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Sample records for area homicide incidence

  1. Homicide-Followed-by-Suicide Incidents Involving Child Victims

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Joseph E.; Walsh, Sabrina; Patel, Nimeshkumar; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims Methods Using 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System data, we characterized 129 incidents based on victim and perpetrator demographic information, their relationships, the weapons/mechanisms involved, and the perpetrators’ health and stress-related circumstances. Results These incidents accounted for 188 child deaths; 69% were under 11 years old, and 58% were killed with a firearm. Approximately 76% of perpetrators were males, and 75% were parents/caregivers. Eighty-one percent of incidents with paternal perpetrators and 59% with maternal perpetrators were preceded by parental discord. Fifty-two percent of incidents with maternal perpetrators were associated with maternal psychiatric problems. Conclusions Strategies that resolve parental conflicts rationally and facilitate detection and treatment of parental mental conditions might help prevention efforts. PMID:23985234

  2. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:26076731

  3. Firearm availability and the incidence of suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The present studied explored the validity of several indirect measures of firearm ownership in the states of the USA: the percentage of homicides and suicides committed with firearms, the accidental death rate from firearms, the strictness of state handgun control laws, and subscription rates to firearm magazines. These measures were then correlated with rates of suicide and homicide, and it was found that states with a greater availability of firearms had higher firearm suicide rates and higher firearm homicide rates. PMID:3274888

  4. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  5. Regional differences in homicide patterns in five areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, N; Kominato, Y; Shimada, I; Takizawa, H; Fujikura, T; Morita, M; Funayama, M; Yoshioka, N; Touda, K; Gonmori, K; Misawa, S; Sakairi, Y; Sakamoto, N; Tanno, K; Thaik-Oo, M; Kiuchi, M; Fukumoto, Y; Sato, Y

    2001-03-01

    This article describes regional differences in the homicide patterns which occurred in Sapporo City and the surrounding area, and in Akita, Ibaraki, Chiba and Toyama prefectures in Japan. Information collected from each case of homicide included factors such as age, sex of the victim and assailant, causes of death, disposition of the offender, relationship between assailant and victim, reasons for criminal action, et al. The statistical features of homicidal episodes among the five different regions showed considerable variation, as follows. The mean death rates for homicide (number of victims per 100,000 of population) during the period 1986-1995 were 0.44 (Sapporo), 0.8 (Akita), 0.58 (Toyama), 0.7 (Ibaraki) and 0.75 (Chiba), respectively. Close family relationship between the victim and assailant was observed in the homicidal acts which occurred in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. Assailant's relationship to victim was commonly extra-familial in Ibaraki and Chiba-neighboring megalopolis Tokyo, where some events of murder by a foreigner occurred. Homicide by female assailant, murder by mentally abnormal killers and homicide-suicide events were closely associated with family members. And these factors contributed to the considerable number of victims in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. But, this close family relationship of the victim to the assailant did not correspond with the elevation in the number of deaths, and it was rather inversely related to the higher death rates recognized in Ibaraki and Chiba. This comparative study suggested that rapid urbanization considerably affects regional differences in homicide patterns. PMID:12935732

  6. Change and Stability in the Characteristics of Homicide Victims, Offenders and Incidents During Rapid Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2008-01-01

    The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way that led to changes in the nature of interpersonal violence. Taking advantage of a unique set of homicide narratives drawn from court and police records in the Udmurt Republic, this study examined stability and change in the distribution of Russian homicide victim, offender, and incident characteristics before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression showed no change in victim characteristics, but substantial changes in several offender and incident characteristics. We discuss the potential mechanisms through which the structural and cultural shifts are resulting in these changes and conclude that the ongoing transition is largely responsible for the changing nature of homicide in Russia. In doing so, we introduce the new term “criminological transition” and suggest that Russia (and perhaps other nations) may have experienced a change in its crime profile in much the same way as we discuss a “demographic transition” in terms of fertility and mortality profiles. PMID:19122789

  7. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  8. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence. PMID:23903593

  9. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk. PMID:2340456

  10. [Homicides committed by women in the area served by the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Schöpfer, Jutta; Kortas, Aline; Bormann, Claudia; Schick, Sylvia; Mützel, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    According to crime statistics only a small percentage of intentional killings are committed by women. Female emancipation has not changed this finding. In spite of numerous studies in the field of psychiatry and social criminology there are few systematic investigations analyzing homicides committed by women under medico-legal aspects. The presented data include 127 homicides committed by female offenders, which were assessed at the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine between 1990 and 2010. The results of the evaluation are presented with regard to the type of offence, the motive, the means and method used to commit the offence and the sentence imposed. PMID:27120899

  11. Burnt wives: a study of homicides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, C B

    2004-01-01

    The death of married females nowadays is very common in India, usually being associated with dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, most frequently by burning. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 47 (31%) were homicidal burns and these cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. Homicide by burning amongst women is a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. In this series, most women were from extended families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) and the homicides occurred within the first few years of their marriages. The majority of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age (77%) at the time of the incident and sustained more than 70% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injuries. Many of them were doused with kerosene and set alight. Most died at the time of the incident or within the subsequent 24 hours, most commonly from shock. PMID:14984215

  12. Homosexual homicides.

    PubMed

    Definis Gojanovic, M

    1998-12-01

    This report describes four cases of male homosexual homicide committed in Split County, Croatia, in 1991 and 1995. The homosexual orientation of the victims was determined by police investigation. Three middle-aged to elderly person were killed by an unknown offender or offenders, in very similar ways within a few months of end other in 1991. The bodies were found in their houses with multiple blunt force injuries to the head. One victim also had marks of manual strangulation, and was choked with a handkerchief which had been put in his mouth. The last victim was a 45-year-old man, found in the bathroom with 33 stab wounds, mostly in the neck and back, and with two shots in the head from an underwater gun. He was killed by two adolescent males at the beginning of sexual intercourse. The presented cases show a high level of violence with multiple injuries may be associated with male homosexual homicide. PMID:15335518

  13. Commentary: Homicide-suicide in older adults--cultural and contextual perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carl C; McBride, Dominica F

    2010-01-01

    The authors comment on "Domestic Homicide and Homicide-Suicide: The Older Offender" by Bourget et al., who learned that after a domestic homicide in Canada, the older offender frequently commits suicide. The authors comment on the ubiquity of single homicide-suicide across cultures, the incidence of single homicide-suicide in various cultures, the common patterns and differences in single homicide-suicides across cultures, ethnic and gender differences in single homicide-suicide within different cultures, characteristics of the phenomenon of mass murder followed by suicide and ethnic differences within this type of homicide-suicide, and differences in suicidal patterns in different cultures. Suicide and suicide preceded by homicide (single or multiple) are so rare, it is currently impossible to draw any substantive conclusions about the incidence of these phenomena in various contexts; however, ideas for consideration in addressing homicide-suicide are provided. PMID:20852215

  14. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide. PMID:10774842

  15. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  16. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  17. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998-2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15-44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15-44 years was 121 per 100,000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100,000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  18. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998–2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15–44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15–44 years was 121 per 100 000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100 000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  19. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  20. Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jason, J; Flock, M; Tyler, C W

    1983-04-01

    Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies. An epidemiologic assessment of primary homicides in the United States for 1976 through 1979 showed the following. Sixty per cent of primary homicides were male victim/male offender events; 40% involved a female as a victim and/or as an offender. Three per cent of primary homicides were female victim/female offender events; 97% involved a male as a victim and/or as an offender. Primary homicides involving female victims or offenders were more frequently intrafamilial than those involving males, but rates of intrafamilial homicides by males were greater than those involving females. The preponderance of all primary homicides occurred between acquaintances, but the relationship between victim and offender varied with age, sex, and race. The weapons used varied with the victim's and offender's age, sex, and race, and with the relationship between victim and offender. Based on the described patterns, prevention measures should be divided into three broad areas: intrafamilial violence, extrafamilial violence, and male patterns of aggression. Key target populations for the first area include females, rural households, and the very young or very old. A key target population for the second area is teenage males. PMID:6837556

  1. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  2. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  3. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  4. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  5. [Homicide crimes in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dürwald, W

    1993-02-01

    Report of some cases of willful homicide in hospitals of the former GDR. In no case the patient has wished his death. Besides compassion the cause of the homicide was a large carefully expense and in two cases the attempt to prove the incapability of the competent doctor. The patients were only means to an end. All the cases are discovered by the great number of obscure death. PMID:8438538

  6. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers. PMID:18509760

  7. Elder homicide by unique combination of different mechanisms of asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Elder homicide is a fatal outcome of elder abuse and neglect. Multifactorial homicidal asphyxia in an elderly man by combination of three different mechanisms is an uncommon incident. This following case demonstrates a very unusual murder of 74-year-old man in his own residence. Crime scene visit and postmortem examination revealed that the victim was killed by combined effect of ligature strangulation, traumatic asphyxia and smothering by plastic bag. PMID:25664272

  8. Homicide by firearms in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    2000-09-01

    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 83 homicides by firearms were registered in the 10-year period 1985 to 1994, accounting for 19.3% of all homicides in that period. The majority of the victims were between 20 and 50 years old, and 58% were male, 42% female. The yearly number of firearm homicides varied between 4 and 15, with neither an increase nor decrease throughout the period. Most of the victims had no detectable blood alcohol at autopsy. Female victims were typically shot in their own domicile with a shotgun by their spouse, mostly because of jealousy or in a family argument, whereas male victims were shot on different locations, predominantly with a handgun, for many different reasons. Most victims were shot in the head, and few had entrance wounds in more than one anatomic region. PMID:10990294

  9. Homicide during postictal psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschenk, Stephan; Krop, Harry; Devinsky, Orrin

    2014-01-01

    Postictal psychosis is characterized by a fluctuating combination of thought disorder, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, affective change, and aggression including violent behavior. We present a case of homicide following a cluster of seizures. The patient's history and postictal behavior were his consistent with postictal psychosis. Contributing factors resulting in homicide may have included increased seizure frequency associated with a change in his AED regimen seizure frequency. The AED change to levetiracetam may also have increased impulsiveness with diminished mood regulation following discontinuation of carbamazepine. There is evidence that he had a cluster of seizures immediately prior to the murder which may have resulted in the postictal disinhibition of frontal lobe inhibitory systems. This homicide and other violent behaviors associated with postictal psychosis may be avoided with earlier recognition and treatment. PMID:25667886

  10. Child homicide spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jason, J

    1983-06-01

    Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide. There are two broad categories: The first predominates until the victim age of 3 years, is intrafamilial, and is associated with bodily force and poorly defined precipitating events. It might be described as fatal child abuse. The second type predominates after the victim age of 12 years, is extrafamilial, involves guns or knives, occurs during arguments or criminal acts by the offender, and may represent children unsupervised in an adult environment. Homicides that occur in children between 3 and 12 years of age are a mixture of these two types. PMID:6846292

  11. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  12. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women. PMID:26153559

  13. Preventing homicide: an evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P W; Loftin, C; Waller, J B; McDowall, D; Bukoff, A; Scott, R O; Mercy, J A; Wiersema, B

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 1986, a Detroit, Michigan city ordinance requiring mandatory jail sentences for illegally carrying a firearm in public was passed to preserve "the public peace, health, safety, and welfare of the people." METHODS: We conducted a set of interrupted time-series analyses to evaluate the impact of the law on the incidence of homicides, hypothesizing that the ordinance, by its nature, would affect only firearm homicides and homicides committed outside (e.g., on the street). RESULTS: The incidence of homicide in general increased after the law was passed, but the increases in non-firearm homicides and homicides committed inside (e.g., in a home) were either statistically significant or approached statistical significance (p = .006 and p = .070, respectively), whereas changes in the incidence of firearm homicides and homicides committed outside were not statistically significant (p = .238 and p = .418, respectively). We also determined that the ordinance was essentially unenforced, apparently because of a critical shortage of jail space. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a model in which the ordinance had a dampening effect on firearm homicides occurring in public in Detroit. The apparent preventive effect evident in the time series analyses may have been due to publicity about the ordinance, whereas the small nature of the effect may have been due to the lack of enforcement. PMID:2014857

  14. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  15. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  16. We fall down: the African American experience of coping with the homicide of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22073426

  17. Homicide of Family Members, Acquaintances, and Strangers, and State-To-State Differences in Social Stress, Social Control and Social Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman-Prehn, Ronet; And Others

    This study examined three theories which might account for the large differences between states in the incidence of homicide, and particularly the theory that stress causes homicide. The other theories are those which hold that homicide is a function of cultural norms which support violence and of a weak system of social control. The regression…

  18. [Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-López, María Guadalupe; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando; Valle Barbosa, Ana; Cabrera Pivaral, Carlos; Quintero-Vega, Pedro P

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional homicide mortality pattern, with the highest rates in peripheral regions, considered among the poorest areas in the State; municipalities with the lowest socioeconomic conditions also presenting a statistically significant excess homicide mortality; and an evident over-mortality from homicide among males. The results point to tasks and challenges for public health and law enforcement institutions, including the need to implement different inter-institutional policies that take into consideration the characteristics of homicide and violent crime in Jalisco. PMID:12764477

  19. Alleged dowry death: a study of homicidal burns.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Mohanthy, Sachindananda

    2006-04-01

    Homicidal burning of married women in India is a major concern for the Government, law-enforcing authorities, the judiciary, the police and medico-legal experts all over the country who are associated with dowry disputes. Dowry death, a heinous crime, is gradually engulfing and polluting the entire society. Sections 304(B) and 498(A) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) have been introduced and Sections 174 Criminal Procedure Code (Cr PC) and 176 Cr PC have been modified but, instead of deterring dowry deaths, the occurrences are increasing day by day and the number of cases coming for post-mortem examination is rising. Both parties, that is, the parents and in-laws of the deceased, are becoming adept at manufacturing circumstantial evidence to serve their own interests. Therefore, to establish the truth and for the smooth administration of justice, reliable unbiased medical evidence has to be corroborated. This study presents retrospective research carried out in the tertiary care teaching hospital of MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Eastern India, for a five-year period between January 1998 to December 2002. From a total of 58 burned wives, 32 (55.1%) were homicidal burns. These cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medico-legal aspects. The majority of the affected women (90.63%) were in the 18 to 26 years of age group. Death occurred within the first few years of marriage and most of them had no children. All the victims belonged to the Hindu religion and 62.5% of incidents occurred during the daytime. In 71.87% cases the incident occurred in rural areas. Eighty-three per cent of cases occurred in a joint family within the house. In most cases, kerosene was the accelerant and flame was the causative agent. In more than 68.75% of cases the total body surface area involved was more than 80%. Most victims died at the time of the incident, or within the subsequent 24 hours, due to hypovolumeic shock. The education status in 70.21% cases was either illiterate

  20. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  1. Homicide-suicide in Konya, Turkey between 2000 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the murderer is a relatively rare lethal incident in which an individual kills another person and subsequently dies by suicide. Cases involving a homicide and a suicide in which death examinations and autopsies were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council between 2000 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. During the studied time period, there were 10 homicide-suicide cases identified with 10 perpetrators killing 12 victims. Nine of the perpetrators were men and eight of the victims were women. The precipitating motive was an impending divorce in four of the cases. Two perpetrators were described as severely depressed, one had a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and one was a pedophile who had reactive depression. Firearms were used in eight of the homicide cases and seven of the suicides. Constricting the use of firearms may reduce/prevent future homicide-suicide cases, as it is the most commonly used method to carry out homicide-suicides. PMID:20002265

  2. Attempted homicide by electrocution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Karger, B

    1998-01-01

    Attempted homicide by the application of a high-voltage, low-amperage current is reported in an elderly male. An electrician constructed an apparatus and applied the current to wet towels placed on the abdomen of the victim sleeping next door. The attempt was unsuccessful and resulted in burns only. The victim was hospitalised and died 3 weeks later. A causal connection could not be established between the attempted electrocution and the demise of the victim. PMID:9826095

  3. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  4. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. PMID:27404632

  5. Prostitute Homicides: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…

  6. Homicide by methane gas.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Rossi, Riccardo; Fucci, Nadia; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2012-09-10

    Methane is a suffocating gas, and "methane deaths" are largely the result of suffocation by gas-air displacement after accidental or deliberate exposure. Neither methane gas nor other suffocating gases are a common means of homicide, with the potential exception of the use of gas in chemical weapons or gas chambers. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old woman who was killed by her husband with methane gas. The man had given his wife a dose of Lorazepam before setting up a hose that conveyed methane from the kitchen into the apartment's bedroom. The man subsequently faked his own suicide, which was later discovered. PMID:22721935

  7. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy. PMID:19403249

  8. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims. PMID:20402440

  9. Criminal Recidivism Among Homicide Offenders.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2014-01-16

    Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning. PMID:24442911

  10. A tale of two cities: a review of homicide in Melbourne and Glasgow in 2005.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Matthew; Black, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Forensic Medicine and Science at the University of Glasgow and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne are academic university-based forensic medicine units providing a medico-legal death investigation service to the Strathclyde region of Scotland and the State of Victoria, Australia, respectively. We reviewed and compared homicides in the two jurisdictions for the year 2005. Whilst gross numbers were comparable, the homicide rate per capita was significantly higher in Glasgow. Death due to stabbing comprised a greater proportion of homicides in Glasgow, reflective of a well recognised social epidemic of knife-related trauma amongst young males. Blunt force trauma was the most prevalent cause of homicidal injury in the Australian cases. The cities shared a low incidence of firearm- related homicide, reflective of strict legislative initiatives. PMID:18341154

  11. [Bayesian rates for homicide mapping in Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandre Xavier Ywata de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Almeida Júnior, Gilberto Rezende de; Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique Melo de

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate. PMID:22729256

  12. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  13. Unsolved homicides in Sweden: A population-based study of 264 homicides.

    PubMed

    Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    The clearance rates for homicides have decreased internationally. This retrospective population-based study of all Swedish homicide incidents between 2007 and 2009 (n=264) aims to investigate factors associated with solvability in homicides. Victims were identified in an autopsy registry and offenders in a criminal-conviction registry. Autopsy reports, police files, court verdicts and criminal records were systematically collected and linked. The clearance rate was 86.4% (n=228), and almost three quarters of cases (71.9%) were solved within the first week. Nine factors were significantly associated with the case status; however, only four factors remained significant in the multivariate logistic-regression model. Cases were more likely to be solved if there was an eyewitness and if the victim was intoxicated with alcohol. Moreover, cases were less likely to be solved if the victim had a criminal record in the past five years and was killed by a firearm. In the final model, a Cox proportional-hazards model, where time to arrest was taken into account, only alcohol intoxication were positively and firearms negatively significantly associated with clearance status. The study concludes that cases involving these factors should be granted extra, intensive and lasting resources. PMID:26295928

  14. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  15. Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158081.html Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing Biggest declines seen for Hispanics ... 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall homicide victim rates in the United States fell between ...

  16. Epilepsy and homicide

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Neil S; Vrbancic, Mirna; Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy. Patients and methods We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides. Results We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility. Conclusion The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse. PMID:23700367

  17. Medical homicide and extreme negligence.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R

    2009-03-01

    Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to extreme medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of extreme medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847

  18. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    PubMed

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  19. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Molly M.; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. Methods. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. Conclusions. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs. PMID:26270316

  20. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. PMID:23756522

  1. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  2. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  3. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  4. An ecosysthemic vision of homicide.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2012-12-01

    Four cities were analyzed in term of homicide rates, namely two Brazilian and two Argentinian cities. In each country, a city with high homicide rates and another with low rates were studied over the same three-year period. The theoretical approach of complex systems was used as it examines the link between the local system in its internal interconnections, the influence of the external environment and psychic engagement, namely the interpenetration between the social system and subjectivities. The emphasis of the study and the comparisons were conducted using qualitative research with observation, the use of interviews and focal groups. The results show that in locations with high or low homicide rates, there is synergy between the external environment (macrosocial and macroeconomic politics), the social system (social organization, local government, community participation) and subjectivity, whether it is in the construction of solidarity or social disintegration. Studies about changes in the violent social systems show that persistent and coordinated actions that articulate economic, social and educational investments as measures to prevent and restrain homicides have a positive impact in historical terms. PMID:23175403

  5. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  6. Pride and Purpose as Antidotes to Black Homicidal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses. The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  7. Pride and purpose as antidotes to black homicidal violence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C W

    1987-02-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses.The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  8. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead. PMID:23175393

  9. The epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Italy: a newspaper study from 1985 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Roma, Paolo; Spacca, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-01-10

    Homicide-suicide is an event in which the murderer commits suicide after the homicide. There are at least 14 epidemiological studies on the topic, and all have found that homicide-suicide is more common among family members. The murderers are most often males and the victims females. There is no recent research on this phenomenon in Italy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the incidence of homicide-suicide in Italy over a period of 24 yrs and to compare Italian data with published international data. We used information gathered by press agencies and from the four major Italian newspapers. Between 1985 and 2008, 662 cases of homicide-suicide were identified, with 1776 deaths. The murderer was male in 84.6% of the cases, typically using a firearm. The most common motivation was romantic jealousy, followed by socio-economic stress. The rate of homicide-suicide was 0.04%. Comparison with international studies is not always possible due to the lack of information for certain categories. The common factors identified may be helpful for prevention. PMID:21764533

  10. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  11. The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair. PMID:23057248

  12. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  13. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  14. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  15. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  16. Intrafamilial Homicide of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An increase in interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD) has been observed in the past decade. However, little attention has been given to intrafamilial homicides of PWDD. This paper provides a preliminary description of these types of homicides as they affect PWDD. Content analysis of media accounts of intrafamilial…

  17. The Grief Response Following a Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussaint, Alvin F.

    Although grief reactions have been carefully examined, little information is available on the grief response following the murder of a loved one. Impressions of homicide survivors' grief reactions were obtained by the staff of a family support center who treated ten families that had experienced the loss of a family member by homicide.…

  18. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkin, James

    1976-01-01

    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  19. Exploring Twitter to Analyze the Public’s Reaction Patterns to Recently Reported Homicides in London

    PubMed Central

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people’s perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public’s concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users’ estimated home locations to the homicides’ locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident’s occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  20. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization. PMID:25272258

  1. Relationship-Precipitated Homicides as Mediated by Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrew Thomas

    Homicide is the 12th leading cause in absolute number of deaths in the United States. Research has suggested that: (1) minorities have a greater homicide risk than do Anglo-Americans; (2) males are much more likely than females to be homicide victims; (3) the highest overall homicide rate occurs between the ages of 25 and 39; (4) among minorities,…

  2. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  3. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. PMID:24314498

  4. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  5. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

  6. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  7. A case of homicidal intraoral gunshot and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Berens, Sandra; Ketterer, Thomas; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen; Bolliger, Stephan A

    2011-06-01

    Determination of the manner of death in case of intraoral firearm wounds can be a challenge, especially if the circumstances of the incident are unclear and crime scene investigation is inadequate. It is a well-known fact that the mouth is one of the selected sites for suicide with firearms. Homicidal shooting through the mouth is said to be rare, but does occur, and can be mistaken for a suicide. For discrimination between suicide and homicide in cases of intraoral firearm wounds, some useful points are the site of entry wound, the direction of the internal bullet path, the range of fire and the circumstances of death. We demonstrate these points in a case of a homicidal gunshot to the mouth assessed by both classical autopsy and post-mortem CT (PMCT). PMID:21076946

  8. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  9. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  10. Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Delan; Osrin, David

    2016-04-01

    In this perspective, Delan Devakumar and David Osrin discuss Abrahams and colleagues' findings in the context of evidence about child homicide in different countries, and consider etiology along with implications for child protection and prevention. PMID:27115911

  11. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  12. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives. PMID:24264509

  13. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-adjusted, sex- and race-specific 1969-1971 cancer incidence ratios for the 722 census tracts of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with measured chrysotile asbestos counts in tract drinking waters. The water supplies serving the are...

  14. The epidemiology of homicide in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, S.; Benbow, N.; Good, G.

    1996-01-01

    Public health agencies across the country are beginning to view violence as a problem that demands a public health response. However, before such a response can be mounted effectively, there must be a sound data-based understanding of this epidemic. With this in mind, the Chicago Department of Public Health implemented an epidemiological analysis of homicide in the city. Using vital records, police data, and census data, we found that the city's homicide rate in 1993 was 31 per 100,000 population. This rate placed Chicago 14th among other large cities in the United States and 4th out of the eight cities with a population > 1 million. The homicide rate in the city has been increasing over the past 30 years, but not steadily. For some intervals, the homicide rate has remained almost constant. African Americans, Hispanics, the young, and males are overrepresented in the epidemic. While guns accounted for almost 75% of all homicides in Chicago in 1993, gangs accounted for only 15%. Homicide cannot be viewed in isolation from the context of society. The literature suggests that poverty and racism are important risk factors for this epidemic. Although we cannot wait until these risk factors are remedied to develop violence prevention interventions, we also cannot proceed effectively without understanding this context. PMID:8990803

  15. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  16. Homicides committed by youth assailants: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Adeagbo, Bamidele A; Clark, Colin; Collins, Kim A

    2008-09-01

    The pediatric population has received considerable attention in the forensic community; the youth assailant of homicide, however, is understudied. The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases referred to the Forensic Pathology Section of the Medical University of South Carolina between January 1991 and May 2006. Cases included in the study were homicides in which 1 or more assailants were 19 years of age or younger. The cases were examined as to the cause and manner of death, victim age, gender, race, incident location, weapon used, assailant-victim relationship, assailant age, gender, race, motive, and postmortem toxicology results. Assailant information was obtained from forensic records at Medical University of South Carolina, police department records, and online search engines of South Carolina State newspaper archives confirmed by law enforcement reports. The youth assailants were predominantly black men, 15 to 19 years of age (range, 4-19 years). Most victims were black male acquaintances, and the motive was most often an argument. The most common cause of death was cerebral laceration because of a gunshot wound. The incident occurred in the home in 41% of cases, followed by the street in 31%. Victim toxicology was frequently positive for cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol. PMID:18725775

  17. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    PubMed

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread. Farmers were questioned about a range of farm management strategies, farm characteristics, herd health, wildlife and biosecurity measures with a focus on farmer attitudes and behaviours such as farmers' perception of endemicity and feelings of control, openness and social cohesion. Data generated in the telephone surveys was supplemented with existing herd-level data and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Overall, herd size (OR 1.07), purchasing an animal at a cattle market compared to purchasing outside of markets (OR 2.6), the number of contiguous bTB incidents (2.30) and the number of inconclusive reactors detected in the 2 years prior to the case incident (OR 1.95) significantly increased the odds of a bTB incident. Beef herds using a field parcel more than 3.2km away from the main farm and dairy herds reporting Johne's disease in the previous 12 months were 3.0 and 4.7 times more likely to have a recent history of a bTB incident, respectively. Beef herds reporting maize growing near, but not on, their farm were less likely to be case herds. Operating a closed farm in the two years prior to the case breakdown did not reduce the odds of a bTB incident. Farmers

  18. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  19. Late-life homicide-suicide: a national case series in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gary; Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Homicide-suicide is a rare event, but it has a significant impact on the family and community of the perpetrator and victim(s). The phenomenon of late-life homicide-suicide has not been previously studied in New Zealand, and there is only limited data in the international literature. The aim of this study is to systematically review coroners' records of late-life homicide-suicides in New Zealand. After ethics approval was granted, the Coronial Services of New Zealand was approached to provide records of all closed cases with a suicide verdict (age 65+) over a five-year period (July 2007-December 2012). Of the 225 suicides, 4 cases of homicide-suicide were identified (an estimated incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 per persons year). All four perpetrators were men; three had been farmers. Their ages ranged from 65 to 82. One case occurred in the context of an underlying psychiatric illness (psychotic depression in bipolar disorder). Firearms were used in three cases. Two cases were categorized as spousal/consortial subtype, one case as filicide-suicide, and one case as siblicide-suicide. The prospect of major social upheaval in the form of losing their homes was present in all four cases. The findings of this case series were consistent with the limited existing literature on homicide-suicide. Age-related biopsychosocial issues were highlighted in this case series of late-life homicide-suicide. Additionally, evaluating firearm licences in high-risk groups may represent a prevention strategy. PMID:25735608

  20. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects. PMID:26838238

  1. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  2. Homicide and geographic access to gun dealers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Krafty, Robert T; Koper, Christopher S; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Branas, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Background Firearms are the most commonly used weapon to commit homicide in the U.S. Virtually all firearms enter the public marketplace through a federal firearms licensee (FFL): a store or individual licensed by the federal government to sell firearms. Whether FFLs contribute to gun-related homicide in areas where they are located, in which case FFLs may be a homicide risk factor that can be modified, is not known. Methods Annual county-level data (1993–1999) on gun homicide rates and rates of FFLs per capita were analyzed using negative binomial regression controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Models were run to evaluate whether the relation between rates of FFLs and rates of gun homicide varied over the study period and across counties according to their level of urbanism (defined by four groupings, as below). Also, rates of FFLs were compared against FS/S – which is the proportion of suicides committed by firearm and is thought to be a good proxy for firearm availability in a region – to help evaluate how well the FFL variable is serving as a way to proxy firearm availability in each of the county types of interest. Results In major cities, gun homicide rates were higher where FFLs were more prevalent (rate ratio [RR] = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03–2.81). This association increased (p < 0.01) from 1993 (RR = 1.69) to 1999 (RR = 12.72), due likely to federal reforms that eliminated low-volume dealers, making FFL prevalence a more accurate exposure measure over time. No association was found in small towns. In other cities and in suburbs, gun homicide rates were significantly lower where FFLs were more prevalent, with associations that did not change over the years of the study period. FFL prevalence was correlated strongly (positively) with FS/S in major cities only, suggesting that the findings for how FFL prevalence relates to gun homicide may be valid for the findings pertaining to major cities but not to counties of other types. Conclusion

  3. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  4. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  5. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to...

  6. Homicide-suicide (dyadic death), homicide, and firearms use in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Travis, Angela R; Johnson, Luke J; Milroy, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Homicide-suicide forms a distinct form of homicide. An analysis of cases in the Yorkshire and Humberside region of England between 1991 and 2005 revealed 37 episodes with 42 victims. Previous studies have shown a high rate of use of firearms. Over the last 2 decades firearms legislation has become more restrictive. In this study all assailants were male, mean age 46.8 years. The commonest method of homicide was strangulation (36%) with 16% killed by firearms. This is a reduction compared with a previous study in the same region. All killers who shot their victims killed themselves with firearms. There were no multiple killings with firearms in this study and no stranger killings. Hanging was the commonest method of suicide. During the same period the use of firearms as a method of homicide increased in England and Wales with handguns, the most common weapon. Nationally, suicide after homicide has remained at a similar rate over the half century and is an uncommon phenomenon. Firearms use remains low in both homicide and homicide-suicide episodes in England, and further analysis is required to determine changes in patterns of killing. PMID:18043018

  7. Policies for alcohol restriction and their association with interpersonal violence: a time-series analysis of homicides in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Álvaro I; Villaveces, Andrés; Krafty, Robert T; Park, Taeyoung; Weiss, Harold B; Fabio, Anthony; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, María I

    2011-01-01

    Background Cali, Colombia, has a high incidence of interpersonal violence deaths. Various alcohol control policies have been implemented to reduce alcohol-related problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether different alcohol control policies were associated with changes in the incidence rate of homicides. Methods Ecologic study conducted during 2004–08 using a time-series design. Policies were implemented with variations in hours of restriction of sales and consumption of alcohol. Most restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 2 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 446 non-consecutive days. Moderately restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 3 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 1277 non-consecutive days. Lax policies prohibited alcohol between 4 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 104 non-consecutive days. In conditional autoregressive negative binomial regressions, rates of homicides and unintentional injury deaths (excluding traffic events) were compared between different periods of days when different policies were in effect. Results There was an increased risk of homicides in periods when the moderately restrictive policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.15, 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.26, P = 0.012], and there was an even higher risk of homicides in periods when the lax policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect (IRR 1.42, 90% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.001). Less restrictive policies were not associated with increased risk of unintentional injury deaths. Conclusion Extended hours of sales and consumption of alcohol were associated with increased risk of homicides. Strong restrictions on alcohol availability could reduce the incidence of interpersonal violence events in communities where homicides are high. PMID:21450681

  8. Increased incidence of cancer and asthma in houses built on a former dump area.

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E; Pönkä, A

    2001-01-01

    Twelve blockhouses were built in Helsinki in the 1970s on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste. We investigated whether the exposure to landfill caused cancer or other chronic diseases in the inhabitants of these houses. From the Population Register, we identified 2,000 persons who had ever lived in houses built on the dump area and a similar reference cohort from similar houses elsewhere in Helsinki. We identified their cancer cases from the Cancer Registry, and the other chronic diseases eligible for free medication from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. At the end of 1998, 88 cases of cancer had been diagnosed, whereas the expected number based on the incidence rates among all inhabitants of Helsinki was 76.1. The excess cases were entirely attributable to males and to follow-up >or= 5 years after moving into the dump area [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) in this category, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.24], and they were distributed evenly over primary sites. The relative risk increased slightly with the number of years lived in the area. The relative risk of cancer between the dump area and reference houses was 1.50 (1.08-2.09), similar in both sexes. Of the other chronic diseases, the SIRs for asthma (1.63; CI, 1.27-2.07) and chronic pancreatitis (19.3; CI, 2.34-69.7) were significantly increased. The possibility of a causal association between dump exposure and incidence of cancer and asthma cannot be fully excluded. The Helsinki City Council decided to demolish the houses in the dump area, and most houses have already been destroyed. PMID:11712996

  9. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  10. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  11. Cross-sectional area of the abdomen predicts complication incidence in patients undergoing sternal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kozlow, Jeffrey H.; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Terjimanian, Michael N.; Rinkinen, Jacob; Brownley, Robert Cameron; Agarwal, Shailesh; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Sternal reconstruction with vascularized flaps is central to the management of sternal wound infections and mediastinitis but carries a high risk of complications. There is a need to identify reliable predictors of complication risk to help inform patients and clinicians in preparation for surgery. Unfortunately, body mass index and serum albumin may not be reliable predictors of complication rates. Analytic morphomics provides a robust quantitative method to measure patients’ obesity as it pertains to their risk of complications in undergoing sternal reconstruction. Methods We identified 34 patients with preoperative computed tomography scans of the abdomen from a cohort of sternal reconstructions performed between 1997 and 2010. Using semiautomated analytic morphomics, we identified the patients’ skin and fascia layers between the ninth and 12th thoracic spine levels; from these landmarks, we calculated morphomic measurements of the patients’ abdomens, including their total body cross sectional area and the cross sectional area of their subcutaneous fat. We obtained the incidence of complications from chart review and correlated the incidence of complications (including seroma, hematoma, recurrent wounds, mediastinitis, tracheostomy, and death) with patients’ morphomic measurements. Results Sixty-two percent of patients (n = 21) suffered complications after their operation. Those who suffered from complications, relative to those who did not have complications, had increased visceral fat area (12,547.2 mm2 versus 6569.9 mm2, P = 0.0080), subcutaneous fat area (16,520.2 mm2 versus 8020.1 mm2, P = 0.0036), total body area (91,028.6 mm2 versus 67,506.5 mm2, P = 0.0022), fascia area (69,238.4 mm2 versus 56,730.9 mm2, P = 0.0118), total body circumference (1101.8 mm versus 950.2 mm, P = 0.0017), and fascia circumference (967.5 mm versus 868.1 mm, P = 0.0077). We also demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the previously mentioned

  12. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    PubMed

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy. PMID:15697007

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Osma, Sonia; Herrera, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA) during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR). Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS). We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR(W)) and mortality (ASMR(W)) rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women). Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4%) were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1%) were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W) for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W) was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs. PMID:24893302

  14. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  15. Homicide in five southern states: a firearms phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ruben, E R; Leeper, J D

    1981-03-01

    Homicide is a leading contributor to loss of life in the productive years. Of the 20,000 homicides yearly in the United States, the majority are committed with firearms. Because homicide rates and gun ownership are highest in the southern states, a descriptive study of 20,980 homicides occurring in five southern states between 1967-1975 was done with particular emphasis on the role of firearms. Total rates in this study were 60% to 85% higher than concurrent national rates. Homicide with firearms accounted for 76.2%, and was the only method of homicide to show a significant increase in rate or a distinctive age distribution. Homicide in the US is a firearms phenomenon. Appropriate and effective regulation of access to firearms is an obvious first step in the prevention of this public health problem. PMID:7221624

  16. Geographic epidemiology in a small area: cancer incidence in Baakline, Lebanon, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Adib, S M; Tabbal, N; Hamadeh, R; Ammar, W

    2013-04-01

    Aggregate data of the National Clr cac gi s in Lebanon cannot discriminate cance r incidence i n small areas. Trained community members surveyed the permanent population of the Baakline municipality using the verbal autopsy approach. We surveyed 1042 households with at least 1 member living permanently in Baakline during 2000-2008. Data covered 4330 persons yielding 34,143 years of observation and 56 new cases of cancer were reported. Median age at diagnosis varied significantly between men (77 years) and women (56 years). The most common types were lung cancer (20%) followed by colorectal (12.5%) and breast (9%). Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100,000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. This finding pleads for serious efforts to preserve the low environmental contamination and the healthy lifestyles in food and tobacco abstinence that have protected the population so far. PMID:23882956

  17. Cancer incidence patterns in the Denver metropolitan area in relation to the Rocky Flats plant.

    PubMed

    Crump, K S; Ng, T H; Cuddihy, R G

    1987-07-01

    This study considered whether geographic patterns of cancer suggest any relation with Rocky Flats, a facility located near Denver, Colorado that processes plutonium components for nuclear weapons. The study was based upon cancer incidence data for the years 1969 to 1971 and 1979 to 1981, and census tract data for 1970 and 1980. Data for 1979 to 1981 showed little association with Rocky Flats, even though considerations of the timing of releases of radioactivity from the plant and cancer latency indicate that data from this period should be more indicative of an effect of Rocky Flats than data from the earlier period. The explanatory variable found to be most closely associated with cancer incidence was an urban factor measured by distance from the Colorado State Capitol located in downtown Denver. Indications of correlations of cancer incidence with proximity to Rocky Flats largely disappeared for both time periods when analyses were stratified by this urban factor. This negative finding was not surprising because persons living in the vicinity of the plant have been shown to have no more plutonium in their tissues than persons living in other areas of Colorado. PMID:3591777

  18. Homicide facilitated by inhalation of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Nashelsky, M B; Dix, J D; Adelstein, E H

    1995-01-01

    Three related homicides in which each decedent had significant concentrations of chloroform in blood, fat, brain and/or liver are described. The tissue concentrations of chloroform in one of three decedents were within reported lethal ranges. The concentrations in the remaining two decedents were less than lethal but were well above blood levels in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects. The cause of death in one decedent with sublethal chloroform concentrations was suffocation; the cause of death in the other decedent could not be determined with certainty. The manner of death in each case was homicide. Through a review of the literature the authors discuss the history of chloroform as an inhalation anesthetic and the history of chloroform as an agent of abuse, suicide, assault, and homicide. Blood and/or tissue concentrations of chloroform in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects and victims of suicide or homicide from previous reports are compared and contrasted with the amounts in blood and/or tissue in the three subjects described in this study. The authors conclude that, in addition to a direct lethal effect, chloroform may be used to incapacitate a victim of assault who then dies by another cause. PMID:7876797

  19. Adolescent Homicide: Towards Assessment of Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Peter J.; Rowton-Lee, Martyn A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the mental health literature relevant to homicidal children and adolescents. Background and situational factors relevant to risk are described. Background factors include the witnessing of serious violence, both live and on the screen, as well as abuse through neglect and deprivation. Discusses other factors that contribute to homicidal…

  20. Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.

    This book assembles and synthesizes some of the latest available information, research findings, and informed opinions regarding the parameters of homicide by youths and concerning the nature of young killers themselves. It provides a framework for understanding youths who kill, for moving forward with treatment, and for reducing violence in…

  1. Racial Segregation and Black Urban Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ruth D.; Krivo, Lauren J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from large U.S. central cities indicates that African-American homicide victimization by acquaintances and strangers (but not family members) increased with residential segregation, while poverty and income inequality were not significant influences. African-American high school graduation rates were positively related to family…

  2. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  3. Increased incidence of preterm delivery in mothers residing in an industrialized area in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yu, Hsin-Su; Liu, Chia-Chia; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2003-06-13

    The objective of this study was to determine whether women living in the vicinity of industrial districts where emission levels of air contaminants from multiple sources including petrochemical, petroleum, steel, and shipbuilding industries are highly correlated with increased incidence of preterm births. The prevalence of delivery of preterm-birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living in the industrial study area compared to control regions of Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and birthplace), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.02-1.21) for delivery of preterm infants in the industrial area. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy, although a semiecological study cannot confirm a direct causal relationship. PMID:12775512

  4. Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Erzelia V.E.; Bragança, Mauro; Cuamba, Nelson; Alifrangis, Michael; Stanton, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Isolated areas, such as the 2 × 7 km peninsula of Linga Linga in Mozambique, are the places where malaria might be most easily eliminated. Currently available control strategies include long-lasting insecticidal bednets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides (LLINs), rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment and these were applied on the peninsula. In 2007, following a census of the population and mapping of 500 households, five annual all-age prevalence surveys were conducted. Information on LLIN use, house construction, and animal ownership was obtained. A spatially structured generalized additive model indicated that malaria risk was greatest towards the northern end of the peninsula and that people living in houses with grass or thatch roofs had a greater risk of malaria than those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs. Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.0002). From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48% in 2009, to 35% in 2010 and 25% in 2011. At the same time, there was a shift in the peak age of cases from 1–4 year olds to 5–9 year olds. Nevertheless, in order to further reduce malaria transmission in an area such as Linga Linga, additional vector control measures need to be considered. PMID:26587341

  5. Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Charlwood, Jacques Derek; Tomás, Erzelia V E; Bragança, Mauro; Cuamba, Nelson; Alifrangis, Michael; Stanton, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Isolated areas, such as the 2 × 7 km peninsula of Linga Linga in Mozambique, are the places where malaria might be most easily eliminated. Currently available control strategies include long-lasting insecticidal bednets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides (LLINs), rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment and these were applied on the peninsula. In 2007, following a census of the population and mapping of 500 households, five annual all-age prevalence surveys were conducted. Information on LLIN use, house construction, and animal ownership was obtained. A spatially structured generalized additive model indicated that malaria risk was greatest towards the northern end of the peninsula and that people living in houses with grass or thatch roofs had a greater risk of malaria than those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs. Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall (r (2) = 0.34, p = 0.0002). From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48% in 2009, to 35% in 2010 and 25% in 2011. At the same time, there was a shift in the peak age of cases from 1-4 year olds to 5-9 year olds. Nevertheless, in order to further reduce malaria transmission in an area such as Linga Linga, additional vector control measures need to be considered. PMID:26587341

  6. The contribution of badgers to confirmed tuberculosis in cattle in high-incidence areas in England.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Christl A; Nouvellet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The role of badgers in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle is widely debated as part of the wider discussions on whether badger culling and/or badger vaccination should play a role in the government's strategy to eradicate cattle TB. The key source of information on the contribution from badgers within high-cattle-TB-incidence areas of England is the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT), with two analyses providing estimates of the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB in these areas. A dynamical model characterizing the association between the estimated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine TB) among badgers culled in the initial RBCT proactive culls and the incidence among sympatric cattle herds prior to culling is used to estimate the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed TB herd breakdowns among proactively culled areas. The resulting estimate based on all data (52%) has considerable uncertainty (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-100%). Separate analyses of experimental data indicated that the largest estimated reduction in confirmed cattle TB achieved inside the proactive culling areas was 54% (overdispersion-adjusted 95% CI: 38-66%), providing a lower bound for the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB. Thus, taking into account both results, the best estimate of the average overall contribution of badgers is roughly half, with 38% being a robustly estimated lower bound. However, the dynamical model also suggested that only 5.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.9-25%) of the transmission to cattle herds is badger-to-cattle with the remainder of the average overall contribution from badgers being in the form of onward cattle-to-cattle transmission. These estimates, confirming that badgers do play a role in bovine TB transmission, inform debate even if they do not point to a single way forward. PMID:24761309

  7. Association of Muscle Mass, Area, and Strength With Incident Diabetes in Older Adults: The Health ABC Study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Britta A; Wassel, Christina L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Criqui, Michael H; Kanaya, Alka M; Fried, Linda F; Schwartz, Ann V; Harris, Tamara B; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-04-01

    The role of muscle in development of metabolic conditions is poorly understood. The authors show that, while there was no overall association between muscle mass, area, and strength and incident diabetes in older adults, more muscle at baseline was protective against incident diabetes for normal weight women. PMID:26930180

  8. Homicide surveillance--United States, 1979-1988.

    PubMed

    Hammett, M; Powell, K E; O'Carroll, P W; Clanton, S T

    1992-05-29

    From 1979 through 1988, 217,578 homicides occurred in the United States, an average of greater than 21,000 per year. Homicide rates during this 10-year period were about 1.5 times higher than the rates during the 1950s. The national homicide rate of 10.7/100,000 in 1980 was the highest ever recorded. Homicide occurs disproportionately among young adults. Among the 15- to 34-year age group, homicide is the fourth most common cause of death among white females, the third most common cause among white males, and the most common cause among both black females and black males. In 1988, nearly two-thirds (61%) of homicide victims were killed with a firearm, 75% of these with a handgun. More than half (52%) of homicide victims were killed by a family member or acquaintance, and about one-third (35%) of homicides stemmed from a conflict not associated with another felony. The homicide mortality rate among young black males 15-24 years of age has risen 54% since 1985. Ninety-nine percent of the increase was accounted for by homicides in which the victim was killed with a firearm. The surveillance data summarized in this report should assist public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in addressing this important public health problem. PMID:1635547

  9. Canadian firearms legislation and effects on homicide 1974 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-08-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using data obtained from Statistics Canada from 1974 to 2008. Three statistical methods were applied to search for any associated effects of firearms legislation. Interrupted time series regression, ARIMA, and Joinpoint analysis were performed. Neither were any significant beneficial associations between firearms legislation and homicide or spousal homicide rates found after the passage of three Acts by the Canadian Parliament--Bill C-51 (1977), C-17 (1991), and C-68 (1995)--nor were effects found after the implementation of licensing in 2001 and the registration of rifles and shotguns in 2003. After the passage of C-68, a decrease in the rate of the decline of homicide by firearm was found by interrupted regression. Joinpoint analysis also found an increasing trend in homicide by firearm rate post the enactment of the licensing portion of C-68. Other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate. This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial association between legislation and firearm homicide rates between 1974 and 2008. PMID:22328660

  10. The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with populations greater than 500,000. METHODS: A "components model" from review of more than 350 documents, several large datasets, and information from 220 public health personnel was used. Data review focused on injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and high-risk heterosexual men and women. RESULTS: In the 96 MSAs, there are, broadly, an estimated 1.5 million injection drug users, 1.7 million gay and bisexual men, and 2.1 million at-risk heterosexuals, and, among them, an estimated 565,000 prevalent and 38,000 incident HIV infections. This implies about 700,000 prevalent and 41,000 new HIV infections yearly in the United States. Roughly half of all estimated new infections are occurring among injection drug users, most of them in northeastern cities, Miami, and San Juan. Gay and bisexual men still represent most prevalent HIV infections, although incidence--except in young and minority gay men--is much lower now than it was a decade ago. Relatively high prevalences of HIV in at-risk heterosexual persons in several cities indicate the potential for an increase in transmission among them. CONCLUSIONS: This review and synthesis outline the comparative epidemiology of HIV in major US cities and identify populations for interventions. PMID:8629714

  11. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343

  12. The association between protective actions and homicide risk: findings from the Oklahoma Lethality Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25199385

  13. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. PMID:26580723

  14. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks. PMID:12598665

  15. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  16. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  17. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  18. [Simulation of homicide to hide child's suicide].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Driever, F; Madea, B

    2001-01-01

    A case of pretending a homicide to conceal a child suicide is reported in which characteristic findings of the postmortem examination and conclusions from the analysis of forensic autopsy series provided substantial support for the police investigation. In the late night hours of a spring day the police authorities were informed that a 10-year-old girl had been found dead on a playground near its parents' house. As injuries of the neck were recognized by the police officers a homicide investigation was initiated. The post mortem examination showed a furrow symmetrically slanting from the front to the nape of the neck, discrete punctate haemorrhages of the skin of the face and numerous 'tram-line' bruises of the back, buttocks and extremities. These findings indicated as cause and manner of death suicidal hanging following corporal punishment. Confronted with these conclusions the mother immediately made a corresponding confession. PMID:11591060

  19. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  20. Cultural processes and homicide across nations.

    PubMed

    Altheimer, Irshad

    2013-07-01

    This article is concerned with the macro-level propositions of Nisbett and Cohen's culture of honor thesis. The results suggest that the culture of honor proxy has a strong positive influence on homicide across nations. In fact, culture of honor exhibited larger effect sizes than all of the important social-structural controls. These results suggest that consideration of cultural processes is important for understanding macro-level variation in violence. PMID:22436734

  1. Incidence of severe diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae in the catchment area of six surveillance hospitals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, R C; Faruque, A S G; Alam, M; Iqbal, A; Zaman, K; Islam, N; Sobhan, A; DAS, S K; Malek, M A; Qadri, F; Cravioto, A; Luby, S P

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is an important public health problem in Bangladesh. Interventions to prevent cholera depend on their cost-effectiveness which in turn depends on cholera incidence. Hospital-based diarrhoeal disease surveillance has been ongoing in six Bangladeshi hospitals where a systematic proportion of patients admitted with diarrhoea were enrolled and tested for Vibrio cholerae. However, incidence calculation using only hospital data underestimates the real disease burden because many ill persons seek treatment elsewhere. We conducted a healthcare utilization survey in the catchment areas of surveillance hospitals to estimate the proportion of severe diarrhoeal cases that were admitted to surveillance hospitals and estimated the population-based incidence of severe diarrhoea due to V. cholerae by combining both hospital surveillance and catchment area survey data. The estimated incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera ranged from 0.3 to 4.9/1000 population in the catchment area of surveillance hospitals. In children aged <5 years, incidence ranged from 1.0 to 11.0/1000 children. Diarrhoeal deaths were most common in the Chhatak Hospital's catchment area (18.5/100 000 population). This study provides a credible estimate of the incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera in Bangladesh, which can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of cholera prevention activities. PMID:26391481

  2. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  3. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system. PMID:25447266

  4. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. PMID:26094617

  5. The Prediction of Violence and Homicide in Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin; Homish, D. Lynn; Wei, Evelyn H.; Crawford, Anne M.; Farrington, David P.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Creemers, Judith; Koehler, Steven A.; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this prospective study, the authors predicted violence and homicide in 3 representative school samples (N = 1,517). Participants were part of a longitudinal, multiple cohort study on the development of delinquency in boys from late childhood to early adulthood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three participants were convicted of homicide,…

  6. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  7. Variations in Wounding by Relationship Intimacy in Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides…

  8. International and interstate comparisons of homicide among young males.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, L A; Kleinman, J C

    1990-06-27

    The homicide rate for males 15 through 24 years of age in the United States was compared with the rates in 21 other developed countries. The US homicide rate, 21.9 per 100,000, was more than four times higher than the next highest rate in Scotland (5.0). Most countries had rates that were between 1 and 3 per 100,000. The lowest rates were in Japan and Austria, each with rates below 0.6 per 100,000 males 15 through 24 years of age. Three quarters of the homicides in the United States resulted from the use of firearms contrasted with less than a quarter of all homicides in the comparison countries. The US homicide rate for black males 15 through 24 years of age (85.6) was more than seven times the rate for white males (11.2). In 1987 there were only four states that had homicide rates among white males that were as low as the rates among males in the comparison countries. The lowest state rate among young black males was still seven times the highest rate abroad. There are about 4000 homicides per year among young males in the United States. If the US homicide rate could be reduced to that in the country with the next highest rate, more than 3000 lives would be saved. PMID:2348540

  9. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  10. A suicide disguised as a homicide: return to Thor Bridge.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, J A; Long, S; Barnard, J J

    1998-06-01

    Suicides staged as homicides are uncommon. We present a case of a self-inflicted gunshot wound of the chest disguised by the victim as a homicide, using a method described by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes story, "The Problem of Thor Bridge." PMID:9662119

  11. Exposure to Local Homicides and Early Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudillo, Mónica L.; Torche, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of children's exposure to local violence on grade failure in Mexico. We construct an annual panel of all elementary schools from 1990 to 2010 and merge municipality-level homicide rates to analyze the effect of exposure to local homicide. Using a variety of causal inference techniques, we consistently find that…

  12. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and...

  13. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  14. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  15. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. PMID:24661708

  16. Bringing "Booze" Back In: The Relationship between Alcohol and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert Nash

    1995-01-01

    Tested hypotheses concerning the relationship between alcohol and homicide from four major theoretical perspectives; specific predictions on the causes of types of homicide were also derived. Findings revealed that alcohol consumption rates change the way important predictors, such as poverty and deterrence, are related to specific types of…

  17. Extreme violence--homicide; an analysis of 265 cases from the offices of JMO Colombo and Ragama--a study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I D G

    2009-04-01

    Violence in a society can be categorized into many areas such as interpersonal violence, domestic violence, violence against children, violence of human rights, violence due to wars etc. The most extreme form of violence is killing of another human. To study whether the underlying reasons (motives) for killing has a relationship to the methods employed for killing. A retrospective descriptive study based on autopsy reports, magistrate orders and case notes attached was carried out on all the cases examined at the office of the JMO Colombo and Ragama from July 2005 to June 2006. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Out of 265 autopsy examinations alleged to be homicides, 39% of deaths were related to terrorist acts while previous enmity was recorded in 35% of cases. The commonest method of homicide was firearms (31%) while explosives recorded the second highest (28%). Blunt force and sharp force trauma were the reasons for 23% and 14% of homicides respectively. Almost all the deaths related to war was caused by firearms and bombs (96%) where as 47% of previous enmity deaths were caused by firearms. Firearms were never used in homicides of sudden provocation or drunken brawls. The increased use of firearms was not only seen in terrorism related homicides, but also in homicides related to previous enmity. Further research is needed in this area as to why it occurs despite having a tight firearm policy in Sri Lanka. PMID:19398365

  18. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  19. Region of birth, migration and homicide rates of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1997-08-01

    A study was made of all homicide deaths among black Americans during the period 1979-1991 in order to test two competing hypotheses about region of birth and region of death. One hypothesis was that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates in every region of the US. The competing hypothesis was that blacks who did not migrate out of their region of birth had the highest homicide rates. We found that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates among the population 35+ years old in the Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Yet non-migrants (region-born population) had higher rates than their Southern-born counterparts among the population 15-34 years old. Long distance migrants who were born in the Northeast, West or were foreign-born had the lowest homicide rates, by far. The distressing implications of these findings for public health efforts to prevent violent death are discussed. PMID:9426984

  20. Cocaine, opiates, and ethanol in homicides in New York City: 1990 and 1991.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, K; Marzuk, P M; Leon, A C; Hirsch, C S; Stajić, M; Portera, L; Hartwell, N

    1995-05-01

    Studies using medical examiner cases are useful in monitoring drug use in special populations. This study assesses the presence of cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), opiates and ethanol in all homicide victims who were injured and who survived two hours or less after injury in 1990 and 1991 in New York City. There were 2824 homicides in the study period and cocaine and/or BE were found in 884 (31.3%) of cases. In over half of the cases positive for cocaine/BE, ethanol or opiates were found. African-Americans and Latinos were much more likely than whites or Asians to be positive for cocaine/BE. There were no differences between men and women in regard to being positive for cocaine/BE. Cocaine/BE was most frequently identified among victims 25 to 44 years of age. Males were more likely to be positive for ethanol. There were no differences among age groups or ethnic groups in regard to ethanol except for a very low ethanol incidence among Asians. Victims positive for cocaine/BE were more likely to be killed with firearms in open places. The percentage of victims positive for cocaine/BE remains approximately that found by other studies in the late 1980s, however, the percentage of opiate-positive homicides seems to be increasing. Opiates usually were found with cocaine/BE. Two-thirds of the cocaine and/or BE positive cases had cocaine present, thus they were under the influence of the drug at the time they were injured. The authors discuss how the use of cocaine, ethanol and opiates may be related to one's becoming a homicide victim. PMID:7782745

  1. Epidemiologic aspects of the malaria transmission cycle in an area of very low incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Crispim; Boulos, Marcos; Coutinho, Arnídio F; Hatab, Maria do Carmo LD; Falqueto, Aloísio; Rezende, Helder R; Duarte, Ana Maria RC; Collins, William; Malafronte, Rosely S

    2007-01-01

    "classical" P. vivax (VK210), VK247, P. vivax-like and P. malariae, respectively. Anopheline captures in the transmission area revealed only zoophilic and exophilic species. Conclusion The low incidence of malaria cases, the finding of asymptomatic inhabitants and the geographic separation of patients allied to serological and molecular results raise the possibility of the existence of a simian reservoir in these areas. PMID:17371598

  2. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  3. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  4. Homicidal tandem bullet wound of the chest.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A J; Busuttil, A; Clifton, B; Sibbald, P

    1997-03-01

    An unusual case of a homicidal gunshot wound to the chest is reported in which two bullets were fired in unison as tandem bullets from a handgun. At autopsy, two intact bullets were retrieved from the body of the victim, yet there was only one entrance wound and a single bullet track across the chest wall and thoracic organs. An examination of the weapon and ammunition supported the likelihood of tandem bullets and suggested the probable mechanism for this event. Very few similar cases have been documented. PMID:9095302

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors of Homicide–Suicide in Swiss Households: National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Zwahlen, Marcel; Spoerri, Adrian; Tal, Kali; Killias, Martin; Egger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Homicide–suicides are rare but catastrophic events. This study examined the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Switzerland. Methods The study identified homicide–suicide events 1991–2008 in persons from the same household in the Swiss National Cohort, which links census and mortality records. The analysis examined the association of the risk of dying in a homicide–suicide event with socio-demographic variables, measured at the individual-level, household composition variables and area-level variables. Proportional hazards regression models were calculated for male perpetrators and female victims. Results are presented as age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results The study identified 158 deaths from homicide–suicide events, including 85 murder victims (62 women, 4 men, 19 children and adolescents) and 68 male and 5 female perpetrators. The incidence was 3 events per million households and year. Firearms were the most prominent method for both homicides and suicides. The risk of perpetrating homicide-suicide was higher in divorced than in married men (HR 3.64; 95%CI 1.56–8.49), in foreigners without permanent residency compared to Swiss citizens (HR 3.95; 1.52–10.2), higher in men without religious affiliations than in Catholics (HR 2.23; 1.14–4.36) and higher in crowded households (HR 4.85; 1.72–13.6 comparing ≥2 with <1 persons/room). There was no association with education, occupation or nationality, the number of children, the language region or degree of urbanicity. Associations were similar for female victims. Conclusions This national longitudinal study shows that living conditions associated with psychological stress and lower levels of social support are associated with homicide-suicide events in Switzerland. PMID:23326491

  6. A case of suicidal suffocation simulating homicide.

    PubMed

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ausania, Francesco; Cascini, Fidelia

    2011-05-01

    This case concerns an unusual suicidal plastic bag suffocation. An elderly white man was found dead and partially disrobed in his apartment lying supine on a sofa with a plastic bag closed by a rope over the head and the upper and lower extremities tightly tied with two other ropes, the end of both arranged into slipknots (self-rescue mechanism). Police investigations found no pornography in the apartment, and circumstantial data alleged no psychiatric disorders or suicidal intentions. The autopsy excluded signs of struggle and sexual intercourse as well as any type of injury or physical illness. Chemical analyses on the peripheral blood excluded acute drugs and/or alcohol intoxication. A differential diagnosis of the manner of death was performed, including scenarios of accidental autoerotic asphyxiation, homicide during either sexual activity or ritualistic, elderly suicide. The collected data most strongly supported the hypothesis of a suicidal asphyxiation simulating homicide to devolve a life insurance to the victim's sons because of economic difficulties. PMID:21361945

  7. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  8. Neurocognitive Vulnerability: Suicidal and Homicidal Behaviours in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Orsat, Manuel; Dumais, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE to include all studies published up to August 31, 2012. Results: Among the 1760 studies, 7 neuropsychological and 12 brain imaging studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies were inconclusive. The structural imaging studies reported various alterations in patients with schizophrenia and a history of homicidal behaviour, including: reduced inferior frontal and temporal cortices, increased mediodorsal white matter, and increased amygdala volumes. Patients with a history of suicidal acts showed volumetric reductions in left orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices, while right amygdala volume was increased, though, these findings have rarely been replicated. Finally, no study has directly compared neurocognitive markers of suicidal and homicidal risk. Conclusion: These results suggest that brain alterations, in addition to those associated with schizophrenia, may predispose some patients to a higher risk of homicide or suicide in particular circumstances. Moreover, some of these alterations may be shared between homicidal and suicidal patients. However, owing to several limitations, including the small number of available studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further investigations are necessary. PMID:24444320

  9. A 28-year (1963-90) study of homicide in Marion County, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Batten, P J; Hicks, L J; Penn, D W

    1991-09-01

    We describe 240 consecutive homicidal deaths that occurred in Marion County, Oregon, over a 28-year period (1963-90). An epidemiological assessment of the homicides yielded the following information: More than 91% of these deaths were primary homicides. In primary homicide, 63% of the victims and 88% of the offenders were male. In secondary homicide, 76% of the victims and all of the offenders were male. A high percentage of victims (83%) and offenders (84%) in primary homicide were Caucasian, as were 100% of victims and offenders in secondary homicide. About 12% of victims and 10% of offenders in primary homicide were Hispanic. Fifty-nine percent of primary homicides were intrasexual, as compared to 87% of secondary homicides. An intraracial pattern was found in 90% of primary homicides and in 100% of secondary homicides. The most frequent means of death in both primary and secondary homicides were firearms, physical beating, and stabbing. Strangers committed 80% of secondary homicides. This was in marked contrast to the victim-offender relationship found in primary homicides, where strangers were responsible for approximately 16% of the total, acquaintances for approximately 36%, and family members for approximately 48%. The overall clearance rate (i.e., the identification and charging of a suspect for the death) was 88%. PMID:1750395

  10. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume: < 500, 500–1499 or > 1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. Findings An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843–1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6–6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6–8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2–4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2–29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4–6.8). Conclusion South Africa’s child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts. PMID:23940403

  11. Temporal analysis of the incidence of meningitis in the Tehran metropolitan area, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the temporal determinants of meningitis incidence in the population living in the Tehran metropolis. Methods All cases of meningitis reported to health districts throughout the Tehran metropolis from 1999 to 2005 were abstracted from patient files. Referral cases (patients who did not reside in the Tehran metropolis) were excluded. For each year, sex- and age-specific incidences were estimated. Temporality and its determinants were analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Age-specific incidence is highest among males younger than 5 years of age at 10.2 cases per 100,000 population per year. The lowest incidence was among females aged 30 to 40 years at 0.72 cases per 100,000 population per year, with an overall male-to-female incidence ratio of 2.1. The temporal analysis showed seasonality, with a higher risk of meningitis in spring at a rate ratio of 1.31 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.20 to 1.41 and in autumn (rate ratio = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06, 1.27). For periodicity, we found a peak of occurrence around the years 2000 and 2003. Conclusion The epidemiology of meningitis in Iran follows similar patterns of age, sex, and seasonality distribution as found in other countries and populations. PMID:20030846

  12. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  13. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  14. "Surgically created" excision of the back mimicking homicide: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Janík, M; Novomeský, F; Straka, L; Krajčovič, J; Hejna, P

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities due to sharp force trauma, with respect to manner of death, may be homicidal, self-inflicted, or accidental in nature. This article presents a case of an unusual sharp force injury inflicted under very specific and seemingly obscured circumstances, initially suggestive of homicidal origin. A 69-year-old, socially isolated male was found dead with a strange, heavily blood-stained excision-like lesion on the right subscapular area. The autopsy confirmed that the wound led to fatal external blood loss. Toxicological analysis of the blood and urine revealed severe alcohol intoxication. The police investigation turned up that the man had suffered from a painful skin furuncle of the right upper back. As he was worried about receiving medical treatment, he voluntarily asked his two acquaintances for "surgical" assistance to remove the skin affection. Based on the circumstances surrounding death and findings at autopsy, it was concluded that the injury was inflicted without the intent to harm or cause death, as a result of simple negligence. Consequently, the manner of death was ultimately certified as an involuntary manslaughter. Our case has clearly illustrated that even highly suspicious and atypically shaped wounds created by sharp-edged instruments with localization in non-accessible body areas does not exclusively indicate homicidal activity, hence, the accidental, suicidal or even iatrogenic origin of the wounding mechanism must be taken into consideration. PMID:26007161

  15. Intra- and extra-familial child homicide in Sweden 1992-2012: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Jonatan; Masterman, Thomas; Sturup, Joakim

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing child homicide rates in many countries - in Sweden mainly due to a drop in filicide-suicides. This study examines the rate of child homicides during 21 years, with the hypothesis that a decline might be attributable to a decrease in the number of depressive filicide offenders (as defined by a proxy measure). In addition, numerous characteristics of child homicide are presented. All homicide incidents involving 0-14-year-old victims in Sweden during 1992-2012 (n = 90) were identified in an autopsy database. Data from multiple registries, forensic psychiatric evaluations, police reports, verdicts and other sources were collected. Utilizing Poisson regression, we found a 4% annual decrease in child homicides, in accordance with prior studies, but no marked decrease regarding the depressive-offender proxy. Diagnoses from forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 50) included substance misuse (8%), affective disorders (10%), autism-spectrum disorders (18%), psychotic disorders (28%) and personality disorders (30%). Prior violent offences were more common among offenders in filicides than filicide-suicides (17.8% vs. 6.9%); and about 20% of offenders in each group had previously received psychiatric inpatient care. Aggressive methods of filicide predominated among fathers. Highly lethal methods of filicide (firearms, fire) were more commonly followed by same-method suicide than less lethal methods. Interestingly, a third of the extra-familial offenders had an autism-spectrum disorder. Based on several findings, e.g., the low rate of substance misuse, the study concludes that non-traditional risk factors for violence must be highlighted by healthcare providers. Also, the occurrence of autism-spectrum disorders in the present study is a novel finding that warrants further investigation. PMID:26871306

  16. A study of two-weekly incidence of ARI in under-five children of rural area of Alwar (Rajasthan).

    PubMed

    Madhav, S M; Dixit, G C; Prakasam, P S; Sundaram, N S; Shrivastava, K N; Datta, K K; Sharma, R S

    1990-12-01

    A retrospective study of two-weekly incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the under-five children of rural area of Alwar District (Rajasthan) based on the previous fourteen days' recall by the mothers was undertaken during December 1989 to assess the magnitude of the problem and its' risk factors. The two-weekly ARI incidence was reported to be 33 episodes per 100 under-fives. Mothers in higher socio-economic strata reported higher incidence of ARI for their children due to more accurate recall. Majority of ARI cases (76 per cent) were found to be of mild degree. 26 per cent of deaths in under-fives during the previous year were reported to be ARI-related. 50 per cent of ARI cases were left untreated. Among the treated group, private practitioners were found to be the main source of health care. PMID:2098428

  17. Church, place, and crime: Latinos and homicide in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Edward S; Winters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are moving beyond traditional areas and settling in new, potentially disorganized destinations. Without an established immigrant community, new destinations appear to rely more on the local religious ecology to regulate community life and to keep crime low. We examine the link between religious ecology and Latino homicide victimization for traditional and new destination counties. We observe four findings. (1) A Catholic presence has no effect on Latino violence in the old and well-organized traditional settlement areas. But in new Latino settlement areas, a Catholic presence substantially lowers violence against Latinos. In contrast, mainline Protestantism is linked to high levels of violence against Latinos in new destinations. (2) Previous claims that Latino communities are safe do not apply to new destinations, where Latinos are murdered at a high rate. (3) Previous claims that areas with high Latino immigration are safe for Latinos are not true for new destinations. (4) New Latino destinations offer little insulation from the effects of economic deprivation on violence. We discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:20879181

  18. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim. PMID:16617589

  19. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA: 1969-1974 INCIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between ingested asbestos (through drinking water) and cancer of various body sites was examined. This study was a follow-up to another article that investigated this relationship. Age-adjusted, sex and race specific 1969-1974 cancer incidence ratios for 410 cens...

  20. Incidence of primary liver cancer and aetiological aspects: a study of a defined population from a low-endemicity area.

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, J.; Hansson, G.; Wallerstedt, S.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of primary liver cancer (PLC) varies throughout the world. It has been attributed to variations in incidence of the predominant histological type, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of PLC types other than HCC such as cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) is far less known, especially in low-incidence areas. The aetiology of HCC and other PLC types is obscure, with the exception of the association between HCC and cirrhosis as well as chronic viral hepatitis. The present retrospective incidence and aetiology study concerns a well-defined population from a period with a high autopsy frequency. Preserved biopsy specimens were re-evaluated histopathologically and patient records were studied. Among 590 histologically verified cases of PLC, HCC constituted 90%, CCC 8% and a mixed form of these types 1%. At the end of the study period the annual age-standardised incidence rate of HCC was 3.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Other PLC types were hepatoblastoma (n = 3), fibrolamellar carcinoma (n = 2), angiosarcoma (n = 1) and infantile haemangioendothelioma (n = 1), each constituting less than 1% of the PLC cases. Comparing HCC with CCC we found that cirrhosis (70%) and alcoholism (21%) was significantly more frequent in HCC, and cholelithiasis was significantly more common (60%) in patients with CCC. In the majority of the PLC cases with liver cirrhosis this disorder was unknown before diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:8554975

  1. Guns and blood alcohol levels among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective study of homicide victims in Erie County, NY was conducted for 1973-1984 to determine the association of blood alcohol levels among homicide victims slain by guns and other weapons. Most victims of gunshot or beating had negative blood alcohol levels (BALs) at time of death whereas most stabbing victims had positive BALs, especially black victims. Gunshot victims were more likely to be killed in a private home compared to a street or building. Location of homicide did not relate significantly to BAL. Younger victims were less likely to be shot to death compared to middle-aged victims. These results do not support previous contentions that alcohol is a major contributor to gun-related homicides. PMID:3803196

  2. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

  3. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males. PMID:22436732

  4. A test of two typologies of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Lindsay A; Krupp, Daniel Brian; Lalumière, Martin L

    2013-02-01

    Published typologies of sexual homicide lack theoretical grounding and empirical support. They also conceptualize the phenomenon of sexual homicide as somewhat discrete, though offenders are not typically specialists. Here, we propose a model that situates the phenomenon of sexual killing into broader categories of antisocial behavior, positing three types of perpetrators of serial sexual homicides: competitively disadvantaged, psychopathic, and sadistic offenders. Using biographical data of 82 serial sexual homicide offenders, we tested our model as well as the influential organized/disorganized model. Principal components analysis produced five components consisting of offender and offense characteristics, and cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of perpetrators (sadistic offenders, competitively disadvantaged offenders, and slashers), as well as a fourth, heterogeneous group; this cluster solution, however, may be unstable. In summary, there is only mixed support for either model. PMID:22798204

  5. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed. PMID:12877304

  6. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. Methods The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. Results The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22–3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23–1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22–1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03–2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21–1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38–3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35–1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. Conclusions The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate

  7. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem. PMID:9539400

  8. Student homicidal violence in schools: an international problem.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. PMID:21491570

  9. Malaria incidence among paramilitary personnel in an endemic area of Tripura

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Sunil; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Paramilitary operations along the Indo-Bangladesh border are adversely affected by malaria induced morbidity and mortality. Villages surrounding the paramilitary installations often serve as disease reservoirs. Malaria incidence in Tripura State Rifles (TSR) units in Dhalai District of Tripura was studied and the role of the village population in disease transmission was also assessed. Methods: Mass blood surveys were carried out among TSR personnel and villagers during 2007 to 2009. Malaria diagnosis through blood smear examination and rapid detection kits was done, and percentage parasitaemia was determined. Activity of malaria vectors was monitored using CDC light traps. Results: Slide positivity rates (SPR) in the neighbouring villages (51.4%) was significantly higher than that in TSR (27.7%) (P<0.0001). Malaria incidence in villages did not show seasonal variability while it was lowest during post-monsoon season in TSR (P<0.325; OR = 0.74). Per cent Pf parasitaemia was high in TSR (0.29) as compared to villagers (0.20) (P<0.0001). Anopheles minimus and An. dirus were the major malaria vectors observed. Interpretation & conclusions: Paramilitary and public health authorities should adopt targeted measures to reduce the malaria incidence in the villages surrounding the paramilitary installations as the village populations play a major role in disease transmission. PMID:21727668

  10. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  11. Homicide victims in the military: 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1995-02-01

    Data abstracted from the Report of Casualty (DD 1300) is used to describe active duty homicide victims for the period 1980 through 1992. The Marine Corps experienced the fewest homicides (186) but the highest rate (7.36 per 100,000) compared to the other services: Army (619/6.36), Navy (381/5.24), and Air Force (194/2.65). Those younger than 25 accounted for 57% of the homicides and had a higher rate than the older age groups. Blacks had a rate 2.1 times higher than whites, and the overall female-to-male rate ratio was 1.2. Firearms were used against 63% of male and 35% of female homicide victims. Twenty-eight percent of female victims were beaten or strangled and females were over 10 times more likely than males to be strangled. The risk for homicide among active duty males was less than for males in the general population. Conversely, active duty females were at an increased risk for homicide in comparison to both males in the military and females in the general population. PMID:7783917

  12. Homicide trends and characteristics--Brazil, 1980-2002.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Brazil is the largest and most populous country in South America (2002 population: approximately 175 million) (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute [BGSI], unpublished data, 2004). Although life expectancy in Brazil has increased and rates of infant mortality have decreased as a result of reductions in infectious disease mortality, homicide and other forms of injury-related mortality have increased as a proportion of overall mortality. Homicide is now the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-44 years. To describe trends and characteristics of homicides countrywide and in Sĕo Paulo city (2000 population: approximately 10.4 million) (BGSI, unpublished data, 2004), the State Health Department of Sĕo Paulo (SHDSP) analyzed vital statistics and census data for 1980-2002. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the homicide rate in Brazil more than doubled during this period. Since 2001, Brazilian authorities have implemented several initiatives to reduce the number of homicides, including a law that controls gun ownership and prohibits anyone other than police and members of the armed forces from carrying guns. However, homicides among adolescents and young adults remain a substantial public health problem in Brazil, and additional prevention strategies that target young persons are needed. PMID:15001876

  13. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  14. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling <4 years (64.0%). GBC standardized incidence rate per 100,000 (SIR) were all 17.5 (95%CI: 15.5-19.4), women 24.3, and men 8.6 (p < 0.00001); Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with <4 years of schooling. Lowest SIRs were among Hispanic men (19.8) and women (21.9) with >8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs. PMID:20473911

  15. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  16. Homicide or suicide: the killing of suicidal persons by law enforcement officers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E F; Davis, J H; Bloom, J D; Batten, P J; Kamara, S G

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents 15 deaths of suicidal persons in Oregon and Florida who, by their behavior, sufficiently provoked law enforcement officers into killing them. Four deaths were certified as suicide, one as undetermined and ten as homicide. All of the deaths are individually described in detail and their case characteristics are presented in a table. The method of study is a descriptive analysis of the case characteristics, including 21 variables which are determined to be relevant to the classification of death. The variables were grouped into six categories: (a) personal information; (b) criminal behavior during the fatal incident; (c) dangerous behavior during the fatal incident; (d) toxicological data; (e) mental illness information; and (f) certification data. From the analysis, reasons for the opinions on manner of death classification are presented. All incidents were perceived as life-threatening to law officers, family members, or hostages. All victims were male except one, and all were Caucasian except two. All victims resisted arrest and verbally threatened homicide during the fatal incident. Two-thirds of the victims took hostages. All victims possessed an apparent handgun or other weapon (knife, iron bar). All victims posed their weapon and threatened others during the incident, 60% of victims actually used the weapon with apparent intent to inflict damage to others. 40% of victims were intoxicated with alcohol but other drug-involvement was uncommon. Seven of 15 had previous suicide attempts, 40% had medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and 60% had reasonable historical evidence of psychiatric diagnoses, most commonly depression or substance abuse. One of the co-authors presents the case for some of the deaths to be certified as suicides, whereas two present the case for all to be certified as homicide. A brief discussion of psychiatric issues is also presented concerning individuals who use others to commit suicide and who may engage in

  17. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:27053177

  18. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:22124490

  19. Influence of iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis on thyroid cancer histotypes and incidence in endemic goiter area.

    PubMed

    Huszno, B; Szybiński, Z; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Stachura, J; Trofimiuk, M; Buziak-Bereza, M; Gołkowski, F; Pantoflinski, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between thyroid cancer histotype and incidence rate (IR) and iodine nutrition level in two endemic goiter areas: the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz. The suspension of iodine prophylaxis in Poland in 1980 resulted in increased goiter prevalence in schoolchildren and adults and elevated TSH levels in newborns in the early 1990s. Since 1992 a rise in thyroid cancer IR was observed. Thyroid cancer IR in the Krakow population was 2.22 in 1986; 3.62 in 1995 and 6.02 in 2001; in Nowy Sacz: 1.52; 2.59 and 3.88 respectively. In 1986 papillary/follicular cancer ratio in both areas was about 1.0--the value typical of iodine deficient areas. After restoring the obligatory iodine prophylaxis in 1997, a significant decrease in elevated TSH concentration in newborns and urinary iodine concentration increase in schoolchildren were observed. A relative rise in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer and decrease in follicular cancer, resulting in rise in papillary/follicular thyroid cancer ratio up to 5.9 in 2001 was also observed. Since 1999 no further thyroid cancer IR increase was noted. In conclusion, a significant increase in differentiated thyroid cancer IR was observed in association with the iodine prophylaxis suspension. Changes in thyroid cancer histotypes in 1986-2001 and a significant decrease in incremental rate of differentiated thyroid cancer probably reflect the influence of effective iodine prophylaxis. The significant difference between IR of thyroid cancer incidence in the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz may be related to differences in the exposure to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:12762644

  20. Familial aggregation of lung cancer in a high incidence area in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y T; Xu, Y C; Yang, R D; Huang, C F; Xu, C W; He, X Z

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether lung cancer clusters in families in a high incidence county of China, an analysis was conducted using data on domestic fuel history and tobacco use for family members of 740 deceased lung cancer probands and 740 controls (probands' spouses). Lung cancer prevalence was compared among first-degree relatives of probands and of controls, taking into account various factors using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. First-degree relatives of probands, compared with those of controls, showed an excess risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR)=2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68–2.53). Overall, female relatives of probands had a greater risk than did their male counterparts, and the risk was 2.90-fold for parents of probands as compared with parents of spouses. Female relatives of probands had 2.67-fold greater risk than female controls. Lung cancer risk was particularly marked among mothers (OR=3.78, 95% CI: 2.03–7.12). Having two or more affected relatives was associated with a 2.69–5.40-fold risk increase. The risk elevation was also found for other cancers overall. Results confirm previous findings of a genetic predisposition to lung cancer, and also imply that lung cancer may share a genetic background with other cancers. PMID:15756270

  1. A study to measure the incidence of driving under suspension in the Greater Moncton area.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, J E Louis; Van Houten, Ron; Jonah, Brian

    2002-07-01

    Roadside checkpoints were used to determine the percentage of motorists driving while suspended (DWS) during various times of the day. These data showed that the percentage of motorists DWS was 57% of the expected value relative to their representation among all drivers. Data also showed that suspended drivers make up a higher percentage of drivers on the road after midnight. Results also indicated that 90% of suspended drivers stopped in this study produced a driving permit even though they are required to surrender it when suspended. In order to compare data collected at roadside checkpoints with self-report data. a questionnaire was administered to 456 persons taking a re-education course for first offenders and 68 participants taking a re-education course for second offenders. The results indicated that participants under-represented their own incidence of DWS. However, when asked about the driving behavior of other suspended drivers, their estimates were much closer to the data obtained with the roadside survey. PMID:12067106

  2. The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia in acute hospitals of the Mid-Western Area, Ireland, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Whyte, D; Monahan, R; Boyle, L; Slevin, B; FitzGerald, R; Barron, D; De Freitas, J; Kelleher, K

    2005-05-01

    Concerns about healthcare-associated infections and the global crisis in antimicrobial resistance has combined to accentuate the fears around so-called "superbugs". In Ireland there is no single agreed indicator regarded as a true measure of the level of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The objective of this study was to compare two crude measures of MRSA--the percentage of bacteraemia caused by MRSA and the incidence rate (per 1000 bed days used) of MRSA bacteraemia in six acute hospitals. We examined all blood cultures positive for S. aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant) from 2002 to 2004 in the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Area of Ireland. Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) data was used to determine monthly in-patient bed days used. Of 245 patient episodes of bacteraemia, 119 were MRSA. The trends in the percentage of isolates that were MRSA and the incidence rate calculated were compared. The incidence rate appears to be a more reliable and robust indicator of MRSA in hospitals than the percentage. Despite many difficulties in interpreting indicators of MRSA they should not preclude the regular publication of data at least at regional level in Ireland. PMID:16077206

  3. Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Viacava, F; de Andrade, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate. PMID:10358673

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE AND HOMICIDE IN A TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2008-01-01

    Durkheim argued that rapid social change would produce anomic conditions which, in turn, would lead to increases in criminal and deviant behavior. Russia provides a unique opportunity to test this theory given the large-scale fundamental socioeconomic changes occurring in the nation. Russian homicide rates more than doubled in the years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are now among the highest in the world. The pace and effects of the socioeconomic transition vary widely throughout Russia, however, as do rates of and changes in violent crime. In this study, we took advantage of the unique natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine the association between socioeconomic change and homicide. We measured the negative effects of socioeconomic change by creating an index of changes in population size, unemployment, privatization, and foreign investment. Using data from Russian regions (n = 78) and controlling for other structural covariates, regression results indicated that regions that more strongly experienced the negative effects of socioeconomic change were regions where homicide rates increased the most between 1991 and 2000. Further analysis of the individual components of this index revealed that regions with greater increases in (1) unemployment experienced greater increases in homicide rates and (2) privatization experienced smaller increases in homicide rates. PMID:19043617

  5. Child homicide in Oklahoma: a continuing public health problem.

    PubMed

    Cannon, T C; Jordan, F B; Vogel, J S; Brumback, R A; Brandt, E N

    1998-11-01

    Homicide is a leading manner of injury to cause death in children. To assess this phenomenon in Oklahoma, the demographic characteristics and causes of death of the victims of child homicide in Oklahoma have been reviewed. One hundred eleven consecutive cases of homicide in children less than age 13 years were reviewed and the demographic characteristics of the victims were analyzed. The majority of homicides occurred in Tulsa and Oklahoma Counties (55.8%). The ratio of male to female victims was approximately equal. The races of the victims were 66.6 percent White, 24.3 percent Black, 8.1 percent Native American and 0.9 percent Asian. The most common cause of death was head injury (45.9%). An unexpected finding was that in 23.4 percent of cases, an additional fatality occurred in the family due to family violence. This fatality involved either suicide of the perpetrator or homicide of a sibling. These findings indicate a continuing family violence problem in Oklahoma. PMID:9828528

  6. Characteristics of sexual homicides committed by psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; Woodworth, Michael; Earle, Jeff; Drugge, Jeff; Boer, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy and the prepetration of sexual homicide was investigated. The official file descriptions of sexual homicides committed by 18 psychopathic and 20 nonpsychopathic Canadian offenders were coded (by coders unaware of Psychopathy Checklist--Revised [PCL--R] scores) for characteristics of the victim, victim/perpetrator relationship, and evidence of gratuitous and sadistic violent behavior. Results indicated that most (84.7%) of the sexual murderers scored in the moderate to high range on the PCL--R. The majority of victims (66.67%) were female strangers, with no apparent influence of psychopathy on victim choice. Homicides committed by psychopathic offenders (using a PCL--R cut-off of 30) contained a significantly higher level of both gratuitous and sadistic violence than nonpsychopathic offenders. Most (82.4%) of the psychopaths exhibited some degree of sadistic behavior in their homicides compared to 52.6% of the nonpsychopaths. Implications for homicide investigations are discussed. PMID:14593792

  7. Associations with violent and homicidal behaviour among men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Böke, Ömer; Korkmaz, Işil Zabun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the risk factors associated with homicidal behaviour in male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods In a period of 1 year, male schizophrenia cases between 18-65 years of age (n = 210) were included. The clinical evaluation included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The patients were divided into three groups in terms of violent behaviour history: (1) homicide group (n = 30), (2) a violent act resulting in serious injury (n = 71), (3) control group (patients without a history of a violent act) (n = 109). Results Lower level of education, rural residence, being unemployed and living alone were found to be significantly more common in patients who had committed a violent act compared to the schizophrenia patients in the control group. In order to explore the predictive value of several factors associated with violent behaviour, a logistic regression model was used, and variables (shorter duration of education, living alone, and lack of insight) significantly predicted the presence of violent behaviour (murder and/or injury) (χ(2)=31.78, df = 12, p = 0.001). Conclusions In order to be able to determine causality of homicidal acts in schizophrenia patients, our significant findings between homicidal violence, non-homicidal violence and the control group would merit further attention and exploration in further studies. PMID:26634311

  8. Gaps in Crisis Mental Health: Suicide and Homicide-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439

  9. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. PMID:25818862

  10. Persistent Elongated Particle Total Surface Area Dose to Rat Pleura is Optimum Predictor of Mesothelioma Incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on preliminary statistical analyses of 29 reanalyzed (quantitative TEM) diverse elongated particle (EP) test samples from the well known and often cited study of Stanton et al. 1981, total surface area (TSA) of biodurable EPs was reported at the 2008 Johnson Conference to b...

  11. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

  12. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  13. Intimate Homicide between Asians and Non-Asians: The Impact of Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bohsiu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests two competing hypotheses regarding the social structural dynamics of intimate homicide: backlash versus collective efficacy. This study also examines the role of race in how social factors specified in each hypothesis affect intimate homicide. Data are from the California Vital Statistics and Homicide Data, 1990-1999. Results from…

  14. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  15. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  16. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  17. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  18. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  19. Adolescent Homicide and Family Pathology: Implications for Research and Treatment with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of felony-murder convictions of adolescents on death row in the United States is arguably a warning beacon about the serious nature of juvenile homicide. Reviews the research on adolescent homicide and highlights significant family variables. The contribution of a family studies perspective for understanding adolescent homicide is…

  20. Homicides of People with Developmental Disabilities: An Analysis of News Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). While national and international information has been available on homicides of people in general, little attention has been given to homicides of PWDD specifically. This paper provides a preliminary description of homicides as…

  1. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  2. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O.; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional

  3. The Homicide-Suicide Phenomenon: Findings of Psychological Autopsies.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L; Hatters-Friedman, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Homicide-suicide represents a single episode of violence which may decimate an entire family. This study aimed to further describe motives and context of these tragedies. Psychological autopsies were completed for 18 homicide-suicide cases in Dallas, Texas. This included postevent interviews with surviving family members and review of police and coroner records. Two-thirds of perpetrators had made either verbal or written threats prior to the homicide-suicide. A simplified typology describing victim-perpetrator relationship and motive type is suggested for future studies and clinical ease. Two-thirds of perpetrators fell into the category of Intimate-Possessive, most of whom were depressed men who were abusing substances and undergoing separation. Additional categories included Intimate-Ailing, Filial-Revenge, Familial-Psychotic, and Friend-Psychotic. Further, implications from this psychological autopsy study regarding risk assessment include use of collateral interviews regarding threats and past violence. PMID:26259152

  4. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994. PMID:7565552

  5. Using a Facebook profile in determining the motive of homicide.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    Ritual homicides may be affective (emotional), but usually they are premediated, instrumental, or predatory. In the case under review, the Facebook profile of the assailant helped to determine the motive of the homicide, which seemed to be ritualistic in nature. Therein, a 56-year-old male sustained 48 stab wounds and other knife injuries. On the wall in a room above the body, a pentagram was drawn with the victim's blood, followed by a few words which can be associated with a "Satanic" ritual. Searching through the Facebook profile of the culprit, Satanism as a leading motive of the homicide was eventually excluded. The most interesting point of this case was the evaluation of a sentence used as a Facebook status, which greatly contributed to confirm the paedophilic nature of the murder. PMID:23910835

  6. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  7. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  8. Terrorist homicide bombings: a primer for preparation.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, James

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary planning for disaster response to terrorist events usually assumes the use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Historically, most victims of terrorist attacks are injured by the use of conventional explosives rather than weapons of mass destruction. Such attacks will likely produce victims who have suffered burn injuries along with conventional trauma. Alternately, the large number of patients sustaining conventional soft-tissue or crush injuries will benefit from burn center expertise. This study summarizes the current state of knowledge related to the management of terrorism mass casualty incidents caused by the use of conventional explosives. A review of pertinent medical, technical, and popular literature relating to terrorism and explosives, along with instruction received at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel on the management of mass casualty terrorism events was undertaken, and the pertinent medical and scientific literature relating to bomb delivery methods, blast mechanics, blast pathophysiology, and medical response to a terrorist bombing is presented here. Although terrorist use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons is possible, historical analysis consistently demonstrates that the most likely terrorist weapon causing a mass casualty event is a standard explosive device detonated in a crowded area. The medical basis for management of such casualties is herein described. PMID:16998388

  9. Homicide-suicides in Fiji: offense patterns, situational factors, and sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2003-01-01

    Although there is growing literature on lethal violence in developing nations, homicide-suicides have rarely been studied. Addressing this issue, this paper analyzes all homicide-suicides that occurred in Fiji between 1982 and 1992. The study's results are consistent with prior research in Western developed nations, demonstrating that homicide-suicides constitute a minuscule proportion of all homicides, occur primarily between intimate relations, are precipitated by intrafamilial discord, and occur in the domestic setting. Contrary to prior research, however, perpetrators of homicide-suicide were equally divided between men and women and no firearms were utilized. PMID:12710541

  10. Impact of immigration on tuberculosis in a low-incidence area of Italy: a molecular epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Garzelli, C; Lari, N; Cuccu, B; Tortoli, E; Rindi, L

    2010-11-01

    The effects that immigration might have on the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in a low-incidence area of Italy was investigated by determining, in autochthonous and immigrant TB patients, the molecular characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, which may provide information on their phylogeographical origin. A total of 1080 MTBC strains, collected during a 4- year period in Tuscany from 614 Italian-born and 466 foreign-born patients, were genotyped by spoligotyping and assigned to the different phylogeographical lineages that constitute the MTBC. The autochthonous Euro-American phylogeographical lineage, which includes the spoligotype families T, Haarlem, Latin American–Mediterranean (LAM), S and X, was highly prevalent among Italian-born patients, with a total of 477 cases (77.7%), and foreign-born TB patients, with a total of 270 cases (57.9%); 24 Italian-born (3.9%) and 141 foreign- born (30.3%) TB cases were due to MTBC genotypic families associated with distant geographical areas, i.e. East African–Indian (EAI), Beijing, Central Asian (CAS), and Mycobacterium africanum. Strains of Mycobacterium bovis and strains of undefined genotype, which are all considered together, as it is not possible to assign a specific geographical origin, accounted for 113 (18.4%) Italian cases and 55 (11.8%) foreign-born cases. A total of 79 Italian TB cases (12.9%) have been attributed to transmission from immigrants to the local population. No significant contribution to drug resistance appeared to be associated with imported MTBC strains. It is concluded that, at present, the overall impact of imported TB on public health in the low-incidence study area is relatively modest and of the same order as in other western countries. PMID:20041892

  11. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. PMID:21316880

  12. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype. PMID:26292990

  13. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030

  14. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    SciTech Connect

    Persinger, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references.

  15. Estimation of wave fields of incident beams in a transmission electron microscope by using a small selected-area aperture.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Yamasaki, Jun; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    The direction of an electron beam in a nanometer-sized area is measured directly by utilizing a selected-area aperture. By the measurements at several areas in a beam, the wavefront curvature and thus the defocus value of the beam are detected. From the defocus value, the wave field at the specimen plane is also reproduced in consideration of the influences of the condenser aperture and spherical aberration of the illumination lens. The result shows that phase deviation of 2π is caused only at about 10 nm apart from the beam center in a beam with a typical diameter for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the defocus value, the convergence angle of the beam is also estimated to be about 6 mrad without being influenced by the partial coherence, that is, independently of the type of the electron gun. Measuring the defocus values for only two beam diameters enables us to determine geometrical parameters peculiar to the illumination system, based on which wave fields of any beam diameters by any condenser aperture sizes can be estimated. The technique proposed in this paper is effective in evaluating the influence of wavefront curvature of incident beams on various kinds of precise measurements conducted in transmission electron microscopes. PMID:21320861

  16. An epidemiologic study of homicides in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Costantino, J P; Kuller, L H; Perper, J A; Cypess, R H

    1977-10-01

    Extensive demographic data concerning homicide victims and perpetrators in Allegheny County, 1966-1974, were obtained retrospectively from the records of the County Coroner's Office and Police Department. Analysis revealed that the demographic characteristics describing perpetrators and victims were essentially identical. Rates of homicide peaked in the young adult years of life. The race ratio (B/W) among victims was 18.7 for males and 6.7 for females, while sex ratio (M/F) was 5.4 for blacks and 1.9 for whites. An inverse relationship between the rate of homicide and socioeconomic status was present among both black and white races. The majority of victims were killed by a spouse, relative, or friend (66%), usually in familiar locations, i.e., residence or place of work (60%), and usually during an alteration (68%). Shooting was the method used to perpetrate 61% of the killings, most of which were by means of a handgun. An increasing trend of homicide was noted, particularly for the type perpetrated by shooting. PMID:910799

  17. Suicide, Homicide, and Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…

  18. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide. PMID:24166685

  19. Homicide Crisis Intervention in a Multicultural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…

  20. Israeli mothers' meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.

    PubMed

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers: the existential paradox; a bifurcated worldview; and oppression, mortification, and humiliation. Most informants used all 3 prototypes in the process of reconstructing meaning, describing changes in the perception of themselves, the world, and society. However, change was also accompanied by continuity, because participants did not abandon their former worldview while adopting a new one. The findings suggest that meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide is a unique, multifaceted, and contradictory process. Implications for practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348985

  1. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  2. Reducing homicide risk in Indianapolis between 1997 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Nicholas; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-09-01

    Rates of homicide risk are not evenly distributed across the US population. Prior research indicates that young males in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to lethal violence. The traditional criminal justice response to violent crime in the urban context has the potential to exacerbate problems, particularly when broad-based arrest sweeps and general deterrence initiatives are the standard models used by law enforcement. Recent studies suggest that alternative intervention approaches that use both specific deterrence combined with improving pro-social opportunities has shown promise in reducing violent crime in these high-risk contexts. This paper examines the changes in homicide patterns for the highest-risk populations in Indianapolis after a "pulling levers" intervention was implemented in the late 1990s to address youth, gang, and gun violence. Multilevel growth curve regression models controlling for a linear trend over time, important structural correlates of homicide across urban neighborhoods, and between-neighborhood variance estimates showed that homicide rates involving the highest-risk populations (i.e., actors 15 to 24 years old) were most likely to experience a statistically significant and substantive reduction after the intervention was implemented (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.78). Among male actors in this age range, Black male homicide rates (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25 - 0.70) and White male rates (IRR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15 - 0.79) declined substantially more than homicide rates involving actors outside the 15 to 24 years age range (IRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.54 - 1.69). In addition, neighborhoods where specific, community-level strategies were implemented had statistically significant and substantive high-risk homicide rate declines. We conclude that further extension of the pulling levers framework appears warranted in light of the recent findings. Alternative justice

  3. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered. PMID:24314528

  4. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p < 0.1. The influence of temperature and humidity on suicide attempts ( N SU ) and psychotic attacks ( N PS ) was weakly pronounced ( p > 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p < 0.05), while their dependence on easterly WS was weaker ( p > 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p < 0.04), but no corresponding correlation with westerly winds was found ( p > 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  5. Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

    2005-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

  6. Homicide and suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J A; Kupferer, H J

    1982-01-01

    The Cherokee and Lumbee, the two major Indian populations in North Carolina, have exhibited similarities in patterns of homicide and suicide. Both Indian populations have higher rates of homicidal than of suicidal death. Yet in 1972-73, the Lumbee homicide rates was considerably higher than that for the Cherokee, but the Cherokee's suicide rate exceeded that for the Lumbee. During 1974-1976, the Cherokee manifested excessively high rates of violent death, with suicide increasing faster than homicide. The Lumbee homicide rate declined during this period, while the suicide rate increased. Lumbee violence patterns indicate a slight dissipation of cultural traits that predispose them to aggressive behaviour and the concomitant emergence of a trend toward self-destructive behaviour. The rise in Cherokee suicide rate may be consistent with the harmony Ethic of some tribe members, but the sharp increase in homicide may reflect the erosion of the traditional non-violent ethic among the band as a whole. PMID:6980862

  7. Gun control law (Bill C-17), suicide, and homicide in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2004-06-01

    Canadian Bill C-17 was implemented in 1991 to restrict the use of firearms, providing a chance to investigate the effect of firearm control laws in the use of firearms for suicide and homicide. Following Lester and Leenaars' comprehensive studies, the present study examined the use of firearms for suicide and homicide during the period prior to the bill and during the period after the passing of Bill C-17 to assess the association of the bill with rates of suicide and homicide by method. Analysis showed a significant decrease after passage of Bill C-17 in the rates of suicides and homicides involving firearms and the percentage of suicides using firearms. The analysis provides support for the position that restricting the availability of firearms as a lethal means of committing suicide and homicide may help reduce the numbers of suicides and homicides. PMID:15217033

  8. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  9. Evaluating the Effect of State Regulation of Federally Licensed Firearm Dealers on Firearm Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Karin; Cheney, Rose; Wiebe, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Effective federal regulation of firearm dealers has proven difficult. Consequently, many states choose to implement their own regulations. We examined the impact of state-required licensing, record keeping of sales, allowable inspections, and mandatory theft reporting on firearm homicide from 1995 to 2010. We found that lower homicide rates were associated with states that required licensing and inspections. We concluded that firearm dealer regulations might be an effective harm reduction strategy for firearm homicide. PMID:24922158

  10. Integrated vector management targeting Anopheles darlingi populations decreases malaria incidence in an unstable transmission area, in the rural Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on vector behaviour should be conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures on malaria protection in endemic areas of Latin America, where P. vivax predominates. This work aims to investigate the fauna of anopheline mosquitoes and verify the impact of integrated vector management in two colonization projects in the Careiro Municipality, Western Brazilian Amazon. Methods Four mosquitoes’ captures were carried out from August 2008 to March 2010, with an interval of six months between each collection. Since September 2009 a large programme to reduce the burden of malaria has started in the two communities by distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and intensification of indoor residual spraying (IRS). Human biting rates (HBRs), entomological inoculation rates (EIRs), malaria incidence rate (MIR) and Plasmodium carrier’s prevalence were used as outcomes to estimate the impact of the control measures. Results A total of 3,189 anophelines were collected, belonging to 13 species. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species in the period (42.6%), followed by Anopheles albitarsis (38.4%). An. darlingi HBRs showed a notable decreasing trend from the start to the end of the study. Conversely, An. albitarsis increased its contribution to overall HBRs throughout the study. For An. darlingi there was a significant positive correlation between HBRs and MIR (p = 0.002). Anopheles albitarsis HBRs showed a significant negative correlation with the corresponding MIR (p = 0.045). EIR from total anophelines and from An. darlingi and An. albitarsis presented decreasing patterns in the successive collections. Four species of anophelines (An. darlingi, An. albitarsis, Anopheles braziliensis and Anopheles nuneztovari) were naturally infected with Plasmodium, albeit at very low infection rates. There were a decrease in the MIR for both vivax and falciparum malaria and in the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and