record, personal health record, and County Health Ranking systems but differs in its social complexity, communal ownership, and provision of information to multisector partners at scales ranging from address to zip code. PMID:27609300

  17. Climbing the walls: prison mental health and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Caie, Jude

    Until recently, treatment for mental health conditions has focused on medical and psychological therapy. The role and significance of social and community interventions and initiatives in fostering recovery, resilience and a sense of 'flourishing' is now being recognised. This paper seeks to explore how these principles, which are usually community-based, can be successfully applied within a prison setting, and how such interventions may have a positive effect on the mental health of prisoners through successfully engaging them with the communities they are set to return to after release while still in custody. PMID:22875351

  18. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this course challenges traditional research by introducing a collaborative process meant to encourage increased participation by special populations, and narrow the parity gap in effective mental health treatment and services delivery. PMID:20186257

  19. Building relationships and changing lives: a community health worker story.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maria; Matos, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Maria Murphy is a community health worker in the south Bronx, an impoverished underprivileged neighborhood of largely Latino and African American communities along with smaller ethnic minority groups. Having come to New York at 13 years of age from her native Puerto Rico, Maria held numerous jobs while supporting her family and completing her education. Maria soon got a position as a community health worker and discovered purpose in her work. Her work with people she serves has been called a labor of love by her clients. Maria describes it as her passion. This is her story. PMID:21914995

  20. Community, service, and policy strategies to improve health care access in the changing urban environment.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, D P

    2000-06-01

    Urban communities continue to face formidable historic challenges to improving public health. However, reinvestment initiatives, changing demographics, and growth in urban areas are creating changes that offer new opportunities for improving health while requiring that health systems be adapted to residents' health needs. This commentary suggests that health care improvement in metropolitan areas will require setting local, state, and national agendas around 3 priorities. First, health care must reorient around powerful population dynamics, in particular, cultural diversity, growing numbers of elderly, those in welfare-workplace transition, and those unable to negotiate an increasingly complex health system. Second, communities and governments must assess the consequences of health professional shortages, safety net provider closures and conversions, and new marketplace pressures in terms of their effects on access to care for vulnerable urban populations; they must also weigh the potential value of emerging models for improving those populations' care. Finally, governments at all levels should use their influence through accreditation, standards, tobacco settlements, and other financing streams to educate and guide urban providers in directions that respond to urban communities' health care needs. PMID:10846501

  1. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  2. Acceptability and Trust of Community Health Workers Offering Maternal and Newborn Health Education in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Debra; Cumming, Robert; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    When trusted, Community Health Workers (CHWs) can contribute to improving maternal and newborn health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries through education. Issues of acceptability of CHWs by communities were explored through experiences gained in a qualitative study that is part of a cluster randomized trial in East Uganda. Initially,…

  3. Translating Community Connectedness to Practice: A Qualitative Study of Midlevel Health Workers in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alison; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The performance of midlevel health workers is a critical lever for strengthening health systems and redressing inequalities in underserved areas. Auxiliary nurses form the largest cadre of health workers in Guatemala. In rural settings, they provide essential services to vulnerable communities, and thus have great potential to address priority health needs. This paper examines auxiliary nurses' motivation and satisfaction, and the coping strategies they use to respond to challenges they confront in their practice. Methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 auxiliary nurses delivering health services in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Results. Community connectedness was central to motivation in this rural Guatemalan setting. Participants were from rural communities and conveyed a sense of connection to the people they were serving through shared culture and their own experiences of health needs. Satisfaction was derived through recognition from the community and a sense of valuing their work. Auxiliary nurses described challenges commonly faced in low-resource settings. Findings indicated they were actively confronting these challenges through their own initiative. Conclusions. Strategies to support the performance of midlevel health workers should focus on mechanisms to make training accessible to rural residents, support problem-solving in practice, and emphasize building relationships with communities served. PMID:23097715

  4. Design of an online health-promoting community: negotiating user community needs with public health goals and service capabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An online health-promoting community (OHPC) has the potential to promote health and advance new means of dialogue between public health representatives and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine what aspects of an OHPC that are critical for satisfying the needs of the user community and public health goals and service capabilities. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used for data collection and analysis, and participatory design principles to develop a case study OHPC for adolescents. Qualitative data from adolescents on health appraisals and perspectives on health information were collected in a Swedish health service region and classified into categories of user health information exchange needs. A composite design rationale for the OHPC was completed by linking the identified user needs, user-derived requirements, and technical and organizational systems solutions. Conflicts between end-user requirements and organizational goals and resources were identified. Results The most prominent health information needs were associated to food, exercise, and well-being. The assessment of the design rationale document and prototype in light of the regional public health goals and service capabilities showed that compromises were needed to resolve conflicts involving the management of organizational resources and responsibilities. The users wanted to discuss health issues with health experts having little time to set aside to the OHPC and it was unclear who should set the norms for the online discussions. Conclusions OHPCs can be designed to satisfy both the needs of user communities and public health goals and service capabilities. Compromises are needed to resolve conflicts between users’ needs to discuss health issues with domain experts and the management of resources and responsibilities in public health organizations. PMID:23826944

  5. [Community health as a determinant of the nursing curriculum].

    PubMed

    Espino de Alayo, S

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience acquired under the first university-level program for the basic training of nurses in Peru. It describes the gradual refining of the academic curriculum, which was designed not only to train people as competent professionals, but also to acquaint them with the country's basic social problems. Four levels of teaching-learning were defined in wide-ranging discussions in which various academic and professional sectors connected with the health field participated. Establishing a process of steps of increasing complexity has considerably facilitated the integration of community health, the scientific method, and mental health into the structure of the curriculum. The practice of community nursing was heavily emphasized, and it was endeavored to strike a balance between hospital experience and work in communities themselves. The program includes specific studies community groups spanning such aspects as control of the more common disease, epidemiologic surveillance, and accident and disaster prevention. Practical work in community health care earns the same credit as hospital internship. The paper closes with a description of the experience of a specific program conducted in the self-managed city of Villa El Salvador under an agreement between the community and the university. The writer also notes that the intense campaign to publicize the program is having an effect because most nurse-training institutions in Peru are tending to add community nursing to their curricula. PMID:393491

  6. Exploring Community Health through the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Motton, Freda; Fitzgerald, Teresa; Rose, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities are a major concern in the United States. Research suggests that inequitable distribution of money, power, and resources shape the circumstances for daily life and create and exacerbate health disparities. In rural communities, inequitable distribution of these structural factors seems to limit employment opportunities. The…

  7. The Development of Educational Materials for Community College Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busky, Henry F.

    Guidelines are presented for the development of educational materials for the Health Services Program at Prince George's Community College. This program, as part of the Human Development Department, serves three kinds of functions: remediation--the correction of health problems after they have arisen; prevention--the prior identification and…

  8. Art in the Community for Potentially Vulnerable Mental Health Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyle, Elaine; Bolton, Gillie

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on literature and the evaluation of a UK community Arts in Health project, this article aims first to demonstrate that, in spite of the common association in mental health practice between art and the use of psychotherapeutic techniques, involvement in art creation can, in itself, have a sustained and positive impact on the mental…

  9. Health Literacy and Happiness: A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angner, Erik; Miller, Michael J.; Ray, Midge N.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health literacy and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older primary-care patients. Health literacy status was estimated with the following previously validated question: "How confident are you in filling out medical forms by yourself?" Happiness was measured using an adapted…

  10. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  11. The Impact of Economic Stress on Community Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Brian J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Warns that community mental health services are threatened by reductions in federal support and increased numbers of clients. Reviews literature on the effect of adverse economic events on mental health. Identifies issues and answers for managing this dilemma including planning, financial diversification, and inter-agency cooperation. (Author/JAC)

  12. Impact of Community-Based Approach as Policy Tool: World Health Organization-Designated Safe Communities of Korea and Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changhyun; Shin, Jihyung; Matthews, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to ascertain and identify the effectiveness of area-based initiatives as a policy tool mediated by societal and individual factors in the five World Health Organization (WHO)-designated Safe Communities of Korea and the Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom (UK). Methods The Korean National Hospital discharge in-depth injury survey from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and causes of death statistics by the Statistics Korea were used for all analyses. The trend and changes in injury rate and mortality by external causes were compared among the five WHO-designated Safe Communities in Korea. Results The injury incident rates decreased at a greater level in the Safe Communities compared with the national average. Similar results were shown for the changes in unintentional injury incident rates. In comparison of changes in mortality rate by external causes between 2005 and 2011, the rate increase in Safe Communities was higher than the national average except for Jeju, where the mortality rate by external causes decreased. Conclusion When the Healthy Action Zones of the UK and the WHO Safe Communities of Korea were examined, the outcomes were interpreted differently among the compared index, regions, and time periods. Therefore, qualitative outcomes, such as bringing the residents' attention to the safety of the communities and promoting participation and coordination of stakeholders, should also be considered as important impacts of the community-based initiatives. PMID:26981341

  13. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers.

  14. A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: implications for health promotion and community development.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D

    2000-12-01

    Twenty community garden programs in upstate New York (representing 63 gardens) were surveyed to identify characteristics that may be useful to facilitate neighborhood development and health promotion. The most commonly expressed reasons for participating in gardens were access to fresh foods, to enjoy nature, and health benefits. Gardens in low-income neighborhoods (46%) were four times as likely as non low-income gardens to lead to other issues in the neighborhood being addressed; reportedly due to organizing facilitated through the community gardens. Additional research on community gardening can improve our understanding of the interaction of social and physical environments and community health, and effective strategies for empowerment, development, and health promotion. PMID:11027957

  15. Benefits of community-based education to the community in South African health science facilities

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science faculties worldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service to underserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits to training institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities, too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in the planning of such training programmes. Method An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken by three South African universities in the provinces of Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. Focus group interviews were conducted in their local languages with groups of community leaders, patients and supervisors at community sites involved in CBE training. A thematic analysis of their views was undertaken with the aid of NVivo (version 9). Ethics approval was obtained from the respective universities and health care training sites. Results Benefits to the community could be categorised into short-term and long-term benefits. Short-term benefits included improved service delivery, reduction in hospital referrals, home visits and community orientated primary health care, improved communication with patients and enhanced professionalism of the health care practitioner. Long-term benefits included improved teaching through a relationship with an academic institution and student familiarity with the health care system. Students also became involved in community upliftment projects, thereby acting as agents of change in these communities. Conclusion Communities can certainly benefit from well-planned CBE programmes involving a training site - community site partnership.

  16. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    PubMed

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described. PMID:11700659

  17. [Community financing for health care in Africa: mutual health insurance].

    PubMed

    Richard, V

    2005-01-01

    Health care in sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly financed by direct payments from the population. Mutual health insurance plans are developing to ensure better risk sharing. However mutual health insurance cannot fully resolve all equity issues. The low resources available for contribution and the limited availability of care services especially in the public sector cannot guarantee the quality of care necessary for the development of mutual health insurance. National governments must not forget their responsibility especially for defining and ensuring basic services that must be accessible to all. Will mutual health insurance plans be a stepping-stone to universal health care coverage and can these plans be successfully implemented in the context of an informal economy? PMID:15903084

  18. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff. PMID:12293893

  19. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Erin N.; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results. PMID:26829152

  20. Empowering Minority Communities with Health Information - WSSU

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, L. and W. Templin-Branner

    2010-11-10

    Environmental health focus with training conducted as part of the United Negro College Fund Special Programs Corporation/National Library of Medicine HBCU ACCESS Project at Winston-Salem State University, NC on November 10, 2010.

  1. The Neighborhood Health Exchange: Developing a Community Partnership in Residency

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Kimberly M.; Press, Valerie G.; Freed, Benjamin H.; Baker, Timothy; Tang, Joyce W.; Cohen, Julie C.; Laiteerapong, Neda; Alvarez, Kimberly; Schwartz, Mindy; Arora, Vineet M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current system of residency training focuses on the hospital setting, and resident exposure to the surrounding community is often limited. However, community interaction can play an important role in ambulatory training and in learning systems-based practice, a residency core competency. The goal of the Neighborhood Health Exchange was to develop a community partnership to provide internal medicine residents with an opportunity to interface with community members through a mutually beneficial educational experience. Methods Internal medicine residents received training during their ambulatory block and participated in a voluntary field practicum designed to engage community members in discussions about their health. Community members participated in education sessions led by resident volunteers. Results Resident volunteers completed a survey on their experiences. All residents stated that the opportunity to lead an exchange was very useful to their overall residency training. Eight exchanges were held with a total of 61 community participants, who completed a 3-question survey following the session. This survey asked about the level of material, the helpfulness of the exchanges, and opportunities for improvement. We received 46 completed surveys from community members: 91% stated that the material was presented “at the right level” and 93% stated that the presentations were somewhat or very helpful. Eighty percent gave positive and encouraging comments about the exchange. Conclusion Effective community partnerships involve assessing needs of the stakeholders, anticipating leadership turnover, and adapting the Neighborhood Health Exchange model to different groups. Community outreach can also enhance internal medicine ambulatory training experience, provide residents with patient counseling opportunities, and offer a novel method to enhance resident understanding of systems-based practice, especially within the larger community in which their

  2. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Community Association X X X 4 Yakutat 3A City of Yakutat X X X 7 3 N/A means there is not a governing body... Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and..., Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and Associated Areas Where a...

  3. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Yakutat X X X 7 3 N/A means there is not a governing body recognized in the community at this time. CHPs... Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and..., Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and Associated Areas Where a...

  4. Using photovoice to examine community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ndejjo, Rawlance; George, Asha

    2015-05-01

    Uganda continues to have poor maternal health indicators including a high maternal mortality ratio. This paper explores community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research approach, over a five-month period, ten young community members aged 18-29 years took photographs and analysed them, developing an understanding of the emerging issues and engaging in community dialogue on them. From the study, known health systems problems including inadequate transport, long distance to health facilities, long waiting times at facilities and poor quality of care were confirmed, but other aspects that needed to be addressed were also established. These included key gender-related determinants of maternal health, such as domestic violence, low contraceptive use and early teenage pregnancy, as well as problems of unclean water, poor sanitation and women's lack of income. Community members appreciated learning about the research findings precisely hence designing and implementing appropriate solutions to the problems identified because they could see photographs from their own local area. Photovoice's strength is in generating evidence by community members in ways that articulate their perspectives, support local action and allow direct communication with stakeholders. PMID:26278841

  5. Using Public Health and Community Partnerships to Reduce Density of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets — the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population — through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems. PMID:23578401

  6. Performance of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are one approach to addressing the health workforce crisis in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, a pioneer in this area, uses female volunteer CHWs as core workers in its health programs. After 25 years of implementing the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through its community-based mother, newborn and child health interventions. However, the program experienced suboptimal performance among CHWs, with a high percentage of them remaining in their positions but becoming "inactive", not truly participating in daily community health activities. This suggests a need to better understand the relative importance of factors affecting their active participation and to recommend strategies for improving their participation. This mixed-method study included a descriptive correlational design to assess factors relating to level of activity of CHWs and focus group discussions to explore solutions to these problems. A sample of 542 current female CHWs from project areas participated in the survey. Financial incentives were the main factor linked to the activity of CHWs. CHWs who thought that running their families would be difficult without CHW income had more than three times greater odds to become active. In addition, social prestige and positive community feedback to the CHWs were important non-financial factors associated with level of activity. In order to improve volunteer CHWs' performance, a combination of financial and non-financial incentives should be used. PMID:22595068

  7. Community participation for transformative action on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health (2016–2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  8. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  9. Partnering with Communities to Address the Mental Health Needs of Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Farmer, Mary Sue; Shue, Valorie M.; Blevins, Dean; Sullivan, Greer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many veterans who face mental illness and live in rural areas never obtain the mental health care they need. To address these needs, it is important to reach out to community stakeholders who are likely to have frequent interactions with veterans, particularly those returning from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Methods:…

  10. Disabled Village Children. A Guide for Community Health Workers, Rehabilitation Workers, and Families. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, David

    This heavily illustrated volume is a reference book intended to bring together basic information to help community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families in rural areas of developing countries meet the needs of village children with a wide range of disabilities. Part 1, "Working with the Child and Family," reviews the prevention of…

  11. Predictors and a Framework for Fostering Community Advocacy as a Community Health Worker Core Function to Eliminate Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Maia; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Schachter, Kenneth; Jacobs, Laurel; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Robinson, Laurie; Carvajal, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Using a mixed-method, participatory research approach, we investigated factors related to community health worker (CHW) community advocacy that affect social determinants of health. Methods. We used cross-sectional survey data for 371 CHWs to assess demographics, training, work environment, and leadership qualities on civic, political, and organizational advocacy. We present advocacy stories to further articulate CHW activities. The data reported are from the recently completed National Community Health Workers Advocacy Study. Results. CHWs are involved in advocacy that is community-focused, although advocacy differs by intrinsic leadership, experience, training, and work environment. We propose a framework to conceptualize, support, and evaluate CHW advocacy and the iterative processes they engage in. These processes create opportunities for community voice and action to affect social and structural conditions that are known to have wide-ranging health effects on communities. Conclusions. The framework presented may have utility for CHWs, their training programs, and their employers as well as funders and policymakers aiming to promote health equity. PMID:23678904

  12. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  13. Needs Assessment for Mobilization in Community Health Education: A Review and Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umble, Karl E.

    The Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) program was designed by the Centers for Disease Control as a tool to help communities plan, implement, and evaluate health promotion and health education programs. PATCH consists of three components: community mobilization, community diagnosis, and community intervention. The implementation of…

  14. Health care and end-of-life decisions: community engagement with adults in East Harlem.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Nathan A; Guadalupe, Erika; Lara, Luz; Alejandro, Maria

    2014-12-01

    This was a model of community engagement for a Hispanic population in East Harlem, New York City to assess health care decision-making processes, with a focus on end-of-life decisions, among older men and women. The design involved two senior center-based semi-structured focus groups conducted in Spanish and English followed by a series of bilingual skills-building workshops focusing on situational decision-making. All program aspects were conducted between April and June of 2013. The themes for the workshops included: "Getting the most from your pharmacist encounter;" "How to prepare for your primary care visit;" and "I am getting discharged from the hospital: what do I do?" For the two focus groups, 21 community members participated, each of whom self-identified as Hispanic or Latina/o. Ten common themes emerged from a two-stage/two coder, grounded theory-based qualitative analysis and included: Where Community Members Receive Care; General Challenges, Cultural Challenges, and Benefits of Health Care in New York City/East Harlem; Key Facilitators in Health Care Decision Making; Key Facilitators in End-of-Life Decision Making; and Perceptions of Health Care Disparity. Themes and their subcategories, discussed herein, may offer guidance for area health providers and health care delivery entities. This project served as formative, qualitative data collection for a larger scale forthcoming community assessment while offering community benefit related to health decision-making, especially end-of-life decision making, in the context of a rapidly changing urban American health care delivery landscape. Application of this synergistic community benefit and data collection model is recommended for similar and other communities in the U.S. and other countries. PMID:25108424

  15. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Background The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health-worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors’ hours. PMID:26245391

  16. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  17. Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  18. Community participation in a rural community health trust: the case of Lawrence, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Rachel; Gauld, Robin

    2003-09-01

    Since the mid-1980s, the New Zealand health sector has been in a state of continual change. The most radical changes were in the early-1990s, with the creation of an internal market system for public health care delivery. Rural health services, seen to be unviable, were given the option of establishing themselves as 'community trusts', owning and running their own services. Community trusts have since become a feature of rural health care in New Zealand. An expectation was that community trusts would facilitate community participation. This article reports on a study of participation in a rural community health trust. The 'pentagram model' of Rifkin and coworkers, with its five dimensions of participation-needs assessment, leadership, resource mobilization, management and organization-was applied. High levels of participation were found across each of these dimensions. The research revealed additional dimensions that could be added to the framework, including 'sustainability of participation', 'equity in participation' and 'the dynamic socio-political context'. In this regard, it supports recent theoretical work by Laverack (2001) and Laverack and Wallerstein (2001). Finally, the article comments on the future of rural health trusts in the current round of health sector restructuring. PMID:12920139

  19. [A method of education at a distance for nurses' aides in the community area of Guatemala].

    PubMed

    García Pastor de Domínguez, E; Robles de Sandoval, A; Martínez Chopen, O

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe in detail a self-tutorial system that has been used for some ten years in Guatemala to train auxiliary nursing personnel. This model addressed both training and service objectives, and it proved to be consistent with a health policy of integrating teaching and service which the country was implementing at the time. The system involved a national effort to develop self-tutorial units and materials on basic subjects such as nursing procedures, mother and child health, first aid, management, guided therapy, community development and health education. Materials were divided into three categories: for self-tutorial instruction, for recording, supervision and evaluation, and for coordination and feedback within the system. Lastly, greater detail is given on the functions and tasks performed at the different levels of staff involved in managing the system, and the mechanisms which were implemented in the country's health areas are described. PMID:3168883

  20. Iran's disaster risk: now is the time for community-based public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-10-01

    The Bandar Bushehr, Iran earthquake of April 9, 2013 gravely illustrates how disaster-prone areas of the world are compounding their risk of disaster and major public health emergencies when there is a geographical convergence of natural and technological hazards. Scientists must emphasize to policy makers that ever-increasing regional industrialization and the broader introduction of nuclear facilities, especially in the Middle East, must parallel sound prevention and community-level public health preparedness planning. PMID:23962385

  1. Public health preparedness of health providers: meeting the needs of diverse, rural communities.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Mas, Francisco Soto; Jacobson, Holly E.; Harris, Ann Marie; Hunt, Victoria I.; Nkhoma, Ella T.

    2006-01-01

    Meeting the needs of public health emergency and response presents a unique challenge for health practitioners with primary responsibilities for rural communities that are often very diverse. The present study assessed the language capabilities, confidence and training needs of Texas rural physicians in responding to public health emergencies. In the first half of year 2004, a cross-sectional, semistructured survey questionnaire was administered in northern, rural Texas. The study population consisted of 841 practicing or retired physicians in the targeted area. One-hundred-sixty-six physicians (30%) responded to the survey. The responses were geographically referenced in maps. Respondents reported seeing patients with diverse cultural backgrounds. They communicated in 16 different languages other than English in clinical practice or at home, with 40% speaking Spanish at work. Most were not confident in the diagnosis or treatment of public health emergency cases. Geographic information systems were found useful in identifying those jurisdictions with expressed training and cultural needs. Additional efforts should be extended to involve African-American/Hispanic physicians in preparedness plans for providing culturally and linguistically appropriate care in emergencies. PMID:17128688

  2. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463

  3. The urban and community health pathway: preparing socially responsive physicians through community-engaged learning.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Linda N; Young, Staci A; Meurer, John R; Johnson, Sheri L; Gilbert, Ileen A; Diehr, Sabina

    2011-10-01

    One of five options for the new required Medical College of Wisconsin Pathways program, the Urban and Community Health Pathway (UCHP), links training with community needs and assets to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide effective care in urban, underserved settings; promote community health; and reduce health disparities. Students spend at least 10 hours per month on pathway activities: 4 hours of core material delivered through readings, didactics, case discussions, and site visits; and at least 6 hours of experiential noncore activities applying core competencies, guided by an Individualized Learning Plan and faculty advisor. Noncore activities include community-engaged research, service-learning activities or other relevant experiences, and submission of a synthesis paper addressing pathway competencies. The first cohort of students began their pathways in January 2010. Of 560 participating students, 95 (of which 48 were first-year, 21 second-year, and 26 third-year students) selected UCHP. Core sessions focused on public health, social determinants, cultural humility, poverty, the local healthcare system, and safety net. During noncore time, students engaged in projects addressing homelessness, obesity, advocacy, Hmong and Latino health, HIV, asthma, and violence prevention. Students enjoyed working with peers across classes and favored interactive, community-based sessions over didactics in the classroom. Students' papers reflected a range of service and scholarly activities and a deepened appreciation of social and economic influences on health. The UCHP enriches the traditional curriculum with individualized, community-based experiences to build knowledge about health determinants and skills in partnering with communities to improve health. PMID:21961669

  4. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context. PMID:26163020

  5. Empowering Minority Communities with Health Information - UDC

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, L.; R. Foster; and R. Womble

    2010-11-02

    Training update with Environmental a health focus. Training conducted as part of the United Negro College Fund Special Programs Corporation/National Library of Medicine - HBCU ACCESS Project at the University of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC on November 2, 2010.

  6. Community Health Resource Training for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Elizabeth L.; Schrader, David C.

    This paper applies concepts from intercultural communication theory, adult learning theory, and traditional Native American medicine to a specific learning experience for Native Americans. The background is an educational opportunity offered by the Indian Health Services Bureau to tribe members to become employed on their reservations as Health…

  7. Community-based organizations in the health sector: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael G; Lavis, John N; Guta, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry.We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks).Given the range of terms used to describe community

  8. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks). Given the range of terms used to describe community

  9. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  10. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  11. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  12. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  13. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  14. Navajo Area Health and Physical Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomah, Kent; And Others

    Based on health education needs of Navajo children as established by the Navajo Area health and physical education committees, this curriculum guideline for health and physical education is delineated into three phases reflecting emphasis of instructional techniques (introductory, exploration/extended learning, widened learning) and three levels…

  15. The Chinese community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient comprehensively evaluated community medical service to generate life satisfaction. So this study was set up to test whether and to what extent the community patient’s assessments of various major aspects of community medical service/various major aspects of the community patient’s trust in community health delivery system influenced life satisfaction in whole China/in various regions of China. Methods In order to explore the situation of China’s community health delivery system before 2009 and provide a reference for China’s community health delivery system reform, the data that could comprehensively and accurately reflect the community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system in various regions of China was needed, so this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a large-scale 2008 national community resident household survey (N = 3,306) for the first time in China. And the specified ordered probit models were established to analyze the dataset from this household survey. Results Among major aspects of community medical service, the medical cost (particularly in developed regions), the doctor-patient communication (particularly in developed regions), the medical facility and hospital environment (particularly in developed regions), and the medical treatment process (particularly in underdeveloped regions) were all key considerations (p<0.05 for t statistics) in

  16. Primary Health Care and partnerships: collaboration of a community agency, health department, and university nursing program.

    PubMed

    Leonard, L G

    1998-03-01

    Health care reform proposals emphasize health care that is essential, practical, scientifically sound, coordinated, accessible, appropriately delivered, and affordable. One route to achievement of improved health outcomes within these parameters is the formation of partnerships. Partnerships adopting the philosophy and five principles of Primary Health Care (PHC) focus on health promotion and prevention of illness and disability, maximum community participation, accessibility to health and health services, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration, and use of appropriate technologies such as resources and strategies. A community service agency serving a multicultural population initiated a partnership with a health department and a university undergraduate nursing program. The result was a preschool health fair and there were benefits for each partner-benefits which could not have been realized without the collaboration. The health fair partnership planning, implementation, and evaluation process was guided by a framework shaped by the philosophy and five principles of PHC. The educational process described can be applied to other learning experiences where the goal is to help students understand and apply the concepts of PHC, develop myriad nursing competencies, and form collaborative relationships with the community and health agencies. Community health care dilemmas and nursing education challenges can be successfully addressed when various disciplines and sectors form effective partnerships. PMID:9535233

  17. Community health politics: transition of the Seattle USPHS Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R G; Tompkins, R K

    1984-01-01

    To achieve transition of the Seattle US Public Health Service Hospital from federal to local control, the community overcame large obstacles; the most difficult was federal preference for closing the hospital rather than incurring additional costs essential for transition. The Washington State Congressional Delegation, local officials, hospital staff, patients and numerous community volunteers--individuals and private organizations--worked together to save the hospital and secure federal resources for its transition. Going through the transition influenced the hospital as it developed a new corporate structure, designed new administrative systems, and prepared to operate in a new environment while facing an uncertain future. The hospital has continued to cope with issues arising from transition, such as operating in a competitive context while reaffirming its community service heritage. Despite the difficulties of transition, Seattle preserved a valuable community health resource. PMID:6547029

  18. Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing: community-based and public health prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Barbara J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Lira, Maria Teresa; Meininger, Janet C; Pradhan, Sala Ray; Sikkema, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Policy changes are necessary to promote cardiovascular disease prevention. These will involve community-based and public health initiatives for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we discuss such interventions, community-based participatory research that has been conducted in this area, and implications for capacity building in genetics research. Finally, areas for future research in this area will be identified. PMID:21659811

  19. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Patro, Binod Kumar; Verma, Himbala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009–2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members) to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369) whereas weighted kappa (0.504) was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs. PMID:26985413

  20. The Interface of School, Community, and Health Care Reform: Organizational Directions toward Effective Services for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of reform have been under national scrutiny: school reform, community services reform, and health-care reform. Few have discussed how these three areas interface and can be organized toward more effective services for children and youth. Describes organizational and planning methodology that coordinates these three reform areas into a…

  1. Exploring the meaning of context for health: Community influences on child health in South India

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Much research attention has been devoted to community context and health. Communities are often defined as residential spaces, such as neighborhoods, or as social groupings, such as caste in India. Using data from a group of tea estates in South India, we attempt to address important methodological challenges in the identification of neighborhood effects on child health. We find significant neighborhood effects for weight for age at age one, including a protective role for community-level women's education, but none for birth weight. In contrast to the usual pattern in rural India, caste disparities in child health are also eliminated in this setting. PMID:25484619

  2. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  3. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    PubMed Central

    Garner, James A.; Ahmad, H. Anwar; Dacus, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass), kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL) and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI), which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001). Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002). Mass and conception date (CD) were affected (P ≤ 0.001) by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001) and CD (P < 0.04). Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer. PMID:21776246

  4. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories From Local Communities

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. METHODS Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. RESULTS The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. CONCLUSIONS To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. PMID:26440823

  5. Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers. PMID:17934576

  6. A new light on the community health fund--effective political support for a community essential drug project in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Umenai, T; Hamada, A; Takeuchi, M

    2000-01-01

    This report sheds new light on the development of a community health fund through the implementation of a community essential drug project, and its impact on the improvement of primary health care at the community level. The experience of community drug funds in Vietnam, supported by a strong government commitment, in which full delegation of authority on the management of drugs and finances is given to the community along with a measure for tax exemptions for drug fund revenues, provides a significant example of an autonomous community with active participation of people and effective resource mobilization, that is leading to the improvement of community health. PMID:11200220

  7. Governing board and management staff attitudes toward community mental health center citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, R; Fiester, A

    1979-01-01

    The present study investigated the attitudes and values of community and mental health center board and management staff of four Community Mental Health Centers and one mental health clinic toward the recent federal mandate calling for increased citizen involvement in center evaluation activities. Three related areas were address: (a) general attitudes toward citizen participation, (b) types of program-evaluation activities in which citizen input would be most useful; and (c) types of individuals who would best serve on citizen review groups. The results indicated that although board members are somewhat more optimistic about benefits received from citizen involvement, overall there was close agreement between the board and staff respondents in the three areas studied. These results were interpreted as substantiating the view that community mental health center boards typically reflect a provider orientation in their approach to mental health governance. A missing evaluation component in most centers is citizen participation as it reflects the values of its service consumers. It is advocated that only by developing consumer participation mechanisms will centers more readily achieve the goal of responsiveness to community needs. PMID:535338

  8. Reimagining community health psychology: maps, journeys and new terrains.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2014-01-01

    This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health. PMID:24000383

  9. [Therapeutic communities: "new" outlooks and public health proposals].

    PubMed

    Bolonheis-Ramos, Renata Cristina Marques; Boarini, Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Problems related to alcohol and other substance abuse are on a steady rise. Certain controversial measures currently aim at immediate solutions, such as the public funding of therapeutic communities. The article draws comparisons between the legacy of early twentieth-century public health practices in psychoactive substance abuse and current proposals for intervention through therapeutic communities. The study researched primary sources from the perspective of historical materialism. Historically produced by society as a whole, problems stemming from substance abuse continue to place the greatest burden on users, the people around them, and public health. PMID:26625916

  10. Salaries in Community Health Agencies--1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents the National League of Nursings' annual report of salaries of registered nurses employed by official and nonofficial agencies and boards of education; data is given for type of agency, position classification, geographic area, population size, and other personnel. (Editor/TA)

  11. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  12. Helminth communities of fish as ecological indicators of lake health.

    PubMed

    Shah, Humaira Bashir; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals largely with the dynamics and changes in the helminth parasite communities of fish along the trophic gradient of lakes. The use of parasitological community data as a bioindicator of environmental health underlines the need to study parasite communities at comparable localities with known pollution levels. The comparison of the conditions in different habitats might be helpful to differentiate between normal fluctuations in ambient conditions and pollution-mediated effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the community structure of parasites in snow trout (Schizothorax niger Heckel) inhabiting 3 lakes of contrasting trophic status in Kashmir. The idea of selecting the lakes, namely Anchar (strongly hypereutrophic), Dal (eutrophic) and Manasbal (mesotrophic) for this study was intentional as they depict different trophic gradients and exhibit the desirable pattern which was a prerequisite for this study. The findings presented in this article suggest an apparent lake-wise gradient in community structure, as the increase in trematode and cestode infections in Anchar was markedly greater, to levels clearly distinguishable from those in the other two water bodies. We conclude that human-induced eutrophication of lakes modifies the parasite community at component level and community-level studies on parasites may provide information on health status of lakes. PMID:23127258

  13. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them. PMID:22360000

  14. One Health profile of a community at the wildlife-domestic animal interface, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berrian, Amanda M; van Rooyen, Jacques; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Knobel, Darryn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Wilkes, Michael S; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    We used a community engagement approach to develop a One Health profile of an agro-pastoralist population at the interface of wildlife areas in eastern South Africa. Representatives from 262 randomly-selected households participated in an in-person, cross-sectional survey. Questions were designed to ascertain the participants' knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human health, domestic animal health, and natural resources including wildlife and water. Surveys were conducted within four selected villages by a team of trained surveyors and translators over four weeks in July-August 2013. Questions were a combination of multiple choice (single answer), multiple selection, open-ended, and Likert scale. The study found that nearly three-quarters of all households surveyed reported owning at least one animal (55% owned chickens, 31% dogs, 25% cattle, 16% goats, 9% cats, and 5% pigs). Among the animal-owning respondents, health concerns identified included dissatisfaction with government-run cattle dip facilities (97%) and frequent morbidity and mortality of chickens that had clinical signs consistent with Newcastle disease (49%). Sixty-one percent of participants believed that diseases of animals could be transmitted to humans. Ninety-six percent of respondents desired greater knowledge about animal diseases. With regard to human health issues, the primary barrier to health care access was related to transportation to/from the community health clinics. Environmental health issues revealed by the survey included disparities by village in drinking water reliability and frequent domiciliary rodent sightings positively associated with increased household size and chicken ownership. Attitudes towards conservation were generally favorable; however, the community demonstrated a strong preference for a dichotomous approach to wildlife management, one that separated wildlife from humans. Due to the location of the community, which neighbors the Great Limpopo

  15. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  16. Health informatics and community health: support for patients as collaborators in care.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P F

    1999-12-01

    Health informatics has much to offer community health care. Computer networks and telecommunications provide particular support that can enhance the collaboration among clinicians, care providers and patients. Special-purpose computer tools referred to as Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) represent the application of computer and information technologies specifically to support the health information and communication needs of patients and lay persons. Research projects like ComputerLink and CHESS demonstrate that CHI is acceptable to patients and promotes self-care and disease management. Three grand challenges must be faced to insure realization of the promise of health informatics to community health care: development of knowledge management and information discovery tools for patients, insurance of health information literacy for all persons, and re-engineering clinical practice to capitalize on patients as full partners in health care. PMID:10805012

  17. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National Health Service Corps sites. 124.515 Section 124.515 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES...

  18. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  19. Comparison of health conditions treated with traditional and biomedical health care in a Quechua community in rural Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Vandebroek, Ina; Thomas, Evert; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick; Puyvelde, Luc Van; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to reveal patterns in the treatment of health conditions in a Quechua-speaking community in the Bolivian Andes based on plant use data from traditional healers and patient data from a primary health care (PHC) service, and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the type of illnesses treated with traditional and biomedical health care, respectively. Methods A secondary analysis of plant use data from semi-structured interviews with eight healers was conducted and diagnostic data was collected from 324 patients in the community PHC service. Health conditions were ranked according to: (A) the percentage of patients in the PHC service diagnosed with these conditions; and (B) the citation frequency of plant use reports to treat these conditions by healers. Healers were also queried about the payment modalities they offer to their patients. Results Plant use reports from healers yielded 1166 responses about 181 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 67 different health conditions, ranging from general symptoms (e.g. fever and body pain), to more specific ailments, such as arthritis, biliary colic and pneumonia. The results show that treatment offered by traditional medicine overlaps with biomedical health care in the case of respiratory infections, wounds and bruises, fever and biliary colic/cholecystitis. Furthermore, traditional health care appears to be complementary to biomedical health care for chronic illnesses, especially arthritis, and for folk illnesses that are particularly relevant within the local cultural context. Payment from patients to healers included flexible, outcome contingent and non-monetary options. Conclusion Traditional medicine in the study area is adaptive because it corresponds well with local patterns of morbidity, health care needs in relation to chronic illnesses, cultural perceptions of health conditions and socio-economic aspects of health care. The quantitative

  20. A role for community health promoters in tuberculosis control in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herce, Michael E; Chapman, Jacob A; Castro, Arachu; García-Salyano, Gabriel; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a qualitative study employing structured interviews with 38 community health workers, known as health promoters, from twelve rural municipalities of Chiapas, Mexico in order to characterize their work and identify aspects of their services that would be applicable to community-based tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Health promoters self-identify as being of Mayan Indian ethnicity. Most are bilingual, speaking Spanish and one of four indigenous Mayan languages native to Chiapas. They volunteer 11 h each week to conduct clinical and public health work in their communities. Over half (53%) work with a botiquín, a medicine cabinet stocked with essential medicines. Fifty-three percent identify TB as a major problem affecting the health of their communities, with one-fifth (21%) of promoters reporting experience caring for patients with known or suspected TB and 29% having attended to patients with hemoptysis. One-third of health promoters have access to antibiotics (32%) and one-half have experience with their administration; 55% complement their biomedical treatments with traditional Mayan medicinal plant therapies in caring for their patients. We describe how health promoters employ both traditional and allopathic medicine to treat the symptoms and diseases they encounter most frequently which include fever, diarrhea, and parasitic infections. We contend that given the complex sociopolitical climate in Chiapas and the state's unwavering TB epidemic and paucity of health care infrastructure in rural areas, efforts to implement comprehensive, community-based TB control would benefit from employing the services of health promoters. PMID:20033836

  1. Community Health, Community Involvement, and Community Empowerment: Too Much to Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Lynne; Broughton, Sandra; Bassett-Smith, Joan; Aasen, Wendy; Oostindie, Madeleine; Marino, Betty Anne; Hewitt, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The Primary Prevention of Cancer Program at the British Columbia Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior (BCCA-CSI), known as the Waddell Project, is now five years old and currently is in partnership with fourteen regional communities. Each of these communities has a range of community-developed programs currently in place. The driving…

  2. Experiences of a health team working in a new urban settlement area in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Bulut, A; Uzel, N; Kutluay, T; Neyzi, O

    1991-10-01

    A project aiming at creating a model for comprehensive maternal and child health care for urban underdeveloped areas was started in a new settlement area of migrants in the vicinity of Istanbul. The project had an impact on health care status, particularly among infants and children, but the results indicated that more effort was needed to reach the mothers. It was noted that building space and the appearance of the work place influenced the prestige of the team. Absentee problems could be partly surmounted by repeated home visits. Based on this experience, it was concluded that health services in underdeveloped areas need to be supported by non medical personnel to act as home visitors and as mediators between the community and the health team. It was also concluded that an established recording system to include both clinical data and attendance is needed to define the cases who need special care. PMID:1955576

  3. Migrant Farmworkers in the Oak Orchard Health Service Area. A Descriptive Profile and Assessment of Health Care Needs and Economic Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Regional Economic Assistance Center.

    Interviews with 160 solo individuals and 293 family members revealed demographic characteristics, health care status and needs, and income and spending patterns of migrant farmworkers in the Oak Orchard Community Health Center (New York) service area during 1983. Findings showed that the migrant population was estimated at 1,089 workers and…

  4. Boundary spanning and health: invitation to a learning community.

    PubMed

    Aungst, Heide; Ruhe, Mary; Stange, Kurt C; Allan, Terry M; Borawski, Elaine A; Drummond, Colin K; Fischer, Robert L; Fry, Ronald; Kahana, Eva; Lalumandier, James A; Mehlman, Maxwell; Moore, Shirley M

    2012-01-01

    Boundaries, which are essential for the healthy functioning of individuals and organisations, can become problematic when they limit creative thought and action. In this article, we present a framework for promoting health across boundaries and summarise preliminary insights from experience, conversations and reflection on how the process of boundary spanning may affect health. Boundary spanning requires specific individual qualities and skills. It can be facilitated or thwarted by organisational context. Boundary spanning often involves risk, but may reap abundant rewards. Boundary spanning is necessary to optimise health and health care. Exploring the process, the landscape and resources that enable boundary spanning may yield new opportunities for advancing health. We invite boundary spanners to join in a learning community to advance understanding and health. PMID:26265946

  5. Going "all in" to transform the Tulsa community's health and health care workforce.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Gerard P; Duffy, F Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Oklahoma's health status ranks among the lowest of the states', yet many Oklahomans oppose the best-known aspects of federal health reform legislation. To address this situation, the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine's School of Community Medicine in Tulsa adopted an "all-in," fully committed approach to transform the Tulsa region's health care delivery system and health care workforce teaching environment by leading community-wide initiatives that took advantage of lesser-known health reform provisions. Medical school leaders shared a vision of improved health for the region with a focus on equity in care for underserved populations. They engaged Tulsa stakeholders to implement health system changes to improve care access, quality, and efficiency. A partnership between payers, providers, and health systems transformed primary care practices into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) and instituted both community-wide care coordination and a regional health information exchange. To emphasize the importance of these new approaches to improving the health of an entire community, the medical school began to transform the teaching environment by adding several interdependent experiences. These included an annual interdisciplinary summer institute in which students and faculty from across the university could explore firsthand the social determinants of health as well as student-run PCMH clinics for the uninsured to teach systems-based practice, team-based learning, and health system improvement. The authors share lessons learned from these collaborations. They conclude that working across competitive boundaries and going all in are necessary to improve the health of a community. PMID:24128637

  6. Studying Mind-Body Health at Community Colleges: Toward a Comprehensive Understanding of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Barry S., Ed.

    This publication addresses the field of mind-body health and examines ways in which the study of connections between our minds and bodies might be integrated into the community college curriculum. It includes suggestions for community college leaders; offers three background papers that introduce and elaborate on the meaning of mind-body health…

  7. Women's Health Leadership to Enhance Community Health Workers as Change Agents.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Chang, Jean; Kunz, Susan; Piper, Rosie; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Strawder, Kay

    2016-05-01

    Objectives A community health worker (CHW) is a frontline public health worker who is a trusted member of and/or has an unusually close understanding of the community served. While natural leadership may incline individuals to the CHW profession, they do not always have skills to address broad social issues. We describe evaluation of the Women's Health Leadership Institute (WHLI), a 3-year training initiative to increase the capacity of CHWs as change agents. Methods Pre-/postquestionnaires measured the confidence of 254 participants in mastering WHLI leadership competencies. In-depth interviews with CHW participants 6 to 9 months after the training documented application of WHLI competencies in the community. A national CHW survey measured the extent to which WHLI graduates used leadership skills that resulted in concrete changes to benefit community members. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for covariates compared WHLI graduates' leadership skills to the national sample. Results Participants reported statistically significant pre-/postimprovements in all competencies. Interviewees credited WHLI with increasing their capacity to listen to others, create partnerships, and initiate efforts to address community needs. Compared to a national CHW sample, WHLI participants were more likely to engage community members in attending public meetings and organizing events. These activities led to community members taking action on an issue and a concrete policy change. Conclusions Leadership training can increase the ability of experienced CHWs to address underlying issues related to community health across different types of organizational affiliations and job responsibilities. PMID:27440785

  8. Mental Health Services for Children; Focus: The Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health.

    The need to help the emotionally disturbed is discussed with a focus on community mental health centers. Psychiatric services described are diagnosis, inpatient care, day care, outpatient care, emergency care, continuity of care and services, and care adjusted to age groupings ranging from infancy to adolescence. Aspects of the community goal of…

  9. VisOHC: Designing Visual Analytics for Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina; Yi, Ji Soo

    2015-01-01

    Through online health communities (OHCs), patients and caregivers exchange their illness experiences and strategies for overcoming the illness, and provide emotional support. To facilitate healthy and lively conversations in these communities, their members should be continuously monitored and nurtured by OHC administrators. The main challenge of OHC administrators' tasks lies in understanding the diverse dimensions of conversation threads that lead to productive discussions in their communities. In this paper, we present a design study in which three domain expert groups participated, an OHC researcher and two OHC administrators of online health communities, which was conducted to find with a visual analytic solution. Through our design study, we characterized the domain goals of OHC administrators and derived tasks to achieve these goals. As a result of this study, we propose a system called VisOHC, which visualizes individual OHC conversation threads as collapsed boxes–a visual metaphor of conversation threads. In addition, we augmented the posters' reply authorship network with marks and/or beams to show conversation dynamics within threads. We also developed unique measures tailored to the characteristics of OHCs, which can be encoded for thread visualizations at the users' requests. Our observation of the two administrators while using VisOHC showed that it supports their tasks and reveals interesting insights into online health communities. Finally, we share our methodological lessons on probing visual designs together with domain experts by allowing them to freely encode measurements into visual variables. PMID:26529688

  10. VisOHC: Designing Visual Analytics for Online Health Communities.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    Through online health communities (OHCs), patients and caregivers exchange their illness experiences and strategies for overcoming the illness, and provide emotional support. To facilitate healthy and lively conversations in these communities, their members should be continuously monitored and nurtured by OHC administrators. The main challenge of OHC administrators' tasks lies in understanding the diverse dimensions of conversation threads that lead to productive discussions in their communities. In this paper, we present a design study in which three domain expert groups participated, an OHC researcher and two OHC administrators of online health communities, which was conducted to find with a visual analytic solution. Through our design study, we characterized the domain goals of OHC administrators and derived tasks to achieve these goals. As a result of this study, we propose a system called VisOHC, which visualizes individual OHC conversation threads as collapsed boxes-a visual metaphor of conversation threads. In addition, we augmented the posters' reply authorship network with marks and/or beams to show conversation dynamics within threads. We also developed unique measures tailored to the characteristics of OHCs, which can be encoded for thread visualizations at the users' requests. Our observation of the two administrators while using VisOHC showed that it supports their tasks and reveals interesting insights into online health communities. Finally, we share our methodological lessons on probing visual designs together with domain experts by allowing them to freely encode measurements into visual variables. PMID:26529688

  11. Role for Occupational Therapy in Community Mental Health: Using Policy to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed. PMID:26115330

  12. Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in the Community: Task-sharing Between Male and Female Health Workers in an Indian Rural Context

    PubMed Central

    Elazan, Sara J; Higgins-Steele, Ariel E; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Rosenthal, Mila H; Rout, Dharitri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male community health workers (CHWs) have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs) coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care. PMID:26917871

  13. Addressing Health Disparities in the Mental Health of Refugee Children and Adolescents Through Community-Based Participatory Research: A Study in 2 Communities

    PubMed Central

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Mishra, Tej; Hussein, Aweis; Falzarano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to understand the problems, strengths, and help-seeking behaviors of Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees and determine local expressions of mental health problems among youths in both communities. Methods. We used qualitative research methods to develop community needs assessments and identify local terms for child mental health problems among Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees in Greater Boston and Springfield, Massachusetts, between 2011 and 2014. A total of 56 Somali Bantu and 93 Bhutanese refugees participated in free list and key informant interviews. Results. Financial and language barriers impeded the abilities of families to assist youths who were struggling academically and socially. Participants identified resources both within and outside the refugee community to help with these problems. Both communities identified areas of distress corresponding to Western concepts of conduct disorders, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. There are numerous challenges faced by Somali Bantu and Bhutanese youths, as well as strengths and resources that promote resilience. Future steps include using culturally informed methods for identifying those in need of services and developing community-based prevention programs. PMID:25905818

  14. Partnering to enhance mental health care capacity in communities

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrea L.; Gardner, David M.; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Naylor, Ted; Kutcher, Stan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community pharmacists care for and support people with lived experience of mental illness in their communities. We developed a program called More Than Meds to facilitate enhancing capacity of community pharmacists’ roles in mental health care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study and used a directed content analysis with application of the Theoretical Domains Framework as part of our underlying theory of behaviour change and our analytic framework. Results: Ten interviews (n = 6 pharmacists, n = 4 community members) were conducted with participants from the More Than Meds program. Three key themes were identified from the experiences of More Than Meds participants: networking and bridging, stigma, and expectations and permissions. The most frequently coded domains in the data from the Theoretical Domains Framework were social/professional role, skills, beliefs about capabilities, knowledge and environmental context and resources. Conclusions: The More than Meds Program enabled community pharmacists to increase their capabilities, opportunities and motivation in providing mental health care and support. Involving community pharmacists together with people with lived experience of mental illness was identified as an innovative component of the program. PMID:26600823

  15. 78 FR 20523 - Community Health Needs Assessments for Charitable Hospitals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130266-11; 77 FR 38148) (``2012 proposed regulations'') that contains... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 53 RIN 1545-BL30 Community Health Needs Assessments for Charitable Hospitals AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  16. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  17. The Community Mental Health Center Movement: A Social Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David L.; Newton, Peter M.

    A sociopsychological approach is applied to social systems in examining the community mental health center movement. The interrelated concepts of task(s), social structure, culture, and social process help explicate the overwhelming emphasis on direct clinical service at the cost of indirect service. The historical evolution of the task-mandate…

  18. Lessons Learned from the Uniontown Community Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Mary Ann; Cornell, Carol E.; Dignan, Mark; Brownstein, J. Nell; Raczynski, James M.; Stalker, Varena G.; McDuffie, Kathleen Y.; Greene, Paul G.; Sanderson, Bonnie; Struempler, Barbara Jo.

    2002-01-01

    Examines lessons learned from a 5-year project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted community health advisor-based intervention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among older, rural, African American women. Data from observations surveys, and discussion groups highlight six lessons (e.g., establish personal working…

  19. Community-Based Social Marketing: Involvement in Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Frank L.; Clarke, Leslie L.; Flocks, Joan D.; Bryant, Carol A.; Romund, Camilla S.; Albrecht, Stan L.

    2002-01-01

    Two community-based projects employed social marketing to design and implement interventions to promote health. The Arkansas project involved key informant interviews, actuarial analysis, citizen and student surveys, and participant observation. The Florida approach included focus groups and provider, worker, and employer surveys. (Contains 25…

  20. New Counselors' Experiences of Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freadling, Amy H.; Foss-Kelly, Louisa L.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored 6 new counselors' experiences working in community mental health centers and their experiences of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-accredited training received in preparation for such work. Three themes from the interviews were identified to provide implications…

  1. Elementary School Counselors' Collaboration with Community Mental Health Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Kristen; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions and experiences of elementary school counselors' collaborative efforts with community mental health providers are examined through this exploratory phenomenological study. Ten participants engaged in two in-depth interviews. Collaboration was considered an effective way to increase services to students and their families. Six themes…

  2. Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This task-oriented manual for the training of community health workers in nutrition presents information and instructions in two parts. The first part consists of three chapters. The first chapter introduces the guidelines; the second deals with teaching skills and is intended to improve teaching. The third chapter presents some basic facts about…

  3. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system. PMID:26262379

  4. Steps, challenges and lessons in developing community mental health care

    PubMed Central

    THORNICROFT, GRAHAM; TANSELLA, MICHELE; LAW, ANN

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our own accumulated experience from developing community-orientated mental health services in England and Italy over the last 20-30 years. From this we have provisionally concluded that the following issues are central to the development of balanced mental health services: a) services need to reflect the priorities of service users and carers; b) evidence supports the need for both hospital and community services; c) services need to be provided close to home; d) some services need to be mobile rather than static; e) interventions need to address both symptoms and disabilities; and f) treatment has to be specific to individual needs. In this paper we consider ten key challenges that often face those trying to develop community-based mental health services: a) dealing with anxiety and uncertainty; b) compensating for a possible lack of structure in community services; c) learning how to initiate new developments; d) managing opposition to change within the mental health system; e) responding to opposition from neighbours; f) negotiating financial obstacles; g) avoiding system rigidities; h) bridging boundaries and barriers; i) maintaining staff morale; and j) creating locally relevant ser- vices rather than seeking “the right answer” from elsewhere. PMID:18560483

  5. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  6. Management of Communication Channels for Health Information in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvatanakul, Vasuton; Amado, Joao; Saowakontha, Sastri

    2007-01-01

    Object: To investigate channels for communication of health information to various groups in the community. Design: An exploratory cross sectional design was used, followed by focus groups of selected participants to confirm and clarify the findings. Setting: Five levels of sub-district administration organizations were selected from different…

  7. Empowerment and Health: The Theory and Practice of Community Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nina

    1993-01-01

    Empowerment as social action addresses lack of control by enhancing participation in community action. An alcohol and substance abuse prevention program for New Mexico adolescents used Freire's problem posing and critical thinking philosophy and methods to empower young people to change their health behavior. (SK)

  8. A Role for Community HealthCorps Members in Youth HIV/AIDS Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Leslie A.; Ulmer, Cheryl; Chimnani, Jaya

    2003-01-01

    Community HealthCorps members working in community health centers provided HIV/AIDS prevention education to youth as part of their community service work. After HealthCorps members received training in the curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, they recruited youth from their communities to complete the program, offering prevention education which…

  9. Seagrass colonization: Knock-on effects on zoobenthic community, populations and individual health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu Do, V.; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Lavesque, Nicolas; Blanchet, Hugues; Guyard, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    This study provided evidence that Zostera noltii presence affects macrofauna community structure independently from median sediment grain-size and that the notion of ecosystem health is rather subjective: in the present case, we recorded "good health" in terms of seagrass development, "no impact" in terms of macrobenthic biotic indices and "negative effect" for a given key-population. The occurrence and development of a Z. noltii seagrass bed was surveyed at Banc d'Arguin, Arcachon Bay (France), to estimate the modification of the macrozoobenthic community and of the dynamics of a key-population for the local ecosystem, - the cockle Cerastoderma edule. Even though median grain-size of the sediment decreased only at the very end of the survey, i.e. when seagrass totally invaded the area, most of the macrofauna community characteristics (such as abundance and biomass) increased as soon as Z. noltii patches appeared. The structure of the macrofauna community also immediately diverged between sand and seagrass habitats, without however modifying the tested biotic indices (BENTIX, BOPA, AMBI). The health of the cockle population (growth, abundance, recruitment) was impacted by seagrass development. Related parasite communities slowly diverged between habitats, with more parasites in the cockles from seagrass areas. However, the number of parasites per cockle was always insufficient to alter cockle fitness.

  10. Body perceptions and health behaviors in an online bodybuilding community.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In this article we explore the social constructions, body perceptions, and health experiences of a serious recreational and competitive bodybuilder and powerlifter community. Data were obtained from a discussion forum appearing within an online community dedicated to muscular development. Forum postings for a period of 36 months were transposed to QSR NVivo, in which a narrative-based analytical method employing Gee's coding approach was employed. We used a priori codes based on Bourdieu's multipronged conceptual categories of social field, habitus, and capital accumulation as a theoretical frame. Our results expose an extreme social reality held by a devoted muscle-building community with a fanatical obsession with muscular hypertrophy and any accouterment helpful in its acquisition, from nutrition and supplements to training regimes and anabolic androgenic substances. Few health costs were considered too severe in this muscular meritocracy, where the strong commanded deference and the massive dominated the social field. PMID:22645223

  11. Improving health equity: the promising role of community health workers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sara; Labonté, Ronald; Spitzer, Denise L; Andrew, Caroline; Amaratunga, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from an applied case study of collaboration between a community-based organization staffed by community health workers/multicultural health brokers (CHWs/MCHBs) serving immigrants and refugees and a local public health unit in Alberta, Canada. In this study, we explored the challenges, successes and unrealized potential of CHWs/MCHBs in facilitating culturally responsive access to healthcare and other social services for new immigrants and refugees. We suggest that health equity for marginalized populations such as new immigrants and refugees could be improved by increasing the role of CHWs in population health programs in Canada. Furthermore, we propose that recognition by health and social care agencies and institutions of CHWs/MCHBs, and the role they play in such programs, has the potential to transform the way we deliver healthcare services and address health equity challenges. Such recognition would also benefit CHWs and the populations they serve. PMID:25410697

  12. Improving Health Equity: The Promising Role of Community Health Workers in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sara; Labonté, Ronald; Spitzer, Denise L.; Andrew, Caroline; Amaratunga, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from an applied case study of collaboration between a community-based organization staffed by community health workers/multicultural health brokers (CHWs/MCHBs) serving immigrants and refugees and a local public health unit in Alberta, Canada. In this study, we explored the challenges, successes and unrealized potential of CHWs/MCHBs in facilitating culturally responsive access to healthcare and other social services for new immigrants and refugees. We suggest that health equity for marginalized populations such as new immigrants and refugees could be improved by increasing the role of CHWs in population health programs in Canada. Furthermore, we propose that recognition by health and social care agencies and institutions of CHWs/MCHBs, and the role they play in such programs, has the potential to transform the way we deliver healthcare services and address health equity challenges. Such recognition would also benefit CHWs and the populations they serve. PMID:25410697

  13. Social determinants of health and community needs: implications for health legacy foundations.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-11-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of nonprofit hospitals are on the rise. Proceeds from many of these transactions will endow new health legacy foundations (HLFs). These philanthropic entities have substantial potential for charitable investment in US communities. Research indicates that the greatest improvements in population health can be achieved by addressing underlying social factors. Determining whether communities served by HLFs are characterized by poor social determinants of health would provide new information for developing effective grant-making strategies. Our study compared socioeconomic, demographic, and health care access indicators in HLF versus non-HLF counties. Compared with non-HLF counties, HLF counties had significantly higher proportions of racial minorities and multiple socioeconomic factors that rendered them more vulnerable to health disparities and poor health. However, HLF counties had better access to health care. These findings have direct implications for HLF leadership, planning, and grant making. PMID:25368003

  14. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  15. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care. PMID:24912830

  16. The Tennessee Department of Health WORKshops on Use of Secondary Data for Community Health Assessment, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Omohundro, Ellen; Boswell, Derrick; Evans, Dwayne; Ferranti, Lori B.

    2014-01-01

    Community health assessment is a core function of public health departments, a standard for accreditation of public health departments, and a core competency for public health professionals. The Tennessee Department of Health developed a statewide initiative to improve the processes for engaging county health departments in assessing their community’s health status through the collection and analysis of secondary data. One aim of the Tennessee Department of Health was to position county public health departments as trusted leaders in providing population data and engaging community stakeholders in assessments. The Tennessee Department of Health’s Division of Policy, Planning, and Assessment conducted regional 2-day training workshops to explain and guide completion of computer spreadsheets on 12 health topics. Participants from 93 counties extracted data from multiple and diverse sources to quantify county demographics, health status, and resources and wrote problem statements based on the data examined. The workshops included additional staff development through integration of short lessons on data analysis, epidemiology, and social-behavior theory. Participants reported in post-workshop surveys higher degrees of comfort in interpreting data and writing about their findings on county health issues, and they shared their findings with health, hospital, school, and government leaders (including county health council members) in their counties. Completion of the assessments enabled counties and the Tennessee Department of Health to address performance-improvement goals and assist counties in preparing to meet public health accreditation prerequisites. The methods developed for using secondary data for community health assessment are Tennessee’s first-phase response to counties’ request for a statewide structure for conducting such assessments. PMID:24384302

  17. Community perceptions and utilization of a consumer health center*

    PubMed Central

    Ports, Katie A.; Ayers, Antoinette; Crocker, Wayne; Hart, Alton; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Rafie, Carlin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand factors that may affect the usage of a consumer health center located in a public library. More specifically, the authors wanted to know what health resources are of interest to the community, what patrons' perceptions of their experience at the center are, and finally, how staff can increase utilization of the center. In general, perceptions of the center were positive. The findings support that participants appreciate efforts to provide health information in the public library setting and that utilization could be improved through marketing and outreach. PMID:25552943

  18. Community perceptions and utilization of a consumer health center.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Ayers, Antoinette; Crocker, Wayne; Hart, Alton; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Rafie, Carlin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand factors that may affect the usage of a consumer health center located in a public library. More specifically, the authors wanted to know what health resources are of interest to the community, what patrons' perceptions of their experience at the center are, and finally, how staff can increase utilization of the center. In general, perceptions of the center were positive. The findings support that participants appreciate efforts to provide health information in the public library setting and that utilization could be improved through marketing and outreach. PMID:25552943

  19. Health of returnees in Osijek Region and required special measures of health care and community organization.

    PubMed

    Prlić, Lidija; Ebling, Zdravko; Glavina, Kresimir; Gmajnić, Rudika; Vuletić, Gorka; Kovacić, Luka; Tokalić, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Many citizens from the Osijek-Baranja County, in order to survive, left their homes during the 1991/92 war in Croatia and spent between 5 and 7 years in exile. The aim of this pilot research was to assess the health status (physical, mental and social) of refugee /returnee population and their use of health services, to identify the factors influencing their adaptation, and to propose the health programs, psychological and social support, which could help foster integration into the social and community life, education and employment. The study was done on a randomized sample of 589 respondents using the 2003 Croatian Health Survey with an additional questionnaire related to the problems of returnees. The results of the study show good organization of health service in returnees' communities, with exception of gynecological and dental services. There was also a presence of health transportation problem and the problem in the supply of medicines. Finally, the results show that the returnees' communities were dominated by social problems such as lack of employment, lack of support for elderly, poverty, and concerns for children's prospects. This implies the necessity for intervention in both mental and social aspects. Measures to be undertaken in the next stage of the Project will be aimed at the work in the refugee communities and based on public health working methods such as organization of the community by stimulating intergenerational solidarity, education and raising awareness of self-help. PMID:15571108

  20. Agreement between the Williamsport Area Community College and Williamsport Area Community College Education Association for the 1972-1973 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamsport Area Community Coll., PA.

    This agreement between Williamsport Area Community College and the Williamsport Area Community College Education Association covers the academic year 1972-1973. Articles of the agreement include recognition, check-off, association prerogatives, employer prerogatives, employees' rights, grievance procedure, no strikes or lockouts, access to…

  1. A resolution recognizing that access to hospitals and other health care providers for patients in rural areas of the United States is essential to the survival and success of communities in the United States.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Moran, Jerry [R-KS

    2013-02-07

    02/07/2013 Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S527) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Implementing a community intervention program for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    High rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among low income African American and Latinos are well documented. While health promotion interventions leading to personal behavior change are known to reduce CVD in white, middle class, more educated populations, these approaches have not been widely tested in poor, minority ethnic communities. This paper describes a community intervention program to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in East Harlem, a low income New York City community in Manhattan, whose population is 53% Latino and 39% African American. This primary prevention model seeks to change attitudes, norms and values regarding behaviors that contribute to chronic disease within a defined population through initiating changes in the social, educational, cultural and physical environment. Environmental and organizational conditions that predict successful outcomes for the model and strategies, methods and skills, borrowed from social work and other behavioral sciences to implement and institutionalize community wide lifestyle changes, are highlighted. PMID:12365749

  3. Text Classification for Assisting Moderators in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients increasingly visit online health communities to get help on managing health. The large scale of these online communities makes it impossible for the moderators to engage in all conversations; yet, some conversations need their expertise. Our work explores low-cost text classification methods to this new domain of determining whether a thread in an online health forum needs moderators’ help. Methods We employed a binary classifier on WebMD’s online diabetes community data. To train the classifier, we considered three feature types: (1) word unigram, (2) sentiment analysis features, and (3) thread length. We applied feature selection methods based on χ2 statistics and under sampling to account for unbalanced data. We then performed a qualitative error analysis to investigate the appropriateness of the gold standard. Results Using sentiment analysis features, feature selection methods, and balanced training data increased the AUC value up to 0.75 and the F1-score up to 0.54 compared to the baseline of using word unigrams with no feature selection methods on unbalanced data (0.65 AUC and 0.40 F1-score). The error analysis uncovered additional reasons for why moderators respond to patients’ posts. Discussion We showed how feature selection methods and balanced training data can improve the overall classification performance. We present implications of weighing precision versus recall for assisting moderators of online health communities. Our error analysis uncovered social, legal, and ethical issues around addressing community members’ needs. We also note challenges in producing a gold standard, and discuss potential solutions for addressing these challenges. Conclusion Social media environments provide popular venues in which patients gain health-related information. Our work contributes to understanding scalable solutions for providing moderators’ expertise in these large-scale, social media environments. PMID:24025513

  4. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  5. [Gastric cancer in the health area II of Asturias].

    PubMed

    Rubio Barbón, S; Aguirre Losada, A; Claros González, I; Viso Ciudad, S; García Fernández, M

    1990-12-01

    The gastric cancer cases diagnosed in "Asturias II" Health Area, are presented. The epidemiological features of incidence, prevalence, morbidity and diagnostic stages were analysed, as well as diagnosis methods. Comments on etiology, diagnosis and treatment are also included. PMID:2135573

  6. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting. PMID:26857108

  7. A Multidimensional Data Warehouse for Community Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Kunjan, Kislaya; Toscos, Tammy; Turkcan, Ayten; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2015-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) play a pivotal role in healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations, but have not yet benefited from a data warehouse that can support improvements in clinical and financial outcomes across the practice. We have developed a multidimensional clinic data warehouse (CDW) by working with 7 CHCs across the state of Indiana and integrating their operational, financial and electronic patient records to support ongoing delivery of care. We describe in detail the rationale for the project, the data architecture employed, the content of the data warehouse, along with a description of the challenges experienced and strategies used in the development of this repository that may help other researchers, managers and leaders in health informatics. The resulting multidimensional data warehouse is highly practical and is designed to provide a foundation for wide-ranging healthcare data analytics over time and across the community health research enterprise. PMID:26958297

  8. A Multidimensional Data Warehouse for Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Kunjan, Kislaya; Toscos, Tammy; Turkcan, Ayten; Doebbeling, Brad N.

    2015-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) play a pivotal role in healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations, but have not yet benefited from a data warehouse that can support improvements in clinical and financial outcomes across the practice. We have developed a multidimensional clinic data warehouse (CDW) by working with 7 CHCs across the state of Indiana and integrating their operational, financial and electronic patient records to support ongoing delivery of care. We describe in detail the rationale for the project, the data architecture employed, the content of the data warehouse, along with a description of the challenges experienced and strategies used in the development of this repository that may help other researchers, managers and leaders in health informatics. The resulting multidimensional data warehouse is highly practical and is designed to provide a foundation for wide-ranging healthcare data analytics over time and across the community health research enterprise. PMID:26958297

  9. Health Vulnerability of Households in Flooded Communities and Their Adaptation Measures: Case Study in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srikuta, Phatcharee; Inmuong, Uraiwan; Inmuong, Yanyong; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Floods adversely affect community well-being and health. This study aims to assess the present health vulnerability of households to floods in a rural flood-prone area of northeastern Thailand, as well as their adaptation measures. The participants were the representatives of 312 randomly selected households, and data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Health vulnerability was assessed in terms of flood exposure, flood sensitivity, and flood adaptive capacity. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results showed that 47.1% of the households had a low level of health vulnerability to flooding, while in 21.2% the level was high. Households had been adapting themselves to cope with the health impacts from flood. Their coping practices included special arrangements for the protection of property, food management, the provision of water supply and waste disposal, the elimination of sources of vector-borne diseases, family health care, the protection of family livelihood, and communication and transportation. PMID:25633112

  10. Objective Community Integration of Mental Health Consumers Living in Supported Housing and of Others in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Stefancic, Ana; Tsemberis, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Housing programs for people with severe mental illnesses aim to maximize community integration. However, little is known about how the community integration of mental health consumers living in supported housing compares with that of other community residents in the socially disadvantaged communities where supported housing is often located. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of objective community integration of mental health consumers living in supported housing and of other persons living in the same communities. Methods Participants were 124 adults (60 mental health consumers and 64 other community residents) residing in designated zip codes in the Bronx, New York. Participants were administered measures of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, physical community integration (participation in local activities), social integration (interactions with community members), and citizenship (political activism or volunteering). Results Mental health consumers living in supported independent housing had significantly lower scores on indicators of objective community integration than other community members. However, differences were relatively small. Among mental health consumers, African-American race, education, and length of time in current residence were associated with better community integration. Conclusions Findings suggest that mental health consumers living in supported housing may not achieve levels of objective community integration that are comparable with other community members; however, psychiatric factors did not account for this difference. Length of time in neighborhoods appears to be an important factor in facilitating social integration. PMID:22549530

  11. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  12. Source Book for Health Education Materials and Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This book is primarily a guide and source directory to health education materials in 10 nationally recognized health risk areas: (1) stopping or reducing smoking; (2) improving nutrition; (3) controlling high blood pressure; (4) modifying alcohol intake or drinking habits; (5) increasing physical activity; (6) reducing stress; (7) detecting cancer…

  13. Regeneration, relocation and health behaviours in deprived communities.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ade; Mason, Phil

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, recent regeneration programmes have aimed to improve the health of those who remain in their neighbourhood (Remainers) and those who are relocated (Outmovers); thus, as part of the 10-year GoWell study (2006-2015) of the effects of demolition, rebuilding and housing improvements on residents and communities, we examined associations of health behaviours with residential conditions and location status in deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow. Better internal dwelling conditions were associated with several better health behaviours; in relation to neighbourhood conditions, the results were more mixed. Outmovers often exhibited worse health behaviours than Remainers, perhaps because environmental and social conditions were little altered by relocation, and because personal support mechanisms were missing. Health behaviours were relatively good among Remainers, indicating that in situ changes might stimulate life-changing improvements, but relocation less so. PMID:25618564

  14. Community perspectives on public health biobanking: an analysis of community meetings on the Michigan BioTrust for Health.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Daniel B; Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; King, Susan B; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2014-04-01

    Biobanks raise challenges for developing ethically sound and practicable consent policies. Biobanks comprised of dried bloodspots (DBS) left over from newborn screening, maintained for long-term storage, and potential secondary research applications are no exception. Michigan has been a leader in transforming its DBS collection, marketing its biobank of de-identified samples for health research use. The Michigan BioTrust for Health includes approximately 4 million unconsented retrospective samples collected as early as 1984 and prospective samples added since the fall of 2010 with blanket parental consent. We engaged Michigan citizens to ascertain public attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the BioTrust and informed consent. A convenience sampling of 393 participants from communities around the state of Michigan (oversampling for minority populations) participated in meetings addressing newborn screening, the BioTrust and informed consent, yielding quantitative and qualitative survey and discussion data. Participants affirmed the principle of voluntary informed participation in research and advocated for greater public awareness of the existence of the BioTrust. Most expressed support for the use of DBS for research and a desire for greater involvement in granting permission for research use. Opinions varied as to which specific research uses were acceptable. Participants indicated a desire for greater engagement, public awareness, and more active decision making on the part of biobank participants and parents. Diversity of opinion over which research areas were deemed acceptable problematizes the blanket consent model that currently applies to the BioTrust's prospective DBS collection and that could become the new norm for research using de-identified data under proposed changes to the Common Rule. PMID:23893769

  15. Health Care and Community-based Interventions for War-traumatized People in Croatia: Community-based Study of Service Use and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Frančišković, Tanja; Tovilović, Zdravko; Šuković, Zoran; Stevanović, Aleksandra; Ajduković, Dean; Kraljević, Radojka; Bogić, Marija; Priebe, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Aim To explore the use of health care and community-based services in war-affected regions of Croatia and its relation to mental health. Methods A sample of 719 adults exposed to at least one war-related traumatic event were selected by random-walk technique from three Croatian counties and interviewed for socio-demographic data, mental health status (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and service use (Matrix for the Assessment of Community and Healthcare Services) in the period from 1991 to 2006. Descriptive analysis of service use was performed. Relations between service use, current mental health, and recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results The traumatized population used a wide range of health care and community-based services. Health care was the most frequently used service category, especially primary health care (92.5%), followed by accommodation support (57.9%), financial support (57.7%), and employment support (32.5%). Compared with participants without mental disorders, participants with current PTSD were more likely to use only legal support (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.99), while participants with other mental disorders were more likely to use social support and contacts (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08-2.75). Receiving accommodation support (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.03-4.06) was the only significant predictor of recovery from PTSD, while seeking legal support (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.92) was related to slower recovery. Conclusion Although a wide range of services were organized to help the traumatized population in Croatia, only the solution of housing issue significantly predicted recovery. The organization of help services should take into consideration the existing infrastructure and local specificities, and respect the needs of people in war-affected areas. PMID:18716995

  16. Community violence and mental health among Iraqi women, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent events in Iraq following the 2003 war render Iraq as a country with a high level of all types of violence. Exposure to violence, as a witness or a victim, is related to a number of longer term emotional, behavioral and social problems. Objectives: To investigate the impact of witnessing and experiencing community violence and tragedy as a factor contributing to mental health disorders among Iraqi women in the city of Mosul. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study of 500 women were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique. Four catchment areas of primary health centers of Mosul city were selected. Community violence with nine commonly associated social, economic, emotional, physical and mental health symptoms were recorded by questionnaire. Results: The study revealed that all the participating women had a history of exposure to at least one type of community violence within the last twelve months. A mainstream consequence of exposure to community violence was transportation difficulties, loss of husband's job, and family displacement. More than half of the women were classified as having severe emotional disturbances that may evolve to mental health problems in future. Conclusion: Women are bearing the consequences of the violence in Iraq. National commitment and action needs to be taken to curb the violence which is hugely affecting the people of Iraq. Treatment programs targeted at promoting emotional resilience may be effective at preventing mental health problems. PMID:25003060

  17. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  18. Toward congruence between theory and practice in small area analysis and local public health data.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    Advances in computer hardware, software and database interfaces have provided opportunities for collation, manipulation, analysis and display of spatial data on an unprecedented scale. Demands for small area data in public health, fuelled in part by an increasing emphasis on benchmarking in relation to Year 2000 objectives but also in response to state and federal programmes to involve local communities in the assessment and planning process have simultaneously generated an unprecedented demand for these analyses and data presentations. This paper discusses four areas where geographic, cartographic and statistical theory and methodology need to be brought to bear on the development of applications involving small area health data. These areas are: (i) the theoretical conceptions of space; (ii) managing the inherent variability of rates and frequencies; (iii) attribution of events or cases to areas or to points; and (iv) the application of sound principles of cartographic design to the presentation of results. PMID:8888478

  19. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered

  20. Increasing the Relevance of Research to Underserved Communities: Lessons Learned from a Retreat to Engage Community Health Workers with Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Angier, Heather; Wiggins, Noelle; Gregg, Jessica; Gold, Rachel; DeVoe, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Summary This article presents information on a community retreat developed to seek input from community health workers (CHWs) to increase the relevance of our research to underserved communities in Oregon. Retreats facilitating dialogue between researchers and CHWs could yield important insight to enhance the significance of research for communities. PMID:23728049

  1. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions. PMID:24058107

  2. The health information seeking behaviour and needs of community health workers in Chandigarh in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sonika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Singh, Amarjeet; Goel, Sonu

    2015-06-01

    This article represents two-firsts for the feature--it is the first to report on a study outside the UK and the first to examine the health information needs of community health workers. Sonika Raj is pursuing PhD at the Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, in India and she conducted her research in Chandigarh. The article outlines the important role that health workers at community level play in determining health outcomes in the developing world, including Chandigarh. It demonstrates that while those workers recognise their information needs, there are many issues affecting their ability to access health information effectively, not least their limited access to appropriate technology and training. AM. PMID:25943970

  3. [The Department of Prevention and the Community Health Districts a territorial alliance: strategies for health].

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, A

    2012-01-01

    Health care is promoted thanks to the collaboration between the hospital and the territory, with the territory being represented by the Department of Prevention and the Community Health District. In the past few years, the territory has become increasingly visible with respect to the hospital thanks to its capacity to take responsibility for the care of citizens of the local community. These three structures in any case must network especially when health data must circulate freely in order to be used by the stakeholders. Some changes that the Community health district have been faced with such as care of chronic medical diseases have been a result of initiatives from the Department of Prevention such as screening. PMID:22880378

  4. [Social participation and community orientation in health services].

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Manuel; Ponte-Mittelbrun, Carlos; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano

    2006-03-01

    The community participation in the health systems is a concept that develops from the health policy proposals that have led the World Health Organization and that they highlight the fundamental role of health promotion and of primary care to answer to the health challenges from the middle of the XXth century. Its development has encountered big obstacles that have become major from the increasing trend of introduction of healthcare marketing. This explains partly its scanty advance in the developed countries, though there exist very interesting experiences that are based especially on the effort of professionals and social organizations. The fundamental dilemma is one in the option among the assumption of the role like consumers or clients that it supports a relation subordinated of the patients with a major dependence of the consumption, or on the contrary to give voice and vote for the citizens incorporating them into the productive process and turning them into producers of health. There are analyzed also the existing practices of community participation in Spain and offers are realized for its impulse and development. PMID:16539982

  5. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological

  6. Utilisation of a community-based health facility in a low-income urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asuzu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare is established to ensure that people have access to health services through facilities located in their community. However, utilisation of health facilities in Nigeria remains low in many communities. Aim To assess the utilisation of community-based health facility (CBHF) amongst adults in Ibadan, Nigeria Settings A low-income community in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a simple random sampling technique to select one adult per household in all 586 houses in the community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and utilisation of the CBHF. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association testing using the Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of the respondents was 46.5 ± 16.0 years; 46.0% were men and 81.0% married; 26% had no formal education and 38.0% had secondary-level education and above; traders constituted 52.0% of the sample; and 85.2% were of low socioeconomic standing; 90% had patronised the CBHF. The main reasons for non-utilisation were preference for general hospitals (13.8%) and self-medication (12.1%). Respondents who had secondary education and above, were in a higher socioeconomic class, who had good knowledge of the facility and were satisfied with care, utilised the CBHF three months significantly more than their counterparts prior to the study (p < 0.05). However, only satisfaction with care was found to be a significant predictor of utilisation of the CBHF. Conclusion The utilisation of the CBHF amongst adults in the study setting is high, driven mostly by satisfaction with the care received previously. Self-medication, promoted by uncontrolled access to drugs through pharmacies and patent medicine stores, threatens this high utilisation. PMID:26245600

  7. Collaborating with consumer and community representatives in health and medical research in Australia: results from an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To collaborate with consumer and community representatives in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project from 2006-2008 http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy and evaluate researchers' and consumer and community representatives' perceptions of the process, context and impact of consumer and community participation in the project. Methods We formed two reference groups and sought consumer and community representatives' perspectives on all aspects of the project over a three year period. We developed an evaluation framework and asked consumer and community representatives and researchers to complete a self-administered questionnaire at the end of the project. Results Fifteen researchers (93.8%) and seven (53.8%) consumer and community representatives completed a questionnaire. Most consumer and community representatives agreed that the process and context measures of their participation had been achieved. Both researchers and consumer and community representatives identified areas for improvement and offered suggestions how these could be improved for future research. Researchers thought consumer and community participation contributed to project outputs and outcomes by enhancing scientific and ethical standards, providing legitimacy and authority, and increasing the project's credibility and participation. They saw it was fundamental to the research process and acknowledged consumer and community representatives for their excellent contribution. Consumer and community representatives were able to directly influence decisions about the research. They thought that consumer and community participation had significant influence on the success of project outputs and outcomes. Conclusions Consumer and community participation is an essential component of good research practice and contributed to the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project by enhancing research processes, outputs and outcomes, and this participation was valued by community and consumer representatives and

  8. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  9. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health. PMID:26605953

  10. Accountable communities: how norms and values affect health system change.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, C R; Baxter, R J

    1998-01-01

    Economic forces, policy initiatives, and technological change push markets along what some hypothesize is a common evolutionary path. Observations from twelve sites, however, indicate that the pace and direction of change are highly variable across markets. Other forces, internal and unique to a community, help to explain this variation. These forces emanate from the underlying history, culture, and values of a community and in part dictate the response of various players to the more common forces. This paper explores the mechanisms through which these forces operate and their relationship to health system change. PMID:9691558

  11. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health. PMID:26605953

  12. Evidence-based health promotion programs for schools and communities.

    PubMed

    Inman, Dianna D; van Bakergem, Karen M; Larosa, Angela C; Garr, David R

    2011-02-01

    Healthy People 2020 includes an objective to increase the proportion of elementary, middle, and senior high schools that provide comprehensive school health education to prevent health problems in the following areas: unintentional injury; violence; suicide; tobacco use and addiction; alcohol or other drug use; unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections (STI); unhealthy dietary patterns; and inadequate physical activity. These specific goals are part of the efforts of Healthy People 2020 to increase the proportion of elementary, middle, and senior high schools that have health education goals or objectives that address the knowledge and skills articulated in the National Health Education Standards. A focus on Pre-K through 12 health education is a prerequisite for the implementation of a coordinated, seamless approach to health education as advocated by the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force and incorporated into the Education for Health framework. To help accomplish these goals, this article views the role of education as part of the broader socioecologic model of health. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to identify evidence-based, peer-reviewed programs, strategies, and resources. The results of this review are presented organized as sexual health, mental and emotional health, injury prevention, tobacco and substance abuse, and exercise and healthy eating. Evidence-based implementation strategies, often considered the missing link, are recommended to help achieve the Healthy People 2020 objective of increasing the prevalence of comprehensive school health education programs designed to reduce health risks for children. PMID:21238871

  13. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    PubMed

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge. PMID:25671991

  14. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance alternative for community health centers... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Reasonable Volume of Uncompensated Services to Persons Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers...

  15. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance alternative for community health centers... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Reasonable Volume of Uncompensated Services to Persons Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers...

  16. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance alternative for community health centers... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Reasonable Volume of Uncompensated Services to Persons Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers...

  17. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance alternative for community health centers... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Reasonable Volume of Uncompensated Services to Persons Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers...

  18. A Three Decade Evolution to Transdisciplinary Research: Community Health Research in California-Mexico Border Communities

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Gallo, Linda C.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Institute for Behavioral and Community Health (IBACH) is a transdisciplinary organization with a team-oriented approach to the translation of research to practice and policy within the context of behavioral medicine. Objectives This paper tracks the growth of IBACH — in the context of evolving multi-university transdisciplinary research efforts — from a behavioral medicine research focus to community approaches to disease prevention and control, ultimately specializing in Latino health research and practice. We describe how this growth was informed by our partnerships with community members and organizations, and training a diverse array of students and young professionals. Methods Since 1982, IBACH’s research has evolved to address a greater breadth of factors associated with health and well-being. This was driven by our strong community focus and emphasis on collaborations, the diversity of our investigative teams, and our emphasis on training. Although behavioral science still forms the core of IBACH’s scientific orientation, research efforts extend beyond those traditionally examined. Conclusions IBACH’s “team science” successes have been fueled by a specific population emphasis making IBACH one of the nation’s leaders in Latino health behavior research. PMID:25435566

  19. Health Promotion in the Community: Impact of Faith-Based Lay Health Educators in Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-06-01

    Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies. PMID:26902365

  20. An academic health center-community partnership: the Morgantown Health Right free clinic.

    PubMed

    Smego, R A; Costante, J

    1996-06-01

    This article reports the main findings of a descriptive study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the Morgantown Health Right (MHR) free clinic in Morgantown, West Virginia. The study was conducted between 1984 and 1995 to examine the organizational and operational features of this rural academic health center-community partnership. The MHR's longevity and provision of primary care without charge to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured residents of north central West Virginia are a function of its intimate relationship with the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center of West Virginia University. Essential elements of this rural academic health center-community partnership include social commitment and voluntarism, shared community and faculty leadership, joint problem-oriented long-term planning, and interdisciplinary practice and training opportunities for faculty, residents, and students. Financial support for the MHR comes from a variety of public and private sources, and the clinic serves as a prototypic rural free health care provider by virtue of its social and fiscal sustainability. The MHR experience shows that, like inner-city counterparts, academic health center-community partnerships can enhance access to health care for rural underserved populations. PMID:9125917

  1. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

  2. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities

    PubMed Central

    George, Asha S.; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Background Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. Objective To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. Methodology We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Results Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service

  3. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented). During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends

  4. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP. PMID:26465852

  5. Assessing effectiveness of a community based health insurance in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Financial barriers are a recognized major bottleneck of access and use of health services. The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of a community based health insurance (CBHI) scheme on utilization of health services as well as on mortality and morbidity. Methods Data were collected from April to December 2007 from the Nouna’s Demographic Surveillance System on overall mortality, utilization of health services, household characteristics, distance to health facilities, membership in the Nouna CBHI. We analyzed differentials in overall mortality and selected maternal health process measures between members and non-members of the insurance scheme. Results After adjusting for covariates there was no significant difference in overall mortality between households who could not have been members (because their area was yet to be covered by the stepped-wedged scheme), non-members but whose households could have been members (areas covered but not enrolled), and members of the insurance scheme. The risk of overall mortality increased significantly with distance to health facility (35% more outside Nouna town) and with education level (37% lower when at least primary school education achieved in households). Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in overall mortality between members and non-members. The enrolment rates remain low, with selection bias. It is important that community based health insurances, exemptions fees policy and national health insurances be evaluated on prevention of deaths and severe morbidities instead of on drop-out rates, selection bias, adverse selection and catastrophic payments for health care only. Effective social protection will require national health insurance. PMID:23082967

  6. The potential to reduce mental health disparities through the comprehensive community mental health services for children and their families program.

    PubMed

    Miech, Richard; Azur, Melissa; Dusablon, Tracy; Jowers, Keri; Goldstein, Amy B; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Walrath, Christine; Leaf, Philip J

    2008-07-01

    Few service systems are currently in place with the explicit purpose to reduce youth mental health disparities across socioeconomic status and race-ethnicity, despite substantial interest by the federal government and other institutions to redress health disparities. This study examines the potential for the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program to address health disparities, even though this program was not explicitly designed for disparity reduction. Specifically, this study examines whether program sites disproportionately provide services within their catchment areas for youth who come from poor families, who are Black, and who are Hispanic. Data for this study come from 45 sites and 19,189 youth who were enrolled in program sites from 1997 to 2005. Meta-analysis was used to generate Forest plots and to obtain single, pooled estimates of risk ratios and their standard errors across all Children's Mental Health Initiative communities. The results indicate that in comparison to the targeted catchment area (a) the percentage poor youth in the programs was almost three times higher, (b) the percentage Black in the programs was about twice as high, and (c) the percentage Hispanic in the programs was about the same. These results indicate that the program successfully reaches disadvantaged youth and can bring substantial infrastructure to address youth mental health disparities. In fact, to the extent that the program successfully improves mental health among enrollees it may be serving as one of the largest initiatives to redress health disparities, although its role in disparity reduction is not widely recognized. PMID:18543110

  7. Zoning out crime and improving community health in Sarasota, Florida: "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design".

    PubMed

    Carter, Sherry Plaster; Carter, Stanley L; Dannenberg, Andrew L

    2003-09-01

    Sarasota, Fla, used Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to guide revitalization efforts in its crime-ridden North Trail area. A team of city planners, police officers, and architects examined land use and crime data and sought input from local businesses, residents, and community leaders. Beginning in 1990, interventions included increased police patrols to reduce prostitution and the creation of a new zoning district to encourage area redevelopment based on CPTED principles. Compared with the rest of Sarasota, from 1990 to 1998 the North Trail Corridor experienced decreases in calls for police service (P <.005), crimes against persons and property (P = not significant), and prostitution (P <.05). These results suggest that community design may be a useful tool for decreasing crime and improving community health. PMID:12948960

  8. Chronic non-communicable diseases and the challenge of universal health coverage: insights from community-based cardiovascular disease research in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in low and middle income countries has major implications on the ability of these countries to achieve universal health coverage. In this paper we discuss the impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) on primary healthcare services in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Methods We review the evidence on the evolution of universal health coverage in Ghana and the central role of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) programme and the National Health Insurance Scheme in primary health care. We present preliminary findings from a study on community CVD knowledge, experiences, responses and access to services. Results The rising burden of NCDs in Ghana will affect the achievement of universal health coverage, particularly in urban areas. There is a significant unmet need for CVD care in the study communities. The provision of primary healthcare services for CVD is not accessible, equitable or responsive to the needs of target communities. Conclusions We consider these findings in the context of the primary healthcare system and discuss the challenges and opportunities for strengthening health systems in low and middle-income countries. PMID:25082497

  9. Community health workers as drivers of a successful community-based disease management initiative.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date. PMID:22515859

  10. Community-based mental health counseling for children orphaned by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan A; Zeng, Wu; Wang, Liyao; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop scalable approaches to community-based mental health services for children in rural China and other developing countries involving task shifting from clinicians to trained community workers. Evidence is needed about the effectiveness of interventions for children affected by AIDS in rural areas. This article describes an intervention study aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating a community-based counseling program for the AIDS orphans of Fuyang, Anhui Province, an area of central China where a tainted blood donation scheme infected countless farmers and left many children orphaned by AIDS. In China these children live in rural settings with no access to mental health services. The authors trained a group of community-based counselors to provide group counseling sessions focusing on self-awareness and communication and to provide a basic therapeutic approach for depression and anxiety. The authors conducted a baseline and two follow-up surveys of 39 children who met the clinical diagnostic criteria for anxiety and depression. There was a statistically significant improvement for the children on anxiety, but there was no statistically significant improvement on depression, with greatest gains immediately following the intervention. We demonstrated the feasibility of task shifting for mental health services in this setting. PMID:22880692

  11. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights. PMID:8912121

  12. Diabetes Connect: Developing a Mobile Health Intervention to Link Diabetes Community Health Workers With Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Andrea L; Agne, April A; Lampkin, Yolanda; Birl, Annie; Shelton, Tanya C; Guzman, Alfredo; Willig, James H

    2015-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions can help improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. There is limited evidence on how to effectively integrate CHW programs with primary care efforts. Mobile health technology (mHealth) can connect CHWs to members of the health care team and enhance care. We tested a model for the integration of a CHW-delivered mHealth intervention to improve diabetes self-management. Seventy-two African American patients with diabetes were followed using the mHealth tool. This project partnered an academic institution, a safety-net clinic, and African American churches. The integration of mHealth technology into CHW programs was successfully achieved and readily accepted. PMID:26353025

  13. DEFINING THE “COMMUNITY” FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B.; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L.; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity. PMID:25892743

  14. Community health worker competency in managing acute respiratory infections of childhood in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, P S; Harrison, L H; López, M; Cornale, G

    1993-01-01

    A competency-based training and evaluation method was developed to improve and assess the management of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in young children by community health workers (CHWs) in Bolivia. This method was used to evaluate three groups of Bolivian CHWs, provide them with a one-day refresher course in ARI management, and assess the effects of the course. The results showed the CHWs capable of acquiring the skills needed to effectively manage ARI cases in accordance with the World Health Organization's ARI case management strategy. It was found important, however, that their training emphasize how to count the respirations of children with tachypnea and how to identify chest indrawing. In general, the competency-based methods appeared to be effective in training and evaluating CHWs in the area of ARI case management; it is expected that these methods will prove useful in other community-based health interventions. PMID:8339109

  15. Family Centered Approach in Primary Health Care: Experience from an Urban Area of Mangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Majra, J. P.; Akshaya, K. M.; Qadiri, Ghulam Jeelani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. “Health for All” still eludes public health experts despite many approaches to prevent disease and promote health among urban poor. Several key illness factors lie beyond the conventional healthcare boundaries. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of family centered approach (FCA) in addressing health and related issues in an urban area of Mangalore, India. Method. A longitudinal study was conducted in Bengre, an outreach centre of Mangalore from June 2011 to November 2013. Family folders were created with pertinent details. Demand generation and health education activities were conducted through two female community health link workers. An FCA package was implemented by medical and nursing interns, under supervision, to address the priority issues. Effect was assessed by comparing their practices and service utilization before and after the study. Results. About 809 families participated in this study. Social, cultural, and religious factors were responsible for viciousness of malaria and maternal and child health issues. FCA improved their perceptions and practices towards health and related issues. Significant (P < 0.05) and sustained hike in service utilization was evident. Conclusion. FCA exposes key illness factors beyond the conventional care, eases need based healthcare implementation, and provides feasible and enduring solutions. Community involvement makes it more practicable. PMID:25695098

  16. Developing a web-based data mining application to impact community health improvement initiatives: the Virginia Atlas of Community Health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a team from the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) and the Virginia Center for Healthy Communities (VCHC) attended the UNC Management Academy for Public Health to learn skills to address Virginia's commitment to using technology to improve the public's health. After creating a business plan for a food-safety information Web site, team members used that experience as well as Management Academy training in information technology, the management of data and finances, and strategic partnering to create a comprehensive tool with which to place customizable population data in the hands of anyone interested in pursuing population health improvement. The Virginia Atlas of Community Health, launched through the VCHC in 2003, places clear, compelling data in the hands of those who can influence decisions at the local level and create the most impact for health. Since the program's inception, more than 2,000 individuals have registered as ongoing users of the Virginia Atlas. Initially funded by a Turning Point grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the program is sustained through a series of smaller grants and funding from the VDH. PMID:16912611

  17. Learning and change in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michael A; Miner, Craig S

    2013-10-01

    This article offers methodological reflections and lessons learned from a three-year university-community partnership that used participatory action research methods to develop and evaluate a model for learning and change. Communities of practice were used to facilitate the translation of recovery-oriented and evidence-based programs into everyday practice at a community mental health agency. Four lessons were drawn from this project. First, the processes of learning and organizational change are complex, slow, and multifaceted. Second, development of leaders and champions is vital to sustained implementation in an era of restricted resources. Third, it is important to have the agency's values, mission, policies, and procedures align with the principles and practices of recovery and integrated treatment. And fourth, effective learning of evidence-based practices is influenced by organizational culture and climate. These four lessons are expanded upon and situated within the broader literature and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24066638

  18. Obtaining and Providing Health Information in the Community Pharmacy Setting

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowicz, Susan L.; Marciniak, Macary Weck; Zeolla, Mario M.

    2006-01-01

    Community pharmacists are a valuable information resource for patients and other healthcare providers. The advent of new information technology, most notably the Internet, coupled with the rapid availability of new healthcare information, has fueled this demand. Pharmacy students must receive training that enables them to meet this need. Community advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) provide an excellent opportunity for students to develop and master drug information skills in a real-world setting. Preceptors must ensure that students are familiar with drug information resources and can efficiently identify the most useful resource for a given topic. Students must also be trained to assess the quality of resources and use this information to effectively respond to drug or health information inquiries. This article will discuss key aspects of providing drug information in the community pharmacy setting and can serve as a guide and resource for APPE preceptors. PMID:17136178

  19. Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many malarious countries plan to introduce artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at community level using community health workers (CHWs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Use of ACT with reliance on presumptive diagnosis may lead to excessive use, increased costs and rise of drug resistance. Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could address these challenges but only if the communities will accept their use by CHWs. This study assessed community acceptability of the use of RDTs by Ugandan CHWs, locally referred to as community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods The study was conducted in Iganga district using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) with CMDs and caregivers of children under five years, and 10 key informant interviews (KIIs) with health workers and community leaders. Pre-designed FGD and KII guides were used to collect data. Manifest content analysis was used to explore issues of trust and confidence in CMDs, stigma associated with drawing blood from children, community willingness for CMDs to use RDTs, and challenges anticipated to be faced by the CMDs. Results CMDs are trusted by their communities because of their commitment to voluntary service, access, and the perceived effectiveness of anti-malarial drugs they provide. Some community members expressed fear that the blood collected could be used for HIV testing, the procedure could infect children with HIV, and the blood samples could be used for witchcraft. Education level of CMDs is important in their acceptability by the community, who welcome the use of RDTs given that the CMDs are trained and supported. Anticipated challenges for CMDs included transport for patient follow-up and picking supplies, adults demanding to be tested, and caregivers insisting their children be treated instead of being referred. Conclusion Use of RDTs by CMDs is likely to be acceptable by community members given that CMDs are properly trained, and receive regular technical supervision and logistical

  20. Community health workers as an integral strategy in the REACH U.S. program to eliminate health inequities.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Shannon; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Jenkins, Carolyn; Castillo, Sheila R; Williams, Charles; Parris, Erlinda; Tran, Jacqueline H; Rivera, Mark D; Brownstein, J Nell

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that community health workers (CHWs) contribute to improved behavioral and health outcomes and reductions in health disparities. We provide an overview (based on grantee reports and community action plans) that describe CHW contributions to 22 Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) programs funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007 to 2012, offering additional evidence of their contributions to the effectiveness of community public health programs. We then highlight how CHWs helped deliver REACH U.S. community interventions to meet differing needs across communities to bridge the gap between health care services and community members, build community and individual capacity to plan and implement interventions addressing multiple chronic health conditions, and meet community needs in a culturally appropriate manner. The experience, skills, and success gained by CHWs participating in the REACH U.S. program have fostered important individual community-level changes geared to increase health equity. Finally, we underscore the importance of CHWs being embedded within these communities and the flexibility they offer to intervention strategies, both of which are characteristics critical to meeting needs of communities experiencing health disparities. CHWs served a vital role in facilitating and leading changes and will continue to do so. PMID:25063590

  1. SBIRT as a Vital Sign for Behavioral Health Identification, Diagnosis, and Referral in Community Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Dwinnells, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental design study was to examine the effectiveness of the behavioral health Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program at a community health center. The study group was twice as likely (25.3%) to have depression and substance abuse diagnosed compared with the control group (11.4%) (P <.001). Referral rates for the study group were more likely to occur (12.4%) compared with referral rates for the control group (1.0%) (P <.001); however, the kept appointment rates by patients for behavioral health problems referrals remained low for both groups. SBIRT was effectively utilized in a community health center, resulting in increased rates for diagnosis of behavioral health problems and referrals of patients. PMID:25964405

  2. Community Participation in New Mexico's Behavioral Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioral health services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioral health concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315

  3. The Effect of an Interdisciplinary Community Health Project on Student Attitudes toward Community Health, People Who Are Indigent and Homeless, and Team Leadership Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Molly A.; Lyons, Kevin J.; Miller, Kathleen Swenson; Cornman-Levy, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A study of 22 health occupations students examined whether participation in an interdisciplinary community health empowerment project with urban homeless and formerly homeless people changed their attitudes about community health practice, attitudes toward people who are indigent and homeless, and perceived leadership skills. Posttests revealed a…

  4. Community Health Care: Therapeutic Opportunities in the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We are never alone. Humans coexist with diverse microbial species that live within and upon us—our so-called microbiota. It is now clear that this microbial community is essentially another organ that plays a fundamental role in human physiology and disease. Basic and translational research efforts have begun to focus on deciphering mechanisms of microbiome function—and learning how to manipulate it to benefit human health. In this Perspective, we discuss therapeutic opportunities in the human microbiome. PMID:21490274

  5. After-school programs for health promotion in rural communities: Ashe County Middle School 4-H After-School Program.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael B; Miller, Jennifer L; Blackburn, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rural youth have a higher risk for lower health and developmental outcomes, often facing numerous constraints (eg, poor socioeconomic conditions, lower levels of social support, fewer recreational programs and facilities, and inadequate transportation). After-school programs have the potential to effectively deliver health-promoting activities but often face significant challenges in these areas. Ashe County is a rural community in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. Ashe County is economically depressed and its youth population has many poor health and developmental indicators. However, with more than 20 years of sustained activity, one important community resource trying to address disparities in youth health and development is the Ashe County 4-H After-School Program. To successfully overcome inherent challenges, the program has positioned itself as essential to community development, supported and retained qualified personnel, and cultivated a network of key partners to continue its efforts to provide essential youth programs for this rural community. PMID:21464690

  6. Evaluating partnerships for community health improvement: tracking the footprints.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Zukoski, Ann P; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Conrad, Douglas A; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Chan, Benjamin Y; Casey, Elizabeth; Margolin, Frances S

    2002-02-01

    Private-public partnerships are increasingly seen as an important mechanism for improving community health. Despite their popularity, traditional evaluations of these efforts have produced negative or mixed results. This is often attributed to weak interventions or an insufficient period of time to observe an impact. This study examines two additional possibilities--the need for a well-articulated shared vision and the governance and management capabilities of the partnership itself. We conducted a midstream process evaluation of twenty-five community partnerships associated with the Community Care Network (CCN) Demonstration Program. We examined how the roles of a common shared vision, strong governance, and effective management influence a partnership's ability to achieve its objectives. The findings, based on both qualitative and quantitative analyses, underscore the importance of membership organizations' perceived benefits and costs of participation and management capabilities to the partnership's progress toward a vision. Based on the qualitative data, six key governance and management characteristics are identified that separate the top performing partnerships from the lowest performing ones. We explore the implications of this research for future evaluations of public-private community health partnerships. PMID:11942419

  7. [Community Health Workers: a perspective of the social capital].

    PubMed

    Santos, Cleberson Williams Dos; Farias Filho, Milton Cordeiro

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on a survey of community health workers in Brazilian municipalities. The scope is to verify the influence of the network of social relations of agents in the daily work of the Family (FHS) teams. The theoretical base is addressing the social capital and the method is the analysis of social networks and their density measurements and EI-Index. In the data gathering, a questionnaire of the name generator type, with 266 agents in six municipalities in three different regions of Brazil (coded as Amazon 1 and 2, North Central 1 and 2, Central South 1 and 2) was used. Secondary data were also used. The results indicate that the profile of the community health agents is still a training limiter and they do not see themselves as a link between the community, the FHS teams and health facilities. The conclusion drawn is that the agents do not have the perception of their importance and that their internal networks have low density, with few external relations (other members of the FHS), which limits the expansion of social capital and hampers the dissemination of knowledge and experiences of actions of prevention. PMID:27166913

  8. Improving hypertension self-management with community health coaches.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet Hoffman

    2015-03-01

    Approximately two thirds of those older than 60 years have a hypertension diagnosis. The aim of our program, Health Coaches for Hypertension Control, is to improve hypertension self-management among rural residents older than 60 years through education and support offered by trained community volunteers called Health Coaches. Participants received baseline and follow-up health risk appraisals with blood work, educational materials, and items such as blood pressure monitors and pedometers. Data were collected at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks on 146 participants who demonstrated statistically significant increases in hypertension-related knowledge from baseline to 8 weeks that persisted at 16 weeks, as well as significant improvements in stage of readiness to change behaviors and in actual behaviors. Furthermore, clinically significant decreases in all outcome measures were observed, with statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure (-5.781 mmHg; p = .001), weight (-2.475 lb; p < .001), and glucose (-5.096 mg/dl; p = .004) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although 40.4% of participants met the Healthy People 2020 definition of controlled hypertension at baseline, the proportion of participants meeting this definition at 16 weeks postintervention increased to 51.0%. This article describes a university-community-hospital system model that effectively promotes hypertension self-management in a rural Appalachian community. PMID:24837989

  9. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  10. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  11. Richmond Latino needs assessment: a community-university partnership to identify health concerns and service needs for Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Corona, Rosalie; Gonzalez, Tanya; Cohen, Robert; Edwards, Charlene; Edmonds, Torey

    2009-06-01

    The presence of Latinos in Virginia is a new phenomenon and as a result, less is known about the health needs of these newest community members. We formed a community-university partnership to identify health concerns and service needs as they relate to Latino youth living in Richmond, Virginia and the surrounding area. Using a mixed-method approach, survey data was obtained from 212 Latino adults, qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 community leaders and focus groups with 23 Latino parents (16 mothers, 7 fathers) and 6 Latino boys. Participants expressed concern about sexually transmitted infections/pregnancy among youth (76%), youth behavior problems at home/school (75%), and mental health problems (75%). Participants also expressed worry that youth would lose their connection to their Latin culture (83%). Qualitative data provided more information regarding these concerns by linking them with inter-ethnic tensions, and immigration and acculturation-related stressors. Survey participants also indicated a need for bilingual mental health services (88%) and after-school programs for youth (94%). This study provided the local community with information on the health concerns and service needs of a new group of community youth-Latino youth. Findings were presented to local community and City organizations that used the information to respond to the identified needs and/or concerns. The process in which the data was obtained may prove useful to other individuals interested in obtaining local level health information in emerging communities. PMID:19132518

  12. Community participation and attitudes of decision-makers towards community involvement in health development in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed Central

    al-Mazroa, Y.; al-Shammari, S.

    1991-01-01

    National policies and government strategies in Saudi Arabia are adequate for the promotion of community involvement in health development (CIH). The system of government is decentralized and has ample scope for intersectorial cooperation. In Ha'il and Qasim regions active efforts are being made to realize intersectorial coordination through regional committees in which community leaders are involved; unfortunately, however, such mechanisms are lacking at the central level. Decision-makers and community leaders adequately recognized and interpreted the importance of CIH. Most of the respondents advocated community participation in planning and evaluation, while less than 50% thought that communities could participate in the implementation of health services. A survey in Ha'il and Qasim regions of 2417 residents indicated that community participation in health activities was in its infancy and that considerable effort is still needed at the central, regional, and peripheral levels to achieve meaningful community involvement in health. PMID:2054919

  13. Increasing Knowledge and Health Literacy about Preterm Births in Underserved Communities: An Approach to Decrease Health Disparities, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Wright, Marcie S.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Murithi, Lydia K.; Coney, PonJola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health disparities can negatively impact subsets of the population who have systematically experienced greater socioeconomic obstacles to health. For example, health disparities between ethnic and racial groups continue to grow due to the widening gap in large declines in infant and fetal mortality among Caucasians compared to Black non-Hispanic or African Americans. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to determine if the computer-based educational modules related to preterm birth health literacy and health disparity with a pre-test and post-test can effectively increase health knowledge of our participants in targeted underserved communities within the Richmond-metro area. Methods: This was a pilot study in the Richmond-Metro area. Participants were required to be over the age of 18, and had to electronically give consent. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations, and Paired t-tests were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results: There were 140 participants in the pilot study. P <.05 was set as significant and all four modules had a P <.000. The males were not significant with modules: Let’s Talk Patient & Provider Communication P <.132 and It Takes a Village P <.066. Preterm birth status yes all of the findings were statistically significant P<.000. Preterm birth status no Let’s Talk Patients & Provider Communication was not significant P <.106. Conclusion: Overall, researchers found that with a strong research methodology and strong content relevant to the community, the participants demonstrated an increase in their knowledge in health literacy and preterm birth. PMID:26234992

  14. The Potential to Reduce Mental Health Disparities Through the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard; Azur, Melissa; Dusablon, Tracy; Jowers, Keri; Goldstein, Amy B.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Walrath, Christine; Leaf, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Few service systems are currently in place with the explicit purpose to reduce youth mental health disparities across socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, despite substantial interest by the federal government and other institutions to redress health disparities. This study examines the potential for the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program to address health disparities, even though this program was not explicitly designed for disparity reduction. Specifically, this study examines whether program sites disproportionately provide services within their catchment areas for youth who come from poor families, who are Black, and who are Hispanic. Data for this study come from 45 sites and 19,189 youth who were enrolled in program sites from 1997-2005. Meta-analysis was used to generate Forest plots and to obtain single, pooled estimates of risk ratios and their standard errors across all CMHI communities. The results indicate that in comparison to the targeted catchment area (a) the percentage poor youth in the programs was almost three times higher, (b) the percentage Black in the programs was about twice as high, and (c) the percentage Hispanic in the programs was about the same. These results indicate that the program successfully reaches disadvantaged youth and can bring substantial infrastructure to address youth mental health disparities. In fact, to the extent that the program successfully improves mental health among enrollees it may be serving as one of the largest initiatives to redress health disparities, although its role in disparity reduction is not widely recognized. PMID:18543110

  15. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community. PMID:26578350

  16. Winning Policy Change to Promote Community Health Workers: Lessons From Massachusetts in The Health Reform Era

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Terry; Wilkinson, Geoffrey W.; Nannini, Angela; Martin, Cindy Marti; Fox, Durrell J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a national movement among community health workers (CHWs) to improve compensation, working conditions, and recognition for the workforce through organizing for policy change. As some of the key advocates involved, we describe the development in Massachusetts of an authentic collaboration between strong CHW leaders of a growing statewide CHW association and their public health allies. Collaborators worked toward CHW workforce and public health objectives through alliance building and organizing, legislative advocacy, and education in the context of opportunities afforded by health care reform. This narrative of the path to policy achievements can inform other collaborative efforts attempting to promote a policy agenda for the CHW workforce across the nation. PMID:22021281

  17. Improving Community Health While Satisfying a Critical Community Need: A Case Study for Nonprofit Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kephart, Donna K.; Dillon, Judith F.; McCullough, Jody R.; Blatt, Barbara J.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background School-based student health screenings identify issues that may affect physical and intellectual development and are an important way to maintain student health. Nonprofit hospitals can provide a unique resource to school districts by assisting in the timely completion of school-based screenings and meet requirements of the Affordable Care Act. This case study describes the collaboration between an academic medical center and a local school district to conduct school-based health screenings. Community Context Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Penn State Hershey PRO Wellness Center collaborated with Lebanon School District to facilitate student health screenings, a need identified in part by a community health needs assessment. Methods From June 2012 through February 2013, district-wide student health screenings were planned and implemented by teams of hospital nursing leadership, school district leadership, and school nurses. In fall 2013, students were screened through standardized procedures for height, weight, scoliosis, vision, and hearing. Outcomes In 2 days, 3,105 students (67% of all students in the district) were screened. Letters explaining screening results were mailed to parents of all students screened. Debriefing meetings and follow-up surveys for the participating nurses provided feedback for future screenings. Interpretation The 2-day collaborative screening event decreased the amount of time spent by school nurses in screening students throughout the year and allowed them more time in their role as school wellness champion. Additionally, parents found out early in the school year whether their child needed physician follow-up. Partnerships between school districts and hospitals to conduct student health screenings are a practical option for increasing outreach while satisfying community needs. PMID:26513441

  18. Community Wise: Development of a Model to Address Oppression in Order to Promote Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane; Pinto, Rogério M.; Benoit, Ellen; Jessell, Lauren; Jemal, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Communities with histories of oppression have shown great resilience. Yet few health interventions focus on structural oppression as a contributor to health problems in these communities. This paper describes the development and active ingredients of Community Wise, a unique behavioral-health intervention designed to reduce substance use frequency, related health risk behaviors, and recidivism among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed and predominantly African American communities. Community Wise, developed through the collaborative efforts of a board of service providers, researchers, consumers, and government officials, is a 12-week group intervention that aims to address behavioral-health problems by raising critical consciousness in distressed communities. PMID:26190947

  19. Community Health Nursing in a Former Soviet Union Republic: A Case Study of Change in Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Henrietta; And Others

    1995-01-01

    To combat extreme health conditions in Armenia, nurses and physicians were given pretraining in community health at home and additional training in the United States on change strategies and community-based practice. Unforeseen barriers to change hindered progress, but participants were committed to preventive community health care. (SK)

  20. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.