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Sample records for area level socioeconomic

  1. Do relationships between environmental attributes and recreational walking vary according to area-level socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity. PMID:25604935

  2. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Anh D.; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63–0.90), and 1.48 (1.26–1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93–0.99), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45–0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88–0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  3. Area-level socioeconomic status in relation to outcomes in γ-hydroxybutyrate intoxication

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, ILENE B.; KIM-KATZ, SUSAN Y.; DYER, JO ELLEN; EARNEST, GILLIAN E.; LAMB, JOHN P.; BLANC, PAUL D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Area-level socioeconomic status (SES) may play an important role in drug abuse patterns, including related health outcomes. This may be particularly relevant for γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which is prototypical of “party” drug abuse. Methods We retrospectively reviewed GHB-related cases reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS; January 1, 1999 through June 30, 2007). We limited analysis to CPCS calls containing a residential zip code (ZC). The CPCS data were extracted for key case characteristics, including the residential ZC. We linked cases to corresponding 2000 U.S. Census data for area-level measures of SES and demographics. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to test the associations between area-level SES and GHB case severity, taking into account area-level demographics and individual-level GHB high-risk behaviors. Results We analyzed 210 cases. Taking into account area-level demographics (age and racial mix; urbanicity) and GHB-related high-risk behaviors (use of GHB congeners; GHB-dependence; co-ingestion of other agents), we associated higher area-level SES with greater GHB case severity. There was 40% increased likelihood of major GHB adverse health outcomes for every $100,000 incremental increase in median home values (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.1–1.8). For median annual household income (per $10,000), the association was similar (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.0–1.9). Conclusion Higher area-level SES is associated with greater GHB-related case severity. This study may serve as a model using a geographic information system (GIS) approach to study the population-based correlates of drugs of abuse reported through poison control surveillance. PMID:18787999

  4. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  5. Inequalities in Croatian pupils' risk behaviors associated to socioeconomic environment at school and area level: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Pavic Simetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa; Kuzman, Marina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja

    2013-12-01

    The socioeconomic inequality in pupils' risk behaviors has been the topic of many studies with quite contradictory findings. Furthermore, the role of socioeconomic environment has been analyzed much less often than the role of individual socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the association between school/area-level socioeconomic environment and Croatian pupils' risk behaviors (tobacco use, drunkenness, cannabis use, early sexual initiation and fighting). Data from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Croatia in 2006 (1601 secondary schools' pupils, aged 15) and census data were used. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted by gender, were performed. The individual level of SES explained the majority of differences in all risk behaviors among adolescents. Differences in tobacco use, early sexual initiation and fighting were more closely attributed to school level than area level, which was more closely associated with differences in adolescent drunkenness and cannabis use. At the individual level, high individual SES was associated with higher probability for tobacco use and drunkenness compared to low individual SES. Furthermore, school heterogeneity (compared to school homogeneity) and medium school-level SES (compared to low school-level SES) were associated with higher probability for cannabis use. Compared to the most advanced schools (gymnasiums), attending the least advanced schools (industrial and crafts schools) was associated with higher probability for fighting. Compared to low area-level SES, medium area-level SES was associated with higher probability for cannabis use and fighting. Conclusively, it was found that low SES at individual, school and area levels, school homogeneity and advanced school attendance play a protective role against risk behaviors. To reduce inequalities in pupils' risk behaviors, there is a need for community and school-based programs that take into consideration

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Factors Are Associated With Noncompletion of Pediatric Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret N; Brown, Courtney M; Widener, Michael J; Sucharew, Heidi J; Beck, Andrew F

    2016-07-01

    We examined 4872 infants born consecutively, 2011-2012, and seen at 3 primary care centers to determine whether area-based socioeconomic measures were associated with noncompletion of common preventive services within the first 15 months. Addresses were geocoded and linked to census tract poverty, adult educational attainment, and household vehicle ownership rates. The quartile of patients in the highest poverty (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.54) and lowest vehicle ownership tracts (aOR 1.32; 95% CI 1.07-1.63) had significantly increased odds of service noncompletion. There were significant spatial clusters of low completion in Cincinnati's urban core. These findings have implications for preventive service delivery. PMID:26883436

  7. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  8. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  9. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Waterbor, John W.; Altekruse, Sean F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for clustering by SEER registry of diagnosis. NH-Black women had greater area-level access to healthcare resources compared with women of other races. For instance, the average numbers of oncology hospitals per million population in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 8.1, 7.7, and 5.0 respectively; average numbers of medical doctors per million in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 100.7, 854.0, and 866.3 respectively; and average number of Ob/Gyn in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women was 155.6, 127.4, and 127.3, respectively (all p values <0.001). Regardless, NH-Black women (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.36–1.43) and Hispanic women (HR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03–1.08) had significantly higher breast cancer mortality compared with NH-White women even after adjusting for hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socioeconomic status, and area-level healthcare access. In addition, lower county-level socio-economic status and healthcare access measures were significantly and independently associated with stage at presentation, surgery, and radiation treatment as well as mortality after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and HR subtype. Although breast cancer HR subtype is a strong, important, and consistent predictor of breast cancer outcomes, we still observed significant and independent influences of area-level SES and HCA on breast cancer outcomes that deserve further study and may be critical to eliminating breast cancer outcome

  10. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources.

    PubMed

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Waterbor, John W; Altekruse, Sean F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for clustering by SEER registry of diagnosis. NH-Black women had greater area-level access to healthcare resources compared with women of other races. For instance, the average numbers of oncology hospitals per million population in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 8.1, 7.7, and 5.0 respectively; average numbers of medical doctors per million in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 100.7, 854.0, and 866.3 respectively; and average number of Ob/Gyn in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women was 155.6, 127.4, and 127.3, respectively (all p values <0.001). Regardless, NH-Black women (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.36-1.43) and Hispanic women (HR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08) had significantly higher breast cancer mortality compared with NH-White women even after adjusting for hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status, and area-level healthcare access. In addition, lower county-level socio-economic status and healthcare access measures were significantly and independently associated with stage at presentation, surgery, and radiation treatment as well as mortality after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and HR subtype. Although breast cancer HR subtype is a strong, important, and consistent predictor of breast cancer outcomes, we still observed significant and independent influences of area-level SES and HCA on breast cancer outcomes that deserve further study and may be critical to eliminating breast cancer outcome

  11. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  12. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  13. Teaching Technology in Low Socioeconomic Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    For all students to become successful, productive citizens in the future, it is apparent that they must be well educated in technology. Those students who come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have further to go in attaining that education because they often do not have the capabilities at home to practice technology nor do they have the…

  14. Interactions between Sex, Socioeconomic Level, and Children's Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana-Filipa; Martins, Ana; Almeida, Leandro S

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the interactions between sex, socioeconomic level, and children's cognitive performance. Cognitive performance was measured for a sample of 453 Portuguese children, aged between 4 and 10 years, with 218 boys and 235 girls; verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability and intelligence quotient were measured by the Cognitive Skills Scale for Children. Multivariate analysis of variance assessed the effects of sex and family's socioeconomic level on intelligence quotient. A statistically significant interaction between sex and socioeconomic level was observed for nonverbal intelligence quotient, total intelligence quotient, and two subtests. Socioeconomic level had more influence than sex on most of the cognitive tests. PMID:27154374

  15. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  16. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  17. Small area-level socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality within 10 years in a population-based cohort of women: Data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Williams, Lana J.; Holloway, Kara L.; Hosking, Sarah M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Dobbins, Amelia G.; Pasco, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The social gradient of health and mortality is well-documented. However, data are scarce regarding whether differences in mortality are observed across socio-economic status (SES) measured at the small area-level. We investigated associations between area-level SES and all-cause mortality in Australian women aged ≥ 20 years. Methods We examined SES, obesity, hypertension, lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality within 10 years post-baseline (1994), for 1494 randomly-selected women. Participants' residential addresses were matched to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data to identify area-level SES, and deaths were ascertained from the Australian National Deaths Index. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, and subsequent adjustments made for measures of weight status and lifestyle behaviors. Results We observed 243 (16.3%) deaths within 10 years post-baseline. Females in SES quintiles 2–4 (less disadvantaged) had lower odds of mortality (0.49–0.59) compared to SES quintile 1 (most disadvantaged) under the best model, after adjusting for age, smoking status and low mobility. Conclusions Compared to the lowest SES quintile (most disadvantaged), females in quintiles 2 to 5 (less disadvantaged) had significantly lower odds ratio of all-cause mortality within 10 years. Associations between extreme social disadvantage and mortality warrant further attention from research, public health and policy arenas. PMID:26844110

  18. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  19. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  20. A small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation to capture health inequalities in France.

    PubMed

    Havard, Sabrina; Deguen, Séverine; Bodin, Julie; Louis, Karine; Laurent, Olivier; Bard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    In the absence of individual data, ecological or contextual measures of socioeconomic level are frequently used to describe social inequalities in health. This work focuses on the methodological aspects of the development and validation of a French small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation and its application to the evaluation of the socioeconomic differentials in health outcomes. This index was derived from a principal component analysis of 1999 national census data from the Strasbourg metropolitan area in eastern France, at the census block level. Composed of 19 variables that reflect the multiple aspects of socioeconomic status (income, employment, housing, family and household, and educational level), it can discriminate disadvantaged urban centres from more privileged rural and suburban areas. Several statistical tests (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, convergent validity tests with other deprivation indices from the literature) provided internal and external validation. Its successful application to another French metropolitan area (Lille, in northern France) confirmed its transposability. Finally, its capacity to capture the social inequalities in health when applied to myocardial infarction data shows its potential value. This study thus provides a new tool in French public health research for characterising neighbourhood deprivation and detecting socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of health outcomes at the small-area level. PMID:18950926

  1. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  2. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  3. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    This study of 210 fifth-grade children attempted to assess whether children of varying race, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex differ in their levels of general and area-specific (school, peer, and home) self-esteem. Also investigated was the question of whether children are capable of maintaining differing levels of esteem across the different…

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  5. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Monitoring Socioeconomic Gradients in Health: A Comparison of Area-Based Socioeconomic Measures—The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Waterman, Pamela D.; Rehkopf, David H.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Use of multilevel frameworks and area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) for public health monitoring can potentially overcome the absence of socioeconomic data in most US public health surveillance systems. To assess whether ABSMs can meaningfully be used for diverse race/ethnicity–gender groups, we geocoded and linked public health surveillance data from Massachusetts and Rhode Island to 1990 block group, tract, and zip code ABSMs. Outcomes comprised death, birth, cancer incidence, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, childhood lead poisoning, and nonfatal weapons-related injuries. Among White, Black, and Hispanic women and men, measures of economic deprivation (e.g., percentage below poverty) were most sensitive to expected socioeconomic gradients in health, with the most consistent results and maximal geocoding linkage evident for tract-level analyses. PMID:14534218

  6. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-11-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  7. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socioeconomically distinct areas of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Cynthia; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Martelli, Celina MariaTurchi; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Alexander, Neal; Militão de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa; Silveira Júnior, José Constantino; Marques, Ernesto T.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil currently accounts for the majority of dengue cases reported in the Americas, with co-circulation of DENV 1, 2 and 3. Striking variation in the epidemiological pattern of infection within cities has been observed. Therefore, investigation of dengue transmission in small areas is important to formulate control strategies. A population-based household survey was performed in three diverse socio-economic and environmental areas of Recife, a large urban center of Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Dengue serostatus and individual- and household-level risk factors for infection were collected in residents aged between 5 and 64 years. A total of 2,833 individuals were examined, and their residences were geo-referenced. Anti-dengue IgG antibodies were measured using commercial ELISA. The dengue seroprevalence and the force of infection were estimated in each area. Individual and household variables associated with seropositivity were assessed by multilevel models for each area. A spatial analysis was conducted to identify risk gradients of dengue seropositivity using generalized additive models (GAM). The dengue seroprevalence was 91.1%, 87.4% 74.3%, respectively, in the deprived, intermediate and high socioeconomic areas, inversely related to their socio-economic status. In the deprived area, 59% of children had already been exposed to dengue virus by the age of 5 years and the estimated force of infection was three times higher than that in the privileged area. The risk of infection increased with age in the three areas. Working or studying outside the home area was a risk factor for seropositivity in the deprived area (OR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.18-4.30). Number of persons per room was a risk factor for seropositivity in the intermediate (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 3.21-7.37) and privileged areas (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04). Living in a house, as opposed to an apartment, was a risk factor for seropositivity in the privileged area (OR=3.62; 95% CI: 2.43-5.41). The main difference

  9. Spatial Relationship Quantification between Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Data at Different Geographic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Saib, Mahdi-Salim; Caudeville, Julien; Carre, Florence; Ganry, Olivier; Trugeon, Alain; Cicolella, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial health inequalities have often been analyzed in terms of socioeconomic and environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate spatial relationships between spatial data collected at different spatial scales. The approach was illustrated using health outcomes (mortality attributable to cancer) initially aggregated to the county level, district socioeconomic covariates, and exposure data modeled on a regular grid. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to quantify spatial relationships. The strongest associations were found when low deprivation was associated with lower lip, oral cavity and pharynx cancer mortality and when low environmental pollution was associated with low pleural cancer mortality. However, applying this approach to other areas or to other causes of death or with other indicators requires continuous exploratory analysis to assess the role of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) and downscaling the health data on the study of the relationship, which will allow decision-makers to develop interventions where they are most needed. PMID:24705362

  10. The Association of Area Socioeconomic Status and Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Shim, Matthew J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Vernon, Sally W.; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have examined the association of area socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening after controlling for individual SES, findings have been inconsistent. A systematic review of existing studies is timely in order to identify conceptual and methodologic limitations and to provide a basis for future research directions and policy. Objective The objectives were to: 1) describe the study designs, constructs, methods, and measures; 2) describe the independent association of area SES and cancer screening; and 3) identify neglected areas of research. Methods We searched 6 electronic databases and manually searched cited and citing articles. Eligible studies were published before 2008 in peer-reviewed journals in English, represented primary data on individuals aged ≥18 years from developed countries, and measured the association of area and individual SES with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening. Results Of 19 eligible studies, most measured breast cancer screening. Studies varied widely in research design, definitions and measures of SES, cancer screening behaviors, and covariates. Eight employed multilevel logistic regression, the remainder analyzed data with standard single level logistic regression. The majority measured 1 or 2 indicators of area and individual SES; common indicators at both levels were poverty, income, and education. There was no consistent pattern in the association between area SES and cancer screening. Discussion The gaps and conceptual and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between area SES and cancer screening. We identify five areas of research deserving greater attention in the literature. PMID:19815634

  11. Population Growth in High-Amenity Rural Areas: Does it Bring Socioeconomic Benefits for Long-Term Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Onge, Jarron M. Saint; Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A widely noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to yield only low-wage service-sector employment for long-term residents, while raising local costs of living. This research examines change in socioeconomic status during the 1990s for long-term residents of high-amenity, high-growth rural counties in the United States. Methods Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in combination with county-level information, we estimate growth-curve models to examine the extent to which the socioeconomic status of long-term residents is associated with amenity-related in-migration. Results We find that, on average, residents in high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas have higher income growth over time and higher levels of initial occupational prestige compared to those from other rural areas, but that socioeconomic gains are primarily for individuals with low baseline prestige. Conclusions The socioeconomic gains made by long-term residents of high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas associated with net in-migration may be limited to individuals with low initial prestige and growth may be due to low-skill service-sector jobs. PMID:21892234

  12. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  13. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  14. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

  15. Air pollution, asthma attacks, and socioeconomic deprivation: a small-area case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Olivier; Pedrono, Gaëlle; Segala, Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Havard, Sabrina; Deguen, Séverine; Schillinger, Charles; Rivière, Emmanuel; Bard, Denis

    2008-07-01

    With few exceptions, studies of short-term health effects of air pollution use pollutant concentrations that are averaged citywide as exposure indicators. They are thus prone to exposure misclassification and consequently to bias. Measurement of the relations between air pollution and health, generally and in specific populations, could be improved by employing more geographically precise exposure estimates. The authors investigated short-term relations between ambient air pollution estimated in small geographic areas (French census blocks) and asthma attacks in Strasbourg, France, in 2000-2005--in the general population and in populations with contrasting levels of socioeconomic deprivation. Emergency health-care networks provided data on 4,683 telephone calls made for asthma attacks. Deprivation was estimated using a block-level index constructed from census data. Hourly concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were modeled by block with ADMS-Urban software. Adjusted case-crossover analyses showed that asthma calls were positively but not significantly associated with PM(10) (for a 10-microg x m(-3) increase, odds ratio (OR) = 1.035, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.997, 1.075), sulfur dioxide (OR = 1.056, 95% CI: 0.979, 1.139), and nitrogen dioxide (OR = 1.025, 95% CI: 0.990, 1.062). No association was observed for ozone (OR = 0.998, 95% CI: 0.965, 1.032). Socioeconomic deprivation had no significant influence on these relations. PMID:18467319

  16. The association of current and sustained area-based adverse socioeconomic environment with physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Cruz; Regidor, Enrique; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma; Navarro, Pedro; Domínguez, Vicente

    2007-08-01

    This paper evaluates the association between socioeconomic environment in the province of residence and physical inactivity, using measures of current and sustained area-based adverse socioeconomic environment. The analysis included 19,324 individuals representative of the Spanish non-institutionalised population aged 16-74 years. The measure of association estimated was the prevalence odds ratio for physical inactivity by current gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and current Gini coefficient, and by number of times each province has had a low GDPpc and number of times each province has had a high Gini coefficient in the last two decades. After adjusting for age, individual socioeconomic characteristics, and number of sports facilities per 1,000 population, the odds ratio for physical inactivity in residents of provinces with the lowest current GDPpc versus those with the highest was 1.64 in men and 2.01 in women. The odds ratio in residents of provinces that had always been among those with the lowest GDPpc versus residents in provinces that had never been among those with lowest GDPpc was 1.54 in men and 1.91 in women. Neither the current Gini coefficient nor the indicator that reflects sustained high Gini coefficient were associated with physical inactivity. These findings show that physical inactivity is associated with current socioeconomic context and with the duration of exposure of the area of residence to adverse socioeconomic circumstances when the indicators of socioeconomic environment are based on GDPpc, but not on income inequality. Also, this association is not explained by individual socioeconomic characteristics or the number of sports facilities. PMID:17466424

  17. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  18. Exploring differences in referrals to a hospice at home service in two socio-economically distinct areas of Manchester, UK.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Malcolm; Grande, Gunn; Wilson, Charlotte; Caress, Ann-Louise; Roberts, Dai

    2010-06-01

    In order to provide equitable access to hospice at home palliative care services, it is important to identify the socio-economic factors associated with poorer access. In this population-based study we aimed to test the inverse care law by exploring how socio-economic status and other key demographic indicators were associated with referral rates in two distinct areas (Salford and Trafford) served by the same service. Secondary data from the UK National Census 2001, North West Cancer Intelligence Service (2004) and hospice at home service referral data (2004-06) was collated for both areas. Descriptive analysis profiled electoral ward characteristics whilst simple correlations and regression modelling estimated associations with referral rates. Referral rates were lower and cancer mortality higher in the most deprived areas (Salford). Referral rates were significantly associated with deprivation, particularly multiple deprivation, but not significantly associated with cancer mortality (service model and resources available were held constant). At the population level, the socio-economic characteristics of those referred to hospice at home rather than service provision strongly predicted referral rates. This has implications for the allocation and targeting of resources and contributes important findings to future work exploring equitable access at organizational and professional levels. PMID:20015917

  19. Child mortality in a Nigerian city: its levels and socioeconomic differentials.

    PubMed

    Oni, G A

    1988-01-01

    Using the 'indirect' demographic estimation technique, levels of child mortality for some selected socioeconomic characteristics of mothers in Ilorin, an urban community in Nigeria, were derived. The adjusted effects of these variables on child mortality were assessed. The variables found to exert significant independent effects on child mortality included the husbands education, area of residence in the town, the parity of the mother, her use of modern contraception, availability of indoor pipe-borne water and the use of a refrigerator by the household. Reliable or useful information on child mortality in this part of Nigeria is hard to come by, hence, the estimates provided here can serve as useful baseline data for evaluating the impacts of child survival activities that are currently going on in that part of the country. PMID:3227367

  20. INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS SERVING CONTRASTING SOCIOECONOMIC AREAS IN LARGE CITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, THOMAS L.

    A SOURCE OF SPECIFIC INFORMATION WAS DEVELOPED ON INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS SERVING CONTRASTING SOCIOECONOMIC AREAS OF SEVEN LARGE CITIES OF THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES. THE INFORMATION SOUGHT IN THIS STUDY (GATHERED BY OBSERVATION, INTERVIEW, AND INVENTORY METHODS) FELL INTO TWO CATEGORIES--(1) DATA ABOUT THE…

  1. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention. PMID:19201247

  2. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Klein, C J; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, A J; Gardner, N; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A; Kendall, B E; Airamé, S

    2008-06-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group of stakeholders defined biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals that accommodated social needs and conserved marine ecosystems, consistent with legal requirements. To satisfy biodiversity goals, we targeted 11 marine habitats across 5 depth zones, areas of high species diversity, and areas containing species of special status. We minimized adverse socioeconomic impacts by minimizing negative effects on fishers. We included fine-scale fishing data from the recreational and commercial fishing sectors across 24 fisheries. Protected areas designed with consideration of commercial and recreational fisheries reduced potential impact to the fisheries approximately 21% more than protected areas designed without consideration of fishing effort and resulted in a small increase in the total area protected (approximately 3.4%). We incorporated confidential fishing data without revealing the identity of specific fisheries or individual fishing grounds. We sited a portion of the protected areas near land parks, marine laboratories, and scientific monitoring sites to address nonconsumptive socioeconomic goals. Our results show that a stakeholder-driven design process can use systematic conservation-planning methods to successfully produce options for network design that satisfy multiple conservation and socioeconomic objectives. Marine protected areas that incorporate multiple stakeholder interests without compromising biodiversity conservation goals are more likely to protect

  3. Presentation of Social and Academic Factors That Encourage Persistence in Secondary Schools in Rural, Low Socioeconomic Areas of Two Selected Southeastern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Patricia C.; And Others

    This paper describes the development of a predictive model to determine potential high school dropouts and identify areas for intensified assistance at the individual or group level. V. Tinto's (1975, 1987) model of college attrition was validated for use with high school students in rural, low socioeconomic areas of the Southeast. Ex post facto…

  4. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  5. Association of Census Tract-Level Socioeconomic Status with Disparities in Prostate Cancer-Specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Vincent L.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Campbell, Richard T.; Barrett, Richard E.; Warnecke, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of prostate cancer survival and their relation to racial/ethnic disparities thereof are poorly understood. We analyzed whether census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) at diagnosis is a prognostic factor in men with prostate cancer and helps explain racial/ethnic disparities in survival. Methods We used a retrospective cohort of 833 African-American and white, non-Hispanic men diagnosed with prostate cancer at four Chicago-area medical centers between 1986 and 1990. Tract-level concentrated disadvantage (CD), a multi-dimensional area-based measure of SES, was calculated for each case using 1990 U.S. census data. Its association with prostate cancer-specific survival was measured using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for case and tumor characteristics, treatment, and healthcare system (private sector vs. Veterans Administration [VA]). Results Tract-level CD associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.37, p < .0001). However, the association was observed in the private sector and not in the VA (per 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, HR = 1.33, p < .0001 and HR = 0.93, p = .46, respectively). The multivariate HR for African Americans before and after accounting for tract-level CD was 1.30 (p = .0036) and 0.96 (p = .82), respectively. Conclusion Census tract-level SES is a social determinant of prostate-specific mortality and helps account for racial/ethnic disparities in survival. An equal-access healthcare system may moderate this association. Impact This study identifies a potential pathway for minimizing disparities in prostate cancer control. The findings need confirmation in a population-based study. PMID:21784953

  6. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  7. Hearing Levels of Children by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Reported were estimates of hearing levels of noninstitutionalized children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States in relation to their demographic and socioeconomic background. Findings are results of individual monaural pure-tone air-conduction audiometric tests, conducted as part of the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65. In the survey 7,119…

  8. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  9. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  10. The Comparative Neurological, Physical and Sociological Status of Grade 1 Children in Three Socio-Economic Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loadman, A. Evelyn

    In order to assess the validity of the relationship of motor skills to academic progress, 20 children from 3 different socioeconomic areas were studied, psychologically, neurologically and sociologically. Their intelligence and school progress were found to follow socioeconomic lines. Neurological status as tested by a scored "extended"…

  11. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

  12. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  13. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low

  14. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Design Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. Setting England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Participants 32 482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Main outcome measures Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100 000 need adjusted population. Results In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100 000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to −0.7 (95% CI −2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100 000. The number of FTE GPs per 100 000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100 000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the ‘Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care’. Conclusions There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 PMID:26787245

  15. Socio-economic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravendra K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Saha, Kalyan B.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Jain, Vidhan; Singh, P. P.; Silawat, Nipun; Patel, R.; Hussain, M.; Chand, S.K.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in many States of the country, particularly, in Madhya Pradesh where both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are endemic. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors for malaria, but only a few have examined household and socio-economic risk factors. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to explore the relationship of different socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural risk factors with malaria prevalence in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods: This study was undertaken in all 62 villages of Bargi Primary Health Centre from May 2005 to June 2008. These villages comprised 7117 households with an average family size of five members. Fortnightly fever surveys were conducted in all villages to assess prevalence of malaria infection in the community. The distinct univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted on the data set. Results: The important socio-demographic risk factors like age of household head, social group, occupation and family size; socio-economic factors like type of walls of house, place of drinking water source, irrigated land, cash crop; and behavioural variables like place of sleeping, use of bed nets, etc. were found significantly associated with malaria in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses only social groups, family size, type of walls of house, and place of sleeping had strong significant association with prevalence of malaria. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that in tribal areas where people are living in poor quality of houses with no proper use of preventive measures, malaria is firmly established. We conclude that community based interventions which bring improvement in standard of living, access to healthcare facilities and health awareness, will have a significant impact on malaria prevention in these areas. PMID:26139773

  16. Comparative study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in low socioeconomic areas from South chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0-50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

  17. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna; Gustafsson, Susanna; Pilesjö, Petter; Harrie, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS). Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania). Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1) Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2) The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3) The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4) The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth and education level) is

  18. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and

  19. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  20. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  1. Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

  2. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  3. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives: We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods: To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results: Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions: In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation

  4. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area – Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents’ adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  5. The Need for Adult Education of Married Women in the Lower Socio-Economic Levels in Vancouver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Daisy

    A study was made of the educational needs of married women of lower socioeconomic status in three widely divergent inner city areas of Vancouver, British Columbia. Reasons for nonparticipation in adult education were also sought. The majority of respondents in these areas were married, aged 15-44, with one to four children. Most had gone beyond…

  6. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  7. Understanding high traffic injury risks for children in low socioeconomic areas: a qualitative study of parents' views

    PubMed Central

    Christie, N; Ward, H; Kimberlee, R; Towner, E; Sleney, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To gain an in‐depth qualitative understanding of parents' views about their children's exposure to road traffic injury risk in low socioeconomic areas. Design Focus groups facilitated by a moderator with content analysis of data. Setting Focus groups were conducted in 10 low socioeconomic English districts that also have high rates of child pedestrian injury. Research was conducted in community venues within each area. Subjects Parents of children aged 9–14 years living in low socioeconomic areas. Results Parents believe that children play in their local streets for the following reasons: they like playing out with friends near home; there are few safe, secure, and well‐maintained public spaces for children; children are excluded from affordable leisure venues because of their costs; insufficient parental responsibility. For children that play in the street, the key sources of risk identified by parents were: illegal riding and driving around estates and on the pavements; the speed and volume of traffic; illegal parking; drivers being poorly informed about where children play; children's risk‐taking behavior. Conclusions Intervention programs need to take into account multiple reasons why children in low socioeconomic areas become exposed to hazardous environments thereby increasing their risk of injury. Multi‐agency partnerships involving the community are increasingly needed to implement traditional road safety approaches, such as education, engineering, and enforcement, and provide safe and accessible public space, affordable activities for children, and greater support for parents. PMID:18056316

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  9. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  10. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  11. Condom use, contraceptive methods, and religiosity among youths of low socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; Koller, Sílvia; Wilcox, Brian

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of condoms and other contraceptive methods and religiosity/spirituality among youths of a low socioeconomic level in Porto Alegre. 1013 youths, between 12-24 years of age participated, responding to a personal questionnaire containing 109 items. Results show that 53.5% of these youths had already had their first sexual encounter, 55% of which had this experience before the age of 15. The majority (42.8%) claimed to be Catholic, and 26.7% said they believe in God, but were not religious. There appeared no significant difference in the use of condoms in relation to the level of religiosity, however, men used this method more than women to avoid AIDS and as a contraceptive. Women used other contraceptive methods more frequently, and there were no cases of exclusive use of methods permitted by the major religions (natural methods). This study revealed a high level of condom use (more than 80%) among both religious and non-religious youths. PMID:18630652

  12. [Food and nutrition knowledge of school-age children's mothers from elementary and high school from different socioeconomic levels].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Castro, C G; Ivanovic, R

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition of school-age children's mothers from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to measure the impact of socioeconomic, sociocultural and demographic variables on knowledge. A representative and proportional sample of 4,509 school-age children was chosen from Chile's Metropolitan Region and the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition on mothers of 1,985 of them was determined. The sample was stratified according to grade (I, II, IV, VI, VIII elementary school grades and I and IV high school grades), sex, type of school and geographic area. Socioeconomic status (SES) was determined through Graffar's modified method. The degree of knowledge on food and nutrition was assessed by a test based on the specific objectives pursued by the elementary school curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education and submitted to adequate statistical proofs for its content validity and reliability. Mother's schooling level mean was 9.7 +/- 4.0 y. The field study was carried out on 1986-1987. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance, Student "t" test for comparison of the means, correlation and regression. Results revealed that mothers did not know food and nutrition matters in fundamental aspects related to the observance of a healthy lifestyle, both, for themselves and their family. The degree of knowledge of food and nutrition significantly and positively correlated with SES, mother's schooling and occupation level, housing conditions (quality and sanitation) and age, and significantly and inversely correlated with the number of sons and crowding, besides of being significantly higher in urban than rural mothers. Mother's schooling level and geographic area were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power in the food and nutrition knowledge variance (r2 = 0.1723), but mother's schooling level explains 93.2% of the explained variance. Results suggest the need to

  13. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  14. “A multi-level analysis of urban/rural and socioeconomic differences in functional health status transition among older Chinese”

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study is to assess urban versus rural differences in functional status transitions among older Chinese, aged 55+, and to examine how individual and community level socioeconomic indicators alter the rural/urban effects and themselves influence transitions. The study uses a hierarchical linear modeling approach that considers individual responses to be embedded within communities. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 rounds of the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey. The study considers the functional transitions of 2,944 individuals living across 209 communities in nine Chinese provinces. Functioning is measured at baseline as being able or not being able to conduct all of the following: walking, standing, climbing stairs, lifting, kneeling. Outcomes include having or not having a functional limitation, measured the same way, dying, or not responding. Outcomes are modeled adjusted for baseline functional status. Findings indicate urbanites have substantial advantages. They are less likely to have a limitation at follow-up and less likely to die over the study period. Some of this is explained by socioeconomic indicators measured at two levels. Cross-level interactions suggest education and having insurance operate differently in urban and rural areas. Community-level indicators are somewhat less predictive, and much of the urban advantage is unexplained. In conclusion, the study suggests differences in the influences of socioeconomic indicators in China versus what has been found in the past, and that place of residence in China is a particularly robust predictor of functional health transitions. PMID:20621749

  15. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  16. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Mixed-effects logistic regression models test associations of school and family socioeconomic status (SES) with smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Higher family SES was associated with healthier behaviors, except in relation to alcohol consumption. For all behaviors except physical activity, school-level SES was independently associated with healthier behaviors. In higher SES schools, a stronger association of family SES with health behavior was observed, particularly in relation to smoking and physical activity. Conclusions School and family SES may exert independent and combined influences upon adolescent health behaviors. Targeting interventions toward deprived schools may fail to address substantial inequalities within more affluent schools. Targeting deprived families may fail to address behaviors of children from affluent families, attending more deprived schools. Identifying universal health improvement interventions which have greater effects among children from poorer backgrounds may be a more effective means of reducing inequalities. PMID:25731201

  17. Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhea in children from households with high socioeconomic level in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Varela, Gustavo; Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed "complete" HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  18. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  19. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  20. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p < 0.05), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, dodecane, and hexadecane (p < 0.01). However, smoking had a significant effect for only dodecane, and cleaning had no impact on any VOC concentrations. Considering both socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors simultaneously, socioeconomic

  1. Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational

  2. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Micro-Level Analysis of Exposure and Vulnerability to Daily Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Ettner, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the interconnections among education--as a proxy for socioeconomic status--stress, and physical and mental health by specifying differential exposure and vulnerability models using data from The National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,031). These daily diary data allowed assessment of the social distribution of a…

  4. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michelle E.; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  5. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michelle E; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  6. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  7. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions. PMID:26769915

  8. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  9. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  10. Implementation of the Port Hope Area Initiative Biophysical and Socioeconomic Environmental Assessment Follow-up Programs - 13209

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Nina; Friedmann, Karyn; Groulx, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Initiative (PHAI) involves the cleanup of historic low-level radioactive waste in various locations throughout the communities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, as well as the construction of two engineered aboveground mounds for safe long-term management. The PHAI is comprised of two major projects - the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was undertaken for each project and as a result EA Follow-up Programs were developed and are being implemented addressing both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. This paper provides insight on elements of the EA Follow-up Program development, and its implementation. (authors)

  11. Remaining life expectancy among older people in a rural area of Vietnam: trends and socioeconomic inequalities during a period of multiple transitions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    in rural areas of Vietnam. Inequalities in life expectancy exist between socioeconomic groups, especially between different poverty levels and also patterns of living arrangements. These inequalities should be addressed by appropriate social and health policies with stronger targeting of the poorest and most disadvantaged groups. PMID:20017933

  12. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  13. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  14. Feeding Patterns and Predictors of Malnutrition in Infants from Poor Socioeconomic Areas in Pakistan: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anwar ul Haq, Malik Muhammad; Tariq, Saad; Anwar, Madiha; Khawar, Anam; Waqas, Ahmed; Nisar, Anam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition, a state of under or over nutrition caused by improper food intake, causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. It leads to a number of diseases which can be further divided into those caused by protein-caloric malnutrition and those caused by vitamin deficiencies, micronutrient, and mineral deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors which contribute to malnutrition and to assess the dietary pattern in the pediatric population from birth up to five months belonging to poor socioeconomic areas. The children in this sample presented to a tertiary care hospital in the district of Sargodha, Pakistan. The findings in this cohort will support the development of an effective plan to tackle these issues. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between June 2014 and December 2014 at the inpatient pediatric department of District Headquarter Hospital Sargodha. Data were collected and recorded on a predesigned form which consisted of four sections to record 1) demographics: parents' level of education, monthly income, number of dependent household members, and birth interval; 2) anthropometric and personal history, birth history, and degree of malnutrition; 3) any secondary causes of malnutrition; and 4) feeding history. The data were analyzed in SPSS v. 20. Chi-squared, phi statistics, and logistic regression analysis were run to analyze the data. Results: A total of 294 participants were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis showed that the degree of malnutrition was associated negatively with increasing age and positively with family size. A majority of children (144, 49%) were being breastfed for less than 5 minutes followed by 38 (13%) > 5 minutes to 15 minutes, and 2 (0.7%) > 15 minutes while 110 (37 %) infants were not breastfed. Children who were breastfed were less likely to have severe malnutrition than those who were given formula, fresh cow's or goat's milk

  15. The prospective association of socioeconomic status with C-reactive protein levels in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Deverts, Denise Janicki; Cohen, Sheldon; Kalra, Preety; Matthews, Karen A

    2012-10-01

    Better health is a well-documented benefit of having a higher socioeconomic status (SES). Inflammation may be one pathway through which SES influences health. Using 2658 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, we examine whether two measures of SES assessed at baseline (mean age, 32 ± 4 years)-years of education and household income-predict change in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations over the course of 13 years. We also examine whether four health-related behaviors-smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and alcohol consumption-mediate the prospective association of SES with CRP. Both higher education and household income predicted smaller increases in CRP over the 13 years of follow-up independent of age, sex, race, CARDIA center, body mass, medical diagnoses, medications, and hormone use (among women). Associations did not differ by race or sex. When examined in separate analyses, smoking and fruit and vegetable intake each accounted for a significant proportion of the respective effects of education and household income on CRP change, and physical activity a significant proportion of the effect of household income. These findings suggest that poor health behaviors among persons of lower socioeconomic status can have long-term effects on inflammation. PMID:22884413

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status During Childhood Versus Puberty in Relation to Endogenous Sex Hormone Levels in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Latham, Melissa D.; Irving, Michelle A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic adversity in early life is related to cardiovascular risk in adulthood; however, no studies have examined whether such adversity may be related to endogenous sex hormones—which are themselves associated with cardiovascular outcomes—or whether the timing of adversity exposures (childhood versus puberty) matters. Objective The goal of the current study was to separately examine neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) during periods of childhood and puberty in relation to adulthood levels of endogenous sex hormones (estradiol [E2], testosterone), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and a derived index of bioavailable testosterone (free androgen index [FAI]). Methods In a sample of 143 premenopausal women (mean age 36.8 [SD = 5.5]; 51.7% White, 32.2% African American, 5.6% Latina, 7.0% Chinese, and 3.5% Filipina), retrospective reports of residential address information in designated periods of childhood and puberty was used to derive U.S. census-based neighborhood SES composite scores characterizing the socioeconomic environments of women during these periods. Results In covariate-adjusted analyses, higher neighborhood SES in puberty predicted higher levels of SHBG in adulthood, but neighborhood SES during childhood did not (standardized regression coefficient = .24, p = .01 vs. standardized regression coefficient = .04, p = .75, respectively). Neighborhood SES was not predictive of other hormones (E2, testosterone, and FAI). Discussion The current findings suggest that puberty may be a time of particular vulnerability to the effects of neighborhood SES on SHBG levels, which have been previously linked to cardiovascular risk factor profiles and atherosclerotic disease progression. PMID:25932699

  17. Engineering and socioeconomic impacts of earthquakes: An analysis of electricity lifeline disruptions in the New Madrid area

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, M.; Rose, A.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1998-12-31

    This monograph examines the potential effects of a repeat of the New Madrid earthquake to the metropolitan Memphis area. The authors developed a case study of the impact of such an event to the electric power system, and analyzed how this disruption would affect society. In nine chapters and 189 pages, the book traces the impacts of catastrophic earthquakes through a curtailment of utility lifeline services to its host regional economy and beyond. the monographs` chapters include: Modeling the Memphis economy; seismic performance of electric power systems; spatial analysis techniques for linking physical damage to economic functions; earthquake vulnerability and emergency preparedness among businesses; direct economic impacts; regional economic impacts; socioeconomic and interregional impacts; lifeline risk reduction; and public policy formulation and implementation.

  18. Socioeconomic status, area remoteness, and survival from childhood leukemia: results from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585

  19. Does car ownership reflect socio-economic disadvantage in rural areas? A cross-sectional geographical study in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, S M; Fone, D L

    2003-03-01

    It is widely believed that area-based deprivation indices that include the car ownership census variable are poor indicators of deprivation in rural areas since car ownership is a necessity of rural life. In this cross-sectional geographical study, we assess whether the relation between lack of car ownership and socio-economic deprivation varies between urban and rural enumeration districts of Wales, UK. We classified the 6376 census enumeration districts in Wales into rural (1636, 26%) and urban (4740, 74%), using the Office for National Statistics' classification based on land use. Rank correlation coefficients between the proportion of households with no car and a range of other proxy deprivation census variables were strongly positive in urban and the most densely populated rural enumeration districts. However, these correlations were weaker in sparsely populated rural enumeration districts, with a declining trend across deciles of population density. Exclusion of the car ownership variable from the Townsend index of deprivation re-categorized rural enumeration districts as more deprived and urban enumeration districts as less deprived compared with the standard Townsend index. Our results suggest that lack of car ownership is a poor proxy for social deprivation in the most sparsely populated rural areas of Wales, and therefore, deprivation indices that include the car ownership variable are less valid for use in rural areas. PMID:12802977

  20. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche. PMID:26453067

  1. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while

  2. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  3. Small-area geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal tumour detection in France.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Isabelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Sauleau, Erik-André; Cottet, Vanessa; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of area deprivation and primary care facilities on colorectal adenoma detection and on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in a French well-defined population before mass screening implementation. The study population included all patients aged 20 years or more living in Côte d'Or (France) with either colorectal adenoma or invasive CRC first diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 and who were identified from the Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry and the Côte d'Or Polyp Registry. Area deprivation was assessed using the European deprivation index on the basis of the smallest French area available (Ilots Regroupés pour l'Information Statistique). Healthcare access was assessed using medical density of general practitioners (GPs) and road distance to the nearest GP and gastroenterologist. Bayesian regression analyses were used to estimate influential covariates on adenoma detection and CRC incidence rates. The results were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% credibility interval. In total, 5399 patients were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma and 2125 with invasive incident CRC during the study period. Remoteness from GP [RR=0.71 (0.61-0.83)] and area deprivation [RR=0.98 (0.96-1.00)] independently reduced the probability of adenoma detection. CRC incidence was only slightly affected by GP medical density [RR=1.05 (1.01-1.08)] without any area deprivation effect [RR=0.99 (0.96-1.02)]. Distance to gastroenterologist had no impact on the rates of adenoma detection or CRC incidence. This study highlighted the prominent role of access to GPs in the detection of both colorectal adenomas and overall cancers. Deprivation had an impact only on adenoma detection. PMID:26067032

  4. Geographic variation in colorectal cancer survival and the role of small-area socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel survival analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Doubeni, Chyke A; Park, Yikyung; Major, Jacqueline M; Stone, Rosalie A Torres; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions, at both the individual and the neighborhood level, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) death, but little is known regarding whether CRC survival varies geographically and the extent to which area-level socioeconomic deprivation affects this geographic variation. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, the authors examined geographic variation and the role of area-level socioeconomic deprivation in CRC survival. CRC cases (n = 7,024), identified during 1995-2003, were followed for their CRC-specific vital status through 2005 and overall vital status through 2006. Bayesian multilevel survival models showed that there was significant geographic variation in overall (variance = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.2) and CRC-specific (variance = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) risk of death. More socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods had a higher overall risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and a higher CRC-specific risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5). However, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not account for the geographic variation in overall and CRC-specific risks of death. In future studies, investigators should evaluate other neighborhood characteristics to help explain geographic heterogeneity in CRC survival. Such research could facilitate interventions for reducing geographic disparity in CRC survival. PMID:21836166

  5. Cesarean section and increased body mass index in school children: two cohort studies from distinct socioeconomic background areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile at school age. Results Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. Conclusion A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country. PMID:23886115

  6. Statistical Assessment of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation Environment in Spatial Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Struthers, James; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with health behaviors and outcomes. However, neighborhood socioeconomic status has been measured inconsistently across studies. It remains unclear whether appropriate socioeconomic indicators vary over geographic areas and geographic levels. The aim of this study is to compare the composite socioeconomic index to six socioeconomic indicators reflecting different aspects of socioeconomic environment by both geographic areas and levels. Using 2000 U.S. Census data, we performed a multivariate common factor analysis to identify significant socioeconomic resources and constructed 12 composite indexes at the county, the census tract, and the block group levels across the nation and for three states, respectively. We assessed the agreement between composite indexes and single socioeconomic variables. The component of the composite index varied across geographic areas. At a specific geographic region, the component of the composite index was similar at the levels of census tracts and block groups but different from that at the county level. The percentage of population below federal poverty line was a significant contributor to the composite index, regardless of geographic areas and levels. Compared with non-component socioeconomic indicators, component variables were more agreeable to the composite index. Based on these findings, we conclude that a composite index is better as a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation than a single indicator, and it should be constructed on an area- and unit-specific basis to accurately identify and quantify small-area socioeconomic inequalities over a specific study region. PMID:27413589

  7. [Socio-economic context in the Lower Iseo Lake area after World War II].

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    In the second part of the 20th century, the Basso Sebino Area (Northern Italy) underwent a transformation into an industrial context. The first factories were engaged in the production of textiles, clothes and pasta. This was followed by a major development of mechanic, plastic and rubber industry. The latter activity was concentrated on the production of buttons. This text describes the evolution of the unions'activity in order to obtain a more decent salary and better working conditions in all productive areas. Within this reality, the production of asbestos goods started in 1950 in the Colombo enterprise, run by Rinaldo Colombo, The latter was also the manager of the chrysotile quarry in Balangero, province of Torino (the biggest asbestos mine in Western Europe). Through these connections, asbestos was conveyed from Balangero to the Basso Sebino Area in such a way that most of the asbestos chain (extraction, processing of asbestos goods and sales) was under the control of the same firm. PMID:18050851

  8. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  9. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  10. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Megan D; Craigie, Ian D; Harrison, Luke B; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations. PMID:27582180

  11. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  12. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Association Between Individual Smoking Status and PAH-DNA Adduct Levels in Prostate Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Richards, Catherine; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P < 0.001). Neighborhood SES modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue. PMID:22467358

  13. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  14. Correlates of Creativity in Children from Two Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    The two studies reported here investigate the role of experiential factors in the development of creative thinking of children and adolescents. The first assigned 400 male students from six high schools in the New York metropolitan area to four criterion groups of 100 each: (1) Creative Art or Writing, (2) Creative/ Scientific, (3) Control Art or…

  15. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. PMID:26859607

  16. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  17. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  18. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  19. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multi-level, Multi-domain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on two of the most prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (1) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level, (2) both social and physical domains in the environment, and finally (3) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth’s neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth’s risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth’s physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth’s long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities. PMID:22845752

  20. Modelling typhoid risk in Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: the role of socio-economic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing countries in South Asia, such as Bangladesh, bear a disproportionate burden of diarrhoeal diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and Paratyphoid. These seem to be aggravated by a number of social and environmental factors such as lack of access to safe drinking water, overcrowdedness and poor hygiene brought about by poverty. Some socioeconomic data can be obtained from census data whilst others are more difficult to elucidate. This study considers a range of both census data and spatial data from other sources, including remote sensing, as potential predictors of typhoid risk. Typhoid data are aggregated from hospital admission records for the period from 2005 to 2009. The spatial and statistical structures of the data are analysed and Principal Axis Factoring is used to reduce the degree of co-linearity in the data. The resulting factors are combined into a Quality of Life index, which in turn is used in a regression model of typhoid occurrence and risk. Results The three Principal Factors used together explain 87% of the variance in the initial candidate predictors, which eminently qualifies them for use as a set of uncorrelated explanatory variables in a linear regression model. Initial regression result using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were disappointing, this was explainable by analysis of the spatial autocorrelation inherent in the Principal factors. The use of Geographically Weighted Regression caused a considerable increase in the predictive power of regressions based on these factors. The best prediction, determined by analysis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was found when the three factors were combined into a quality of life index, using a method previously published by others, and had a coefficient of determination of 73%. Conclusions The typhoid occurrence/risk prediction equation was used to develop the first risk map showing areas of Dhaka Metropolitan Area whose inhabitants are at greater or lesser risk of typhoid

  1. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  2. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  3. Effects of Four Different Perceptual Training Programs on IQ and Reading Readiness in the Lower Socio-Economic Level Kindergarten Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn

    The effects of four different kinds of perceptual training programs on IQ and Reading Readiness in a population of lower socio-economic level kindergarten children were explored to provide useful information for curriculum planning. Data was gathered on 54 disadvantaged 5-year olds in an OEO day care center. During the afternoon session, children…

  4. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Brain Development, and How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute to Levelling the Playing Field

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Rajeev D.S.; Kishiyama, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research. PMID:20161995

  5. Assessing Development in Numeracy of Students from Different Socio-Economic Areas: A Rasch Analysis of Three Fundamental Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kathryn C.; Irwin, R. John

    2005-01-01

    Development in the ability of 11-year-olds to solve numerical problems of addition, multiplication, and proportion was analysed by means of three Rasch models of change. The students, who had participated in a New Zealand numeracy project in 2002, comprised two groups that differed in socio-economic status: 1,274 students came from low…

  6. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  7. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age <30 or >44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications. PMID:21711180

  8. The Impact of the 2008-2009 Economic Recession on Acute Myocardial Infarction Occurrences in Various Socioeconomic Areas of Raritan Bay Region, New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulong; Rukshin, Iris; Pan, Fangfang; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed; Yousif, Abdalla; Rukshin, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial stress is one important risk factor for myocardial infarction. Aim: The study was to assess the impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on myocardial infarction occurrences in different socioeconomic areas of Raritan Bay region, New Jersey. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were treated for acute myocardial infarction from January 2006 to June 2012, were grouped based on the average incomes of their residence districts in the Raritan Bay region. The Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the monthly occurrences of myocardial infarction and Dow Jones stock averages, as well as the correlation between the myocardial infarction occurrences and NJ State unemployment rates. Results: Among 1,491 cases that were identified, 990 cases resided in areas with income below the state average and 477 were from areas above the average. After the onset of the recession, the myocardial infarction occurrences trended up in the low-income area group but not in the high-income area group; and this increasing trend is correlated with the rise in NJ State unemployment rates but not with the changes in stock averages. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unemployment contributed to an increased risk of myocardial infarction among the residents in low socioeconomic areas after the 2008-2009 economic recession. PMID:24926446

  9. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Graham F.; Littlecott, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods: This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh…

  10. Epidemiologic studies of Escherichia coli diarrheal infections in a low socioeconomic level peri-urban community in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Levine, M M; Ferreccio, C; Prado, V; Cayazzo, M; Abrego, P; Martinez, J; Maggi, L; Baldini, M M; Martin, W; Maneval, D

    1993-11-15

    The incidence of diarrhea due to six categories of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli was determined in two pediatric cohorts in a low socioeconomic level community in Santiago, Chile, with access to chlorinated water. An age cross-sectional cohort of 340 children aged birth to 47 months was assembled. A newborn cohort was assembled by enrolling 10-12 newborns monthly for 12 months. Episodes of diarrhea were detected by twice weekly household visits. E. coli from stool cultures of cases and matched controls were hybridized with DNA probes specific for enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, enteroaggregative, and diffuse adherence E. coli. Overall, the incidence of diarrhea was low (2.1 episodes/infant/year). Nevertheless, a putative E. coli enteropathogen was found in a large proportion of diarrheal episodes, particularly during the summer. In both cohorts, enterotoxigenic E. coli were important pathogens. Enteropathogenic E. coli were incriminated during the first year of life in the newborn cohort, where they were found significantly more often in cases (p = 0.021) than in controls; beyond this age, isolation rates were similar. In contrast, the relative risk of isolation of diffuse adherence E. coli increased with age in the age cross-sectional cohort, where, overall, the difference in rate of isolation between cases and controls was significant (p = 0.0024). Enteroinvasive and enterohemorrhagic E. coli were isolated infrequently. Enteroaggregative E. coli were encountered equally in cases and controls. Facile transmission of E. coli enteropathogens is occurring in this community despite the availability of potable water. PMID:8237973

  11. Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts affecting infant mortality: a study of community-level differentials in Peru.

    PubMed

    Andes, N

    1989-12-01

    Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts are examined in Peruvian communities for their relationship to infant mortality. A deviant case analysis is used to uncover characteristics important in the social structure of Peruvian communities. Results from fieldwork in two "deviant" communities suggest that economic diversity, income disparity, social class fluidity, and women's autonomy, along with refined measures of medical care and public health resources, are important in understanding differentials in mortality. Attention is drawn to the community context and to the interplay of socioeconomic determinants affecting infant mortality. PMID:2600382

  12. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age. PMID:12336394

  13. Interaction of Ethnicity, Mathematics Achievement Level, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender among High School Students' Mathematics Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signer, Barbara; Beasley, T. Mark; Bauer, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Examines the influence of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and gender on mathematical ability and confidence in urban high school students. Interviews with 100 students reveal African American youth do have academic self-confidence, males sought more mathematics education than females, and that minority youth are not easily discouraged by…

  14. 16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28) WHICH IS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  16. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  17. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  18. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  19. Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

    2007-01-01

    Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this

  20. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  1. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  2. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  7. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  8. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas. PMID:26810147

  9. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  12. Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation Predicts Weight Gain in a Multi-Ethnic Population: Longitudinal Data from the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Methods Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18–65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000–2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Results Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, education/income, those who lived in neighborhood>11 years gained 1.0 kilograms (kg) per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood≤11 years. Conclusions Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. PMID:24875231

  13. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  14. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

  15. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  16. Assessing the Relationship between Socioeconomic Conditions and Urban Environmental Quality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius; May, Juergen; Kraemer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental quality. The results showed wide variation in levels of association between the socioeconomic variables and environmental conditions, with strong evidence of a real difference in environmental quality across the five socioeconomic classes with respect to total waste generation (p < 0.001), waste collection rate (p < 0.001), sewer disposal rate (p < 0.001), non-sewer disposal (p < 0.003), the proportion of households using public toilets (p = 0.005). Socioeconomic conditions are therefore important drivers of change in environmental quality and urban environmental interventions aimed at infectious disease prevention and control if they should be effective could benefit from simultaneous implementation with other social interventions. PMID:20195437

  17. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. )

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  18. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

  19. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries. PMID:17874663

  20. A Comparative Study of Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification with Rigid IOL Versus SICS; the Preferred Surgical Technique in Low Socio-economic group Patients of Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smita; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Low socio-economic group patients from rural areas often opt for free cataract surgeries offered by charitable organisations. SICS continues to be a time tested technique for cataract removal in such patients. In recent times, camp patients are sometimes treated by clear corneal phacoemulsification with implantation of a rigid IOL, which being more cost effective is often provided for camp patients. This study was undertaken to find out which surgical technique yielded better outcomes and was more suited for high volume camp surgery. Aim: To find the better surgical option- phacoemulsification with rigid IOL or SICS, in poor patients from rural areas. Settings and Design: A prospective randomised controlled trial of cataract patients operated by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twelve eyes were selected and were randomly allocated into two groups of 56 eyes each. At completion of the study, data was analysed for 52 eyes operated by clear corneal phacoemulsification and implantation of a rigid IOL, and 56 eyes operated by SICS. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p- value. Results: The results were evaluated on the following criteria. The mean post-operative astigmatism at the end of four weeks - was significantly higher in phacoemulsification group as compared to SICS group The BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) at the end of four weeks - was comparable in both groups. Subjective complaints and/ or complications: In phaco group two patients required sutures and seven had striate keratitis , while none in SICS group. Complaint of irritation was similar in both groups. Surgical time- was less for SICS group as compared to phaco group. Conclusion: SICS by virtue of being a faster surgery with more secure wound and significantly less astigmatism is a better option in camp patients from rural areas as compared to phacoemulsification with rigid IOL. PMID:25584291

  1. Interactive and Independent Associations between the Socioeconomic and Objective Built Environment on the Neighbourhood Level and Individual Health: A Systematic Review of Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. Methods The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Results Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. Conclusions There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel

  2. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether the availability and accessibility of supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores, and the availability, variety and price of foods within these stores, varied across areas of different levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in Melbourne, Australia. Data on food store locations, and food variety and price within stores were obtained through objective audits of 45 neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage. Geographical accessibility of healthy food stores was mostly better amongst those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. Availability of healthy foods within stores only slightly favoured those in advantaged neighbourhoods. However food prices favoured those living in disadvantaged areas. PMID:19046654

  3. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  4. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-04-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  5. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-01-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  6. Improving access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a mixed method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Jones, Andrew P; Wong, Geoff; Clark, Allan B; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Swart, Ann Marie; Steel, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The UK has an ageing population, especially in rural areas, where deprivation is high among older people. Previous research has identified this group as at high risk of poor access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to generate a theory of how socioeconomically disadvantaged older people from rural areas access primary care, to develop an intervention based on this theory and test it in a feasibility trial. Methods and analysis On the basis of the MRC Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, three methods will be used to generate the theory. First, a realist review will elucidate the patient pathway based on existing literature. Second, an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing will be completed using structural equation modelling. Third, 15 semistructured interviews will be undertaken with patients and four focus groups with health professionals. A triangulation protocol will be used to allow each of these methods to inform and be informed by each other, and to integrate data into one overall realist theory. Based on this theory, an intervention will be developed in discussion with stakeholders to ensure that the intervention is feasible and practical. The intervention will be tested within a feasibility trial, the design of which will depend on the intervention. Lessons from the feasibility trial will be used to refine the intervention and gather the information needed for a definitive trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from the regional ethics committee has been granted for the focus groups with health professionals and interviews with patients. Ethics approval will be sought for the feasibility trial after the intervention has been designed. Findings will be disseminated to the key stakeholders involved in intervention development, to researchers, clinicians and health planners through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications, and locally through a dissemination event. PMID

  7. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  8. Tobacco Use and Influencing Factors Among Iranian Children and Adolescents at National and Subnational Levels, According to Socioeconomic Status: The Caspian-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Jari, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ansari, Hossein; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran is facing an epidemiologic transition, with one of its features being the tendency towards smoking by adolescents. The findings of previous studies in Iran have shown that the pervasiveness of tobacco products among school students is high. No previous study has reported the prevalence and determinants of smoking in various socioeconomic statuses (SESs) and at the subnational level in Iran. Objectives To compare the prevalence of smoking and the factors that influence the initiation and continuation of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents living in different regions with diverse socio-demographic patterns. Patients and Methods This nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6 - 18 years, selected by cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Anonymous questionnaires were completed about tobacco use and the main psychological determinants of initiation and continuation to smoke. The questionnaire was modeled on the world health organization global school-based student health survey (WHO-GSHS). The sub-national regions were defined by the criteria of geography combined with SES. According to this classification, the lowest to highest SESs were considered for the southeast, north-northeast, west, and central regions, respectively. Data were analyzed using the STATA statistical software package. Results Overall, 13,486 students completed this survey (participation rate of 90.6%). They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-report of students, 2.6 % (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current smokers, and5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) had ever been smokers. The current use of tobacco was higher in participants aged 14 - 18 years (6.11%) than in those aged 10 - 13.9 years (1.18%) and 6 - 9.9 years (0.51%). Current and past tobacco use, respectively, had the lowest prevalence in the region with the

  9. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  10. Classificiation of Kii peninsula area by vegetation coverage level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyama, Noriko; Awa, Shinobu; Muramatu, Kanako; Daigo, Motomasa

    2005-10-01

    In order to study land cover classification and natural environment, we must analyze vegetation cover states of the local scale in which we can know the subject in detail, as well as and the global scale. Therefore, we need to analyze various satellite data sets which are measured with different wavelengths region and different number of bands. However, it is difficult to compare analysis results obtained using such data sets. By the universal pattern decomposition method (UPDM), which is sensor independent analysis method, we examined vegetation coverage of a pixel on data sets measured different wavelength range and different resolution which is acquired at the same place and time. In this study, in order to develop a generalization rule of vegetation coverage, we examine vegetation coverage of a pixel on 1-kilometer resolution data sets using results obtained by analyzing 250-m resolution data sets which are acquired at the same place and time as the pixel of 1-kilometers'. We defined the rule of classifying into five levels of vegetation coverage using results of high resolution data sets analyzed by the UPDM. Using the results of the analysis, we calculate vegetation coverage of Kii peninsula area.

  11. Socio-economic status and oesophageal cancer: results from a population-based case–control study in a high-risk area

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Sepehr, Alireza; Wakefield, Jon; Møller, Henrik; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer registries in the 1970s showed that parts of Golestan Province in Iran had the highest rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world. More recent studies have shown that while rates are still high, they are approximately half of what they were before, which might be attributable to improved socio-economic status (SES) and living conditions in this area. We examined a wide range of SES indicators to investigate the association between different SES components and risk of OSCC in the region. Methods Data were obtained from a population-based case–control study conducted between 2003 and 2007 with 300 histologically proven OSCC cases and 571 matched neighbourhood controls. We used conditional logistic regression to compare cases and controls for individual SES indicators, for a composite wealth score constructed using multiple correspondence analysis, and for factors obtained from factors analysis. Results We found that various dimensions of SES, such as education, wealth and being married were all inversely related to OSCC. The strongest inverse association was found with education. Compared with no education, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for primary education and high school or beyond were 0.52 (0.27–0.98) and 0.20 (0.06–0.65), respectively. Conclusions The strong association of SES with OSCC after adjustment for known risk factors implies the presence of yet unidentified risk factors that are correlated with our SES measures; identification of these factors could be the target of future studies. Our results also emphasize the importance of using multiple SES measures in epidemiological studies. PMID:19416955

  12. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  13. Increasing Levels of Urban Malnutrition with Rapid Urbanization in Informal Settlements of Katutura, Windhoek: Neighbourhood Differentials and the Effect of Socio-Economic Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing urban poverty characterize much of Southern Africa, resulting in poor urban health. This study investigates inter-urban differences and determinants of undernutrition among marginalized communities. Using the 1992, 2000 and 2006/2007 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey data, we fitted hierarchical random intercept logit models, applied at 52 enumeration areas in the capital city (Windhoek), to estimate trends in undernutrition, and investigate risk factors associated with stunting and underweight. Findings demonstrate that undernutrition among children has risen (7.4% to 25.1%, p<0.001 for stunting; and 9.7% to 17.6%, p<0.001 for underweight, between 1992 and 2006/2007). The risk was pronounced for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households (OR=1.53, 95% CI:[1.01, 2.31] for stunting and OR=2.16, 95% CI:[1.03, 4.89]for underweight). Evidence emerged of intra-urban variation in undernutrition. We argue that with increasing urbanization, comes the challenge of food insecurity and, consequently, malnutrition. For improved child health, urban planners should have targeted interventions for poor urban households and deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:27009767

  14. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer

  15. In situ rainwater harvesting using dead level contours in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe: Insights on the role of socio-economic factors on performance and effectiveness in Gwanda District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nyagumbo, Isaiah

    Droughts and dry spells which have characterised the past decade in Zimbabwe have seen a marked increase in the promotion and use of in situ rainwater harvesting technologies (RWHTs) as a drought mitigating strategy. A number of these technologies have been tried in recent years which include dead level contours with infiltration pits and deepened contours. Although in situ RWHTs are known to increase food security in drought prone areas, the role of socio-economic factors on their performance in terms of crop yield and scaling out is still not well understood. This study sought to investigate the socio-economic factors which influence the effectiveness of dead level contours for in situ rainwater harvesting and consequently on crop yield. The study involved 14 key informants interviews and questionnaire administration to a total of 55 respondent farmers practising in situ rainwater harvesting with dead level contours. A statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Scientists, SPSS) was used to analyse relationships between performance of RWHTs and attributes such as labour, resources, gender, experience and education. The results show a strong correlation between performance and resource status ( p = 0.004). For example, within the wealthy category, 42.1% were successful, while 14.3% and 13.8% were average and poor performers respectively. Thus within the successful category, 42.1% were wealthy, while 42.1% and 15.8% were medium-rich and resource-constrained respectively. Performance rating was also significantly correlated ( p = 0.007) to gender of household head e.g., within the most successful group 94.7% were men compared to 5.3% women. There was also a significant correlation between resource status and gender ( p = 0.039) such that within the wealthy category, 69.2% of the respondents were men compared to 30.8% women. Labour was found to have no significance on performance ( p > 0.05) even though the majority of key informants (93%) alluded that the

  16. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  17. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  18. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  19. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  20. Wildland-Urban Interface Fires and Socioeconomic Conditions: A Case Study of a Northwestern Patagonia City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Torres Curth, Monica; Biscayart, Carolina; Ghermandi, Luciana; Pfister, Gabriela

    2012-04-01

    In many regions of the world, fires are primarily of anthropogenic origin. In northwestern Patagonia, the number of fires is not correlated with meteorological variables, but is concentrated in urban areas. This study was conducted in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area of San Carlos de Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina), within the Nahuel Huapi National Park. WUI fires are particularly problematic because, besides people and goods, they represent a danger to protected areas. We studied the relationship between fire records and socioeconomic indicators within the WUI of San Carlos de Bariloche. We conducted a Multiple Correspondence Factorial Analysis and an Ascendant Hierarchical Classification of the city neighborhoods. The results show that the neighborhoods in Bariloche can be divided into three classes: High Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, including neighborhoods with the highest fire rates, where people have low instruction level, high levels of unsatisfied basic needs and high unemployment levels; Low Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, that groups neighborhoods which present the opposite characterization, and Moderate Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, which are more heterogeneous. Once neighborhoods were classified, a Socioeconomic Fire Risk map was generated, supplementing the existing WUI Fire Danger map. Our results emphasize the relevance of socioeconomic variables to fire policies.

  1. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  2. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  3. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  5. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F X; Guardino, X; Rosell, M G

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Dräger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 microg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 microg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air. PMID:19143312

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  7. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  8. Socioeconomic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Brazil: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, Helmut; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quites, Humberto Ferreira; Souza, Márcia Christina; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This review finds considerable evidence that socioeconomic status has significantly influenced the transmission, spread and treatment of schistosomiasis in Brazil. High infection rates persist among both the rural and urban poor. Rural living, poor housing and water supplies and low educational level were major factors in schistosomiasis occurrence among agricultural populations. In urban areas, prevailing living conditions in shantytowns and labor migrations from and periodic return movements to rural areas were predictive of schistosomiasis. The risk of the establishment of new transmission foci exists in both rural and urban areas, conferred by and affecting poorer people. Associations between schistosomiasis and socioeconomic parameters, persisting inequities in health services accessibility, prevailing health impacts of schistosomiasis, and the ongoing decentralization of health services point to opportunities and strategies for focused interventions aimed at promoting health-enhancing behavior and living conditions and improving access to health care. The authors call for multidisciplinary studies to better examine the complexities of the socioeconomic environment in relation to schistosomiasis and for economic programs to reduce prevailing socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:18694715

  9. Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity risk. Here we draw inference from the literature about inequalities in childhood obesity risk in the UK. We summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the UK. Common area-level indices of socioeconomic position, including the Carstairs Deprivation Index, the Index of Multiple Deprivation and the Townsend Deprivation Index, as well as common household and individual-level metrics of childhood socioeconomic position, including head-of-household social class and maternal education, were generally inversely associated with childhood obesity in the UK. We summarize key methodological limitations to the extant literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:23108336

  11. Levels of radioactivity in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Loehle, C.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of radioactivity in fish from SRS streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity using standard EPA methods. Levels of gross alpha and nonvolatile beta radioactivity in fish were found to be comparable to levels previously reported for these sites. Gross alpha activity was not found to be influenced by Separations Area discharges. Nonvolatile beta activity was higher in the nonvolatile beta activity was attributable to Cs-137 and K-40. The dosimetric consequences of consuming fish from this area were found to be well below DOE guidelines.

  12. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  13. Socioeconomic gradients in general and oral health of primary school children in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golkari, Ali; Sabokseir, Aira; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health status is largely determined by socio-economic status. The general health of individuals at higher social hierarchy is better than people in lower levels. Likewise, people with higher socio-economic status have better oral health than lower socio-economic groups. There has not been much work regarding the influence of socio-economic status on the health conditions of children in developing countries, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to compare the oral and general health conditions of primary school children of three different socio-economic areas in the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 335, 8- to 11-year-old primary schoolchildren in Shiraz. The children were selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method from three socio-economically different areas. Tools and methods used by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council were used to obtain anthropometric variables as indicators of general health. The Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index for permanent teeth, dmft Index for primary teeth, the Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index, the Gingival Index (GI) and the Debris Index-Simplified (DI-S) were used for oral health assessment.  Results: Height (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), and BMI (P=0.001) significantly increased as the socio-economic status of area increased. GI score (P<0.001), DI-S score (P<0.001), number of permanent teeth with DDE (P=0.008), and number of DDE lesions in permanent teeth (P=0.008) significantly decreased as the socio-economic status of area increased. Discussion: Findings of this study generally confirmed that social gradients exist in both general and oral health status of the primary schoolchildren of Shiraz. The influence of socio-economic status on health condition means children have different life chances based on their socio-economic conditions. These findings emphasize the significance of interventions for tackling socio-economic

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Delobel-Ayoub, Malika; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Maffre, Thierry; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Study of the impact of socioeconomic status on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and severe intellectual disabilities (ID) has yielded conflicting results. Recent European studies suggested that, unlike reports from the United States, low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of ASD. For intellectual disabilities, the links with socioeconomic status vary according to the severity. We wished to clarify the links between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of ASD (with or without ID) and isolated severe ID. Methods 500 children with ASD and 245 children with severe ID (IQ <50) aged 8 years, born 1995 to 2004, were recruited from a French population-based registry. Inclusions were based on clinical diagnoses reported in medical records according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Socioeconomic status was measured by indicators available at block census level which characterize the population of the child’s area of residence. Measures of deprivation, employment, occupation, education, immigration and family structure were used. Prevalences were compared between groups of census units defined by the tertiles of socioeconomic level in the general population. Results Prevalence of ASD with associated ID was higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation and the highest percentage of unemployed adults, persons with no diploma, immigrants and single-parent families. No association was found when using occupational class. Regarding ASD without associated ID, a higher prevalence was found in areas with the highest percentage of immigrants. No association was found for other socioeconomic indicators. The prevalence of isolated severe ID was likely to be higher in the most disadvantaged groups defined by all indicators. Conclusion The prevalence of ASD with associated ID and of severe isolated ID is more likely to be higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation. PMID:26540408

  15. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them. PMID:27028608

  16. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011–2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton’s Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between –1.17 and –1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them. PMID:27028608

  17. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING TABLE MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD IN LOWER LEFT CENTER - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  18. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TILTING TABLE, MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  19. Use of Mosquito Preventive Measures Is Associated with Increased RBC CR1 Levels in a Malaria Holoendemic Area of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    King, Christine; Du, Ping; Otieno, Walter; Stoute, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for close to 1 million deaths each year, mostly among African children. Red blood cells (RBCs) of children with severe malarial anemia show loss of complement regulatory proteins such as complement receptor 1 (CR1). We carried out this study to identify socio-economic, environmental, and biological factors associated with the loss of RBC CR1. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya. Twelve socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors were examined for a relationship with RBC CR1 level using bivariate linear regression followed by creation of a multivariate linear regression model. A significant positive relationship between RBC CR1 level and use of mosquito countermeasures was found. However, there was no evidence of a significant relationship between RBC CR1 level and malaria infection or parasitemia level. Reducing mosquito exposure may aid in the prevention of severe malarial anemia by reducing the number of infections and thus preserving RBC CR1. PMID:25385855

  20. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  1. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice. PMID:26388172

  2. Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

  3. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  4. Interventions for physical activity promotion applied to the primary healthcare settings for people living in regions of low socioeconomic level: study protocol for a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. Objective: To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the “Ambiente Ativo” (“Active Environment”) project. Methods 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. Result This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Conclusion Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981 PMID:24624930

  5. Socioeconomic Status and the Allocation of Government Resources in Australia: How Well Do Geographic Measures Perform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Patrick; Gemici, Sinan; Rice, John; Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of area-based vs individual-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Design/methodology/approach: Using data from the longitudinal surveys of Australian youth (LSAY), a multidimensional measure of individual SES is created. This individual measure is used to benchmark the relative…

  6. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  7. Exploring walking differences by socioeconomic status using a spatial agent-based model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Brown, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We use an exploratory agent-based model of adults’ walking behavior within a city to examine the possible impact of interventions on socioeconomic differences in walking. Simulated results show that for persons of low socioeconomic status, increases in walking resulting from increases in their positive attitude towards walking may diminish over time if other features of the environment are not conducive to walking. Similarly, improving the safety level for the lower SES neighborhoods may be effective in increasing walking, however, the magnitude of its effectiveness varies by levels of land use mix, such that effects of safety are greatest when persons live in areas with a large mix of uses. PMID:22243911

  8. Exploring walking differences by socioeconomic status using a spatial agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Diez Roux, Ana V; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    We use an exploratory agent-based model of adults' walking behavior within a city to examine the possible impact of interventions on socioeconomic differences in walking. Simulated results show that for persons of low socioeconomic status, increases in walking resulting from increases in their positive attitude towards walking may diminish over time if other features of the environment are not conducive to walking. Similarly, improving the safety level for the lower SES neighborhoods may be effective in increasing walking, however, the magnitude of its effectiveness varies by levels of land use mix, such that effects of safety are greatest when persons live in areas with a large mix of uses. PMID:22243911

  9. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    PubMed

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity. PMID:20660151

  10. Socioeconomic Status During Lifetime and Cognitive Impairment No-Dementia in Late Life: The Population-Based Aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the In Chianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics, occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders. Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2) was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI =1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates, high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up. PMID:21297261

  11. Determination of the optimal level for combining area and yield estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Hixson, M. M.; Jobusch, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Several levels of obtaining both area and yield estimates of corn and soybeans in Iowa were considered: county, refined strata, refined/split strata, crop reporting district, and state. Using the CCEA model form and smoothed weather data, regression coefficients at each level were derived to compute yield and its variance. Variances were also computed with stratum level. The variance of the yield estimates was largest at the state and smallest at the county level for both crops. The refined strata had somewhat larger variances than those associated with the refined/split strata and CRD. For production estimates, the difference in standard deviations among levels was not large for corn, but for soybeans the standard deviation at the state level was more than 50% greater than for the other levels. The refined strata had the smallest standard deviations. The county level was not considered in evaluation of production estimates due to lack of county area variances.

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  13. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. Socioeconomic Disparities and Influenza Hospitalizations, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Mitchel, Edward; Schaffner, William

    2015-01-01

    We examined population-based surveillance data from the Tennessee Emerging Infections Program to determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with influenza hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data collected during October 2007–April 2014 were geocoded (N = 1,743) and linked to neighborhood socioeconomic data. We calculated age-standardized annual incidence rates, relative index of inequality, and concentration curves for socioeconomic variables. Influenza hospitalizations increased with increased percentages of persons who lived in poverty, had female-headed households, lived in crowded households, and lived in population-dense areas. Influenza hospitalizations decreased with increased percentages of persons who were college educated, were employed, and had health insurance. Higher incidence of influenza hospitalization was also associated with lower neighborhood socioeconomic status when data were stratified by race. PMID:26292106

  16. Socioeconomic Disparities and Influenza Hospitalizations, Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Chantel; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Mitchel, Edward; Schaffner, William; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2015-09-01

    We examined population-based surveillance data from the Tennessee Emerging Infections Program to determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with influenza hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data collected during October 2007-April 2014 were geocoded (N = 1,743) and linked to neighborhood socioeconomic data. We calculated age-standardized annual incidence rates, relative index of inequality, and concentration curves for socioeconomic variables. Influenza hospitalizations increased with increased percentages of persons who lived in poverty, had female-headed households, lived in crowded households, and lived in population-dense areas. Influenza hospitalizations decreased with increased percentages of persons who were college educated, were employed, and had health insurance. Higher incidence of influenza hospitalization was also associated with lower neighborhood socioeconomic status when data were stratified by race. PMID:26292106

  17. Evaluating Secondary School Students' Levels of Five Mind Areas in Terms of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelen, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Gardner's "Five Minds for the Future" approach is focused on disciplined, synthesizing, creative, respectful, and ethical minds. Based on this approach, the purpose of this research is to determine senior secondary school students' levels of five mind areas, and investigate the relationship between these mind areas and the…

  18. A Pilot Socioeconomic Survey of the Impact Area of Energy-Related Industries Proposed for Monongalia County, West Virginia. Circular 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout-Wiegand, Nancy; And Others

    The major objective of this pilot survey was to pretest questions for use in the development and design of a larger, more definitive survey of residents of rural communities in Appalachia, planned for the spring of 1981, and to obtain preliminary descriptive data about the area's residents. Telephone interviews covered respondents' family…

  19. The development and optimisation of a primary care-based whole system complex intervention (CARE Plus) for patients with multimorbidity living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Rosaleen; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Higgins, Maria; Guthrie, Bruce; Watt, Graham; Wyke, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop and optimise a primary care-based complex intervention (CARE Plus) to enhance the quality of life of patients with multimorbidity in the deprived areas. Methods Six co-design discussion groups involving 32 participants were held separately with multimorbid patients from the deprived areas, voluntary organisations, general practitioners and practice nurses working in the deprived areas. This was followed by piloting in two practices and further optimisation based on interviews with 11 general practitioners, 2 practice nurses and 6 participating multimorbid patients. Results Participants endorsed the need for longer consultations, relational continuity and a holistic approach. All felt that training and support of the health care staff was important. Most participants welcomed the idea of additional self-management support, though some practitioners were dubious about whether patients would use it. The pilot study led to changes including a revised care plan, the inclusion of mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques in the support of practitioners and patients, and the stream-lining of the written self-management support material for patients. Discussion We have co-designed and optimised an augmented primary care intervention involving a whole-system approach to enhance quality of life in multimorbid patients living in the deprived areas. CARE Plus will next be tested in a phase 2 cluster randomised controlled trial. PMID:27068113

  20. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported. PMID:23271694

  1. A survey for elevated levels of uranium north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of soil uranium (U) concentrations in a study area due north of the 300 Area on the Hanford site has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of uranium in the study area and to ascertain if background levels of uranium have been increased by Hanford operations. Based on the spatial distribution of {sup 238}U, the highest concentrations of uranium are located in the southern portion of the study area adjacent to the 300 Area complex and in the most eastern zone of the study site bordering the Columbia River. Uranium-236, an isotopic marker of fuel processing activities in the 300 Area, was detected in all eight samples selected from the study. A significant and positive regression was demonstrated between the ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in these eight samples and proximity to the 300 Area. 9 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  3. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  4. Socioeconomic indicators that matter for population health.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Pritchard, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Increasing research and policy attention is being given to how the socioeconomic environment influences health. This article discusses potential indicators or metrics regarding the socioeconomic environment that could play a role in an incentive-based system for population health. Given the state of the research regarding the influence of socioeconomic contextual variables on health outcomes, the state of data and metrics for these variables at the local level, and the potential for program and policy intervention, we recommend a set of metrics related to the socioeconomic composition of a community (including poverty, unemployment, and public assistance rates); educational attainment and achievement; racial segregation; and social-capital indicators such as density of voluntary organizations and voter turnout. These indicators reflect the evidence that population health gains depend on improvements in many of the fundamental social determinants of health, including meaningful employment, income security, educational opportunities, and engaged, active communities. PMID:20550832

  5. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  6. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  7. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  8. Analytic solution and pulse area theorem for three-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; O'Brien, Chris; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Scully, Marlan O.

    2015-12-01

    We report an analytic solution for a three-level atom driven by arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic pulses. In particular, we consider far-detuned driving pulses and show an excellent match between our analytic result and the numerical simulations. We use our solution to derive a pulse area theorem for three-level V and Λ systems without making the rotating wave approximation. Formulated as an energy conservation law, this pulse area theorem can be used to understand pulse propagation through three-level media.

  9. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  10. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. PMID:25165600

  11. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  12. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

    2014-09-01

    Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  13. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  14. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  15. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Barriers to Peritoneal Dialysis: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Perzynski, Adam T.; Austin, Peter C.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Paterson, J. Michael; Quinn, Rob R.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Oliver, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was a mixed methods parallel design study using quantitative and qualitative data from a prospective clinical database of ESRD patients. The eligibility and choice cohorts were assembled from consecutive incident chronic dialysis patients entering one of five renal programs in the province of Ontario, Canada, between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010. Socioeconomic status was measured as median household income and percentage of residents with at least a high school education using Statistics Canada dissemination area-level data. Multivariable models described the relationship between socioeconomic status and likelihood of peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. Barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were classified into qualitative categories using the thematic constant comparative approach. Results The peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice cohorts had 1314 and 857 patients, respectively; 65% of patients were deemed eligible for peritoneal dialysis, and 46% of eligible patients chose peritoneal dialysis. Socioeconomic status was not a significant predictor of peritoneal dialysis eligibility or choice in this study. Qualitative analyses identified 16 barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Patients in lower- versus higher-income Statistics Canada dissemination areas cited built environment or space barriers to peritoneal dialysis (4.6% versus 2.7%) and family or social support barriers (8.3% versus 3.5%) more frequently. Conclusions Peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were not associated with socioeconomic status. However, socioeconomic status may influence specific barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Additional studies to determine the effect of targeting interventions to

  16. Socioeconomic Status and MMPI-2 Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined differences in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores between persons of differing educational levels and family income in the MMPI-2 normative sample to determine if MMPI-2 scores are differentially accurate in predicting relevant extra-test characteristics of persons of differing socioeconomic levels. MMPI-2…

  17. Holocene relative sea-level changes in the inner Bredefjord area, southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte J.; Bennike, Ole; Fredh, Daniel; Randsalu-Wendrup, Linda; Zwartz, Dan; Ljung, Karl; Björck, Svante; Lambeck, Kurt

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present new relative sea-level data from southern Greenland, a key area for understanding the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) response to climate change. Within fourteen lakes and marine lagoons from the inner part of Bredefjord (Nordre Sermilik) in southern Greenland, isolations revealed by stratigraphic and palaeoecological analyses are dated and relative sea levels reconstructed. Due to coastal emergence caused by the GIS retreat within the area, the relative sea-level fell rapidly in the early Holocene between at least c. 9600 and c. 7300 cal. yrs BP attaining a rate of 2 cm per year between 9600 and 8000 cal. yrs BP. Spatial variability in relative sea-level changes is show for southern Greenland from a comparison with the Nanortalik and the Qaqortoq areas. The regression occurred about 2000 years later in the inner Bredefjord area, compared to the Nanortalik area, and about 1000 years later compared to the Qaqortoq area. This is a consequence of earlier deglaciation in areas located at the outer coast. Between c. 8000 cal. yrs BP and the present day, relative sea level was lower than today. The lowest relative sea level in the Inner Bredefjord area of between -5.4 and -15 m a.h.a.t. (above highest astronomical tide) was reached between 7000 and 1000 cal. yrs BP. The neoglacial readvance together with the collapse of the Laurentide peripheral bulge is probably responsible for the transgression in the Inner Bredefjord area, as has been indicated from the nearby sites Qaqortoq and Nanortalik. Our relative sea-level reconstructions showing spatial variability within southern Greenland have implications for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling and the understanding of the GIS ice sheet dynamics. The early Holocene regression is consistent with the recession of the southern sector of the GIS from the shelf edge at c. 22 000 cal. yrs BP, reaching inland of the present day outer coast by c. 12 000 cal. yrs BP, and its present margin by c. 10 500

  18. PM Levels, Composition and Evolution in a Highly Industrialised Area. Objectives of Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Monfort, E.; Mantilla, E.; Miro, J. V.

    2007-05-01

    Evolution of levels and speciation of PM10 in the ceramic producing area of Castello (East Spain) was studied from April 2002 until December 2005. To this end, daily PM10 sampling was carried out at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and chemical analyses were made in about 35 % of the samples. Average PM10 levels varied between 27-36 µg/m3 for the study period. The major constituent was mineral matter, exceeding by 5-12 µg/m3 the usual ranges of annual mineral loads in PM10 at similar Spanish urban or regional background sites with no industrial influence. Based on this comparison and on the efficiency of emission abatement techniques, a reduction target of 3-5 µgPM10/m3 of the annual mean seems to be achievable at the urban sites. Moreover, levels of Li, Sc, Co, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Zr, Cd, Cs, Ce, Tl and Pb were higher than the usual range of concentration in urban areas of Spain. Of these elements, Zr, Zn, Pb and As may be considered as tracers of the ceramic emissions from the study area. Their levels showed a simultaneous decrease with the progressive implementation of emission abatement techniques in frit (glaze component for the manufacture of glazed tiles) fusion kilns of the area. Given the high proportion of facilities with implemented abatement techniques at the end of the study period, the reduction margin for these elements is very low.

  19. Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, D.J.; Watkins, S.A.; Lisle, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level trends with magnitudes near or exceeding the regional hydraulic gradient may have a substantial effect on ground-water flow directions. Water-level measurements can be adjusted for the effects of barometric pressure, formation water density (from water-temperature measurements), borehole deviation, and land-surface altitude in selected wells in the Frenchman Flat area. Water levels in one well were adjusted for the effect of density; this adjustment was significantly greater (about 17 feet) than the adjustment of water levels for barometric pressure, borehole deviation, or land-surface altitude (less than about 4 feet). Water-level measurements from five wells exhibited trends that were statistically and hydrologically significant. Statistically significant water-level trends were observed for three wells completed in the alluvial aquifer (WW-5a, UE-5n, and PW-3), for one well completed in the carbonate aquifer (SM-23), and for one well completed in the quartzite confining unit (Army-6a). Potential causes of water-level fluctuations in wells in the Frenchman Flat area include changes in atmospheric conditions (precipitation and barometric pressure), Earth tides, seismic activity, past underground nuclear testing, and nearby pumping. Periodic water-level measurements in some wells completed in the carbonate aquifer indicate cyclic-type water-level fluctuations that generally correlate with longer term changes (more than 5 years) in precipitation. Ground-water pumping fromthe alluvial aquifer at well WW-5c and pumping and discharge from well RNM-2s

  20. Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, D.J.; Watkins, S.A.; Lisle, B.A.

    2001-04-18

    Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level trends with magnitudes near or exceeding the regional hydraulic gradient may have a substantial effect on ground-water flow directions. Water-level measurements can be adjusted for the effects of barometric pressure, formation water density (from water-temperature measurements), borehole deviation, and land-surface altitude in selected wells in the Frenchman Flat area. Water levels in one well were adjusted for the effect of density; this adjustment was significantly greater (about 17 feet) than the adjustment of water levels for barometric pressure, borehole deviation, or land-surface altitude (less than about 4 feet). Water-level measurements from five wells exhibited trends that were statistically and hydrologically significant. Statistically significant water-level trends were observed for three wells completed in the alluvial aquifer (WW-5a, UE-5n, and PW-3), for one well completed in the carbonate aquifer (SM-23), and for one well completed in the quartzite confining unit (Army-6a). Potential causes of water-level fluctuations in wells in the Frenchman Flat area include changes in atmospheric conditions (precipitation and barometric pressure), Earth tides, seismic activity, past underground nuclear testing, and nearby pumping. Periodic water-level measurements in some wells completed in the carbonate aquifer indicate cyclic-type water-level fluctuations that generally correlate with longer term changes (more than 5 years) in precipitation. Ground-water pumping from the alluvial aquifer at well WW-5c and pumping and discharge from well RNM- 2s

  1. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  2. Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    This study identified the levels and sources of heavy metal contamination in road dust from busy traffic areas in a typical industrial city in Korea. This study compared the total concentrations, as determined by aqua regia digestions and atomic absorption spectroscopy, of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in the road dust from areas with different characteristics such as traffic rotaries, downtown areas, circulation roads, and asphalt and concrete highways. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were evaluated using the contamination factor and the degree of contamination. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were highly dependent on traffic volume and atmospheric dispersion from traffic rotaries. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels in downtown areas. The concrete highway had higher contamination levels of the heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a strong contributing factor to the degree of contamination of heavy metals in the road dust from the circulation roads and highways. PMID:20937547

  3. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    PubMed

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  4. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  5. Stage at diagnosis in breast cancer: race and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, B L; Horm, J W

    1992-01-01

    Cancer incidence data from three US metropolitan areas were coupled with census tract indicators of education and income. The data suggest that both Black and White cancer patients living in census tracts with lower median education/income values are diagnosed in later disease stages than are patients in tracts with higher median education/income values. Within education and income strata, Black women had a less favorable stage of disease at diagnosis than Whites. The exception was in upper education/income levels, where the disadvantage for Blacks disappeared. These data provide additional evidence that women of low socioeconomic status could benefit from targeted screening. PMID:1415866

  6. "Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities".

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Esther S T; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-04-01

    Past urban research on Western nations tends to show high suicide rates in inner city and socioeconomically deprived areas. However, little is known about geographic variations in suicide in non-Western cities. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate smoothed standardised mortality ratios (2005-2010) for suicide in people aged 10 years or above in each geographic unit in Hong Kong at two levels, i.e. large street block (n = 1639; median population = 1860) and small tertiary planning unit group (n = 204; median population = 14,850). We further analysed their associations with a range of area socioeconomic characteristics and a deprivation index. The "city centre" of Hong Kong, a generally non-deprived area, showed mostly below average suicide rates. However, there were high rates concentrating in some socioeconomically deprived, densely populated areas, including some inner city areas, across the city. Males had greater geographic variations in rates than females, except the elderly group. The use of smaller geographic units revealed finer detailed suicide distribution than the use of larger units, and showed that suicide rates were associated with indicators of socioeconomic deprivation (population with non-professional jobs and low median household income), and social fragmentation (proportions of unmarried adults and divorced/separated adults), but not with Gini coefficient. Sex/age groups had different associations with suicide rates. Areas in the most deprived quintile had a suicide rate more than two times higher than the least deprived. The association between suicide and deprivation was stronger in males than females and more marked in the younger populations compared to the elderly. The spatial distribution of suicide in Hong Kong showed distinct patterning and a stronger association with income compared to findings from Western countries. Suicide prevention strategies should consider tackling the marked socioeconomic gradient in suicide and high

  7. Copper and lead levels in crops and soils of the Holland Marsh Area-Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the soils and crops of the important horticultural area north of Toronto known as the Holland Marsh. The soils are deep organic mucks (> 85% organic matter), derived by the drainage of black marshland soils, which has been carried out over the past 40 years. A comparison is made between the Pb and Cu concentrations in undrained, uncultivated areas of the marsh and in the intensively used horticultural area. Analyses show a marked accumulation of Cu in surface layers of cultivated soils, with a mean surface concentration of 130 ppM, declining to 20 ppM at a 32-cm depth. Undrained (virgin) soils of the same marshes had < 20 ppM at all depths. Lead concentrations also declined through the profile, from concentrations of 22 to 10 ppM. In comparison, undrained areas had elevated Pb levels. Cultivation appeared to have increased Cu, but lowered Pb in the marsh. Copper and lead levels found in the crops were generally higher in the young spring vegetables than in the mature fall ones. Leafy crops, especially lettuce (Lactuca L.) and celery (Apium graveolens), accumulated higher Pb levels in their foliage compared with levels in root crops. Cultivation procedures, including past pesticide applications and fertilizer additions, appeared to be principal sources of Cu. Mobility from the soil and into the plant for these elements in the marsh muck soils is discussed.

  8. Content Area Readers: Helping Middle-Level Students become Word Aware (and Enjoy It!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Scott Coleman

    2010-01-01

    For many years, practitioners have heard that middle level teachers are teachers of reading. As the standards movement gains strength, it is even more crucial that teachers explicitly teach key vocabulary that makes their students "insiders" when it comes to understanding the content areas. This article reminds the reader of the principles for…

  9. Teacher Competency: New Perspectives on Grade Level and Subject Area Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streifer, Philip A.

    Data from a 1984 study undertaken to validate 15 teacher competencies for Connecticut's Beginning Teacher Support Program were reanalyzed to determine whether the competencies were applicable to all teachers or were specific to grade levels or subject areas. The original study examined 1733 responses to a survey that asked teachers and…

  10. Utilizing Occupational Complexity Levels in Vocational Interest Assessments: Assessing Interests for STEM Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Yonca; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to improve vocational interest assessments geared toward the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas, we developed a new assessment by incorporating occupational complexity levels. Occupations which correspond to Holland's realistic and investigative themes were identified together with their complexity levels…

  11. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  12. Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Nutrition Behaviors: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare dietary knowledge, behaviors and self-efficacy of black middle school students of low socioeconomic status with their white counterparts of higher socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based survey. Setting: Large metropolitan area in the United States. Participants: Middle school students (1,208 of low…

  13. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  14. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  15. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. PMID:26767416

  16. OPS MCC level B/C formulation requirements: Area targets and space volumes processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, M. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The level B/C mathematical specifications for the area targets and space volumes processor (ATSVP) are described. The processor is designed to compute the acquisition-of-signal (AOS) and loss-of-signal (LOS) times for area targets and space volumes. The characteristics of the area targets and space volumes are given. The mathematical equations necessary to determine whether the spacecraft lies within the area target or space volume are given. These equations provide a detailed model of the target geometry. A semianalytical technique for predicting the AOS and LOS time periods is disucssed. This technique was designed to bound the actual visibility period using a simplified target geometry model and unperturbed orbital motion. Functional overview of the ATSVP is presented and it's detailed logic flow is described.

  17. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  18. Changes in the Multi-Level Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Reading Achievement in Sweden in 1991 and 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kajsa Yang; Rosen, Monica; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the changes in educational inequality at the school- and individual-levels in 1991 and 2001. Comparisons are made between the IEA Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the so called 10-Year Trend Study in PIRLS 2001. The between-school differences in reading achievement variance and the size of the relationship between SES and…

  19. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase. PMID:26019052

  20. Relationship between Aircraft Noise Contour Area and Noise Levels at Certification Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of sound exposure level contour area reduction has been proposed as an alternative or supplemental metric of progress and success for the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program, which currently uses the average of predicted noise reductions at three community locations. As the program has expanded to include reductions in airframe noise as well as reduction due to optimization of operating procedures for lower noise, there is concern that the three-point methodology may not represent a fair measure of benefit to airport communities. This paper addresses several topics related to this proposal: (1) an analytical basis for a relationship between certification noise levels and noise contour areas for departure operations is developed, (2) the relationship between predicted noise contour area and the noise levels measured or predicted at the certification measurement points is examined for a wide range of commercial and business aircraft, and (3) reductions in contour area for low-noise approach scenarios are predicted and equivalent reductions in source noise are determined.

  1. Neurobiological Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Position and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Across individuals, risk for poor health varies inversely with socioeconomic position (SEP). The pathways by which SEP affects health have been viewed from many epidemiological perspectives. Central to these perspectives is the notion that socioeconomic health disparities arise from an interplay between nested, recursive, and cumulative environmental, social, familial, psychological, behavioral, and physiological processes that unfold over the life span. Epidemiological perspectives on socioeconomic health disparities, however, have not yet formally integrated emerging findings from neuropharmacological, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies demonstrating that indicators of SEP relate to patterns of brain neurotransmission, brain morphology, and brain functionality implicated in the etiology of chronic medical conditions and psychological disorders. Here, we survey these emerging findings and consider how future neurobiological studies in this area can enhance our understanding of the pathways by which different dimensions of SEP become embodied by the brain to influence health throughout life. PMID:20498294

  2. A stochastic model for the sea level in the Estonian coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudsepp, Urmas; Toompuu, Aleksander; Kõuts, Tarmo

    1999-09-01

    A stochastic model is suggested to perform the space-time optimal analysis of the sea level data recorded in 1978-1982 at 20 stations at the Estonian coast and along a part of the Latvian coast surrounding the Gulf of Riga. The original time series recorded with the time lag of 1, 6 or 12 h are divided into mean and fluctuation components. The mean field is modeled as the sum of the linear trend and annual harmonic. The mean sea level is generally higher at the stations located in the river mouth area. The estimated linear trend yielding the sea level rise of 1-3 cm/year is an approximation of the interannual variability over the selected 5-year period. The dominating annual harmonic with amplitude of 20 cm describes 40-45% of the total variability of the time series of the monthly mean sea level values. The temporal and spatial correlations of the sea level fluctuation field were estimated on the basis of the suggested stochastic model. The correlation functions were approximated by Gaussian functions yielding the temporal correlation radius (e-folding scale) of about 10 days and spatial correlation radius of 200-400 nm. According to the developed criterion, proceeding from the suggested stochastic model, at least 90% of the sea level data from the Estonian coastal area should be considered as meeting the quality requirements. There was no significant difference in the quality of data measured either continuously by mareographs or observed by reading the bench sticks. After removal of outliers, the approach was utilized to reconstruct the sea level field in the Estonian coastal area in 1978-1982 with an acceptable low reconstruction error.

  3. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  4. Simulated changes in water levels in the Minjur Aquifer, Riyadh area, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.F.; Sagaby, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference computer model of the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area of Saudi Arabia was developed to simulate and predict drawdown in an aquifer which, in 1979, supplied more than 80 percent of all water used in this capital area. The Minjur was modeled as a confined aquifer recharged by leakage through underlying confining beds. Pumpage was simulated for a 23-year period during which it increased from 2,160 to 220 ,000 cubic meters per day. At Riyadh, the top of the Minjur aquifer is about 1200 meters below land surface. Aquifer thickness within the 40,000-square-kilometer study area ranges from 74 to 138 meters inclusively. Values for aquifer characteristics used in the model are: transmissivity, from 0.001 to 0.0062 square meters per second; storage coefficients, 0.07 for the unconfined, and 0.0004 for the confined sectors of the model area. A value of 0.02 meters per second was used to represent the vertical conductivity of the confining bed. Predictive simulations indicate that if the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area is stressed by estimated future pumpages, static water-level declines ranging from 10 up to and including 90 meters, depending on location, will occur from 1980 through 1999. Simulations also demonstrated that pumping levels in the new Buwayb well field will decline substantially from 1980 through 1981. (USGS)

  5. OPS MCC level B/C formulation requirements: Area targets and space volumes processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, M. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The level B/C mathematical specifications for the area targets and space volume processor (ATSVP) as well as the characteristics of the system are provided. The mathematical equation necessary to determine whether the spacecraft lies within the area target or space volume is presented. A semianalytical technique for predicting the acquisition of signal (AOS) and loss of signal (LOS) time periods is discussed. A functional overview of the ATSVP which includes an outline of the process required to determine precise AOS and LOS times are given.

  6. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), but hair Se did not vary by age or region. School children in KBD endemic areas in Lhasa likely have improved Se status as a result of high Se content staple food substitution with the enforcement of Free Education Policy and Nutrition Improvement Plan in Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa. PMID:25910897

  7. Study of Nox Levels At The Castellon Area (spain) By Means of Passive Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J. M.; Esteve, V.

    Nitrogen oxides are emitted by mobile sources like traffic, heating engines and indus- tries. In the case of La Plana de Castellon area, the cities, the industrial area called El Serrallo (with its oil refinery and power plant), the tile factories and the main roads (A7-E15 and N-340), all they are the main pollutant focus of NOx. Those pollutants are precursors of tropospheric ozone formation. The aim of this work is the study of nitrogen oxides levels in La Plana de Castellon area, by means of passive samplers and stand relationships between NOx levels and ozone levels both measured with pas- sive samplers. The measurement campaign is made during summer, the higher pho- tochemical activity period (from May to September) in order to obtain the necessary data of NOx levels to make the relationship with measured ozone levels. Measuring campaing has been divided into sampling periods of one week. Twelve samples are collected each sampling period to cover an interest area of 1400 Km2, Two of these samples are laboratory blanks, four are situated at reference points (beside an auto- matic NOx sampler), one is situated at A7-E15 expressway, other at the main road N-340 and another one in a hard traffic road. The other three are placed in the main cities (Castellon and Benicassim). We employ Radielloo samplers developed by Dr. Cocheo at Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri. Samples located far from the main roads, at countryside show the lowest levels of NOx, lower than 10 ppb. Samples located at Castellon city show a difference between downtown and boundaries of about 33% higher at downtown, raising from 11 ppb to 14,5 ppb of NOx. The highest levels of NOx are measured at roads and their surroundings with medium levels of 14,3 ppb of NOx. Moreover, the sample located close to the expressway raises its level until 18 ppb of NOx, 53,4% higher than the media of all the samples measured. We would like to thank Dr. M. Wolfson(Harvard University), Dr. Carlos Felis (Conselleria de

  8. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  9. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Normando, Thiene Silva; Barroso, Regina Fátima Feio; Normando, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44%) was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1%) in comparison to HSS females (84.7%), particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001), posterior crossbite (P = 0.006), increased overbite (P = 0.005) and overjet (P < 0.0001). Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36). Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9%) in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%), for both males and females (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven. PMID:25741828

  10. Contribution of the physical environment to socioeconomic gradients in walking in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2014-05-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in walking are well documented but the underlying reasons remain unclear. We examined the contribution of objective measures of the physical environment at residence to socioeconomic gradients in walking in 3363 participants (50-74years) from the Whitehall II study (2002-2004). Individual-level socioeconomic position was measured as most recent employment grade. The contribution of multiple measures of the physical environment to socioeconomic position gradients in self-reported log transformed minutes walking/week was examined by linear regression. Objective measures of the physical environment contributed only to a small extent to socioeconomic gradients in walking in middle-aged and older adults living in Greater London, UK. Of these, only the number of killed and seriously injured road traffic casualties per km of road was predictive of walking. More walking in areas with high rates of road traffic casualties per km of road may signal an effect not of injury risk but of more central locations with multiple destinations within short distances ('compact neighbourhoods'). This has potential implications for urban planning to promote physical activity. PMID:24637091

  11. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  12. Intrinsic performance-limiting instabilities in two-level class-B broad-area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, A. V.; Molevich, N. E.; Krents, A. A.; Anchikov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with the analytical and numerical investigation of the transverse spatio-temporal instabilities in two-level broad-area lasers for the specific class-B case. We show that the two-level class-B broad-area laser tends to naturally operate in the filamentary state. This is revealed to be provided with two causes. First of them is related with the homogeneous output profile being intrinsically unstable due to the traveling-wave instability, independently from the boundary conditions. Secondly, high sensitivity to the boundaries of the pumping region was found for the commonly used top-hat-like profile leading to boundaries-induced filamentary dynamics. Spatio-temporal properties of both instability mechanisms are studied and their effects on the resulting laser dynamical behavior are analyzed.

  13. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND LEARNING PROFICIENCY IN YOUNG CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROHWER, WILLIAM D., JR.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS INITIATED TO DETERMINE WHY CHILDREN OF LOWER SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, WHO DO INFERIOR WORK ON SCHOOL-RELATED LEARNING TASKS WHEN COMPARED TO UPPER SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS CHILDREN, LEARN AS EFFICIENTLY AS UPPER LEVEL CHILDREN ON PAIRED-ASSOCIATE TASKS. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 120 LOWER STATUS CHILDREN AND 120 UPPER STATUS CHILDREN,…

  14. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr.

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  15. Land-use threats and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape level approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use will likely present a greater challenge to biodiversity than climate change this century in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Even if species are equipped with the adaptive capacity to migrate in the face of a changing climate, they will likely encounter a human-dominated landscape as a major dispersal obstacle. Our goal was to identify, at the ecoregion-level, protected areas in close proximity to lands with a higher likelihood of future land-use conversion. Using a state-and-transition simulation model, we modeled spatially explicit (1 km2) land use from 2000 to 2100 under seven alternative land-use and emission scenarios for ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed scenario-based land-use conversion threats from logging, agriculture, and development near existing protected areas. A conversion threat index (CTI) was created to identify ecoregions with highest projected land-use conversion potential within closest proximity to existing protected areas. Our analysis indicated nearly 22% of land area in the Coast Range, over 16% of land area in the Puget Lowland, and nearly 11% of the Cascades had very high CTI values. Broader regional-scale land-use change is projected to impact nearly 40% of the Coast Range, 30% of the Puget Lowland, and 24% of the Cascades (i.e., two highest CTI classes). A landscape level, scenario-based approach to modeling future land use helps identify ecoregions with existing protected areas at greater risk from regional land-use threats and can help prioritize future conservation efforts.

  16. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  17. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  18. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  19. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  20. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  1. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  2. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  3. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  4. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  5. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  6. Exploring why residents of socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods have less favourable perceptions of their neighbourhood environment than residents of wealthy neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Oppert, J-M; Roda, C; Rutter, H; Brug, J; Nijpels, G

    2016-01-01

    Residents of socioeconomically deprived areas perceive their neighbourhood as less conducive to healthy behaviours than residents of more affluent areas. Whether these unfavourable perceptions are based on objective neighbourhood features or other factors is poorly understood. We examined individual and contextual correlates of socioeconomic inequalities in neighbourhood perceptions across five urban regions in Europe. Data were analysed from 5205 participants of the SPOTLIGHT survey. Participants reported perceptions of their neighbourhood environment with regard to aesthetics, safety, the presence of destinations and functionality of the neighbourhood, which were summed into an overall neighbourhood perceptions score. Multivariable multilevel regression analyses were conducted to investigate whether the following factors were associated with socioeconomic inequalities in neighbourhood perceptions: objectively observed neighbourhood features, neighbourhood social capital, exposure to the neighbourhood, self-rated health and lifestyle behaviours. Objectively observed traffic safety, aesthetics and the presence of destinations in the neighbourhood explained around 15% of differences in neighbourhood perceptions between residents of high and low neighbourhoods; levels of neighbourhood social cohesion explained around 52%. Exposure to the neighbourhood, self-rated health and lifestyle behaviours were significant correlates of neighbourhood perceptions but did not contribute to socioeconomic differences. This cross-European study provided evidence that socioeconomic differences in neighbourhood perceptions are not only associated with objective neighbourhood features but also with social cohesion. Levels of physical activity, sleep duration, self-rated health, happiness and neighbourhood preference were also associated with neighbourhood perceptions. PMID:26879112

  7. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC. PMID:27474990

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in pregnancy outcome associated with Down syndrome: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Judith L S; Draper, Elizabeth S; Lotto, Robyn R; Berry, Laura E; Smith, Lucy K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy associated with Down syndrome (DS) compared with other congenital anomalies screened for during pregnancy. Design and setting Retrospective population-based registry study (East Midlands & South Yorkshire in England). Participants All registered cases of DS and nine selected congenital anomalies with poor prognostic outcome (the UK Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme (FASP)9) with an end of pregnancy date between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007. Main outcome measures: Poisson regression models were used to explore outcome measures, including socioeconomic variation in rates of anomaly; antenatal detection; pregnancy outcome; live birth incidence and neonatal mortality. Deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 at super output area level. Results There were 1151 cases of DS and 1572 cases of the nine severe anomalies combined. The overall rate of antenatal detection was 57% for DS, which decreased with increasing deprivation (rate ratio comparing the most deprived tenth with the least deprived: 0.76 (0.60 to 0.97)). Antenatal detection rates were considerably higher for FASP9 anomalies (86%), with no evidence of a trend with deprivation (0.99 95% CI (0.84 to 1.17)). The termination of pregnancy rate following antenatal diagnosis was higher for DS (86%) than the FASP9 anomalies (70%). Both groups showed wide socioeconomic variation in the termination of pregnancy rate (rate ratio: DS: 0.76 (0.58 to 0.99); FASP9 anomalies: 0.80 (0.65 to 0.97)). Consequently, socioeconomic inequalities in live birth and neonatal mortality rates associated with these anomalies arise that were not observed in utero. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in the antenatal detection of DS, and subsequent termination rates are much higher for DS than other anomalies. Termination rates for all anomalies are lower in more deprived areas leading to wide socioeconomic inequalities in

  9. The use of total assets as a proxy for socioeconomic status in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lan; Tran, Bich; Le, Anh

    2011-11-01

    Recently, total assets have become a popular method to capture socioeconomic status (SES) for health research/intervention done in developing countries. Although, this method is suitable for areas in a rural setting, there are 2 major issues in applying this method: (a) which durable assets/infrastructure or housing characteristics truly reflect the family SES and (b) how to aggregate different variables to get a derived index of SES and produce a range of critical points differentiating socioeconomic levels. This study aims to validate the use of total asset as proxy for SES by addressing these issues. Results indicated that (a) variables reflecting family SES in rural setting area include variables capturing access to utilities and infrastructure, housing characteristics, and durable asset ownership; (b) principal component analysis is a suitable method to construct a derived index from multiple variables; and (c) the derived index is a valid indicator for SES in rural setting area. PMID:20460287

  10. Radiological Modeling for Determination of Derived Concentration Levels of an Area with Uranium Residual Material - 13533

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl

    2013-07-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decay series as Th-230, Ra-226 and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirmed their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure that the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modeling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of radon (Rn-222). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of Ra-226 in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g{sup -1}, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (authors)

  11. Heat-Related Morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: Spatial Variation and Area-Level Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extreme heat is a leading weather-related cause of illness and death in many locations across the globe, including subtropical Australia. The possibility of increasingly frequent and severe heat waves warrants continued efforts to reduce this health burden, which could be accomplished by targeting intervention measures toward the most vulnerable communities. Objectives: We sought to quantify spatial variability in heat-related morbidity in Brisbane, Australia, to highlight regions of the city with the greatest risk. We also aimed to find area-level social and environmental determinants of high risk within Brisbane. Methods: We used a series of hierarchical Bayesian models to examine city-wide and intracity associations between temperature and morbidity using a 2007–2011 time series of geographically referenced hospital admissions data. The models accounted for long-term time trends, seasonality, and day of week and holiday effects. Results: On average, a 10°C increase in daily maximum temperature during the summer was associated with a 7.2% increase in hospital admissions (95% CI: 4.7, 9.8%) on the following day. Positive statistically significant relationships between admissions and temperature were found for 16 of the city’s 158 areas; negative relationships were found for 5 areas. High-risk areas were associated with a lack of high income earners and higher population density. Conclusions: Geographically targeted public health strategies for extreme heat may be effective in Brisbane, because morbidity risk was found to be spatially variable. Emergency responders, health officials, and city planners could focus on short- and long-term intervention measures that reach communities in the city with lower incomes and higher population densities, including reduction of urban heat island effects. Citation: Hondula DM, Barnett AG. 2014. Heat-related morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: spatial variation and area-level predictors. Environ Health Perspect

  12. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  14. Conceptualizing Health Consequences of Hurricane Katrina From the Perspective of Socioeconomic Status Decline

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Myers, Hector F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The long-term health impact of acute unemployment and socioeconomic resource deficit has not been shown to be unique from the effects of stable socioeconomic status (SES) and serious life circumstances, such as trauma. This study examined associations between these acute socioeconomic declines and health of hurricane survivors, independent of prehurricane SES and hurricane trauma. Method Participants were 215 African American adults (60% female, mean age = 39 years) living in the Greater New Orleans area at the time of Hurricane Katrina and survey 4 years later. The survey included prehurricane SES measures (i.e., education and neighborhood poverty level); acute unemployment and deficits in access to SES resources following Hurricane Katrina; and posthurricane health events (i.e., cardiometabolic events, chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]). Results Acute unemployment was associated with odds of experiencing a cardiometabolic event (odds ratio [OR] = 5.65, p < .05), MDD (OR = 2.76, p < .05) and chronic pain (OR = 2.76, p < .05), whereas acute socioeconomic resource deficit was associated with odds of chronic pain (OR = 1.93, p < .001) and MDD (OR = 1.19, p < .05). Associations were independent of prehurricane SES, hurricane trauma, potentially chronic SES resource deficits, and current unemployment. Conclusions This study shows that acute socioeconomic decline following a natural disaster can create long-term health disparities beyond those created by prehurricane SES level and traumatic hurricane experiences. Findings suggest that early intervention postdisaster to reduce pervasive socioeconomic disruption may reduce the long-term health impact of disasters. PMID:23527519

  15. Approximate ground-water-level contours, April 1981, for the Soquel-Aptos area, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-water levels in selected wells were measured in the Soquel-Aptos, Calif., area in April 1981. On the basis of these measurements approximate ground-water-level contours were constructed. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Soquell-Aptos area is from the ridges in the northern part of the area, toward the adjacent canyons, and then southward toward the ocean. Ground-water pumping has caused ground-water levels to decline below sea level in the Capitola area, in the area just to the west and northwest of aptos, and in isolated local areas southwest of Rio Del Mar. Ground-water levels in the northern part of the area away from the seacoast have not declined much over time. (USGS)

  16. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  17. A Climatological Analysis of Ground Level Ozone Across the St. Louis Metropolitan Area During 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Adam

    Ground level ozone is a harmful air pollutant to humans and is not directly emitted. It is formed from the combination of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of warm temperatures and sunlight. The St. Louis metropolitan area is home to different types of industry and the citizens of the area rely on the interstate network to commute to and from work. A spatial analysis of the St. Louis metropolitan area's 2012 ozone season (April 1 - October 31) was conducted to investigate the relationships between ground level ozone and meteorological and climatological variables at the micro- and synoptic scales. Previous studies addressed these relationships but may not have accounted for the issue of autocorrelation. The some of the study variables experienced autocorrelation; however, by calculating the effective sample size the issue of autocorrelation was addressed. High maximum temperatures, little to no precipitation, low average wind speeds at the surface, coupled with dominant anticyclones/high pressure and little moisture aloft were found to be associated with the 40 days during which Federal ozone exceedances occurred. The days with the most exceedance were Fridays (8) while the fewest were observed on Sundays (3). Like most summers, the greatest number of exceedance days occurred during the month of July (16). Precursors to ozone, and persistent ozone itself, also led to extended periods of high ozone. All of these factors, combined with emissions from vehicles and from industry, led to days on which the surface air quality may have been detrimental to human health.

  18. Horizontal tuning for faces originates in high-level Fusiform Face Area.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Duecker, Felix; Hausfeld, Lars; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-29

    Recent work indicates that the specialization of face visual perception relies on the privileged processing of horizontal angles of facial information. This suggests that stimulus properties assumed to be fully resolved in primary visual cortex (V1; e.g., orientation) in fact determine human vision until high-level stages of processing. To address this hypothesis, the present fMRI study explored the orientation sensitivity of V1 and high-level face-specialized ventral regions such as the Occipital Face Area (OFA) and Fusiform Face Area (FFA) to different angles of face information. Participants viewed face images filtered to retain information at horizontal, vertical or oblique angles. Filtered images were viewed upright, inverted and (phase-)scrambled. FFA responded most strongly to the horizontal range of upright face information; its activation pattern reliably separated horizontal from oblique ranges, but only when faces were upright. Moreover, activation patterns induced in the right FFA and the OFA by upright and inverted faces could only be separated based on horizontal information. This indicates that the specialized processing of upright face information in the OFA and FFA essentially relies on the encoding of horizontal facial cues. This pattern was not passively inherited from V1, which was found to respond less strongly to horizontal than other orientations likely due to adaptive whitening. Moreover, we found that orientation decoding accuracy in V1 was impaired for stimuli containing no meaningful shape. By showing that primary coding in V1 is influenced by high-order stimulus structure and that high-level processing is tuned to selective ranges of primary information, the present work suggests that primary and high-level levels of the visual system interact in order to modulate the processing of certain ranges of primary information depending on their relevance with respect to the stimulus and task at hand. PMID:26683383

  19. Relation of drainage problems to high ground-water levels, Coconut Grove area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, L.A.; Huxel, C.J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Purpose and Scope In 1969, hydrologic data-collection sites were established in and around the Coconut Grove area for the purpose of measuring directly the relationship between rainfall, runoff, ground-water levels, the level of water in Kawainui Swamp and the canals, and tidal fluctuations. The primary objective was to identify the causes of the occurrence and persistence of flooding and to gain data on which to base recommendations for remedial action. The scope of the study included establishing and operating flow and stage-recording gages on the Swamp, Kawainui Canal, and the inner canal; periodic and repeated measurements of ground-water level in test borings throughout the residential area; collection and analysis of soil and construction borings made for engineering purposes; the assembly and analysis of all available data relating surface and subsurface flow conditions, and the development of conclusions as to the causes and means to alleviate the flooding. This report summarizes the information collected from October 1969 to June 1971, includes analysis of the data, and discusses the probable causes of flooding.

  20. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  1. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Adelita M; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2011-01-01

    Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  2. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  3. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to protect species, communities, and their associated habitats, among other goals. Measuring MPA efficacy can be challenging, however, particularly when considering responses at the community level. We gathered 36 abundance and 14 biomass data sets on fish assemblages and used meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of 22 distinct community diversity metrics to detect differences in community structure between MPAs and nearby control sites. We also considered the effects of 6 covariates-MPA size and age, MPA size and age interaction, latitude, total species richness, and level of protection-on each metric. Some common metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, did not differ consistently between MPA and control sites, whereas other metrics, such as total abundance and biomass, were consistently different across studies. Metric responses derived from the biomass data sets were more consistent than those based on the abundance data sets, suggesting that community-level biomass differs more predictably than abundance between MPA and control sites. Covariate analyses indicated that level of protection, latitude, MPA size, and the interaction between MPA size and age affect metric performance. These results highlight a handful of metrics, several of which are little known, that could be used to meet the increasing demand for community-level indicators of MPA effectiveness. PMID:25572325

  4. Participatory monitoring of water levels with worrying citizens in a recreational area in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottow, Bouke; Ellen, Gerald Jan

    2013-04-01

    In the recreational area of Loosdrecht, the water board decided to apply flexible water level management: letting the water level be determined by rainfall and evatranspiration between predefined limits. This caused the citizens to worry for the wooden foundations of their houses and possible limitations of the possibilities for water recreation. This eventually lead to lawsuits by private citizens, interest groups and the municipality against the water manager. In this tense situation we started with participatory monitoring: placing water level instruments at the properties of those citizens that wanted to participate in the measuring. 15 citizens participated, including the ones that filed the lawsuits. At all of these sites the water level was gauged automatically. 8 of the citizens also measured the water level by hand with devices supplied to them by the water manager. During 1 year, all the measurements were collected and processed and discussed with the citizens in 2 meetings. At the end of this year, the the citizens expressed the growth of their understanding of the hydrological situation, the understanding of the different points of view and their trust in eachother.

  5. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  6. Investigation of low-level-jets over rural and urban areas using two sodars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallistratova, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental study of jet streams at heights up to 400 m agl (the so called Low-Level Jet, or LLJ) with the help of sodars. These LLJs, which are not connected either to catabatic winds or to synoptic front passing, but are regularly observed in the mid-latitudes over a flat terrain under nocturnal inversion conditions, are investigated. Preliminary results of simultaneous investigations of LLJs over the center of the Moscow megalopolis and over a nearby rural area are presented. Continuous sodar data on wind speed profiles collected during 27 days in July 2005 were analyzed together with in situ data from a meteorological mast. Empirical distributions of the maximum jet speed and the height of jet axis were obtained. The relationships between the LLJ parameters and some characteristics of the surface layer were found. Over the urban area, the jets appear less frequently and at greater heights than over the countryside.

  7. Disentangling associations between poverty at various levels of aggregation and mental health.

    PubMed

    Drukker, Marjan; Gunther, Nicole; van Os, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The present editorial discusses whether socioeconomic status of the individual and of the neighbourhood could be important in prevalence, treatment and prevention of psychiatric morbidity. Previous research showed that patients diagnosed with mental disorders are concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. This could be the result of (1) an association between individual socioeconomic status and mental health, (2) an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and mental health, or (3) social selection. Research disentangling associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on the one hand and mental health outcomes on the other, reported that neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with individual mental health over and above individual-level socioeconomic status, indicating deleterious effects for all inhabitants both poor and affluent. In conclusion, subjective mental health outcomes showed stronger evidence for an effect of neighbourhood socioeconomic status than research focussing on treated incidence. Within the group of patients, however, service use was higher in patients living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Social capital was identified as one of the mechanisms whereby neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage may become associated with observed reductions in mental health. After controlling for individual socioeconomic status, there is evidence for an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and objective as well as subjective mental health in adults. Evidence for such an association in young children is even stronger. PMID:17427598

  8. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    average intragroup level in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average amplitude of intragroup variations). Thus, we showed for the first time that at high latitudes increase in the level of geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  9. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  10. Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and deltamethrin in humans and environmental samples in malarious areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Leticia; Ortiz-Pérez, Deogracias; Batres, Lilia E; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2002-03-01

    Mexico used dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control malaria until 1999, when it was replaced with deltamethrin for mosquito control. Thus, we performed environmental and exposure assessments to DDT and deltamethrin in the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. In Chiapas, samples were obtained at the time when DDT was being used in the malaria control program, while in Oaxaca, samples were collected 2 years after the final spraying of DDT and 2 days after deltamethrin application. Mean concentrations of DDT and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), as measured in whole blood, were 67.8 and 86.7 microg/L for children living in Chiapas and 27.1 and 60.8 microg/L for adults, respectively. As expected, DDT levels were lower 2 years after the final application in Oaxaca (20.4 and 13.2 microg/L for children and adults, respectively). Sprayers in Chiapas had the highest levels of exposure, with 165.5 and 188.4 microg/L of DDT and DDE, respectively. Women living in Chiapas and Oaxaca also had significantly higher blood levels of DDT and DDE than those women living in areas where less DDT had been used. Deltamethrin exposure was assessed only in children living in Oaxaca; 50% of the exposed group had urinary levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid above the limit of detection (LOD) and 6% had levels above 25 microg/L (five times the LOD), with a negative trend with age (r=-0.33). In Chiapas we found higher DDT and DDE levels in soil than in Oaxaca. In the latter location, large amounts of DDT and DDE were found in sediment samples and deltamethrin was detected in indoor soil samples. Considering the environmental data, the blood level results can be explained by soil/dust ingestion, human milk ingestion, and consumption of fish and other contaminated foods. PMID:12051795

  11. Area and Delay Estimation for Constraint-Driven High-Level Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourani-Dargiri, Mehrdad

    1994-01-01

    The flurry of activity in high level synthesis and its increasing popularity as a research topic, both in industry and academia, is a natural consequence of the progress in VLSI design technology and methodology. High level synthesis (HLS) fills the gap between behavioral level and layout level by automatically generating an RTL datapath realization from a behavioral description. The actual circuit layout can be generated later from the RTL datapath using a silicon compiler. A common characteristic of most HLS systems is the lack of consideration to the logic and layout synthesis aspects during the HLS process. The designs generated by these systems may or may not satisfy the initial design requirements and thus the design may need to be changed or modified. One method to address this deficiency is to use estimators, as a bridge between high and low levels, during HLS. The estimators can be iteratively invoked at high levels (e.g. scheduling and allocation) to provide a guiding mechanism to search the design space, which in turn leads to improved design quality and shorter design turnaround time. Motivated by the above observations, in this dissertation we present methods to cover the gap between high and low levels of design hierarchy, including: (1) Scheduling and mixed scheduling-allocation algorithms under time and resource constraints based on Liapunov stability theorem; (2) A neural network based scheduling as an alternative for implementing on parallel machines; (3) A layout estimation method which uses non-probabilistic analytical formulas in a constructive algorithm to estimate the overall area of a datapath; (4) A delay estimation algorithm which identifies false paths at the RTL and computes the static and dynamic critical delay in a datapath. Incorporation of these tools into an experimental HLS system, SYNTEST, has been completed with the overall objective of generating a structural VHDL description of a self-testable RTL datapath from a given

  12. Sea level impact on nutrient cycling in coastal upwelling areas during deglaciation: Evidence from nitrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Philippe; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Martinez, Philippe; Calvert, Stephen; Shimmield, Graham

    2000-03-01

    A common feature in δ15N profiles downcore in continental margin sediments is that the heaviest δ15N values are frequently observed during the deglaciation (i.e., between 12,000 calendar years BP and the climatic optimum at 6000 yrs BP), not at the warmest stage. Using a conceptual model across the northwestern Africa margin, a region of pronounced modern upwelling, as well as data from a core in the area, we show that this feature can be explained as a consequence of postglacial sea level rise. The model is based on a simplified twodimensional physical circulation scheme orthogonal to the margin and uses the topographic profile at the latitude of the core as well as a simplified biological model for nitrate utilization and nitrogen isotope fractionation. Shore-parallel influences are ignored. The most recently published age model of sea level rise for the last deglaciation is used [Bard et al., 1996]. The trangression causes a progressive increase in the area of shallow regions where large amounts of nutrients are recycled relative to deep regions, to which a significant portion of the nutrients is exported. This causes first an increase and then a decrease in the δ15N of the organic matter accumulating at a fixed point on the upper slope. Although the deglacial δ15N maximum is more pronounced in areas where there is not a marked oxygen minimum layer [Holmes et al., 1997; this paper], it does exist in areas where an oxygen minimum layer is present in the water column [Altabet et al., 1995; Ganeshram et al., 1995]. In such areas, the major δ15N contrast between glacial and interglacial episodes is explained by higher denitrification during interglacial stages, but it is probable that transgressing sea level contributes to this effect. The model has implications for the changes of vertical oceanic nutrient fractionation [Boyle, 1988] and the respiratory dissolution of deep carbonates [Archer and Maier-Reimer, 1994] and hence could have important potential

  13. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method. PMID:16506435

  14. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  15. Levels of hydrocarbons in mussels, Mytilus edulis, and surface sediments from Danish coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.

    1981-02-01

    Until recently, most effort in oil pollution research has been spent on investigating the effects of oil spills and use of detergents. The effects of long-term low level input to the marine environment are much less elucidated. This study represents the first step in a project concerning chronic oil pollution undertaken by the Marine Pollution Laboratory, Denmark. Results from previous studies on this subject in the area concerned, which have not been internationally published, are also included. In a series of Danish coastal localities, samples of surface sediments (top cm) were taken and samples of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected by SCUBA diving.

  16. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  17. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  18. ABILITY, FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, AND ADVANCED EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOENFELDT, LYLE F.

    TWO GROUPS OF NURSES OF COMPARABLE ABILITY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT WERE STUDIED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON DECISIONS TO CONTINUE EDUCATION AFTER HIGH SCHOOL. BECAUSE FUTURE NURSES MAY ENROLL IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS, IT WAS FELT THAT USING THESE STUDENTS AS SUBJECTS WOULD ENABLE MORE POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF…

  19. Spatial variations of ground level ozone concentrations in areas of different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsai-Yin; Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Chiu-Sen

    The spatial variation of ground level ozone concentrations was investigated for areas of three different scales: (1) an air quality management district (a region about 100×70 km 2) in northern Taiwan, (2) the neighborhood (about 2 km in radius) of an air quality monitoring station, and (3) an open field (about 400×600 m 2) surrounded by 3- and 4-story buildings in an elementary school. Analysis of data on hourly ozone concentration, obtained at 13 m above the ground at 21 monitoring stations in the air quality management district, showed that the stations downwind of the urban center in the district had significantly higher ozone concentrations. Measurements for 8-h average ozone concentrations at 1.5 m above the ground by passive samplers showed that, in a flat area about 2 km in radius, the ratios of the ozone concentration at open areas to that at the monitoring station (0.86-0.93) were significantly higher than those obtained at areas with higher traffic flow and density of buildings (0.60-0.68). For the open field in an elementary school, the 8-h average ozone concentrations at 1.5 m above the ground at sites less than 10 m from the nearest building were considerably lower than those at sites farther away from buildings. The results indicated that, in areas of small scales, the spatial distributions of ozone concentration were highly non-uniform and there were appreciable day-to-day variability in spatial distribution. Such variability should be taken into account in determining the extent to which an individual is exposed to ozone.

  20. Can neighborhood green space mitigate health inequalities? A study of socio-economic status and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted. PMID:26796324

  1. Blood levels of cadmium and lead in residents near abandoned metal mine areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Soo-Geun; Yang, Won-Ho; Park, Doo-Yong; Hong, Yeong-Seoub; Park, Jung-Duck; Lee, Byung-Kook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Sakong, Joon; Ahn, Seung-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Jung, Soon-Won

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed national data on blood lead levels (BLL) and blood cadmium levels (BCL) in residents living near 38 abandoned metal mining areas (n = 5,682, 18-96 years old) in Korea that were collected by the first Health Effect Surveillance for Residents in Abandoned Metal mines (HESRAM) from 2008 to 2011. The geometric mean BCL and BLL were 1.60 μg/L (95 % CI = 1.57-1.62 μg/L) and 2.87 μg/dL (95 % CI = 2.84-2.90 μg/dL), respectively, notably higher than levels in the general population in Korea and other countries. We found significantly higher BLL and BCL levels in people living within 2 km of an abandoned metal mine (n = 3,165, BCL = 1.87 μg/L, BLL = 2.91 μg/dL) compared to people living more than 2 km away (n = 2,517, BCL = 1.31 μg/L, BLL = 2.82 μg/dL; P < 0.0001) and to the general population values reported in the literature. PMID:24744211

  2. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  3. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD ATTRIBUTES IN AN URBAN AREA OF THE US SOUTH: CHARACTERIZING THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechanisms is still needed. Census data have long served as proxies for area level socioeconomic influences. Unique information captured ...

  4. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area. PMID:19160059

  5. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  6. [Constructive disturbance and low-level perfusion in parietal areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masaki; Ohmichi, Takuma; Mukai, Mao; Fujinami, Jun; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia (ALS-D) has been characterized by symptoms of fronto-temporal dysfunction, we report two patients with ALS-D who showed constructive disturbance and low-level perfusion in the parietal areas. The first was a 69-year-old woman (Case 1) who had been diagnosed with the bulbar type of ALS. She showed fronto-temporal dementia as well as low scores and disturbance on block construction and copying; however, she showed a better score on the imitation of finger postures. The second was a 73-year-old woman (Case 2) who had been diagnosed with the leg onset type of ALS. She showed mild impairment of the frontal function as well as mild disturbance on block construction and copying, but no problem on the imitation of finger postures. Case 1 showed more severe symptoms of dementia and constructive disturbance than Case 2, whereas Case 2 showed lower levels of cerebral perfusion over more extensive areas than Case 1. Cases 1 and 2 were compatible with definite ALS according to the El Escorial Criteria, and they showed constructive disturbance with characteristics reported previously, such as both left and right hemisphere damage and constructive disturbance similar to those seen in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, they showed poorer scores on performing tasks requiring the use of objects (block construction and copying) rather than using their body (imitation of finger postures). PMID:26028194

  7. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  8. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆T(u-r)) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*). PMID:22886367

  9. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  10. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  11. Multivariate spatial models of excess crash frequency at area level: case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, areal models of crash frequency have being used in the analysis of various area-wide factors affecting road crashes. On the other hand, disease mapping methods are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the relative risk of the population at different spatial units. A natural next step is to combine these two approaches to estimate the excess crash frequency at area level as a measure of absolute crash risk. Furthermore, multivariate spatial models of crash severity are explored in order to account for both frequency and severity of crashes and control for the spatial correlation frequently found in crash data. This paper aims to extent the concept of safety performance functions to be used in areal models of crash frequency. A multivariate spatial model is used for that purpose and compared to its univariate counterpart. Full Bayes hierarchical approach is used to estimate the models of crash frequency at canton level for Costa Rica. An intrinsic multivariate conditional autoregressive model is used for modeling spatial random effects. The results show that the multivariate spatial model performs better than its univariate counterpart in terms of the penalized goodness-of-fit measure Deviance Information Criteria. Additionally, the effects of the spatial smoothing due to the multivariate spatial random effects are evident in the estimation of excess equivalent property damage only crashes. PMID:23872657

  12. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  13. Robust Lake Level Extraction in Mountainous Areas By Retracking Cryosat Sarin Mode Waveforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinherenbrink, M.; Ditmar, P.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, lake levels can be monitored using satellite altimetry.This is notably an advantage for lakes located in remote areas, where no gauges are present.Two disadvantages of traditional satellite altimetry however are the limited number of ground tracks and the pulse limited footprint size.In 2010 Cryosat was launched with onboard a SAR Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL), which has a dense ground track spacing of 7-8 km and a along-track resolution of approximately 300 m in the SAR Interferometric (SARIn) mode.This potentially enables Cryosat to sample more lakes and obtain more reliable lake levels in near-shore regions.Still, the accuracy and robustness of standard level 2 data is limited due to pollution of the waveform in near-shore regions.We propose therefore to actively extract the water surface by a novel retracking algorithm based on cross-correlation of observed level 1b waveforms with a generic simulated waveform.As a result, we obtain multiple elevations per waveform.As the water level is contributing to each consecutive waveform over the lake, it can efficiently be extracted using a majority voting scheme.By comparing the lake levels to those obtained with Jason-2 over Lake Nasser an RMS of differences of 0.30 m is found.After this validation step, we applied the procedure to lakes in Tian Shan and Tibet.In these areas 125 lakes are measured at least four times in two years, of which 30 are even sampled ten times in two years and 16 more than twenty times.For the ones sampled more than twenty times an additional slope in the water surface could be estimated, which can be an effect of prevailing winds or errors in the geoid model.Ultimately, we found a negative water balance in the natural lakes in Tian Shan and a positive balance in Tibet between February 2012 and February 2014.These results clearly demonstrate the potential of Cryosat, as previous radar altimetry missions were only able to sample about 70 lakes over

  14. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, James E.; Lim, Allen C.; Ignatz, Ryan I.; Edwards, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Drag area (Ad) is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km) time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP) and indirectly (Est AP). Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT), and economy. \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$\\end{document}lmin−1) and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively) but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45). The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05) when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) than any combination of non-normalized physiological

  15. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  16. Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries, this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures appear to reflect local socioeconomic conditions in two Papua New Guinean communities. Attributes of the customary management (including size, shape, permanence, and gear restrictions) are examined in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions (including resource users’ ability to switch gears, fishing grounds, and occupations). Customary closures in the two communities appear to reflect local socioeconomic circumstances in three ways. First, in situations where people can readily switch between occupations, full closures are acceptable with periodic harvests to benefit from the closure. In comparison, communities with high dependence on the marine resources are more conducive to employing strategies that restrict certain gear types while still allowing others. Second, where there is multiple clan and family spatial ownership of resources, the communities have one closure per clan/family; one large no-take area would have disproportionate affect on those compared to the rest of the community. In contrast, communities that have joint ownership can establish one large closure as long as there are other areas available to harvest. Third, historical and trade relationships with neighboring communities can influence regulations by creating the need for occasional harvests to provide fish for feasts. This study further demonstrates the importance of understanding the socioeconomic context of factors such as community governance and levels of dependence for the conservation of marine resources.

  17. Does Achilles Tendon Cross Sectional Area Differ after Downhill, Level and Uphill Running in Trained Runners?

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Katy Andrews; Johnson, A. Wayne; Hunter, Iain; Myrer, J. William

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined how hill running affects the Achilles tendon, a common location for injuries in runners. Twenty females ran for 10 min on each of three randomly ordered grades (-6%, 0 and +6%) at speeds selected to match the metabolic rates. Achilles tendon (AT) cross-sectional area (CSA) was imaged using Doppler ultrasound and peak vertical forces were analyzed using an instrumented treadmill. A metabolic cart and gas analyzer ensured a similar metabolic cost across grades. Data were analyzed using a forward selection regression. Results showed similar decreases in AT CSA from pre- to post-run for all three conditions of ~5 to 7% (p = 0.0001). Active peak vertical forces were different across grades (p = 0.0001) with the largest occurring during downhill running and smallest during uphill running. Since changes in AT CSA were not different between grades, each form of running appears equal and acceptable in regards to how the Achilles tendon reacts. That is, the results suggest that the Achilles tendon is affected by downhill, level, and uphill running and a decrease in CSA appears to be a normal response. Key Points Downhill (- 6%), level and uphill (+ 6%) running at different speeds each caused a statistically significant decrease in the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area in healthy, trained runners. The magnitude of change in Achilles tendon cross-sectional area did not differ between grades when metabolic cost of running was matched. Downhill running resulted in the largest peak vertical force, while uphill running resulted in the smallest. PMID:25435775

  18. Vertical displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben area derived from precise leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Thomas; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    The recent vertical displacement field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is investigated using repeatedly measured leveling data. We estimate vertical displacement rates at leveling benchmarks by applying a kinematic network adjustment on more than 40,000 height differences measured by German, French and Swiss surveying agencies. Focusing on an optimal solution for the adjusted rates in the URG area also historical data (measured before 1900) are used, significantly increasing the time span of available measurements and the number of transnational connections between the three countries. To account for inhomogeneities apparent in the database, we apply an iterative variance component estimation within the adjustment procedure, particularly revealing more realistic information on the accuracy of the estimated rates. A special focus within our analysis is put on the statistical testing of gross errors in the observations and model-related errors at benchmarks with non-linear movement. As some of the estimated vertical rates behave significantly different compared to the vertical rates of adjacent benchmarks, a filtering of outliers is applied after the adjustment procedure. The resulting map of linear height changes in an area of 280 km in N-S and 230 km in E-W direction provides detailed insight into the recent vertical displacements of the URG and neighboring regions. In the German part of the study area, it was possible for the first time to consistently constrain an average subsidence rate of 0.5 mm/a (0.2 mm/a) of the Graben interior w.r.t. the Black Forest. In addition to the tectonic displacements, some man-induced surface movements, e.g., caused by oil and groundwater extraction, are observed and discussed.

  19. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  20. Influence of reconstruction water-bearing levels on surface displacement of post-mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milczarek, Wojciech; Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of secondary deformation characteristic of the post-mining areas is not sufficiently recognized. For ground surfaces phenomenon may be continuous or discontinuous. There is no sufficient information that describes behavior of the rock mass in the long term after end of exploitation. It is considered that this phenomenon is gradually disappears with end of exploitation. Reliable quantitative data comes only from the analysis of direct measurements in selected areas: geodetic and satellites measurements. Analyzing current situation of operating mines can be said that in the near years, more centers will limit the mining of coal mining. This will contribute to separation further of post-mining areas, in which will be required to maintaining a permanent monitoring and making predictions on the impact of ended exploitation of the rock mass surface. This will be particularly important for highly urbanized areas. This study used finite element method (FEM) to describe phenomenon of reconstruction water-bearing levels and its impact on displacement on the ground surface. It was assumed that significant factors that influence the occurrence and size of secondary deformations are: reconstruction of water-bearing levels in the prior drainer rock mass, size of past exploitation, spatial distribution of coal seams and geological and tectonic structure has been assumed. The transversally isotropic model of six elastic constants: E1 = E2, E3, ν = ν12, ν13, G12, G13 has been assumed to describe of rock mass in the numerical calculations. Geometrical models used in the numerical calculations have been developed using GIS tools. For the study two-dimensional and three-dimensional models characterized by different geological conditions and different configuration of mining data have been developed. The results obtained displacements of the ground surface for the period of mining activity has been verified with the results based on the Knothe theory. The results of

  1. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a “high dioxin level” as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Results Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20–2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17–2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26–3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92–6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87–11.62 for 40–64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51–67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. Conclusion A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored. PMID:26963719

  2. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  3. Socioeconomic determinants of menarche in rural Polish girls using the decision trees method.

    PubMed

    Matusik, Stanisław; Laska-Mierzejewska, Teresa; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the decision trees method as a research method of multidimensional associations between menarche and socioeconomic variables. The article is based on data collected from the rural area of Choszczno in the West Pomerania district of Poland between 1987 and 2001. Girls were asked about the appearance of first menstruation (a yes/no method). The average menarchal age was estimated by the probit analysis method, using second grade polynomials. The socioeconomic status of the girls' families was determined using five qualitative variables: fathers' and mothers' educational level, source of income, household appliances and the number of children in a family. For classification based on five socioeconomic variables, one of the most effective algorithms CART (Classification and Regression Trees) was used. In 2001 the menarchal age in 66% of examined girls was properly classified, while a higher efficiency of 70% was obtained for girls examined in 1987. The decision trees method enabled the definition of the hierarchy of socioeconomic variables influencing girls' biological development level. The strongest discriminatory power was attributed to the number of children in a family, and the mother's and then father's educational level. Using this method it is possible to detect differences in strength of socioeconomic variables associated with girls' pubescence before 1987 and after 2001 during the transformation of the economic and political systems in Poland. However, the decision trees method is infrequently applied in social sciences and constitutes a novelty; this article proves its usefulness in examining relations between biological processes and a population's living conditions. PMID:21211091

  4. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references.

  5. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure. PMID:27049535

  6. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity. PMID:26347090

  7. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air

  8. Natural radioactivity levels (K, Th and Ra) in some areas of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Bhupinder, Singh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder

    2012-04-01

    Radioactivity, natural and man-made, is omnipresent in the earth's crust in different amounts. Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis has been carried out in soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab, India using gamma-ray spectrometry. Phe technique of gamma ray spectrometry was applied using high purity germanium gamma-ray detector and a PC based MCA. Radium equivalent activities are calculated for the analyzed samples to assess radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples in construction of dwellings. Phe measured activity in the soil ranges from 23.17 to 57.87 Bq kg-1, 59.03 to 160.40 Bq kg-1 and 228.06 to 501.03 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Ph and 40K with mean values of 37.93, 84.47 and 351.17Bqkg-1 respectively. It has been observed that on the average the outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is about 84.65nGyh-1.

  9. The Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Levels of Depressive Patients with Suicidal Behavior in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Altinyazar, Vesile; Sirin, Fevziye Burcu; Sutcu, Recep; Eren, Ibrahim; Omurlu, Imran Kurt

    2016-10-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues. There were negative association between RBC-AChE activity levels and suicide attempts, the number of past suicide attempts and hopelessness levels in the depressive patients. The results of the study may support the idea that environmental exposure to OPs may be associated with mental health in individuals living in agricultural districts who are not farmers or working in occupations with access to OPs. PMID:27605747

  10. Can salt marsh plants influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Pedro N.; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R.; Evangelista, Rafael; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Sediments are depositories of toxic substances such as organochlorine pesticides and there is a global need for their removal in contaminated environments. Studies that combine contaminated sediments and phytoremediation are relatively recent and their number has been increasing. This work aimed to investigate whether salt marsh plants (sea club-rush Scirpus maritimus, sea rush Juncus maritimus and sea purslane Halimione portulacoides) can favor DDT and metabolites remediation in estuarine environment. For this purpose the levels of DDT, DDE and DDD were compared in vegetated and non-vegetated sediments from an estuary in the North of Portugal ( in-situ study) and from another in the South of Portugal ( ex-situ study). Results obtained both in the in-situ study, involving S. maritimus and J. maritimus, and in the ex-situ study, involving H. portulacoides, indicated that these plants did not have a significant role in DDTs removal and/or degradation. Therefore, it seems that the tested plants cannot influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas.

  11. Race and Residential Socioeconomics as Predictors of CPAP Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Martha E.; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Zee, Phyllis; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: There are few established predictors of CPAP adherence; poor adherence limits its effectiveness. We investigated whether race, education level, and residential economic status predict CPAP adherence in participants enrolled in a trial with standard access to treatment. Design: A multi-center randomized trial of home vs. lab-based evaluation and treatment of OSA assessing adherence to CPAP at 1 and 3 months. Setting: Seven AASM-accredited sleep centers in 5 U.S. cities. Participants: Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15 and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 12) who completed follow-up at 1 and/or 3 months (n = 135). Measurements and Results: Subjects' demographic data were collected upon enrollment; CPAP use at 1 and 3 months was assessed at clinic follow-up. In unadjusted analyses, CPAP adherence (average minutes per night of CPAP use) at 3 months was lower in black subjects and in subjects from lower socioeconomic status ZIP codes. In adjusted analyses using multivariate linear regression, black race was predictive of CPAP adherence at one month (P = 0.03). At 3 months, black race was predictive in analyses only when ZIP code SES was not adjusted for. Conclusion: Black race and lower socioeconomic residential areas are associated with poorer adherence to CPAP in subjects with standardized access to care and treatment. Disparities remain despite provision of standardized care in a clinical trial setting. Future research is needed to identify barriers to adherence and to develop interventions tailored to improve CPAP adherence in at risk populations. Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) Clinical Trial Information: NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Redline S; Rosen CL; Zee P; Kapur VK. Race and residential socioeconomics as predictors of CPAP adherence. SLEEP 2011

  12. Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394

  13. Changes induced by sea level rise on network properties of restoration areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Mirian; Castanedo, Sonia; Zhou, Zeng; Coco, Giovanni; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Human actions have been reducing the natural domain of estuarine systems for centuries. In the past, estuaries were perceived as unhealthy areas, source of diseases, which were adapted to human use by drainage and heavy engineering. Our current understanding shows that estuaries are not sources of disease, but rich ecosystems that cover important ecosystem functions. They need to be restored to their natural state. However, restoration actions may induce morphological changes that may change the estuary current behavior. It is thus of the utmost importance to understand the morphodynamic changes induced by restoration actions, more so when the final aim is to predict these changes. Dikes have been the most used mean to enclose and drain areas of estuaries. In this work, we focus our attention on dike removal as a means to restore the areas enclosed by these dikes. Dikes may be removed completely, or only partially (opening one or several breaches), to allow the tidal flow to enter into the area to be restored. Morphodynamic effects of dike removal are simulated numerically using Delft3d. Different dike removal configurations are studied and their effect on the recovery of the estuary quantified. Estuarine tidal networks are characterized by means of a new approach that links network connectivity to the spatial hydrodynamic fields developed in the estuary. The impact of different restorations strategies in the drainage properties of the network has been studied in the short term (5 -10 years) and in the long term (100 years) allowing the connectivity to evolve with time. Results show, for different scenarios, differences not only in the spatial distribution of the tidal network but also in statistical characteristics after different dike removal actions. The new distribution of channels will have implications for the location of the tidal flats, flood patterns and thus biological environments within the tidal networks. These changes in the morphological properties

  14. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  15. Socioeconomic deprivation and barriers to live-donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tomson, Charles R V; Owen-Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation. Design A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Participants Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy. Methods Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. Results Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor. Conclusions Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both

  16. Socioeconomic status and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: a study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about this association in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) varies by SES. Methods In a retrospective study, 1283 MI patients who hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center from March 2005 to March 2006 were followed up in March 2008. Demographic, clinical and SES data were collected from case records and by telephone interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the predictive effect of socioeconomic factors on outcome. Results In all 664 patients were studied. Of these, 500 patients were alive and 164 were dead due to MI (64 died at hospital and 100 died at home). The results of regression analysis showed that in addition to treatment (OR = 9.52, 95%CI 4.84-18.7), having diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.81) or hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90), socioeconomic variables including living area in square per person (lowest level vs. upper level OR = 4.92, 95% CI 2.11-11.4), unemployment (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.50-8.13) and education (OR for illiterate patients = 2.51, 95% CI 1.00-6.31) were the most significant contributing factors to increased mortality after MI. Conclusion Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, the study results indicated that socioeconomic variables were significant contributing factors to increased mortality after myocardial infarction. The underlying role of socioeconomic status on increased mortality after MI deserves further investigation. PMID:21299888

  17. Application of the inundation area—lake level rating curves constructed from the SRTM DEM to retrieving lake levels from satellite measured inundation areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feifei; Liao, Jingjuan; Li, Xinwu; Guo, Huadong

    2013-03-01

    Remote sensing technology has great potential for measuring lake inundation areas and lake levels, and providing important lake water quantity and quality information which can be used for improving our understanding of climate change impacts on the global water cycle, and assessing the influence of the projected future climate change on the global water resources. One remote sensing approach is to estimate lake level from satellite measured inundation area based on the inundation area—lake level rating (IALLR) curves. However, this approach is not easy to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the IALLR curves. In this study, an innovative and robust approach to construct the IALLR curves from the digital elevation model (DEM) data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was developed and tested. It was shown that the IALLR curves derived from the SRTM DEM data could be used to retrieve lake level from satellite measured inundation area. Applying the constructed IALLR curve to the estimated inundation areas from 16 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, 16 lake levels of Lake Champlain in Vermont were obtained. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated lake levels compared to the observed water levels at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station (04294500) at Burlington, Vermont is about 0.12 m.

  18. An Analysis of Mathematics Achievement Disparities between Black and White Students and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students across Content Strands by Elementary and Middle School Level in a Diverse Virginia School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Student achievement gaps between Black and White students, and socioeconomically disadvantaged and advantaged students, have been observed and formally documented since the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) began in the 1970s. In particular, the mathematics achievement gap between these historically disadvantaged populations has…

  19. Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.; MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

    1980-07-01

    It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

  20. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  1. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876

  2. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed. PMID:17242834

  3. Waterfowl in relation to land use and water levels on the Spring Run Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Parsons, D.R.; Weller, M.W.

    1970-01-01

    Low water levels during critical phases of the breeding cycle appear to have caused population declines of waterfowl and other marsh birds on the Spring Run Game Management Area. Pair-counts indicated a decline from 70 pairs of waterfowl in 1965 to 2 pairs in 1968. Nest success of upland nesting blue-winged teal (Anas discors) averaged 33% and mallards (Anas platyrhyncos) averaged 23%. Blue-winged teal selected nest sites closer to water than did mallards (314 feet versus 424 feet). Teal nested in ungrazed bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in preference to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hayland. Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) was readily used by teal and mallards when it became available for nesting. Nest success of species nesting overwater was considerably higher: Redheads (Aythya americana) were 55% successful and 93% of 75 coot (Fulica americana) nests hatched. A study of dummy-nests showed nest success significantly higher on ungrazed than on grazed bluegrass. Grazing did not significantly lower total mouse populations but did change species composition because deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) increased as other species declined with grazing.

  4. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  5. Experiences with large-area frisch grid chambers in low-level alpha spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hötzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-06-01

    The properties of parallel-palte gridded ionization chambers with areas of 300 cm 2, developed by us for alpha spectrometry of samples with low specific alpha activity are reported. Several practical hints for optimum operating conditions are presented. The chambers can be operated routinely at atmospheric pressure for several days, without the need for purification of the gas filling (P10). The minimum detectable activity at 5 MeV is 0.01 pCi, based on 4.65 standard deviations of background and 1000 min counting time. At the GSF Research Center ionization chambers of this type are used for the analysis of natural alpha emitters, as well as of transuranium nuclides in environmental samples by: (a) direct alpha spectrometry without any previous treatment of the sample, (b) semi-direct spectrometry after removal of organic matter by low-temperature ashing and (c) spectrometry after chemical separation. Some typical examples of application are given. Furthermore the range of application of the chambers in comparison to semiconductor detectors in the field of low-level alpha spectrometry is discussed.

  6. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  7. Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Stephens, D.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Baldwin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains data on groundwater levels beneath Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas, Nye County, Nevada. In addition to new data collected since 1983, the report contains data that has been updated from previous reports, including added explanations of the data. The data was collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to help that agency evaluate the suitability of the area of storing high-level nuclear waste. The water table in the Yucca Mountain area occurs in ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age. West of the crest of Yucca Mountain, water level altitudes are about 775 m above sea level. Along the eastern edge and southern end of Yucca Mountain, the potentiometric surface generally is nearly flat, ranging from about 730 to 728 m above sea level. (USGS)

  8. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    scores are then mapped for spatial analysis. Utilizing SeVI and InVI, the highly vulnerable districts are demonstrated that are likely to face significant challenges in coping with tropical cyclone and require strategies to address the various aspects of socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability. Moreover, this model can be incorporated not only for multi-level governance but also to integrate it with the real-time weather forecasts to identify the predictive areas of vulnerability.

  9. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  10. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. PMID:26094617

  11. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. )

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  12. The relationship between census-derived socio-economic variables and general practice consultation rates in three town centre practices.

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, R; Johnstone, S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between socio-economic factors and consultation rates is important in determining resource allocation to general practices. AIM: To determine the relationship between general practice surgery consultation rates and census-derived socio-economic variables for patients receiving the same primary and secondary care. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was taken of computerized records in three general practices in Mansfield, North Nottinghamshire, with 29,142 patients spread over 15 electoral wards (Jarman score range from -23 to +25.5). Linear regression analysis of surgery consultation rates at ward and enumeration district levels was performed against Jarman and Townsend deprivation scores and census socio-economic variables. RESULTS: Both the Townsend score (r2 = 59%) and the Jarman score (r2 = 39%) were associated with surgery consultation rates at ward level. The Townsend score had a stronger association than the Jarman score because all four of its component variables were individually associated with increased consultations compared with four out of eight Jarman components. CONCLUSIONS: Even in practices not eligible for deprivation payments there were appreciable differences in consultation rates between areas with different socio-economic characteristics. The results suggest that the variables used to determine deprivation payments should be reconsidered, and they support suggestions that payments should be introduced at a lower level of deprivation and administered on an enumeration district basis. PMID:10071401

  13. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  14. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  15. Trends in the Level and Distribution of Income in Metropolitan Areas, 1959-1969. Discussion Paper 316-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon

    An overview of the level and distribution of income for a sample of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) during the period 1959-1969, using data on pretax pretransfer incomes published by the Internal Revenue Service, is presented in this paper. Several results are described. (1) The level and distribution of income vary widely among…

  16. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  17. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  18. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  19. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  20. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  1. Peer-Mentoring of Students in Rural and Low-Socioeconomic Status Schools: Increasing Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David D.; Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, John; Lawson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Students from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds do not pursue university education at the same rate as those from metropolitan areas or from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. This has been a long-standing issue for government. This study explores the aspirations and intentions for university education among low socioeconomic status (SES) and…

  2. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits. PMID:27021468

  3. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare—17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Main outcome measures Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)—Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. Results In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; p<0.001); but no statistically significant association with socioeconomic score was found for women. Overall obesity was associated with high socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; p<0.001). Conclusions This type of data analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. PMID:27142857

  4. A Place-Oriented, Mixed-Level Regionalization Method for Constructing Geographic Areas in Health Data Dissemination and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lan; Wang, Fahui; Chen, Vivien W.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Similar geographic areas often have great variations in population size. In health data management and analysis, it is desirable to obtain regions of comparable population by decomposing areas of large population (to gain more spatial variability) and merging areas of small population (to mask privacy of data). Based on the Peano curve algorithm and modified scale-space clustering, this research proposes a mixed-level regionalization (MLR) method to construct geographic areas with comparable population. The method accounts for spatial connectivity and compactness, attributive homogeneity, and exogenous criteria such as minimum (and approximately equal) population or disease counts. A case study using Louisiana cancer data illustrates the MLR method and its strengths and limitations. A major benefit of the method is that most upper level geographic boundaries can be preserved to increase familiarity of constructed areas. Therefore, the MLR method is more human-oriented and place-based than computer-oriented and space-based. PMID:26251551

  5. Widening Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined trends and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2013. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate racial/ethnic and area- and individual-level socioeconomic disparities in CVD mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Between 1969 and 2013, CVD mortality rates decreased by 2.66% per year for whites and 2.12% for blacks. Racial disparities and socioeconomic gradients in CVD mortality increased substantially during the study period. In 2013, blacks had 30% higher CVD mortality than whites and 113% higher mortality than Asians/Pacific Islanders. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had 11% higher CVD mortality in 1969 but 40% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD mortality in both men and women. Men and women with low education and incomes had 46-76% higher CVD mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Men in clerical, service, farming, craft, repair, construction, and transport occupations, and manual laborers had 30-58% higher CVD mortality risks than those employed in executive and managerial occupations. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD mortality are marked and have increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among the affluent and majority populations. Disparities in CVD mortality may reflect inequalities in the social environment, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and treatment. With rising prevalence of many chronic disease risk factors, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases is expected to increase

  6. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E.; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called “invasion debt.” Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future. PMID:21173227

  7. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Leite, Carina Raffs; Rebelatto, Cleber Fernando; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Beltrame, Thais Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality) and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status) were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population. PMID:26298657

  8. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development.

    PubMed

    Brito, Natalie H; Noble, Kimberly G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  9. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Natalie H.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  10. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  11. Decoding Area Studies and Interdisciplinary Majors: Building a Framework for Entry-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Kristina Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Decoding disciplinary expertise for novices is increasingly part of the undergraduate curriculum. But how might area studies and other interdisciplinary programs, which require integration of courses from multiple disciplines, decode expertise in a similar fashion? Additionally, as a part of decoding area studies and interdisciplines, how might a…

  12. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  13. Database of groundwater levels and hydrograph descriptions for the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Water levels in the database were quality assured and analyzed. Multiple conditions were assigned to each water‑level measurement to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed to each water-level measurement.

  14. Dynamic factor modeling of ground and surface water levels in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, A.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2006-02-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the interaction between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component for fine-tuning the process. The Frog Pond is an intensively instrumented agricultural 2023 ha area adjacent to ENP. The interactions among 21 multivariate daily time series (ground and surface water elevations, rainfall and evapotranspiration) available from this area were studied by means of dynamic factor analysis, a novel technique in the field of hydrology. This method is designed to determine latent or background effects governing variability or fluctuations in non-stationary time series. Water levels in 16 wells and two drainage ditch locations inside the area were selected as response variables, and canal levels and net recharge as explanatory variables. Elevations in the two canals delimiting the Frog Pond area were found to be the main factors explaining the response variables. This influence of canal elevations on water levels inside the area was complementary and inversely related to the distance between the observation point and each canal. Rainfall events do not affect daily water levels significantly but are responsible for instantaneous or localized groundwater responses that in some cases can be directly associated with the risk of flooding. This close coupling between surface and groundwater levels, that corroborates that found by other authors using different methods, could hinder on-going environmental restoration efforts in the area by bypassing the function of wetlands and other surface features. An empirical model with a reduced set of parameters was successfully developed and validated in the area by interpolating the results from the dynamic factor analysis across the spatial domain (coefficient of efficiency across the domain: 0.66-0.99). Although

  15. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  16. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated

  17. Socioeconomic status and the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Frank, G

    1994-02-01

    People from lower socioeconomic status are making increasing use of mental health facilities. Surveys have indicated that the Rorschach is still one of the more frequently used instruments by psychologists in such facilities, but research has also shown that clinicians tend to misinterpret Rorschachs of people from the lower socioeconomic group as reflecting greater psychopathology than the same Rorschachs identified as being given by people from the middle class. Research has also shown that growing up in conditions of poverty significantly affects how people perform on tests of abstract thinking, tests of intelligence, and tests of academic achievement; the question was raised as to whether this extends to the Rorschach. The lack of sufficient research on the effect of socioeconomic status on responsiveness to the Rorschach precluded that question being answered. The kind of research still needed was discussed. PMID:8153241

  18. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. PMID:26895538

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in access to treatment for coronary heart disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sara L; Richter, Matthias; Schröder, Jochen; Frantz, Stefan; Fink, Astrid

    2016-09-15

    Strong socioeconomic inequalities exist in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The current review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and access to treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined quantitative studies analyzing the relationship between SES and access to CHD treatment that were published between 1996 and 2015. Our data sources included Medline and Web of Science. Our search yielded a total of 2066 records, 57 of which met our inclusion criteria. Low SES was found to be associated with low access to coronary procedures and secondary prevention. Access to coronary procedures, especially coronary angiography, was mainly related to SES to the disadvantage of patients with low SES. However, access to drug treatment and cardiac rehabilitation was only associated with SES in about half of the studies. The association between SES and access to treatment for CHD was stronger when SES was measured based on individual-level compared to area level, and stronger for individuals living in countries without universal health coverage. Socioeconomic inequalities exist in access to CHD treatment, and universal health coverage shows only a minor effect on this relationship. Inequalities diminish along the treatment pathway for CHD from diagnostic procedures to secondary prevention. We therefore conclude that CHD might be underdiagnosed in patients with low SES. Our results indicate that there is an urgent need to improve access to CHD treatment, especially by increasing the supply of diagnostic angiographies, to reduce inequalities across different healthcare systems. PMID:27288969

  20. Competency Areas for Certification Testing of Manufacturing Technologists and Entry-Level Manufacturing Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tracy S.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-one manufacturing experts selected 48 competencies that should be included in competency tests for manufacturing technologists and engineers. Areas include mathematics, physics, sciences, engineering drawing and blueprint reading, engineering materials, and statics and strength of materials. (SK)

  1. Quality evaluation of honey harvested from selected areas in Tanzania with special emphasis on hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) levels.

    PubMed

    Gidamis, Andrew B; Chove, Bernard E; Shayo, Nicholas B; Nnko, Siphuel A; Bangu, Nicholas T

    2004-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of honey harvested from popular honey-producing areas in Tanzania were investigated. Honey from Shibe-Dodoma had the highest values of specific gravity, total acidity, free fatty acid content, diastatic number, overall acceptability, and lowest hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) level as compared to honey samples from other areas. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in terms of HMF in the other honey samples from Tanga, Morogoro, Same, Arusha, and Tabora. HMF levels in all honey samples were far below the maximum acceptable level of 40 mg/kg as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards before storage for 6 months. No traces of streptomycin and phenol were detected in all honey samples. It was concluded that according to the values of the studied quality parameters, the types of Tanzanian honey obtained from the popular honey producing areas may be judged to be of high quality. PMID:15678719

  2. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toro, Felipe; Verdejo, Hugo E; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence and incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF) has increased during the past decades. Beyond its impact on mortality rates, CHF severely impairs quality of life, particularly with the elderly and vulnerable population. Several studies have shown that CHF takes its toll mostly on the uneducated, low-income population, who exhibit impaired access to health care systems, less knowledge regarding its pathology and poorer self-care behaviors. This review summarizes the available evidence linking socioeconomic inequalities and CHF, focusing on the modifiable factors that may explain the impaired health outcomes in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:26462090

  3. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  4. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  5. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. PMID:20082330

  6. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries. PMID:9926425

  7. Quality of life in American neighborhoods. Levels of affluence, toxic waste, and cancer mortality in residential zip code areas

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This is a publication in which 1980 Census demographic data for five-digit Zip code areas - previously withheld from publication by the Census Bureau - are linked to new measures of neighborhood environmental hazards. The data analyzed here measure - for every five-digit Zip code area - levels of affluence such as mean income, mean monthly rent, and mean value of homes for the population, broken down by race, sex, and age, The author also reports the number of abandoned toxic waste sites and the per capita level of toxic waste generation in each area, based on EPA data, and explores the relation of these factors to the wide geographic variation in cancer mortality and the relationship to poverty and affluence. Cancer mortality is highest, not in the large affluent urban areas as has been assumed in the past, but rather in those areas with above average industrial wage levels. On the other hand, some of the nation's highest income suburban neighborhoods lie sufficiently close to toxic-ridden areas to share common environmental risks.

  8. Changes in ground-water levels in the Carlin Trend area, north-central Nevada, 1989-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in support of gold mining activities, including mine dewatering, has resulted in water-level declines and rises in different parts of the Carlin Trend area in north-central Nevada. Total annual pumpage at the Gold Quarry, Carlin, Genesis, and Betze Mines has ranged from about 5,000 acre-feet in 1989 to almost 130,000 acre-feet in 1994 and 1998. Excess water from the mines is stored in the TS Ranch and Maggie Creek Reservoirs. Aquifers in the Carlin Trend area are comprised of carbonate rocks of Cambrian to Permian age and basin-fill deposits and interbedded volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Since 1992, water levels in carbonate-rock aquifers near the Gold Quarry Mine have declined as much as 680 feet below an elongate area 12 miles long and 6 miles wide northwest and southeast from the mine. Since 1990, water levels have declined by more than 1,600 feet in the deepest part of the cone of depression at the Betze Mine. The area encompassed by the main part of the cone, which is 7 miles long by 4 miles wide, did not change much during 1993-2003, although its depth had doubled. Near both mines, the cones of depression are bounded by faults acting as barriers to ground-water flow. Water levels in the volcanic rocks of northern Boulder Flat began to rise soon after the TS Ranch Reservoir began filling in 1990 because of infiltration. Since 1990, the net water-level rise around the reservoir has been 50 feet or more over an area of about 2 square miles, and 20 feet or more over an area of about 60 square miles. Since 1992, water levels in basin-fill deposits in Boulder Flat have risen 5 feet or more over an estimated area of 20 square miles as a result of (1) use of water from the Betze Mine as a substitute for irrigation pumpage, (2) water from the TS Ranch Reservoir infiltrating volcanic rocks and then flowing southward into adjacent basin-fill deposits, (3) secondary recharge of water from the mine for irrigating about 10,000 acres

  9. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  10. The Integration of Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data: Lessons from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Chen, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the core research questions of the "anthropocene" are spatial in nature, and require spatial data integration to provide the answers: Where are the people most vulnerable to environmental changes located? How do global environmental changes affect people, ecosystems or production systems in a given location? What are the impacts of human activities in the coastal zone, or mountainous areas, or drylands? This paper provides examples of the integration of remotely sensed biophysical and socioeconomic data that illustrate the benefits of spatial data integration. It also addresses some of the challenges in integrating data developed at different scales and for different purposes, sharing lessons learned from twenty years of operating the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Examples will be drawn from the literature on land use/land cover change, urbanization, disaster risk management, climate impact and vulnerability assessment, and natural resource management.

  11. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. PMID:22908359

  12. [Immunoradiometric measurement of serum thyrotropin levels in inhabitants who used iodized salt for 25 years in an endemic goiter area].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, A; Su, T S

    1991-11-01

    Recently we surveyed the thyroid function and TSH concentration of villagers in an endemic goiter area where iodized salt had been supplied for 25 years. We found that the serum FT3 and TSH (IRMA) level of villagers were higher and the FT4 level was lower than those of the controls, comparing with the RIA, which suggested that the inhabitants of the endemic goiter area had subclinical hypothyroidism based on the IRMA method for TSH assay. Therefore, we suggest that the best biochemical technique for monitoring the iodized salt prophylaxis program and the physiological response of villagers to iodine is measurement of serum TSH level with the ultrasensitive assay and FT4 level periodically. PMID:1815875

  13. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose of the Study Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992–2012, and compared it to the total population. Material and Methods Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test. Results Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region. Conclusion

  14. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston area, Texas, spring 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, Dana L.; Coplin, L.S.; Bonnet, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Chicot and Evangeline aquifers are composed of several sand layers, each with a separate potentiometric surface. These maps, however, show a single potentiometric surface which represents the collective water levels for the sand layers comprising each aquifer. Maps showing the altitudes of water levels have been published in many reports on ground-water development in the Houston area, the most recent of which (Gabrysch and others, 1988) presented maps of the altitudes of potentiometric surfaces for 1988.

  15. Water-level altitudes in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer, greater Houston area, Texas, Spring 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, presents a map showing the approximate water-level altitudes in spring 2000 in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer (back of page). The most recent previously published water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer in the region is by Popkin (1971). The study area includes Montgomery County and parts of Harris, Waller, Grimes, and Walker Counties.

  16. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  17. Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin SC; Onwujekwe, Obinna E

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. It is not known how user fees introduced under the Bamako Initiative (BI) system affect healthcare seeking among different socio-economic groups in Nigeria for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Reliable information is needed to initiate new policy thrusts to protect the poor from the adverse effect of user fees. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1594 female household primary care givers or household head on their socio-economic and demographic status and use of malaria diagnosis and treatment services. Principal components analysis was used to create a socio-economic status index which was decomposed into quartiles and chi-square for trends was used to calculate for any statistical difference. Results The study showed that self diagnosis was the commonest form of diagnosis by the respondents. This was followed by diagnosis through laboratory tests, community health workers, family members and traditional healers. The initial choice of care for malaria was a visit to the patent medicine dealers for most respondents. This was followed by visit to the government hospitals, the BI health centres, traditional medicine healers, private clinics, community health workers and does nothing at home. Furthermore, the private health facilities were the initial choice of treatment for the majority with a decline among those choosing them as a second source of care and an increase in the utilization of public health facilities as a second choice of care. Self diagnosis was practiced more by the poorer households while the least poor used the patent medicine dealers and community health workers less often for diagnosis of malaria. The least poor groups had a higher probability of seeking treatment at the BI health centres (creating equity problem in BI), hospitals, and private clinics and in using laboratory procedures. The least poor also used the patent

  18. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  19. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  20. The influence of visitor use levels on visitor spatial behavior in off-trail areas of dispersed recreation use.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Ashley; Monz, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A variety of social and ecological factors influence the level and extent of ecological change that occurs in a park or protected area. Understanding these factors and how they are interrelated can help managers prevent undesirable ecological impacts, especially in areas without formal trails and visitor sites. This study examines the relationship between levels of visitor use and spatial patterns of visitor behavior at a variety of backcountry recreation destinations. Current assumptions in both the literature and simulation modeling efforts assume that visitor behavior either does not change with use level or that visitors are more likely to disperse at high levels of visitor use. Using visitor counts and GPS tracks of visitor behavior in locations where visitors could disperse off-trail, we found that visitors' spatial behavior does vary with visitor use level in some recreation settings, however the patterns of visitor behavior observed in this study are sometimes contrary to current generalizations. When visitor behavior does vary with use level, visitors are dispersing more at low levels of visitor use not when use level is high. Overall, these findings suggest that in certain situations the amount of visitor use at a recreation destination may be a less important driver of ecological change than visitor behavior. PMID:26803258

  1. Socioeconomic thresholds that affect use of customary fisheries management tools.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Sutton, Stephen G; Bond, Trevor G

    2007-12-01

    Customary forms of resource management, such as taboos, have received considerable attention as a potential basis for conservation initiatives in the Indo-Pacific. Yet little is known about how socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to use customary management practices and whether socioeconomic transformations within communities will weaken conservation initiatives with a customary foundation. We used a comparative approach to examine how socioeconomic factors may influence whether communities use customary fisheries management in Papua New Guinea. We examined levels of material wealth (modernization), dependence on marine resources, population, and distance to market in 15 coastal communities. We compared these socioeconomic conditions in 5 communities that used a customary method of closing their fishing ground with 10 communities that did not use this type of management. There were apparent threshold levels of dependence on marine resources, modernization, distance to markets (<16.5 km), and population (>600 people) beyond which communities did not use customary fisheries closures. Nevertheless, economic inequality, rather than mean modernization levels seemed to influence the use of closures. Our results suggest that customary management institutions are not resilient to factors such as population growth and economic modernization. If customary management is to be used as a basis for modern conservation initiatives, cross-scale institutional arrangements such as networks and bridging organizations may be required to help filter the impacts of socioeconomic transformations. PMID:18173484

  2. Ground-water levels and quality at Crex Meadows Wildlife Area, Burnett County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 20 observation wells indicate that calcium and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in ground water in the Crex Meadows area. Iron concentrations ranged from 45 to 45,000 micrograms per liter, and 17 of 20 samples exceeded the 300-micrograms-per-liter recommended drinking-water standard of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Application of LANDSAT images to the study of level soils for recognizing drainage areas. Thesis Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinoza, M. U.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic images from LANDSAT 1 were applied to the study of soil in Desaguadero, Bolivia, in order to locate areas with high agricultural and livestock potential. Photointerpretation techniques were emphasized and advantages of information obtained via multispectral satellite images in various bands and combinations were demonstrated.

  4. [Experience in reducing the levels of raticides during open area disinfestations].

    PubMed

    Turyshev, A G; Korneev, A G; Konstantinova, E L

    2009-01-01

    The experience in combining disinfestation and forestry engineering measures is described to achieve a long-term effect: in minimizing the number of murine rodents, which has considerably reduced the amount of poisoned baits placed into the environment when disinfestation is made in open areas. PMID:19802943

  5. Prevalence of respiratory conditions among schoolchildren exposed to different levels of air pollutants in the Haifa Bay area, Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellman, S; Brenner, S; Egoz, N; Rishpon, S

    1990-01-01

    During spring 1984, 2334 second and 2000 fifth-grade schoolchildren living in three Haifa Bay areas on the eastern Mediterranean coast with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out American Thoracic Society and National Heart and Lung Institute health questionnaires, and the children performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT); FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FEV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75. A trend of higher prevalence of most reported respiratory symptoms was found for schoolchildren growing up in the medium and high pollution areas as compared with the low pollution area. Part of the reported respiratory diseases were significantly more common among children from the high pollution area. Models fitted for the respiratory conditions that differed significantly among the three areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.38 for sputum with cold and 1.81 for sputum without cold for children from the high pollution area as compared with 1.00 for children from the low pollution area. All the measured values of PFT were within the normal range. There was no consistent trend of reduced pulmonary function that characterized any residential area. PMID:2088751

  6. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  7. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  8. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  9. The Effects of Professional Learning Communities and School Leaders on Veteran Teachers Assigned to New Grade Levels or Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joy C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the effects of professional learning communities on veteran teachers with three or more years of experience assigned to new grade levels or subject areas and the implications for school leaders. The specific research questions that framed the study were: (1) What do veteran teachers assigned…

  10. Approximate altitude and water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston area, Texas, spring 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Two maps show water levels in wells in the Houston, Texas, area in (1) the Chicot aquifer, spring 1981 and (2) the Evangeline aquifer, spring 1981. Both the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers are composed of several sand layers with different potentiometric surfaces. These maps, however, show approximations of single potentiometric surfaces that represent composite hydraulic heads. (USGS)

  11. Towards A Fusion Of SAR-Interferometry, GNSS And Precise Levelling In The Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Knopfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    InSAR, GNSS and precise levelling provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of all three measurement techniques have been collected in order to gain detailed insight into the horizontal and vertical velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. This paper presents the database and the processing strategies for the calculation of displacements from InSAR, GNSS and levelling measurements in the URG area. Man-induced surface deformations caused by oil extraction in the Northern URG are investigated serving as a study area for the comparison of techniques. In order to benefit from the advantages of each technique we present a strategy to consistently link the different observation methods in a multi-technique approach.

  12. Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Couch, Stephen; Hartig, Ellen K.

    2001-12-01

    The greater New York City region, with over 2400 km of shoreline, will be vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to anticipated climate warming. Accelerated SLR would exacerbate historic trends of beach erosion and attrition of highly productive coastal salt marshes. Coastal populations in the region have swelled by around 17% (av.) and over 100% in some localities between 1960 and 1995. The coastal zone will thus be increasingly at risk to episodic flood events superimposed on a more gradual rise in mean sea level. Projections of sea level rise based on a suite of climate change scenarios suggest that sea levels will rise by 18-60 cm by the 2050s, and 24-108 cm by the 2080s over late 20th century levels. The return period of the 100-yr storm flood could be reduced to 19-68 years, on average, by the 2050s, and 4-60 years by the 2080s. Around 50% of the land surface of salt marsh islands have disappeared in Jamaica Bay since 1900. While losses prior to stricter environmental protection starting in 1972 can largely be attributed to anthropogenic activities, such as landfilling, dredging, and urbanization, further investigation is needed to explain more recent shrinkage. Given projected rates of SLR, and plausible accretion rates, these wetlands may not keep pace with SLR beyond several decades, resulting in severe loss.

  13. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  14. Neurocognitive development in socioeconomic context: Multiple mechanisms and implications for measuring socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to functioning across a variety of neurocognitive domains including language, memory, executive functioning, and social-emotional processing. We review these findings and discuss the ways in which socioeconomic context may shape neural processes such that these skills are supported by different neurobiological pathways in children from lower versus higher SES backgrounds. Moreover, we consider the mechanisms by which SES may be related to specific neurocognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on linguistic exposure and stress as two main pathways through which SES could influence neurocognitive processes and shape relations between the neural and behavioral levels of functioning. Finally, suggestions for conceptualizing and measuring SES in future work are offered. PMID:26681619

  15. Proposal for estimating ground-level ozone concentrations at urban areas based on multivariate statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on describing ozone patterns and estimating ozone concentrations in urban settings through the classification of an urban area into homogeneous typologies, according to hourly ozone concentrations, and the development of accurate estimation models for each typology. For these proposals, a hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted in order to define homogeneous subareas, and multiple linear regressions were subsequently applied with the aim of obtaining ozone predictions, employing chemical and meteorological variables as predictors. Seville metropolitan area (Spain) is a densely populated area of the Mediterranean Basin that exhibits environmental problems related to ozone pollution episodes. Ozone exceedances are a consequence of the combination of road traffic and industry emissions with hot temperatures and high solar radiation, mainly during anticyclonic events. Cluster analysis evince that this area can be divided into 3 categories according to hourly ozone concentration in summer. Cluster 1 is comprised of monitoring stations located in the outskirts of the city of Seville; Cluster 2 corresponds to monitoring stations located within the city of Seville; and Cluster 3 is comprised of a monitoring station specialized in traffic emissions. Multiple linear regression shows that the relative weight of meteorological variables decreases when moving from the urban periphery towards the urban center, whereas the weight of chemical variables increases. Coefficients of determination (R2) values were 0.885, 0.890 and 0.830 and root mean squared error (RMSE) were 11.226, 11.874 and 11.260 μg m-3 for Cluster 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

  16. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  17. Decision Level Fusion of LIDAR Data and Aerial Color Imagery Based on Bayesian Theory for Urban Area Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiveis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of "Buildings", "Trees", "Asphalt Roads", "Concrete roads", "Grass" and "Cars" using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1) using merely LiDAR data, (2) using merely image data, and (3) using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  19. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area. PMID:27418073

  20. Higher Prevalence of Obesity in Greek Children Living in Rural Areas Despite Increased Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Papoutsakis, Sofia; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors could explain observed differences in the prevalence of childhood obesity in a sample of Greek children. Methods Epidemiological study. PA and sedentary behaviors were assessed by a self-administrated physical activity checklist. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. A representative sample of Greek children aged 10 to 12 years attending fifth and sixth grade (N=3,195), living in rural and urban areas were enrolled. Maturation status was not evaluated due to technical reasons. Results Prevalence of obesity was higher among children living in rural areas as compared with urban areas (12.1% vs. 10.7%, p<0.01). Surprisingly, children living in rural areas had higher levels of self reported PA (p<0.001) and met current PA guidelines to a greater extent than their urban counterparts (p<0.05). Furthermore, boys had higher levels of total, light-to-moderate intensity and vigorous intensity PA (VPA), as well as sedentary behaviors, than girls (all p-values <0.05). Stratified analysis by BMI category revealed that normal weight boys and girls had higher levels of total PA and VPA compared with overweight and obese boys from the same type of setting (all p-values<0.05). Conclusions Children living in rural areas have higher levels of PA and more frequently met PA guidelines than their urban counterparts, despite a higher prevalence of obesity. PMID:23724863

  1. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA. PMID:25537288

  2. The Appalachian Region: A Statistical Appendix of Comparative Socioeconomic Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Socioeconomic and demographic indicators for the Appalachian regional area are compared in this report with similar indicators for the total United States. The Appalachian region is defined as including parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and…

  3. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Argues that socioeconomic status (SES) plays an important role in the lives of adolescents as reflected in adolescent literature. Examines three areas affected by SES: self-esteem, how literature affects characterization and the degree to which adolescents identify with a literary figure, and how literature functions as a learning device. (RJM)

  4. Selected Ethnic Communities of Cleveland: A Socio-Economic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonutti, Karl; Prpic, George

    The origins, socioeconomic growth, and present status of four Cleveland, Ohio, ethnic neighborhoods are analyzed in this report in order to determine their viability as inner city communities. The communities studied include (1) a "white ethnic island," the Slovenian/Croatian neighborhood on the East Side; (2) an area of "dying neighborhood…

  5. A Study of the Socioeconomic Status of Michigan Indians, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Commission on Indian Affairs, Lansing.

    The primary objective of this survey was to gather basic information concerning the socioeconomic status and problems of the American Indians in Michigan. The major areas surveyed were education, employment and income, housing conditions, health, and general household characteristics. The survey also attempted to probe attitudes which are…

  6. Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Factors in Relation to Student Drug Use and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines relationships between drug use problems and socioeconomic status of neighborhoods where students in grades 11 and 13 reside. Found largest number of alcohol and drug problems in areas with lowest socioeconomic characteristics, characterized by low-cost substandard housing, social and racial problems, and delinquency. Includes 13…

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  8. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  9. GIS-based assessment of groundwater level on extensive karst areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecskó, Zsanett; Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    Karst topographies represent unique geographical regions containing caves and extensive underground water systems developed especially on soluble rocks such as limestone, marble and gypsum. The significance of these areas is evident considering that 12% of the ice-free continental area consists of landscapes developed on carbonate rocks and 20-25% of the global population depends mostly on groundwater obtained from these systems. Karst water reservoirs already give the 25% of the freshwater resources globally. Comprehensive studies considering these regions are the key to explore chances of the exploitation and to analyze the consequences of contamination, anthropogenic effects and natural processes within these specific hydro-geological characteristics. For the proposed work we chose several of the largest karst regions over the ice-free part of continents, representing diverse climatic and topographic characteristics. An important aspect of the study is that there are no available in situ hydrologic measurements over the entire research area that would provide discrete sampling of soil, ground and surface water. As replacement for the detailed surveys, multi remote sensing data (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite derivatives products, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite products and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) monthly rainfalls satellite datasets) are used along with model reanalysis data (Global Precipitation Climate Center data (GPCC) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)) to study the variation on extensive karst areas in response to the changing climate and anthropogenic effects. The analyses are carried out within open source software environment to enable sharing of the proposed algorithm. The GRASS GIS geoinformatic software and the R statistical program proved to be adequate choice to collect and analyze the above mentioned datasets by taking advantage of their interoperability

  10. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-an; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0–330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15–180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates. PMID:26186707

  11. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  12. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  13. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower’s problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502

  14. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  15. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. Methods: We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Results: Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. Conclusion: Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses. PMID:26793632

  16. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  17. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area--Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Boiko, E R; Zenchenko, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p<0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction. PMID:26177617

  18. Access all areas? An area-level analysis of accessibility to general practice and community pharmacy services in England by urbanity and social deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To determine the percentage of the population in England that has access to a general practitioner (GP) premises within a 20 min walk (the accessibility); (2) explore the relationship between the walking distance to a GP premises and urbanity and social deprivation and (3) compare accessibility of a GP premises to that of a community pharmacy—and how this may vary by urbanity and social deprivation. Design This area-level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all GP premises and community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and Lower Super Output Area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe, or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score 2010). Primary outcome measure Living within a 20 min walk of a GP premises. Results Overall, 84.8% of the population is estimated to live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises: 81.2% in the most affluent areas, 98.2% in the most deprived areas, 94.2% in urban and 19.4% in rural areas. This is consistently lower when compared with the population living within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy. Conclusions Our study shows that the vast majority of the population live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises, with higher proportions in the most deprived areas—a positive primary care law. However, more people live within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy compared with a GP premises, and this potentially has implications for the commissioning of future services from these healthcare providers in England. PMID:25956762

  19. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  20. Temperature, Myocardial Infarction, and Mortality: Effect Modification by Individual and Area-Level Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Madrigano, Jaime; Mittleman, Murray A.; Baccarelli, Andrea; Goldberg, Robert; Melly, Steven; von Klot, Stephanie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background While several studies have examined associations between temperature and cardiovascular-disease-related mortality, fewer have investigated the association between temperature and the development of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Moreover, little is known about who is most susceptible to the effects of temperature. Methods We analyzed data from the Worcester Heart Attack Study, a community-wide investigation of acute MI in residents of the Worcester (MA) metropolitan area. We used a case-crossover approach to examine the association of apparent temperature with acute MI occurrence and with all-cause in-hospital and post-discharge mortality. We examined effect modification by sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, clinical complications, and physical environment. Results A decrease in an interquartile range (IQR) in apparent temperature was associated with an increased risk of acute MI on the same day (hazard ratio=1.15 [95% confidence interval= 1.01–1.31]). Extreme cold during the 2 days prior was associated with an increased risk of acute MI (1.36 [1.07–1.74]). Extreme heat during the two days prior was also associated with an increased risk of mortality (1.44 [1.06–1.96]). Persons living in areas with greater poverty were more susceptible to heat. Conclusions Exposure to cold increased the risk of acute MI, and exposure to heat increased the risk of dying after an acute MI. Local area vulnerability should be accounted for as cities prepare to adapt to weather fluctuations as a result of climate change. PMID:23462524

  1. [Migration and socioeconomic changes in the community of Zoogocho, Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Ramos Pioquinto, D

    1991-01-01

    "This study of migration and the socioeconomic dynamics of the community of Zoogocho in the state of Oaxaca [Mexico] is an example of what happens in rural areas when Indian-campesinos establish contacts with foreign parts. The penetration of alien socioeconomic and cultural values alters both family and communal structures to such an extent that available resources prove insufficient in competing with the colliding external society. This leads to increasingly more complex movements of the population, the manifestations, causes and consequences of which vary through time not only in the places of origin but also in destinations." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12317735

  2. Updated BG Prasad socioeconomic classification, 2014: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Abha; Kumar, Varun; Panesar, Sanjeet; Talwar, Richa; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2015-01-01

    Modified BG Prasad socioeconomic scale is widely used to determine the socioeconomic status of study subjects in health studies in India. It is an income-based scale and, therefore, has to be constantly updated to take inflation and depreciation of rupee into account. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) for industrial workers (IW) is used to calculate updated income categories for January 2014. Details of the calculations involved will enable young researchers to calculate specific income categories for their research work. State-specific CPI values are also available on the Department of Labour website and should be used to determine more accurate income categories for the study area. PMID:25758730

  3. Sea level side loads in high-area-ratio rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nave, L. H.; Coffey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical separation and side load model to obtain applied aerodynamic loads has been developed based on data obtained from full-scale J-2S (265K-pound-thrust engine with an area ratio of 40:1) engine and model testing. Experimental data include visual observations of the separation patterns that show the dynamic nature of the separation phenomenon. Comparisons between measured and applied side loads are made. Correlations relating the separation location to the applied side loads and the methods used to determine the separation location are given.

  4. Contribution of ethnic group and socioeconomic status to degree of disability in rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas. PMID:25178741

  5. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  6. Surface vertical displacements and level plane changes in the front reservoir area caused by filling the Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hansheng

    2000-06-01

    On the basis of the results of geological surveys and seismic prospecting in the Three Gorges area, two Earth models are constructed which are appropriate to the crustal structure in the front Three Gorges Reservoir area. Utilizing load-induced deformation theory, we model the surface vertical displacements and level plane changes in the area caused by increased water loads of the reservoir. The two quantities are needed to determine height changes on the Earth's surface. The numerical results demonstrate that the heights will be significantly changed as the reservoir fills up. For example, when the reservoir water level reaches an elevation of 175 m, the crust subsides by 1.0˜48.3 mm, the level plane uplifts by 1.1˜7.5 mm, and the height falls by 2.1˜45.0 mm. Accordingly, our results provide the reliable corrected values for discriminating between the earthquake-related crustal motion and the height changes that occur due to reservoir impoundment. Moreover, if the height data previously observed in the area need to be used for engineering surveys after the reservoir is filled, they must be corrected.

  7. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos. PMID:14555402

  8. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  9. Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: identifying potential areas for support.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hershfeldt, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data were collected 3 times across 2 academic years from 600 teachers at 31 elementary schools. The results indicated that both teacher efficacy and burnout increased over time. Teacher preparedness and perceptions of teacher affiliation and leadership were significantly associated with both the intercept and growth of teacher efficacy and burnout; however, school-level factors were generally unrelated to both outcomes. Implications for screenings and teacher-targeted interventions are discussed. PMID:22386082

  10. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  11. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  12. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  13. Progress in the reduction of carbon monoxide levels in major urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sul, Kyung-Hwa; Szulejko, Jan E; Chambers, Scott D; Feng, Xinbin; Lee, Min-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Long-term trends in observed carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were analyzed in seven major South Korean cities from 1989 to 2013. Temporal trends were evident on seasonal and annual timescales, as were spatial gradients between the cities. As CO levels in the most polluted cities decreased significantly until the early 2000s, the data were arbitrarily divided into two time periods (I: 1989-2000 and II: 2001-2013) for analysis. The mean CO concentration of period II was about 50% lower than that of period I. Long-term trends of annual mean CO concentrations, examined using the Mann-Kendall (MK) method, confirm a consistent reduction in CO levels from 1989 to 2000 (period I). The abrupt reduction in CO levels was attributed to a combination of technological improvements and government administrative/regulatory initiatives (e.g., emission mitigation strategies and a gradual shift in the fuel/energy consumption mix away from coal and oil to natural gas and nuclear power). PMID:26492076

  14. ATLSS: Across trophic level system simulation for the freshwater areas of the Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D. ); Deangelis, D.L.; Gross, L.J. )

    1994-06-01

    The Everglades of South Florida are characterized by complex patterns of spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, with water flow being the major factor controlling the trophic dynamics of the system. A key objective of modeling studies is to compare the future effects of alternate hydrologic scenarios on the biotic components of the system. Due to the varying scales at which trophic interactions occur, and the importance of population structure and individual behavior for population prediction in higher trophic level organisms, use of a single modeling approach is not appropriate. We will describe a scheme to integrate three approaches for different trophic levels of the system: (1) process models for lower trophic levels (including benthic insects, periphyton and zooplankton), (2) structured population models for five functional groups of fish and macroinvertebrates, and (3) individual-based models for large consumers (wood storks, great blue herons, white ibis, American alligators, white-tailed deer, and Florida panther). These are integrated across the freshwater landscape of the Everglades and coupled to GIS maps for cover type. Spatial scales of resolution for the models are as small as 100 m, with the capability to vary this based upon the scale of available input data. The system is then coupled to a hydrology model, and used to assess the effects of alternative proposed restoration scenarios on trophic structure.

  15. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  16. Paleoslope, sea-level and climate controls on Upper Miocene platform evolution, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate platforms in the Las Negras area evolved from onlapping ramps to fringing reef complexes later draped by cyclic shallow marine strata. Although sea-level history and paleoclimate had an effect on platform evolution, substrate topography played a dominant role. The strata are divided into five depositional sequences of Tortonian and Messinian age. The model of platform evolution provided by the Las Negras area exposures likely has applications for other Miocene carbonate complexes in the Mediterranean and could apply to other carbonate complexes in the rock record.

  17. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  18. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in food from Agent Orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-28

    During the Vietnam War, a phenoxy-herbicide mixture called Agent Orange, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, or TCDD, was used primarily for destruction of forest and other foliage in order to prevent enemy troop movement and protect American and allied troops and military bases in the south of Vietnam. Smaller areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed with Agent Orange between 1962 and 1971 from fixed-wing aircraft. In 2001, 28 food samples consisting of meat, fish, and dairy products were collected in sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos and analyzed for dioxins, dioxinlike dibenzofurans, and selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry at laboratories in Germany and Canada. Low levels of dioxin and other dioxinlike substances were found in Laotian food, similar to levels present in recent exported Vietnamese food to United States. Vietnam is geographically adjacent to Laos. Total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels were similar in samples from sprayed and non-sprayed areas, ranging from 0.009 to 0.851 pg/g or parts per trillion (ppt) in sprayed Sepone, and from 0.022 to 0.537 pg/g or ppt wet weight in non sprayed Vientiane. However, the Laotian fish samples from the Agent Orange-sprayed area had, on average, a higher proportion of total TEQ from TCDD (31.7% vs. 9.4%) compared to the nonsprayed area. Some other food items, duck eggs and pork liver from Sepone, also had severalfold higher TCDD levels than similar food samples from Vientiane, 0.029 vs. 0.011 pg/g and 0.070 vs. 0.004 pg/g wet weight, respectively. There were no substantial differences in levels of dibenzofuran and PCB congeners. In general, elevated TCDD levels were not found in Laotian food samples. It is possible that dioxin-contaminated areas, or "hot spots," exist in Laos as they do in Vietnam, although they have not yet been identified. PMID:14710598

  19. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  20. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Longitudinal Trends of Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ01 = −0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α01 = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high SES

  1. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    PubMed

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial. PMID:25121810

  2. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America. PMID:26840816

  3. Prediction of RF-EMF exposure levels in large outdoor areas through car-mounted measurements on the enveloping roads.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Joseph, Wout; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Colussi, Loek; Kamer, Jos; Bolte, John

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of spatial and temporal trends in the environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is a key prerequisite for RF-EMF risk assessment studies attempting to establish a link between RF-EMF and potential effects on human health as well as on fauna and flora. In this paper, we determined the validity of RF exposure modelling based on inner-area kriging interpolation of measurements on the surrounding streets. The results vary depending on area size and shape and structural factors; a Spearman coefficient of 0.8 and a relative error of less than 3.5dB are achieved on a data set featuring a closed measurement ring around a decently sized area (1km(2), with an average minimum distance of the encircled area to the ring of less than 100m), containing mainly low, detached buildings. In larger areas, additional inner-area sampling is advised, lowering the average minimum distance between sampled and interpolated locations to 100m, to achieve the same level of accuracy. PMID:27364986

  4. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks. PMID:27337624

  5. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  6. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels among office workers living in industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Shoko; Nguyen, Thi-To-Uyen; Inoue, Jinro; Kawai, Kazuaki; Horie, Seichi

    2014-03-01

    We examined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among non-smoking office workers in 2 countries living in the vicinity of a coke-oven factory by measuring their levels of urinary 1-OHP, a known metabolite of PAHs. Subjects included 10 non-smoking office workers in Kitakyushu city (Japan) and 20 workers in Thai Nguyen city (Vietnam). Measurement was optimized by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method developed by Jongeneelen et al. This method required only a small amount of urine and had a short incubation time, and its detection limit was very low (0.00448 ng/ml), which was practical and highly sensitive.The median urinary 1-OHP concentration in the Vietnamese subjects (0.417 ng/mg creatinine) was six times as high as that in the Japanese subjects (0.069 ng/mg creatinine) (P < 0.001). However, both concentrations were significantly below the guideline level, below which there is no genotoxic effect, implying a low probability of any adverse health effects.Our measurements from both countries showed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than in previous studies from locations without factories, indicating that ambient air pollution from industrial emissions is an important source of PAH exposure. Finally, the urinary 1-OHP concentrations did not correlate with gender or lifestyle factors. PMID:24633179

  7. Do outdoor environmental noise and atmospheric NO2 levels spatially overlap in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Boilleaut, Mathieu; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    The urban environment holds numerous emission sources for air and noise pollution, creating optimum conditions for environmental multi-exposure situations. Evaluation of the joint-exposure levels is the main obstacle for multi-exposure studies and one of the biggest challenges of the next decade. The present study aims to describe the noise/NO2 multi-exposure situations in the urban environment by exploring the possible discordant and concordant situations of both exposures. Fine-scale diffusion models were developed in the European medium-sized city of Besançon (France), and a classification method was used to evaluate the multi-exposure situations in the façade perimeter of 10,825 buildings. Although correlated (Pearson's r = 0.64, p < 0.01), urban spatial distributions of the noise and NO2 around buildings do not overlap, and 30% of the buildings were considered to be discordant in terms of the noise and NO2 exposure levels. This discrepancy is spatially structured and associated with variables describing the building's environment. Our results support the presence of several co-existing, multi-exposure situations across the city impacted by both the urban morphology and the emission and diffusion/propagation phases of each pollutant. Identifying the mechanisms of discrepancy and convergence of multi-exposure situations could help improve the health risk assessment and public health. PMID:27155094