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Sample records for area qinghai province

  1. Study of infectious conjunctivitis among children in rural areas of Qinghai province.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingfeng; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Mei; Tian, Lei; Labbé, Antoine; Hu, Ailian

    2016-06-01

    Infectious conjunctivitis is no longer a common eye disease in cities and developed areas, but in remote mountainous regions of China where living conditions are relatively under-developed, the occurrence of infectious conjunctivitis remains a public health issue. Here, we evaluate the ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among primary school students in the rural areas of Xunhua, Huangyuan, and Huzhu Counties in the Qinghai province of China, and report the microorganisms involved in causing infection. Of the 765 eligible primary school students, 694 participated to this study (a response rateof 90.7%), 381 boys and 313 girls, with a mean age of 7.52 years (range 7-9 years). A clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis was returned for 238 of the 694 children examined. The ratio of infectious conjunctivitis in Xunhua County (46.64%) was higher compared to that in Huangyuan (26.67%; P=0.03) and Huzhu Counties (23.61%; P=0.02). The leading cause of conjunctivitis was bacterial, followed by chlamydial and viral. Our results show that there is a high ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among rural primary school students in Qinghai province. PMID:27225258

  2. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

  3. Prevalence of Selenium, T-2 Toxin, and Deoxynivalenol in Kashin-Beck Disease Areas in Qinghai Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ronghui; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Senke; Dennis, Bannel Sando; He, Shanshan; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of selenium, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) areas and provide information for understanding the high prevalence of KBD in Qinghai Province. A total of 183 subjects were chosen in a KBD-prevalent county (Guide County) and a non-KBD county (Huangzhong County) in Qinghai Province, northwestern China, and the samples of wheat flour, soil, drinking water and blood, urine, and hair of children were collected from these residents. The selenium concentrations from all these sources were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The levels of T-2 toxin and DON contamination in the wheat flour samples were assayed using HPLC-MS/MS. The average selenium content in the soil, drinking water, and wheat flour samples from KBD areas were 26.93 ± 10.06 μg/kg, 0.097 ± 0.038 μg/L, and 9.50 ± 7.17 μg/kg, respectively. Among these, the selenium levels in the drinking water and wheat flour samples from the KBD endemic county were significantly lower than those from the non-KBD county. For the selenium nutrient status, only the hair selenium concentration of children from the KBD endemic county was significantly lower than that from the non-KBD county. The contents of T-2 toxin in all wheat samples were below the detection limit (0.4 μg/kg). The levels of DON contamination in wheat flour samples from KBD and non-KBD children's households within the KBD endemic county were relatively higher, with average levels of 302 ± 49 and 280 ± 48 μg/kg, respectively. The DON level of wheat flour samples from the children's households in the non-KBD county was significantly lower than that from the KBD endemic county. These results suggest that the lower selenium status in Guide County still remains. While the selenium nutritional status of the local children has improved to some extent, partly due to the introduction of food produce from nonlocal areas

  4. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  5. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  6. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  7. Olfactory and visual responses of the long-legged chafer hoplia spectabilis medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Qinghai province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-legged chafer, Hoplia spectabilis Medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has recently been recorded in outbreak numbers in pastureland of Qinghai province, China. It is causing significant damage to several species of woody shrubs, especially Hippophae neurocarpa Liu and Ho (Elaeagnaceae), D...

  8. The Difficulties and Challenges of Adopting the Communicative Approach in TEFL at Secondary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, May Xiu-qin

    This study identifies and describes the difficulties faced by secondary school Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Qinghai Province (China) in adopting the communicative approach to language instruction. It examines the perceptions of both teachers and teacher trainers. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews with one…

  9. Etiological characteristics of chlamydia trachoma conjunctivitis of Primary Boarding School students in the Qinghai Tibetan area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Lu, Xinxin; Hu, Ailian; Zhang, Mingxin; Li, Xue; Deng, Shijing; Wang, Ningli

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis among resident students at primary schools in the Qinghai Tibetan area in order to understand the distribution of C. trachomatis and other pathogenic microorganisms, to detect the isolation rate of infectious pathogens, and to provide an evidence for further targeted efforts in the prevent of sporadic trachoma efforts. From two primary schools in Qinghai Province, ocular samples from 35 students who were clinically diagnosed as trachoma cases and 60 normal controls were obtained by swabbing their upper eyelids and lower conjunctival sacs. Samples were preserved at 4°C and airlifted to Beijing Tongren Hospital within 24 h. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen for C. trachomatis, and nested PCR was used to amplify a fragment of the ompA gene for serotype confirmation. Bacterial cultivation and sensitivity tests were conducted based on the 2015 version of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were screened by RT-PCR. Among the 35 students with trachoma, 8 came from the Jianshetang Primary School and 27 came from the Central Primary School. Two novel C. trachomatis B serotypes (GenBank accession numbers KU737520 and KU737521) were detected based on a sequence analysis of the ompA gene. Single C. trachomatis infections accounted for 42.86% (9/21) of the cases, and infections with multiple bacteria, particularly Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, accounted for the remaining 57.14% (12/21). Of the 14 C. trachomatis-negative samples, one was positive for adenoviral infection (serotype D) and 13 were positive for bacterial infections (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, streptococci other than S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium, and

  10. [Nutrient contents and microbial populations of aeolian sandy soil in Sanjiangyuan region of Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-feng; Chen, Zhan-quan; Xue, Quan-hong; Lai, Hang-xian; Chen, Lai-sheng; Zhang, Deng-shan

    2007-01-01

    Sanjiangyuan region (the headstream of three rivers) in Qinghai Province of China is the highest and largest inland alpine wetland in the world. The study on the nutrient contents and microbial populations of aeolian sandy soils in this region showed that soil organic matter content increased with the evolution of aeolian sand dunes from un-stabilized to stabilized state, being 5.9 and 3.8 times higher in stabilized sand dune than in mobile and semi-stabilized sand dunes, respectively. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus contents increased in line with the amount of organic matter, while potassium content and pH value varied slightly. The microbial populations changed markedly with the development of vegetation, fixing of mobile sand, and increase of soil nutrients. The quantities of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were 4.0 and 2.8 times, 19.6 and 6.3 times, and 12.4 and 2.6 times higher in stabilized and semi-stabilized sand dunes than in mobile sand dune, respectively, indicating that soil microbial bio-diversity was increased with the evolution of aeolian sand dunes from mobile to stabilized state. In addition, the quantities of soil microbes were closely correlated with the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and available nitrogen and phosphorus, but not correlated with soil total phosphorus, total and available potassium, or pH value. PMID:17396507

  11. Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

  12. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  13. [Temporal stability in song dialects of black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) in Menyuan, Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Zhen

    2010-12-01

    Bird song dialects provide a useful model for the study of cultural evolution and its interactions with genetic evolution. By comparing song dialects over an 8-year span in the black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) of Haibei station (37(0)29'N, 101(0)28'E, 3, 200 m a.s.l.) in Menyuan county, Qinghai Province,This study examined the temporal stability of the birds'song dialects. Songs of black redstarts were recorded from mid-April to late May in 2001 by Uher-CR 210 tape recorder with Sony directional microphone and in 2009 by Marantz PMD 670 digital recorder with Sennheiser ME 66 directional microphone. Songs were analyzed by using Avisoft-SASLab pro. The similarity of songs between different years were analyzed by investigating the sonagram, measuring temporal and frequency properties and processing cluster analysis by Spss 10.0 on windows. The results showed that species-specific syllable, typical song forms, and the typical strophe keep high temporal stability. Males investigated from 2001 and 2009 shared the entire strophe or some of the syllables. Males sampled from 2009 have a larger strophe repertoire than that from 2001. The study also indicated that the divergence of shared strophe in 2009 is correlated with distance between territories. The degree of strophe type sharing and song similarity are higher between neighbours than that from more distant males. PMID:21174351

  14. [Extraction of spectral difference characteristics of Stellera chamaejasme in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Di; Liu, Yong-mei; Li, Jing-zhong; Mo, Chong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Stellera chamaejasme is one of the main poisonous weeds distributed in alpine meadow of Qinghai Province. Rapid spreading of S. chamaejasme has done serious harm to local animal husbandry and caused continuous grassland ecosystem degradation. This paper focused on the spectral differences between S. chamaejasme and herbage, taking the typical degraded alpine meadow dominated by S. chamaejasme in Qilian County of Haibei Region as the test site and using the spectral measurements acquired in the full-blossom period of S. chamaejasme from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that the spectral behavior of flowers of S. chamaejasme differed significantly from green background that included leaves of S. chamaejasme and herbage within 350-900 nm of VIS-NIR wavebands. The biggest reflectance difference between flowers of S. chamaejasme and green background was located in the red valley, followed by the blue valley. The reflectance of S. chamaejasme community increased with the rising of coverage, the biggest reflectance difference between S. chamaejasme and herbage communities lied in the near-infrared peak, and the best separability between S. chamaejasme communities with different coverage was also at the point. The difference of first derivative spectra between flowers of S. chamaejasme and green background located in amplitude of yellow edge was remarkable, followed by amplitude of blue edge, the same as differences between S. chamaejasme and herbage communities. Linear regression analysis between coverage of S. chamaejasme and spectral feature parameters showed best result for red valley (R2 = 0.94). Finally, the red valley, the blue valley and the near-infrared peak were proposed for discriminating S. chamaejasme from herbage in the full-blossom period of S. chamaejasme, and the combination of corresponding red, blue and near-infrared bands could be used to build sensitive indices for S. chamaejasme recognition. PMID:26685592

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yaks in Qinghai Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Li, Zhengfeng; Lei, Mengtong; Cai, Jinzhong; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2%) samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4%) was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1%) and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%). Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2), C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1) were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from <1 year, 1–2 years, to >2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%), followed by summer (20.9%), then winter (17.5%). Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8), IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2), IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1), IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1) and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1) were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health. PMID:24086416

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) (Diptera: Hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Shen, Xiuying; Peng, Mao; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China. The third-stage larvae of O. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. The coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of O. leporina were investigated. Eighty-one variable sites and 21 haplotypes were identified and the nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.04456 and 0.9767, respectively, indicating a rich genetic diversity in O. leporina. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequences of COI revealed two distinct lineages. These findings revealed ultrastructure and molecular characterization among the O. leporina from plateau pikas in Qinghai province, China and had implications for studying morphological identification, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. leporina. PMID:26708934

  17. Characterization of Groundwater Storage in the Heihe Headwater Watershed, Qinghai Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Ge, S.; Zhou, M.; Liang, S.; Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    A warming climate has led to decreases in permafrost extent and water insecurity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. It is speculated that this will cause large-scale changes water resource availability. These speculations bring up questions: At what amount does groundwater storage contribute to stream flow in these headwater watersheds? How does groundwater storage change with increasing temperatures and decreasing permafrost extent? How will changes in permafrost and thus, groundwater storage, change seasonally? To address these questions, we have: (1) Developed a three-dimensional, groundwater flow and energy model for the Hulugou Watershed, the headwaters of the Heihe River located on the northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; (2) Analyzed seasonal base flow contribution to streamflow for the Hulugou Watershed using the two-parameter Kalinin method; and (3) Compared model results to geochemical data from the Hulugou Watershed. We derive a transient three-dimensional finite element coupled flow and energy transport model to characterize the groundwater and energy systems and quantify groundwater storage under long-term climatic conditions. The coupled hydrogeologic model incorporates the physics of water phase change, allowing for modeling of pore water freeze and thaw and permeability dependence on ice saturation. Major outcomes of the model include: spatial and temporal distributions of subsurface temperature, fluid pressure, groundwater storage, and discharge to the land surface. Model results highlight that groundwater recharges mainly at high elevations and discharges to springs and streams at low elevations. Results from base flow extraction of observed discharge data suggest that within the Hulugou Watershed, stream discharge is primarily from groundwater contributions in the form of base flow (53%). These results corroborate with geochemical data, highlighting temporal changes in groundwater storage.

  18. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  19. Structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Teng, Jiwen; Sun, Ruomei; Romanelli, Fabio; Zhang, Zhongjie; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-11-01

    The deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, as imaged from geophysical data, of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest on the Earth, provides important clues in understanding its orogenic processes. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Based on Rayleigh waves dispersion theory, we collected long period and broad-band seismic data from the global and regional seismic networks surrounding the study area (20°N-50°N, 70°E-110°E). After applying instrument response calibration and filtering, group velocities of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves are measured using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN). Combining the published dispersion data, a 2-D surface-wave tomography method is applied to calculate the lateral variations of group velocity distribution at different periods, in the range from 8 s to 150 s. The Hedgehog non-linear inversion method is performed to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) versus depth models of the crust and upper mantle for 181 cells, with size 2° × 2°. In order to identify the cellular representative models, we applied the local smoothness optimization method (LSO). Fairly detailed structural models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system have been defined. The Vs models demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet. The variation in thickness of the metasomatic lid may suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches up to BNS.

  20. Echinococcosis on the Tibetan Plateau: prevalence and risk factors for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; Wang, H; Qiu, J; Liu, F J; Saito, E; Emshoff, A; Ito, A; Roberts, J M; Delker, C

    2003-01-01

    Infections by larval stages of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (echinococcosis or hydatid disease) are zoonotic infections of major public health importance throughout much of the world. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of eggs passed in faeces of canid definitive hosts. Tibetan populations of China have some of the highest documented levels of infections by both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, the causes of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively. In this study we measured the prevalence of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis disease in Tibetan communities in Qinghai, Province, China, and identified putative risk factors for both infections in these communities. 3703 volunteers in three predominately Tibetan counties of Qinghai were surveyed between June 1997 and June 1998. Parasitic lesions were diagnosed by imaging of characteristic space-occupying lesions in abdominal organs (ultrasound) or the lungs (radiographs). Specific serodiagnostic assays (Dot-ELISA and Em2-ELISA) were performed on sera of positively imaged subjects to further distinguish the disease agent. All participants completed a questionnaire documenting age, sex, education level, occupation, lifestyle (nomadic or settled), slaughter practices, drinking water source, hygienic practice and association with dogs. Data were analyzed using SAS version 8. 6.6% of the volunteers had image-confirmed infection with E. granulosus (CE) and 0.8% had E. multilocularis (AE) infection. The significant univariate factors for echinococcal infection (both CE and AE) included livestock ownership, Tibetan ethnicity, female gender, low income, herding occupation, limited education, water source, age greater than 25 years old, poor hygienic practices, offal disposal practices and dog care. Multivariate analysis revealed that livestock ownership was a significant risk factor for both forms of the disease, as well as age greater than 25 years, female gender

  1. Landform-related permafrost characteristics in the source area of the Yellow River, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Sheng, Yu; Wu, Jichun; Feng, Ziliang; Ning, Zuojun; Hu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Xiumin

    2016-09-01

    The source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) lies in the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Glaciers are absent in the area, but permafrost is widespread because of the high elevations, typically 4200-5000 m a.s.l. Landforms in the SAYR were classified into seven basic types, based on their morphological characteristics and genesis, and further divided into 12 sub-classes based on geomorphic processes. Permafrost development and ground temperature in boreholes were analyzed on representative landforms in the SAYR. Permafrost was discontinuously distributed at 4300-4400 m a.s.l. in fluvial plains because of variations in local topography, sediments, vegetation and water content. In hills and low-relief mountains in the western part of the study area, permafrost is continuous above 4400 m a.s.l. even on unshaded south-facing slopes. In contrast, permafrost in the central part of the study area is discontinuous over this elevation range. Analysis of ground temperature measurements revealed that three macro-scale factors, latitude, longitude, and elevation, explain 72.8% of the variation in the measured mean annual ground temperature (MAGT). The remaining 27.2% can potentially be explained by variations in topography and land cover within the SAYR.

  2. A multi-characteristic based algorithm for classifying vegetation in a plateau area: Qinghai Lake watershed, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiwei; Gong, Cailan; Hu, Yong; Li, Long; Meng, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been broadly recognized for its convenience and efficiency in mapping vegetation, particularly in high-altitude and inaccessible areas where there are lack of in-situ observations. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images and Chinese environmental mitigation satellite CCD sensor (HJ-1 CCD) images, both of which are at 30m spatial resolution were employed for identifying and monitoring of vegetation types in a area of Western China——Qinghai Lake Watershed(QHLW). A decision classification tree (DCT) algorithm using multi-characteristic including seasonal TM/HJ-1 CCD time series data combined with digital elevation models (DEMs) dataset, and a supervised maximum likelihood classification (MLC) algorithm with single-data TM image were applied vegetation classification. Accuracy of the two algorithms was assessed using field observation data. Based on produced vegetation classification maps, it was found that the DCT using multi-season data and geomorphologic parameters was superior to the MLC algorithm using single-data image, improving the overall accuracy by 11.86% at second class level and significantly reducing the "salt and pepper" noise. The DCT algorithm applied to TM /HJ-1 CCD time series data geomorphologic parameters appeared as a valuable and reliable tool for monitoring vegetation at first class level (5 vegetation classes) and second class level(8 vegetation subclasses). The DCT algorithm using multi-characteristic might provide a theoretical basis and general approach to automatic extraction of vegetation types from remote sensing imagery over plateau areas.

  3. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  4. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner’s ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  5. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  6. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai's wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  7. Late Quaternary Lake History of Hala Lake, Qinghai Province, China, Evidenced by Ostracod Assemblages and Sediment Properties in Multiple Sediment Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAN, Dada; Wuennemann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Hala Lake, a closed 65 m deep lake basin in the western Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province, is considered a monitor of climate-driven hydrological and environmental changes during the past 24 kyr BP. The distribution patterns of ostracod assemblages, sediment-geochemical properties in four sediment records from different water depths and the unique limnological setting (green algae layer between 25 and 32 m water depth and seasonally anoxic conditions) enabled us to reconstruct four major phases of centennial-scale water depth fluctuations from the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 24 kyr BP) to the Present. Our results show that Hala Lake experienced a very shallow and small water body during the LGM and Late Glacial under cold and dry climate conditions. Rapid increase of water depth and contemporaneous lake expansion started at around 15 kyr BP (Phase I), most likely as a result of glacier melt due to the onset of climate warming. The lake reached >45 m water depth at around 13.5 kyr BP, followed by a decline (5-6 m) during the Younger Dryas spell (ca. 12 kyr BP), which may be attributed to a short-term return to cooler and drier conditions. During the early Holocene (Phase II), water depth increased again towards lake highstands close to its present level. Besides continued glacier melt supply, we assume that summer monsoon effective moisture contributed to the overall water budget, but remained relatively unstable, favoring water depth fluctuations of about 10-15 m. A pronounced lower water depth falls into the period between 9 and 8 kyr BP, perhaps the result of weak monsoon influence or its complete absence, although the warming trend continued towards its optimum at ca. 8-7 kyr BP. A distinct mass flow, most likely triggered by an earthquake, occurred during a lake lowstand between 8.1 kyr BP and 7.0 kyr BP. The mid-Holocene (Phase III) was characterized by deepened water between 7.5 and 4.5 kyr BP, interrupted by short-term declines at around 7 and 6

  8. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  9. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  10. Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

  11. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C.; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai’s wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  12. Changes in frozen ground in the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huijun; He, Ruixia; Cheng, Guodong; Wu, Qingbai; Wang, Shaoling; Lü, Lanzhi; Chang, Xiaoli

    2009-10-01

    The Source Area of the Yellow River is located in the mosaic transition zones of seasonally frozen ground, and discontinuous and continuous permafrost on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Vertically, permafrost is attached or detached from frost action. The latter can be further divided into shallow (depth to the permafrost table <=8 m), deep (>8 m) and two-layer permafrost. Since the 1980s, air temperatures have been rising at an average rate of 0.02 °C yr-1. Human activities have also increased remarkably, resulting in a regional degradation of permafrost. The lower limit of permafrost has risen by 50-80 m. The average maximum depth of frost penetration has decreased by 0.1-0.2 m. The temperatures of the suprapermafrost water have increased by 0.5-0.7 °C. General trends of permafrost degradation include reduction in areal extent from continuous and discontinuous to sporadic and patchy permafrost, thinning of permafrost, and expansion of taliks. Isolated patches of permafrost have either been significantly reduced in areal extent, or changed into seasonally frozen ground. Degradation of permafrost has led to a lowering of ground water levels, shrinking lakes and wetlands, and noticeable change of grassland ecosystems alpine meadows to steppes. The degradation of alpine grasslands will cause further degradation of permafrost and result in the deterioration of ecological environments as manifested by expanding desertification and enhancing soil erosion.

  13. Geology of the Konakpinar--Sarica area, Sivas Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James; Sermin, Salim; Gencel, Ilker; Sengun, Metin; Ekren, Frank

    1972-01-01

    The junction of several major structures and stratigraphic sequences is in the Konakpinar-Sarica area of central Turkey. Most of the area is underlain by Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous limeston and siltstone, early Tertiary sedimentary rock, and remnants of younger volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits. The northeastern part of the area, however, is formed of serpentinite, of possible Cretaceous age, unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous conglomerate and siltstone that crop out extensively east of the area. The regional structure changes direction in the area. Folds and faults change across a northerly striking hinge line from northeast trends on the west to northwest trends on the east. A north-trending regional fault zone is a little east of the hinge line. The northern part of this fault zone and a northwest-striking fault, a possible thrust, east of it form the boundary between the two stratigraphic provinces. The area northeast of this boundary is cut by a series of vertical northwest-trending faults that are downdropped on the southwest. A large northeast-trending fault that is part of a broad fault zone that extends from the Mediterranean Sea northeastward to Divrigi is in the northwest corner of the area. Some thrust faults cut the Cretaceous rocks in the western part of the area; the Upper Jurassic limestone may be allochthonous. The only economic deposit known in the area is at the Otlukilise Iron Mine where iron is present in a sedimentary filling of sinkholesand as secondary replacement deposits in limestone at their borders. Minor deposits of chrome, copper, and coal also occur in the area.

  14. Hydrology of area 3, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 3 of the Eastern Coal Province, 4,077 square miles of the lower Allegheny River basin in western Pennsylvania. Seventy-three streams were sampled three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and botom material samples were analyzed for metals. Sixteen streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins and in the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Benthic invertebrates were not found in 11 of 64 streams sampled. An additional 13 streams had low benthic invertebrate diversity indices. Low diversity indices were most common in the southern part of area 3. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 3. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, and Office of Water Data Coordination are explained. (USGS)

  15. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography Reveals Repeated Range Expansion in a Widespread Aquatic Herb Hippuris vulgaris in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is one of the most extensive habitats for alpine plants in the world. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary ice age had a dramatic effect on species ranges on the QTP and the adjacent areas. However, how the distribution ranges of aquatic plant species shifted on the QTP in response to Quaternary climatic changes remains almost unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings We studied the phylogeography and demographic history of the widespread aquatic herb Hippuris vulgaris from the QTP and adjacent areas. Our sampling included 385 individuals from 47 natural populations of H. vulgaris. Using sequences from four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) non-coding regions, we distinguished eight different cpDNA haplotypes. From the cpDNA variation in H. vulgaris, we found a very high level of population differentiation (GST = 0.819) but the phylogeographical structure remained obscure (NST = 0.853>GST = 0.819, P>0.05). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two main cpDNA haplotype lineages. The split between these two haplotype groups can be dated back to the mid-to-late Pleistocene (ca. 0.480 Myr). Mismatch distribution analyses showed that each of these had experienced a recent range expansion. These two expansions (ca. 0.12 and 0.17 Myr) might have begun from the different refugees before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conclusions/Significance This study initiates a research on the phylogeography of aquatic herbs in the QTP and for the first time sheds light on the response of an alpine aquatic seed plant species in the QTP to Quaternary climate oscillations. PMID:23565290

  16. A Model for coupled heat and moisture transfer in permafrost regions of three rivers source areas, Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Xiang, X. H.; Wang, C. H.; Shao, Q. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing occurs in winter in many parts of the world. The transfer of heat and moisture in freezing and thawing soil is interrelated, and this heat and moisture transport plays an important role in hydrological activity of seasonal frozen region especially for three rivers sources area of China. Soil freezing depth and ice content in frozen zone will significantly influence runoff and groundwater recharge. The purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model to simulate water and heat movement in the soil under freezing and thawing conditions. The basic elements of the model are the heat and water flow equations, which are heat conduction equation and unsaturated soil fluid mass conservation equation. A full-implicit finite volume scheme is used to solve the coupled equations in space. The model is calibrated and verified against the observed moisture and temperature of soil during freezing and thawing period from 2005 to 2007. Different characters of heat and moisture transfer are testified, such as frozen depth, temperature field of 40 cm depth and topsoil moisture content, et al. The model is calibrated and verified against observed value, which indicate that the new model can be used successfully to simulate numerically the coupled heat and mass transfer process in permafrost regions. By simulating the runoff generation process and the driven factors of seasonal changes, the agreement illustrates that the coupled model can be used to describe the local phonemes of hydrologic activities and provide a support to the local Ecosystem services. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51009045; 40930635; 41001011; 41101018; 51079038), the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (No. 2009CB421105), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2009B06614; 2010B00414), the National Non Profit Research Program of China (No. 200905013-8; 201101024; 20101224).

  17. Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) on the Tibetan Plateau: comparison with house sparrow (P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus in Qinghai Province.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongming; Wang, Gang; Wingfield, John C; Zhang, Zhi; Ding, Changqing; Lei, Fumin

    2008-08-01

    Seasonal modulation of the adrenocortical response to stress appears to be ubiquitous in arctic-breeding and temperate-zone-breeding birds, but has not been well investigated in alpine-breeding species at mid-latitude. We examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress (capture, handling and restraint) in populations of Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) among seasons and migratory house sparrow (P. domesticus bactrianus) in pre-breeding on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (the Tibetan Plateau). A population of house sparrow (Passer domesticus domesticus) was also sampled in lowland Phoenix, Arizona during breeding and wintering stages. In Eurasian tree sparrows, baseline corticosterone (CORT) does not differ among life history stages, but stress-induced CORT level (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) is significantly higher in late breeding stage than those in early breeding and prebasic molt stages. In house sparrows, stress-induced CORT level does not differ between sites and life history stages, but baseline CORT is significantly lower in pre-breeding from Qinghai compared with those in breeding and wintering stages from Phoenix. Interestingly, both baseline CORT and maximal CORT do not differ between the populations of Eurasian tree sparrow and house sparrow in early/pre-breeding stage although tree sparrow is resident species whereas house sparrow is migratory in Qinghai. Our results suggest that the extreme environment of the Tibetan Plateau does not have significant effects on adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrows and house sparrows, which may be a result of masking by human activities. These invasive human commensals may have a unique HPA axis response to different environments because they can take advantage of human food sources and shelter (i.e. buildings). PMID:18588892

  18. Anomalous plutonium isotopic ratios in sediments of Lake Qinghai from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi; Wan, Guojiang

    2011-11-01

    The vertical profiles of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios are determined for three sediment cores of Lake Qinghai from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, and compared with those in sediments of another three lakes (Lakes Bosten, Sugan, and Shuangta), the only existing ones closest to Lop Nor area, China's nuclear weapons test site in the northwestern part of the country. The mean inventory of 47.7 ± 18.7 MBq km(-2) for (239+240)Pu activity in Lake Qinghai is comparable to the average value of global fallout expected at the same latitude, yet the mean inventory of 1112.0 ± 78.0 MBq km(-2) for (137)Cs is slightly lower than that of global fallout. Anomalously low (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios (0.038-0.125) were found in the 3-6.5 cm deep sediment layers, indicating the trace Pu input from early nuclear weapons research activities at Atomic City in the lake's watershed during the 1950-60s. Model calculation indicated that the Pu input accounted for approximately 5-16% of the total Pu inventory. The observation of low (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio in the deep sediment layer provided a new time marker for recent sediment dating in the lake and around the area. The results are of great significance to the further understanding of sources, records, and environmental impacts of global and regional nuclear activities in the environment and provide important chronological information for further studies on the water eutrophication process and climatic change, and reconstruction of pollution history of organic contaminants and heavy metals in the watershed of Lake Qinghai. PMID:21950768

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  20. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0032), in which... (76 FR 51934-51935, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0032), in which we announced the availability, for review... Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. Based...

  1. Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season area burned. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.

  2. Hydrology of Area 6, Eastern Coal Province, Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Staubitz, W.W.; Sobashinski, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 6, the 1329 square-mile North Branch Potomac River basin. Area 6 comprises parts of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia and is almost evenly divided between two physiographic provinces. The allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province encompasses the western half of the area and contains coal-bearing rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area contains two coal-producing regions. Coal production from the area amounted to 3.8 million tons in 1978 and has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Area 6 has a continental, temperate climate and receives between 36 and 45 inches of precipitation depending on elevation. The soils of the area were formed from noncarbonate, sedimentary rocks and are generally of high acidity and low fertility. Forest land occupies over 80% of the land surface, whereas surface mining occupies only about 1.5% of the land surface. The area is drained entirely by the North Branch Potomac River. Water used in the area is mostly from surface-water resources. Ground-water accounts for only 0.5% of total water withdrawals. Seventy-two percent of ground-water withdrawals are used by the coal-mining industry. More than 140 miles of streams in Area 6 are affected by mine drainage. These streams are devoid of fish life and otherwise have severely reduced biological communities. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations and specific conductances were more than three times greater for streams draining coal mining areas than for streams draining unmined areas. The mean pH and net alkalinity of streams draining unmined areas were higher than those of streams draining mined areas. Although concentrations of trace metals in water and bottom sediments were generally low for streams draining both mined and unmined areas, those from unmined areas were noticeably higher.

  3. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI), hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention. PMID:27240391

  4. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  5. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  6. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  7. Population-Based Seroprevalence of Malaria in Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A Low Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Hatam, Gholam Reza; Nejati, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Shahriari Rad, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803) were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east) of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera. Results. The overall seroprevalence of malaria was 8.7% (70 out of 803 samples). A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and place of residence, where the highest rate of seropositivity was seen in Bandar Lengeh (west of the province). The highest seroprevalence of malaria (13.2%) was seen in the age group of 11–20 years and also in low educated individuals. Correlation between seropositivity and gender, age, and educational levels of the participants was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Findings of this study indicate that the rate of seropositivity to malaria in this area is not high and this might be linked to the success of malaria control programs during the last decades in the region. PMID:26543662

  8. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  9. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  10. [Structure and function of township agroecosystems and their correlation in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Ke, Jinhu

    2002-06-01

    The structure and functions of 15 township agroecosystems in northern plain areas of Zhejiang Province were investigated and studied. Both cluster analysis and correlation analysis were used to study the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems. The results showed that cluster analysis could reveal the correlation between the holistic structure and function of the agroecosystems, which was conducive for mastering the direction of holistic structural adjustment. Correlation analysis could identify the extent and direction of correlation between specific structural and functional indicators, which could serve as the basis for specific structural adjustment for optimization of functions. PMID:12216398

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  12. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  13. Records from Lake Qinghai: Holocene climate history of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau linking to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Z.; Colman, S.; Zhou, W.; Brown, E.; Li, X.; Jull, T.; Wang, S.; Liu, W.; Sun, Y.; Lu, X.; Song, Y.; Chang, H.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Wu, F.; Han, Y.; Cheng, P.; Ai, L.; Wang, Z.; Qiang, X.; Shen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, X.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Qinghai (99°36'-100°16'E, 36°32'-37°15'N ) of the north eastern margin of Tibet Plateau is the largest inland lake of China. It sits on the transitional zone of Asian monsoon- arid areas, receives influences of Asian monsoons and Westerlies, thus sensitive to global climate changes. Although previous studies had investigated Holocene climate change of Lake Qinghai area, it is rare to see precise Holocene climatic sequences of Lake Qinghai, nor in-depth discussions on controlling factors of Lake Qinghai climate changes. In Year 2005, with support from ICDP, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust Corporation (DOSECC) and Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS) took a series of shallows cores from the southern basin of Lake Qinghai. West sub-basin sediments display Holocene lacustrine feature for the upper 5m, while the 5-18m are interbeded sediments of shallow lake, eolian-lacustrine and eolian loess. Chinese and US scientists with support from NSFC, MOST, CAS and NSF analysed 1F core from west sub-basin depocenter of the south basin with multiple physical, chemical, biological approaches. By comparing with modern process observation records, we obtained proxies that respectfully reflect precipitation, temperature and lake salinity changes, etc., reconstructed high resolution time sequences of magnetic susceptibility, colour scale, grain size, Corg, C/N, δ13Corg, carbonate, δ13C and δ18O of carbonate and ostracodes, elements, char-soot,Uk'37 and %C37:4 as well as pollen of the last 13Ka. They indicate the climatic change history of Lake Qinghai since past 13Ka, and agreeable evidences are found from adjacent tree ring and stalagmite records. Comparison of Lake Qinghai Holocene climate change sequence with those from high altitude ice core, stalagmites and ocean

  14. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25011940

  15. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-feng; Liu, Kang; Wang, Xiao-rong; Huang, Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources of atmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province. PMID:16465890

  16. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  17. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  18. Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan province, southern Iran, 2002.

    PubMed

    Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Abaie, M R; Shahi, M; Yaaghoobi, F; Baghaii, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Zamani, G; Townson, H

    2006-02-01

    Anopheles stephensi Liston is an important malaria vector in Hormozgan province, where it is the most prevalent anopheline mosquito. It shows two annual activity peaks, one in spring and another in the autumn. In mountainous areas the second peak starts earlier than in coastal regions. Adults are endophilic and endophagic, but in the hot season when people sleep outside buildings they frequently bite outdoors. Larvae are found in a wide-range of habitats, both natural and man-made. All three biological forms of the species, occur in the province, i.e. An. stephensi stephensi (type form), An. stephensi mysorensis, and the intermediate form. An. stephensi mysorensis is found only in rural-mountainous areas, whereas the type and intermediate forms occur in urban-coastal regions and the rural plains, with the type form predominant. The presence of the type form in urban areas and mysorensis in rural areas is consistent with the available epidemiological data for malaria in the region and with the finding in India that the type form is an efficient malaria vector inhabiting urban areas whereas mysorensis is rural and has a lower vectorial capacity. Insecticide susceptibility tests on field collected adult mysorensis and adults from laboratory strains of the type and intermediate forms were carried out according to WHO standard methods. These showed that all three forms are susceptible to bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion, deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and lambdacyhalothrin, but are resistant to DDT and show low level of tolerance to dieldrin. Examination of the larvicidal activity of malathion, fenitrothion, temephos and chlorpyrifos at diagnostic doses showed that these stephensi forms are susceptible to all larvicides except fenitrothion. Irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides showed high levels of irritability to permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin, but low irritability to cyfluthrin and deltamethrin. The importance of these findings for the

  19. The Karoo igneous province — A problem area for inferring tectonic setting from basalt geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Andrew R.

    1987-06-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and associated intrusives are the major component of the Karoo igneous province. They are of Mesozoic age and constitute one of the world's classic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. It has been argued that most Karoo basalts have not undergone significant contamination with continental crust and that their lithospheric mantle source areas were enriched in incompatible minor and trace elements during the Proterozoic. The only exceptions to this are late-stage MORB-like dolerites near the present-day continental margins which are considered to be of asthenospheric origin. When data for the "southern" Karoo basalts are plotted on many of the geochemical discriminant diagrams which have been used to infer tectonic setting, essentially all of them would be classified as calc-alkali basalts (CAB's) or low-K tholeiites. Virtually none of them plot in the compositional fields designated as characteristic of "within-plate" basalts. There is little likelihood that the compositions of the Karoo basalts can be controlled by active subduction at the time of their eruption and no convincing evidence that a "subduction component" has been added to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the entire area in which the basalts crop out. It must be concluded that the mantle source areas for CAB's and the southern Karoo basalts have marked similarities. In contrast, the data for "northern" Karoo basalts largely plot in the "within-plate" field on geochemical discriminant diagrams. Available data suggest that the source composition and/or the restite mineralogy and degree of partial melting are different for southern and northern Karoo basalts. There is no evidence for any difference in tectonic setting between the southern and northern Karoo basalts at the time they were erupted. This appears to be clear evidence that specific mantle source characteristics and/or magmatic processes can vary within a single CFB province to an extent that renders at least

  20. [Effects of three kinds of molluscicides in fields of mountainous areas of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Gui; Li, Wen-Bao; Feng, Xi-Guang; Dong, Yi; Wu, Ming-Shou; Shao, Zong-Ti; Mu, Liang-Xian; Tian, Shu-Hui; Li, Ping; Gao, Li-Ping; Xiong, Kang; Dong, Xing-Qi

    2012-12-01

    The molluscicidal effects of 10% salt of quinoid- 2' ,5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (LDS) with dusting method, 26% amine molluscicide (MNSC) and 50% niclosamide (WPN) with insufflation method were tested in the fields of mountainous areas of Yunnan Province. After 7, 15 and 30 days of the tests, the death rates of snails, decline rates of living snail densities, and occurrence rates of frames with living snails of the 10% LDS group were 72.69%-87.16%, 74.10%-88.84%, and 20.00%-30.00%, respectively; those of the 26% MNSC group were 66.21%-91.06%, 69.55%-91.36%, and 19.44%-27.78% respectively; those of the 50% WPN group were 78.10%-90.18%, 82.44%-91.60%, 17.50%-20.00%, respectively. The results showed that the molluscicidal effects of 10% LDS, 26% MNSC and 50% WPN were basically equal. PMID:23593856

  1. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness. PMID:24734213

  2. Geology of Area A, Catak iron deposit, Egrigoz Mountains Kutahya Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James

    1972-01-01

    The Catak iron deposit consist of magnetite-bearing lenses distributed along the northeast-trending contact of the north end of. the Egrigoz granitic massif in Kutahya Province. Area A is near the northeast end of the deposit and contains three main irregular magnetite lenses. A body of talc-silicate hornfels, almost surrounded by quartzite and schist , lies a short distance from the contact with quartz monzonite and contains the magnetite-bearing lenses west-northwest to northwest-trending structural grain is expressed by schistosity, joints, shears, lithologic contacts and outcrop patterns, although the mineralized rock and general intrusive contact trend northeast. The ranges of the average content of Fe, Si, and S, determined from drill data are 33.54-53.95 percent; 5.86-12.25 percent; and. 8.33-9.49 percent, respectively.

  3. Hydrology of area 58, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, T.H.; Kuhn, G.; Brooks, T.

    1987-01-01

    The topics encompass the complete physical and hydrologic setting of Area 58, located primarily in west-central Colorado in the Southern Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces. The headwaters of the Colorado and most of its tributaries originate in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of the area. Precipitation in the mountains can exceed 40 in annually, most of it as snow. Most of the runoff then is a result of snow melting in the spring. Surface water is the principal source of water supplies in the area, and irrigation is the major water use. Groundwater supplies are mainly from wells completed in alluvium or fractured bedrock. All coal mines in the basin but one are underground. Surface water quality is best in the mountains. Dissolved solids concentrations in the Colorado River increase an average of 647 mg/L as it flows through the area. The causes of this increase are nearly equally divided between natural sources and irrigation activities in the sedimentary basins. The climate in these basins is semi-arid, and the soils are not adequately leached. Concentrations of several major elements and trace elements in the groundwater can be large enough to limit water uses. Among those elements exceeding recommended or required standards for use are calcium, chromium, iron, manganese, and lead. 166 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

  5. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy, represents the most important volcanic distric of Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic bodies: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas and range in composition from nephelinites to tholeiites. Often VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths (mainly harzburgites and lherzolite). This study reports petrological comparison between Marosticano xenoliths (new outcrop) and xenoliths from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas already studied by many Authors (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001, Gasperini et al., 2006). Mineral major elements analyses show that the Marosticano lherzolites and harzburgites reflect "more restitic" composition than the mantle domain beneath the other VVP districts (Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige). In fact, olivine and pyroxene of Marosticano xenoliths have the highest mg# values of the entire district (Marosticano→90-93; literature→86-92). At comparable mg# (45-85 wt%) Marosticano spinels tend to be higher in Cr2O3 (23-44 wt%) contents with respect to the other VVP sp (7-25 wt%). It is worth noting that, Ni contents of Marosticano olivines in both harzburgites and lherzolites are higher (2650-3620 ppm) than those of the Lessinean xenoliths (1500- 3450 ppm), and similar to that of Val d'Adige lherzolites (3000-3500 ppm), approaching the contents of Archean cratonic mantle (Kelemen, 1998). In turn, Lessinean olivines properly fall in the Ni-mg# Phanerozoic field. At fixed pressure of 15 kbar, the equilibration temperature of Marosticano xenoliths are similar (Brey & Köhler: 920-1120°C) to those of Lessini (O'Neill & Wall: 990-1110°C; Beccaluva et al., 2007), but higher than those of Val d'Adige (Wells: 909-956°C; Gasperini et al., 2006). Finally, Marosticano mantle fragment show similar relatively high

  6. Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a Tibetan population in southeast Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sen-Hai; Wang, Hu; Wu, Xian-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Pei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Mei; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2008-05-01

    An epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in Jiuzhi County of Qinghai Province, western China. Ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the Tibetan population. The morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and Buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). The ultrasound images showed a coexistence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), occupying 69 and 31% of the cases, respectively. An Echinococcus Western blot assay was performed as a serological backup test for differentiating CE and AE. The assay revealed that serum samples from most cases with a positive AE image showed a specific antibody against antigen bands at 16/18 kDa. Autopsy proved that 9 out of 12 stray dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus (n = 8) and E. multilocularis (n = 1). Inspection at the abattoirs demonstrated a hydatid rate of 78.5% in yaks and 82.6% in sheep. The data indicate that Jiuzhi County is an important endemic area for both CE and AE, in both human and animal populations. PMID:18503183

  7. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; and others

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  9. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area. PMID:19160059

  10. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile. PMID:23983361

  11. The transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1962-01-01

    This paper records the results of detailed studies carried out over a two-year period on the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika. The ecology of a variety of snail habitats is described; and data on the biology of the principal molluscan host (Bulinus (Physopsis) nasutus productus), on seasonal fluctuations in its population density and associated cercarial infection rates, on its response to desiccation and on other aspects of population dynamics are presented and discussed. Taking into consideration the seasonal fluctuation in snail numbers which occurs in the area and the snails' capacity to survive desiccation, it is considered that a substantial reduction in transmission of S. haematobium might be effected by application of a molluscicide timed so as to lower the population density before aestivation begins, followed by a second treatment when the habitats have been refilled by rainfall to reduce yet further the population that has survived the first treatment and subsequent desiccation. It is also suggested that a combination of methods directed against two stages in the schistosome life-cycle—the snail and the miracidium—by application of molluscicides and treatment of infected persons might be more efficacious than an attempt merely to reduce snail density and alter the population structure. PMID:14005428

  12. Research on the impact of impervious surface area on urban heat island in Jiangsu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingbao; Pan, Ping

    2011-10-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), vegetation index, and other surface characteristics that obtained from remote sensing data have been widely used to describe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, but through impervious surface area (ISA) to describe the phenomenon has only used in a few study areas in our country. In a high urbanization and high population density region like Jiangsu Province, a wide range of extraction of ISA to study its relationship with UHI is less. In this paper, we use multi-temporal remote sensing images as data sources, and extract ISA from it in a large-scale by using decision tree classifier (DTC) and linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Then combine the average surface temperature from the sixth band of Landsat TM by mono-window algorithm for spatial analysis, to assess the change of the urban heat island temperature amplitude and its relationship with the urban development density, size and ecological environment. Finally we use statistical methods to analyze the relationship between ISA, LST and UHI. The results show that ISA has a positive correlation with surface temperature. The ratio of ISA is higher and the difference value of the temperature is larger, thus the UHI will be more obvious.

  13. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  14. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  15. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces

  16. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; and others

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  17. Endoparasitic infections in dogs from rural areas in the Lobos District, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, Marcela Cecilia; Lavallén, Carla Mariela; Bongiovanni, Roberto; Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Elissondo, Celina; Yannarella, Francisco; Denegri, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are definite hosts for several zoonotic helminthes and protozoan. Rural areas from the Lobos District in the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are mainly used for livestock activity, increasing in this way the number of dogs on farms as well as the human risk of parasitic infections. The aims of this research were to evaluate the endoparasitic infections in dogs from farms in the Lobos District and analyze their zoonotic importance as well as several risk practices and habits of the rural population. Forty-two dog fecal samples obtained in 21 farms were analyzed through coproparasitological methods and coproantigen tests, which resulted in an overall parasite prevalence of 69.05% and 80.95% of the parasitized farms. The most frequent parasites were Trichuris vulpis and Eucoleus aerophila (26.19%), Echinococcus granulosus (19.05%), Uncinaria stenocephala and coccids (14.29%). The analysis of epidemiological files showed several habits of the rural population considered as risk factors associated with the presence of fecal samples parasitized and the presence of E. granulosus on the farms. It is clear that people involved with the farms studied were exposed to several helminthes that could cause serious diseases like cystic echinococcosis, which can become an important public health issue and affect the economy worldwide. PMID:23538502

  18. Exploration and Production of Diamond Deposits in Wafangdian Area of Liaoning Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    This paper is based on a study of several exploration reports and original field notebooks made available to us by Houxing Wang, new leader of The Sixth Geology Brigade of Liaoning Province. Aerial magnetic surveys were conducted over the southeastern peninsula of Liaoning in 1958 and 1959 to locate petroleum deposits. In 1973, a surface magnetic survey was performed by the Liaoning material deposits team. Guided by available magnetic data, The Sixth Geology Brigade collected heavy minerals in selected stream beds in 1974, followed by borehole methods the following year. A systematic diamond exploration program was established in 1976. Kimberlite pipes 51, 68 and 74 were discovered in 1977, more than five years after the diamond exploration project originated. Later studies of individual pipes were based on detailed observations of structural geology, fault systems, downhole methods, trenches, constructions of a series of cross sections covering a depth of up to 80 meters. Excavation of Pipe 50, one of the richest diamond deposits in the area, began in the early 1980's, and the pipe was depleted and closed in July, 2002. When we compared the bird's eyeview of the excavated hole with the original maps and cross sections prepared by the geologists of The Sixth Geology Brigade, we were astonished by the accuracy of every detail as predicted like a piece of art work.

  19. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure. PMID:26739008

  1. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  2. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself. PMID:26387311

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  4. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  5. Inorganic pollution around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: An overview of the current observations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Duan, Dongping; Lu, Jian; Luo, Yongming; Wen, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaoying; Boman, Brian J

    2016-04-15

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the highest geographical unit in the world. Thus, it serves an important role in evaluating long-term ecologic conditions and environmental status and changes over time. This study summarizes major and trace element concentrations in biota and in water and soil. It also pays attention to gaseous pollutant and particle concentrations in air around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The degree of soil heavy metal contamination and the water heavy metal hazard index were respectively evaluated. The contamination degrees of two sampling areas around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau reached extremely high levels with soil mCd (modified degree of contamination) values exceeding 20. Surprisingly, over 54% of sampling areas showed moderate or more serious soil contamination degree (mCd>1.5). Moreover, the hazard indexes of two important rivers were 1.56 and 7.59, reaching unacceptable level. The potential risk might be beyond our expectation. Therefore, it should be an urgent and top priority to identify and confirm possible pollution sources around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Then, it is imperative to implement feasible and effective environmental quality control strategies. PMID:26849327

  6. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  7. Molecular investigation of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in yaks (Bos gruniens) from Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects both domestic animals and wildlife species worldwide. In China, cattle are often infected with BVDV of different genotypes, but there is very limited knowledge regarding BVDV infection in Chinese yaks and the genetic diversity of the virus. The objectives of this study were to detect viral infection in yaks in Qinghai, China and to determine the genotypes of BVDV based on analysis of the 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) and N-terminal protease (Npro) region. Results Between 2010 and 2012, 407 blood samples were collected from yaks with or without clinical signs in six counties of Qinghai Province. Ninety-eight samples (24%) were found to be positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting a conserved region of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The nucleotide sequences of the 5′UTR and complete Npro region were determined for 16 positive samples. Phylogenetic reconstructions demonstrated that all 16 samples belong to subgenotypes BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d and BVDV-1q. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence for BVDV infection in yaks in Qinghai involving multiple subgenotypes of BVDV-1. This may have occurred under three possible scenarios: interspecies transmission, natural infection, and the use of vaccines contaminated with BVDV. The results have important implications for yak production and management in China, and specifically indicate that unscientific vaccination practices should be stopped and bio-security increased. PMID:24524442

  8. New Challenges to the Permafrost Community: Construction of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Railroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Li, X.; Zhang, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Qingahi-Xizang (Tibetan) railroad, running from Golmud in the Qinghai Province to Lhasa in the Xizang Autonomous Region of China, is under contruction. The project is planned to be completed by 2007. Approximately 630 km of the railroad is within the Tibetan Plateau permafrost region, of which about a half of the 630 km consists of ice-rich permafrost. Permafrost temperature along the railroad mostly is within about 2 degree C of thawing. New challenges to the permafrost community are: What is the potential response of permafrost to climatic change, and to railroad construction and operation? How do changes in permafrost conditions impact climatic, hydrologic, and ecosystem processes on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers in China have conducted a series of field investigations, laboratory experiments, long-term monitoring, GIS-based and numerical modeling. In this paper, we present some results of permafrost-related studies conducted as aprt of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) railroad project and introduce some measures for protecting permafrost and environemnts.

  9. Study on suitable distribution areas of Notopterygium incisum in Sichuan province based on remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue; Dong, Li-jun; Wen, Lu-jun; Peng, Wen-fu; Xu, Xin-liang; Fang, Qing-mao

    2015-07-01

    Notopterygium incisum is the important medicinal materials of the Tibetan-Qiang medical system in China, also one of the rare and endangered medicinal materials in the Plateau areas in the meantime. Taking the planting of in Sichuan province as an example, research on the N. incisum in Sichuan utilize remote sensing and GIS techniques, bind growth environment factor, including height factor, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, forest information, were chosen according to habitat conditions. And combine field measurement to verify. The results indicate that N. incisum resources in Sichuan province were mainly distributed in the alpine valley and the northwest of the plateau, which suitability distribution areas of 4145 km2 approximately and accounting for 2% of the total area. Suitability areas accounting for more than 2% of the respective total area in Heishui county, Lixian county, Xiaojin county, Kangding county, ect. According to the field investigation and the related document information record, drawn that the suitability distribution based on RS and GIS were corresponded with the actual distribution areas of N. incisum resources. It's feasible to divide the suitability distribution area of N. incisum using RS and GIS, which will provide a scientific basis for a comprehensive investigation of the distribution as well as its rational exploitation and protection. PMID:26697677

  10. Mineral chemistry of lava flows from Linga area of the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Sohini; Ray, Jyotisankar; Koeberl, Christian; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Banerjee, Mousumi

    2012-02-01

    Several basaltic lava flows have been identified in the study area in and around Linga, in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP) on the basis of distinctly developed structural zones defined by primary volcanic structures such as columnar joints and vesicles. These basaltic lava flows are spatially distributed in four different sectors, viz., (i) Bargona-Gadarwara (BG) sector (ii) Shikarpur-Linga (SL) sector (iii) Arjunvari-Survir Hill (AS) sector and (iv) Kukrachiman-Morand Hill (KM) sector. A three-tier classification scheme has been adopted for the characterization and classification of individual lava flows. Each lava flow consists of a Lower Colonnade Zone (LCZ) overlain by the Entablature Zone (EZ) and Upper Colonnade Zone (UCZ). The LCZ and UCZ grade into a distinct/indistinct Lower Vesicular Zone (LVZ) and Upper Vesicular Zone (UVZ), respectively. The LCZ and UCZ of the flows are characterized by columnar joints while the EZ is marked by multi-directional hackly jointing. The geometry of different joint patterns corresponds to different styles of cooling during solidification of lava flows. Detailed petrographic studies of the investigated lava flows reveal inequigranular phenocrystal basalts characterized by development of phenocrystal phases including plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, whereas groundmass composition is marked by tiny plagioclase, clinopyroxene, opaque mineral and glass. Electron microprobe analyses indicate that the olivine has a wide range ˜Fo22 to Fo66 revealing a wide spectrum of compositional variation. Pyroxene compositions are distinctly designated as Quad pyroxenes. Phenocrystal pyroxenes are mostly diopsidic, while the groundmass pyroxenes mainly correspond to augite with a minor pigeonite component. Pyroxene phenocrysts are characterized by a prominent Ti-enrichment. Phenocrystal plagioclase grains are calcic (An52.7-An72.9), whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An39.2-An61.6). Groundmass opaque

  11. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  12. Genovariation Study of Hantavirus in Main Endemic Areas of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Cai, Yanan; Wei, Yamei; Han, Xu; Han, Zhanying; Zhang, Yanbo; Qi, Shunxiang; Xu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease in Hebei Province. At present, cases from the northeast regions of the province account for >80% of the total incidences. However, studies that examine the region-specific genetic variations of the Hantavirus (HV), the causative pathogen for HFRS, have been lacking. Methods Rodents were collected in northeast Hebei Province from 2004 to 2013, and the HV strains used in this study were isolated in 1993. Lung tissues were isolated from the rodents and HV antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The M1 and M2 fragments of HV M region were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned into pMDl9-T vector, sequenced and compared with representative standard stains for homology and phylogenetic analysis. Result A total of 21 samples of HV antigen-positive were collected. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the 19 rodent lungs and two HV strains were positive for the SEO virus. 11 samples were chosen to sequence, and they shared 95.8%–99.8% in nucleotide homology, and 83.6%–99.2% when compared to the standard strains of SEO virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all strains were grouped into the same S3 subtype. Conclusion SEO was the major epidemic genotype of HV in the main HFRS endemic areas in Hebei Province, and S3 was the major subtype. There was minor genetic variation in HV over short term periods, while long term variations were higher. PMID:27442527

  13. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  14. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  15. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant. PMID:26164922

  16. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin. PMID:24766897

  17. The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the spatial heterogeneity of alpine grassland vegetation at a small scale on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lu; Dong, Shi Kui; Li, Yuan Yuan; Sherman, Ruth; Shi, Jian Jun; Liu, De Mei; Wang, Yan Long; Ma, Yu Shou; Zhu, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the complex effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the composition of vegetation is very important for developing and implementing strategies for promoting sustainable grassland development. The vegetation-disturbance-environment relationship was examined in degraded alpine grasslands in the headwater areas of three rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in this study. The investigated hypotheses were that (1) the heterogeneity of the vegetation of the alpine grassland is due to a combination of biotic and abiotic factors and that (2) at a small scale, biotic factors are more important for the distribution of alpine vegetation. On this basis, four transects were set along altitudinal gradients from 3,770 to 3,890 m on a sunny slope, and four parallel transects were set along altitudinal gradients on a shady slope in alpine grasslands in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. It was found that biological disturbances were the major forces driving the spatial heterogeneity of the alpine grassland vegetation and abiotic factors were of secondary importance. Heavy grazing and intensive rat activity resulted in increases in unpalatable and poisonous weeds and decreased fine forages in the form of sedges, forbs, and grasses in the vegetation composition. Habitat degradation associated with biological disturbances significantly affected the spatial variation of the alpine grassland vegetation, i.e., more pioneer plants of poisonous or unpalatable weed species, such as Ligularia virgaurea and Euphorbia fischeriana, were found in bare patches. Environmental/abiotic factors were less important than biological disturbances in affecting the spatial distribution of the alpine grassland vegetation at a small scale. It was concluded that rat control and light grazing should be applied first in implementing restoration strategies. The primary vegetation in lightly grazed and less rat-damaged sites should be regarded as a reference for devising vegetation

  18. Land subsidence of coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, China: historical review and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Q.; Yang, Y.; Yu, J.; Gong, X. L.

    2015-11-01

    Surface faults related to land subsidence have been observed in coastal cities, such as Nantong, Yancheng, and Lian Yungang, in Jiangsu Province (CAJS) since the early 1970s. Nowadays, increases flooding and rising sea levels are attributed to subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. In this work we present a brief description of land subsidence in CAJS, we examine the mechanisms of land subsidence induced mainly by groundwater pumping and its evolution and economic implications as well as the implemented measures by the local government to prevent new damage.

  19. Remote sensing of severe convective storms over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The American satellite, GOES-1 was moved to the Indian Ocean at 58 deg E during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE). The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau significantly affects the initiation and development of heavy rainfall and severe storms in China, just as the Rocky Mountains influence the local storms in the United States. Satelite remote sensing of short-lived, meso-scale convective storms is particularly important for covering a huge area of a high elevation with a low population density, such as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Results of this study show that a high growth rate of the convective clouds, followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top, is associated with heavy rainfall in the area. The tops of the convective clouds developed over the Plateau lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses, while the tops of convective clouds associated with severe storms in the United States usually extend much above the tropopause.

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  1. [Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in faeces scattered in areas of Puna and Quebrada. Province of Jujuy, Argentina].

    PubMed

    de Costas, Silvia Frison; Matas, Norma Riveros; Ricoy, Gerardo; Sosa, Sonia; Santillan, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease common in livestock, caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, the dog being the principal definitive host. The province of Jujuy is an endemic area located in the Northwest of Argentina. Due to the restricted ecological conditions of Quebrada and Puna, the most important activity of the population is formal cattle pastoralism and transhumance, especially of sheep and camelids. The dog acquires the double function of company and shepherd in these communities. The objective of the present study was to conduct a diagnosis of the situation in areas of La Quebrada and Puna where the circulation of E. granulosus is suspected. Five hundred and twenty three (523) samples of canine fecal material scattered in the environment were collected from 2002 to 2012. Prevalence varied from 2% in Susques to 27.7% in Humahuaca, the largest in the province. In Tumbaya, prevalence was 21% in the year 2007, reaching 0% in the year 2010 but increasing again to 10.5% in the year 2011. These results may be related to health education on preventive measures and mass deworming held prior to sample taking in the year 2010. A prevalence between 19.4% and 2% was observed in the rest of the regions studied, suggesting that a lack of strategies for echinococcosis control has allowed the spread of the disease. PMID:25011588

  2. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government...

  3. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  4. Transfer characteristics of cobalt from soil to crops in the suburban areas of Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zheng, Haifeng; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Guo; Fenghua, Ding

    2010-11-01

    The bioavailability of cobalt and its transfer from soil to vegetables and rice were investigated. Among 312 soils collected from vegetable and paddy fields in the suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province, southeast China, total soil Co ranged from 3.5 to 21.7 mg kg(-1), indicating a slight accumulation compared with the background value of the province. DTPA extracted 0.1-8.5% of soil total Co. Total and DTPA-extractable Co correlated with soil pH, CEC, free Fe, total Mn, clay and silt content more significantly in paddy soils than in the soils from vegetable fields. The average Co concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables and rice were 15.4 microg kg(-1) and 15.5 microg kg(-1), respectively. The transfer factor (the ratio of plant Co to soil DTPA-extractable Co, TF(DTPA)) ranged from 0.003 to 0.126 with a median of 0.049. The TF(DTPA) decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > root vegetables > rice. The TF(DTPA) of all crops decreased with increasing DTPA-extractable Co. Increase in pH, CEC, organic matter, clay, silt, free iron and total Mn limited the soil-to-plant transfer of Co to varying degrees. The transfer of Co from the soils to the edible parts of the crops was lower than that of Zn, Cu and Cd, but higher than that of Pb in the same areas. The concentrations of Co in rice and vegetables in the study areas were considered to be safe for the local residents because of the slight anthropogenic input and the low transfer potential to the edible parts of Co from the soils. PMID:20615604

  5. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  6. Using multi-temporal remote sensing for mining area monitoring and management: the Yunnan Province case study (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Tarolli, Paolo; Li, Ke; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-05-01

    Abundant mineral resource is the basis for high-speed social and economic development, and huge economic benefits promoted the rapid development of modern mining industry. However, mining leaves the most significant signature on the Earth, by strongly changing and influencing landscapes and eco-systems. Disasters like water/soil pollution, soil erosion, landslides and land subsidence are often induced by mining activities. Multi-temporal remote sensing surveys can offer a basis upon which develop methodologies for better understanding the influences of mining on landscapes and related Earth surface processes. The aim of the study is to monitor a mining area using multi-temporal remote sensing data, for discovering and evaluating the influence of the mining activities on the environment. Our research area is located in Yunnan Province, China, where open-pit mining activities have been going on for about 10 years. For the study area there is the availability of multi-temporal spatial adjusted remote sensing images (2001 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2009 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2011 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix, 2012 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix). Through photo interpretation, it was possible to collect the evolutions of mining area, and to recognize areas subject to erosion and landsliding. The results have been validated using field surveys carried out in 2011 and 2012. The multi-temporal image interpretation indicates that the mining activities started between 2001 and 2009, with a significant increasing of land degradation between 2009 and 2012. This study represents the first step of a long-term analysis of Yunnan Province mining area. The goal is to arrange a multi-sensor yearly survey using different platforms and technologies (e.g. ground GPS, Structure from Motion photogrammetric technique SfM, UAV, and airborne and terrestrial laser scanner), in order to better understand the landscape evolution of the area, and analyze in detail the Earth

  7. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation.

  8. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) and all... of that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly)....

  9. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-01-01

    Background Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the ‘Golden Triangle’, one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. Methods We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. Results We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9–1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8200–18 300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. Conclusion More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used. PMID:18922804

  10. Hydrology of Area 39, western region, interior coal province Kansas and Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.E.; Skelton, F.; Kenny, J.F.; Davis, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Area 39 has an area of about 10,500 sq mi and includes all or parts of 13 Kansas counties and 14 Missouri counties. Major streams draining the area are the Marais des Cygnes (Osage), South Grand, Little Osage, Blackwater, Blue, and Little Blue Rivers, which are tributaries of the Missouri River. Mean annual rainfall in Area 39 ranges from 34 inches in the west to > 40 inches in the east. Agriculture and forests are the predominant land uses. Streams, ponds, and reservoirs provide about 94% of the water used in the area. Groundwater supplies are limited except in the Missouri and Marais des Cygnes (Osage) River valleys where wells in unconsolidated deposits may yield from 100 to 2,000 gal/min, and in the southeast part of the area where wells in consolidated aquifers of Ordovician age yield up to 600 gal/min of good quality water. Strippable coal reserves are present in Pennsylvanian rocks throughout many parts of the area. Coal mining activity has increased sharply since the 1960's; this mining is subject to state and federal reclamation laws. Erosion, sedimentation, water quality degradation, decline in groundwater levels, and diversion of surface drainage are typical problems associated with surface coal mining. 98 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Ferropicrite from the Lalibela area in the Ethiopian large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desta, M. T.; Ishiwatari, A.; Arai, S.; Akihiro, T.; Ayalew, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt lava flows near Lalibela in the Oligocene (~ 30 Ma) Ethiopian large igneous provence (LIP) are associated with ultratitaniferous transitional basalt and picrites of the second high-Ti (HT2) series. The dominant phenocryst in the studied samples is Mg-rich olivine (up to Mg# 88.4) with high CaO contents (to 0.42 wt. %) and kink band structure is absent, indicating that olivines are crystalized from a melt. Spinel inclusions and microphenocrysts are characterized by extremely high Cr# (79-84), moderate Mg# (18-51), moderate Fe3+# (11-26) and contains 3.6-14.8 wt. % TiO2. The clinopyroxene phenocrysts are Mg#=73-88, TiO2=0.84-2.9 wt. %, and Al2O3= 1.2-4.1 wt. % in the cores. The REE contents of clinopyroxenes display enrichment in LREE (LaN/YbN=1.2-1.9) and MREE (EuN/YbN=3.3-4.3) relative to HREE. Relative depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb and Zr) is also observed. In general, these trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene are similar with those of high-Ti 2 basalts. The estimated MgO content of liquid is about 23.5 wt. % and mantle potential temperature may have been as high as ~ 1638 OC. This temperature (Tp) is higher (by some 100 OC) than those estimated for the African-Arabian traps (~ 1520 OC). The studied samples exhibit very low Al2O3/TiO2 (1.8-2.2) and high Zr/Y (8.2-10.2) ratios. These may indicate the important role for garnet during melting and that the lavas were formed by small degree of partial melting which apparently contradicts to the high Cr# of spinel. In view of low Cr/Al ratio of the bulk rock, the high Cr# of spinel suggests very high temperature of the magma (and the plume). The origin of these ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt rocks could be attributed to high pressure partial melting of pyroxenite that possibly incorporate recycled oceanic crust components. Keywords: Ferropicrite, large igneous province, Oligocene, pyroxinite, Lalibela

  12. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  13. Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

  14. [Environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping'an; Huang, Huang; Yan, Huimin; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Huang, Xingguo

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the environmental cost of rice production is of significance for the sustainable development of agriculture and the set-up of green GDP accounting system. In this paper, the environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area, one of the main bread baskets in China, was evaluated from the aspects of pesticide pollution, chemical fertilizer pollution, greenhouse gases emission, plastic film persistence, paddyfield gleyization, and polderization. The results showed that in 1999, the total environmental cost of rice production in this area was 41.91 billion yuan, equivalent to 26.8% of its total agricultural production value, or 28.5% of the gross output of its planting industry. For the sustainable production of rice, the strategies for decrease environmental cost intrinsically were put forward. PMID:16471365

  15. Magnetotelluric study of the Xuefeng mountain area, Hu'nan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Musen; Xue, Lingxiang; Wang, Yousheng; Zhu, Shengjun

    2016-04-01

    A magnetotelluric study was carried out in the Xuefeng mountain uplift belt and its western margins. A detailed investigation was made of the resistivity of the formations, and reliable data were obtained. The sedimentary cover and basement structure of the Xuefeng mountain area and the deep geological structure were analyzed in detail using magnetotelluric data from the two-dimensional inversion of the resistivity profile data in combination with regional gravity and magnetic data. It was concluded that the tectonic movements were characterized by basement detachment, and north-south ramp. The study area can be divided into a southern uplift zone, a southern thrust-faulted zone, a central uplift zone, and a northern depression zone. This work has provided geophysical evidence that can be used in future studies of the tectonics and petroleum geology of this region.

  16. Magnetotelluric study of the Xuefeng mountain area, Hu'nan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Musen; Xue, Lingxiang; Wang, Yousheng; Zhu, Shengjun

    2016-03-01

    A magnetotelluric study was carried out in the Xuefeng mountain uplift belt and its western margins. A detailed investigation was made of the resistivity of the formations, and reliable data were obtained. The sedimentary cover and basement structure of the Xuefeng mountain area and the deep geological structure were analyzed in detail using magnetotelluric data from the two-dimensional inversion of the resistivity profile data in combination with regional gravity and magnetic data. It was concluded that the tectonic movements were characterized by basement detachment, and north-south ramp. The study area can be divided into a southern uplift zone, a southern thrust-faulted zone, a central uplift zone, and a northern depression zone. This work has provided geophysical evidence that can be used in future studies of the tectonics and petroleum geology of this region.

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  18. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  19. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI. PMID:22720600

  20. Characteristics of ground motion at permafrost sites along the Qinghai-Tibet railway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, L.; Wu, Z.; Sun, Jielun; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on 14 typical drilling holes distributed in the permafrost areas along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the distribution of wave velocities of soils in the permafrost regions were determined. Using results of dynamic triaxial tests, the results of dynamic triaxiality test and time histories of ground motion acceleration in this area, characteristics of ground motion response were analyzed for these permafrost sites for time histories of ground accelerations with three exceedance probabilities (63%, 10% and 2%). The influence of ground temperature on the seismic displacement, velocity, acceleration and response spectrum on the surface of permafrost were also studied. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  2. Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  3. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  4. Human parasitoses of the Malili area, South Sulawesi (Celebes) province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S W; Carney, W P; Van Peenen, P F; Russell, D; Saroso, J S

    1978-06-01

    A biomedical survey was conducted in 9 villages in the Malili area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blood specimens were examined for malaria and microfilariae; stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. Malaria parasitemias were rare; Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 10 and P. vivax in 11 of 985 blood smears. Malayan filariasis was endemic to all villages surveyed. The overall prevalence of detectable microfilaremias was 15%, varying from 34% in Kawata to 1% in Nuha. Microfilarial densities, expressed as MfD50 averaged 8.0 and varied from 1.1 in Timampu to 16.0 in Karabbe. Intestinal parasites were common. Although Schistosoma japonicum was not found, 97% of the examined had one or more intestinal parasites as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (74%), Trichuris trichiura (65%), hookworm (62%), Entamoeba coli (38%), Endolimax nana (10%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (4%), Entamoeba hartmanni (3%), Giardia lamblia (2%) Chilomastix mesnili (1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (1%). Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Hymenolepis nana eggs were detected once each and heterophyid-like eggs were detected twice. PMID:364674

  5. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianli; Tan, Zhongming; Ren, Dafei; Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China. PMID:25954814

  6. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  7. A study of visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi province.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Sadaf; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Dog is the main reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The present study was carried out to investigate visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi province. Thirty- nine owned dogs with dermal lesions were selected. During study, four of dogs were euthanized. The dermal smears, blood and tissue samples were collected and examined using parasitological, serological and molecular methods. A total of 39 examined dogs, leishman bodies were microscopically detected in 33.30% (13/39) of dermal smears. The sera samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibody against Leishmania infantum was detected in 26.00% (10/39) dogs. According to semi-nested PCR, DNA of Leishmania infantum was detected in 2.50% (1/39) of blood samples and in 75.00 % (3/4) of different tissues of euthanized dogs. BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99.00% similarity with kDNA of Leishmania infantum. Based on the results, it is concluded that visceral leishmaniasis due to L. infantum is distributed among household dogs of this area and it needs more surveillance to control the disease by public health and veterinary authorities. PMID:27226888

  8. A study of visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi province

    PubMed Central

    Sabzevari, Sadaf; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Dog is the main reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The present study was carried out to investigate visceral leishmaniasis in owned dogs with dermal lesions in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi province. Thirty- nine owned dogs with dermal lesions were selected. During study, four of dogs were euthanized. The dermal smears, blood and tissue samples were collected and examined using parasitological, serological and molecular methods. A total of 39 examined dogs, leishman bodies were microscopically detected in 33.30% (13/39) of dermal smears. The sera samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibody against Leishmania infantum was detected in 26.00% (10/39) dogs. According to semi-nested PCR, DNA of Leishmania infantum was detected in 2.50% (1/39) of blood samples and in 75.00 % (3/4) of different tissues of euthanized dogs. BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99.00% similarity with kDNA of Leishmania infantum. Based on the results, it is concluded that visceral leishmaniasis due to L. infantum is distributed among household dogs of this area and it needs more surveillance to control the disease by public health and veterinary authorities. PMID:27226888

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of an Outbreak with Scrub Typhus in Previously Unrecognized Areas, Jiangsu Province, China 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China. PMID:25954814

  10. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p < 0.1) in 39.9% of meadow areas (accounting for 26.2% of vegetated areas) and 36.7% of steppe areas (28.1% of vegetated areas). Vegetation growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  11. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  12. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

  13. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan

    2016-02-01

    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  15. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  16. Soil arsenic availability and the transfer of soil arsenic to crops in suburban areas in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui-Qing; Gao, Shu-Fang; Wang, Wei-Ling; Staunton, S; Wang, Guo

    2006-09-15

    The bioavailability, soil-to-plant transfer and associated health risks of arsenic in soils collected from paddy rice fields and vegetable fields in suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province were investigated. The total soil concentrations of arsenic ranged from 1.29 to 25.28 mg kg(-)(1) with a mean of 6.09 mg kg(-)(1). Available (NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable) arsenic content accounted for 0.7-38.2% of total soil arsenic and was significantly correlated with total soil arsenic content. For the vegetable soils, the available fraction (ratio of available As to total As) of arsenic decreased with decreasing silt (particle size 0.02-0.002 mm) and free iron (DCB extractable) contents and with increasing soil pH and organic matter content. The available fraction of arsenic in the paddy rice soils increased with increasing free iron and organic matter contents and decreasing soil pH and silt content. The correlation of NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable arsenic with the arsenic concentration of the vegetables was much better than that of total As. The transfer factor based on the soil available arsenic (TF(avail)) was chosen to compare the accumulation ability of the various crops. The TF(avail) values of rice grains (air-dried weight basis) ranged between 0.068 and 0.44 and were higher than those of the vegetables, ranging from 0.001 to 0.12. The accumulation ability of the crops decreased in the order of rice>radish>water spinach>celery>onion>taro>leaf mustard>fragrant-flowered garlic>pakchoi>Chinese cabbage>lettuce>garlic>cowpea>cauliflower>bottle gourd>towel gourd>eggplant. Daily consumption of rice and other As-rich vegetables could result in an excessive intake of arsenic, based on the provisional tolerable intake for adults for arsenic recommended by WHO. PMID:16624379

  17. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Sarcocystis Spp. Isolated from Sheep (Ovis aries) in Babol Area, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    KALANTARI, Narges; KHAKSAR, Mohaddeseh; GHAFFARI, Salman; HAMIDEKISH, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed. Methods: Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward. Results: The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150). The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (∼1100 bp) from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%), six (20%) and four (13.3%) isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei. Conclusion: Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial. PMID:27095971

  19. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

  20. Assessment of Climate Driven Dynamics of Active Layer, Hydrological and Vegetation Status at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Using Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Extensive permafrost degradation starting from 1970s is observed at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , China. Degradation is attributed to an increase in mean annual ground temperature 0.1◦-0.5◦ C with mainly winter warming. The construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway also influenced a state of permafrost in the area Permafrost degradation caused negative environmental consequences in the area. The areas covered by sand are expanding steadily making large concern of accelerating desertification. The general pathway of future joint dynamics of permafrost, vegetation and hydrological status at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is still poorly understood and foreseeable. Hydrology in the area is determined by heat-moisture dynamics of active layer. This dynamics is highly non-linear and depends as on external climatic variables temperature and precipitation, so on soil and rock properties (amount of sand against aeolian deposits in the Plateau) as well as vegetation cover, which determine thaw and freeze processes in the active layer and evaporation and run-off. SEVER DGVM was modified to include heat-moisture dynamics of active layer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. SEVER DGVM imitates processes in 10 plant functional types at coarse resolution of 0.5 degrees. This model imitates behavior of average individual of each plant type in each grid cell through simulation years. Each of those grid cells processed independently. First, this model starts from "bare soil", placing a bit of each plant type and giving them some time to grow and achieve equilibrium. Then, including active layer thickness and soil moisture dynamics into this layer, it allows assessment of potential environmental dynamics in this area. Simulations demonstrate further degradation of pastureland and accelerating desertification processes in this vitally important water feed area for many Asian rivers. Negative environmental problems related to operation of Qinghai-Tibet are also assessed.

  1. Changes in alpine wetland ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau from 1967 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Genxu; Wang, Yibo

    2011-09-01

    Spatiotemporal shifts in the extent and distribution of alpine wetland ecosystems in China's Qinghai-Tibet plateau were investigated for the period 1967-2004. Using aerial photographs for 1967, and satellite remote sensing data for 1986, 2000, and 2004/5, the main components and distribution of alpine wetland ecosystems in the headwaters regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, as well as those of the nearby Zoige region, were analyzed. Widespread degradation of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau's alpine wetlands occurred between 1967 and 2004, with over 10% of their area being lost. The greatest such degradation occurred in the headwaters region of Yangtze River, where wetland areas shrank by 29%, and the area of dried-up lakes rose by 17.5%. In the Yellow River's headwaters region as well as the Zoige region, wetland ecosystems clearly underwent accelerated fragmentation and isolation in their spatial distribution. The wetlands' degradation was closely correlated to the rise in air temperature, which from 1982-2004 was over 2-fold faster that from 1965-1982. PMID:21140209

  2. An Investigation on Soil Chemical Composition and Shallow Groundwater Condition in a Saline Area in Nakhon Panom Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2010-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin region is a potential salt-accumulated neighborhood. Several subbasin areas have been reported to have the saline soil problem and these include Lower Songkram River, Nam Oon Brook, Nam Thew Brook, and Namkam Brook. The study area is located on the lower of the Namkam River Basin mainly in 3 districts of the Nakhon Panom Province and these districts are Amphoe That Panom, Amphoe Nakae, and Amphoe Renu Nakhon. Soil salinity is found risen sparsely in some villages of these three districts. Generally, shallow groundwater is known to facilitate the distribution of dissolved salts away from the salinity sources and to pick up the salts to the top soils. Thus, groundwater plays a major role in salinity distribution everywhere. The objective of this research is to investigate the soil chemical composition and shallow groundwater evolution in the study area. Soil samples are analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The depth to groundwater, groundwater pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical resistivity (EC), and salinity are the parameters and the measurement takes place from October 2007 to present. There are 19 sampling locations distributed in the study area. The depth of the observation wells varies from 4 m to 40 m. Groundwater table is found to be up to 7 m below the groundwater surface and the depth is increasing from December to April. Groundwater pH is constantly less than 7 and greater than 4. Groundwater pH varies significantly between 10 mg/l to 45,000 mg/l and EC also differs between 10 µS/cm to 90,000 µS/cm. Most of groundwater sampled in the study area is slight blackish with salinity measured below 1.00 ppt and these are Ban Don Dang, Ban Wang Yang, Ban Na Khu, Ban Piman Ta, Pan Sala, and Ban Lao Tung. On the other hand, Ban Bo Dong Sorn and Ban Pra Song Noi have very saline shallow groundwater with salinity greater 1ppt. The results from the XRF show that SiO2 and Al2O3 are the main composition and the soil is

  3. Stable isotopes reveal sources of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bu-Li; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2015-09-15

    The use of isotopic tracers is an effective approach for characterizing the moisture sources of precipitation in cold and arid regions, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), an area of sparse human habitation with few weather and hydrological stations. This study investigated stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin, analyzed moisture sources using data sets from NCEP-NCAR, and calculated vapor contributions from lake evaporation to the precipitation in the basin using a two-component mixing model. Results showed that the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was defined as δ(2)H=7.86 δ(18)O+15.01, with a slope of less than 8, indicating that some non-equilibrium evaporation processes occurred when the drops fell below the cloud base. Temperature effects controlled δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation in the basin, with high values in summer season and low values in winter season. Moisture in the basin was derived predominantly from the Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) from June to August and the Westerly Circulation (WC) from September through May. Meanwhile, the transition in atmospheric circulation took place in June and September. The SEAM strengthened gradually, while the WC weakened gradually in June, and inversely in September. However, the Southwest Asian Monsoon (SWAM) did not reach the Qinghai Lake Basin due to the barrier posed by Tanggula Mountain. High d-excess (>10 ‰) and significant altitude and lake effects of δ(18)O in precipitation suggested that the vapor evaporated from Qinghai Lake, strongly influenced annual precipitation, and affected the regional water cycle in the basin distinctly. The monthly contribution of lake evaporation to basin precipitation ranged from 3.03% to 37.93%, with an annual contribution of 23.42% or 90.54 mm, the majority of which occurred in the summer season. The findings demonstrate that the contribution of evaporation from lakes to atmospheric vapor is fundamental to water cycling on the

  4. Stable Isotope Reveal Sources of Precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    The use of isotopic tracers is an effective approach for characterizing the moisture sources of precipitation in cold and arid regions, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), an area of sparse human habitation with few weather and hydrological stations. This study investigated stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin, analyzed moisture sources using data sets from NCEP-NCAR, and calculated vapor contributions from lake evaporation to the precipitation in the basin using a two-component mixing model. Results showed that the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was defined as δ2H = 7.86 δ18O + 15.01, with a slope of less than 8, indicating that some non-equilibrium evaporation processes occurred when the drops fell below the cloud base. Temperature effects controlled δ18O and δ2H in precipitation in the basin, with high values in summer season and low values in winter season. Moisture in the basin was derived predominantly from the Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) from June to August and the Westerly Circulation (WC) from September through May. Meanwhile, the transition in atmospheric circulation took place in June and September. The SEAM strengthened gradually, while the WC weakened gradually in June, and inversely in September. However, the Southwest Asian Monsoon (SWAM) did not reach the Qinghai Lake Basin due to the barrier posed by Tanggula Mountain. High d-excess (>10‰) and significant altitude and lake effects of δ18O in precipitation suggested that the vapor evaporated from Qinghai Lake, strongly influenced annual precipitation, and affected the regional water cycle in the basin distinctly. The monthly contribution of lake evaporation to basin precipitation ranged from 3.03% to 37.93%, with an annual contribution of 23.42% or 90.54 mm, the majority of which occurred in the summer season. Our findings demonstrate that the contribution of evaporation from lakes to atmospheric vapor is fundamental to water cycling on the TP.

  5. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  6. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  7. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass burning is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland burning contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS Burned Area Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire burns in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland burned area estimations were calculated using the burned area pixel count (post-processing of MODIS Burned Area Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland burned area detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares burned from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares burned. The peak months for Cropland burned area detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba

  8. Bird Migration and Risk for H5N1 Transmission into Qinghai Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Guo, Shan; Luo, Ze; Yan, Baoping; Yin, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus still cause devastating effects to humans, agricultural poultry flocks, and wild birds. Wild birds are also detected to carry H5N1 over long distances and are able to introduce it into new areas during migration. In this article, our objective is to provide lists of bird species potentially involved in the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Qinghai Lake, which is an important breeding and stopover site for aquatic birds along the Central Asian Flyway. Bird species were classified according to the following behavioral and ecological factors: migratory status, abundance, degree of mixing species and gregariousness, and the prevalence rate of H5N1 virus. Most of the high-risk species were from the family Anatidae, order Anseriformes (9/14 in spring, 11/15 in fall). We also estimated the relative risk of bird species involved by using a semi-quantitative method; species from family Anatidae accounted for over 39% and over 91% of the total risk at spring and fall migration periods, respectively. Results also show the relative risk for each bird aggregating site in helping to identify high-risk areas. This work may also be instructive and meaningful to the avian influenza surveillance in the breeding, stopover, and wintering sites besides Qinghai Lake along the Central Asian Flyway. PMID:20925522

  9. Survey of Archaeal Diversity in Sediments of Qinghai Lake, China and Implications for Paleoclimate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Jiang, H.; Ji, S.; Dong, H.; Zhang, C.

    2006-12-01

    Lake ecosystem. Shen, J., Liu, X.Q., Wang, S.M., and Matsumoto, R. (2005) Palaeoclimatic changes in the Qinghai Lake area during the last 18,000 years, Quaternary International, 136, 131-140.

  10. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27601098

  11. Measuring the Lake Level Evolution in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with Radar Altimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Martinez Val, Bernat; Escorihuela, Ma Jose; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Yang, Jungang; Liao, Jingjuan

    2014-11-01

    The lake-level change is one of the important indicators for the water balance of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this region lake level is directly affected by the temperature both upstream and in the surroundings. In addition, other factors like: precipitation, evaporation, glaciers, perennial snow cover and permafrost do have an impact as well. With global climate warming, it is becoming more necessary to strengthen the monitoring of lake levels. Although there are thousands of lakes in the QTP, most of them are in remote areas with difficult accessibility. Therefore, it is difficult to set up hydrological stations for the monitoring. Remote sensing offers a convenient solution for continuous monitoring over that region This paper presents the comparison of the lake level evolutions measured with current altimeters since 2010 and the followed methodology to process and cross calibrate the data. A description of the improvements achieved with the incorporation of the new high resolution altimeters, the Chinese first altimeter and the Ka band altimeter will also be incorporated. The Qinghai and the Zhari Namco lakes have been selected in order to validate the methodology independently for each radar altimeter and later retrieve the time series for the rest of the Plateau lakes. This is an ongoing study. The mid-term results presented here will be updated and presented in the following Dragon-3 symposiums.

  12. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27601098

  13. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  14. Climate change and its impacts on vegetation distribution and net primary productivity of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Guo, Yaqi; Xu, Hongmei; Ganjurjav, Hasbagen; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Changes in climate have caused impacts on ecosystems on all continents scale, and climate change is also projected to be a stressor on most ecosystems even at the rate of low- to medium-range warming scenarios. Alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change. To quantify the climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems, we simulated the vegetation distribution and net primary production in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ model) was parameter and test to make it applicable to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Climate projections that were applied to LPJ model in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. Results based on climate projections indicated changes from 1.3°C to 4.2°C in annual temperature and changes from 2% to 5% in annual precipitation. The main impacts on vegetation distribution was increase in the area of forests and shrubs, decrease in alpine meadows which mainly replaced by shrubs which dominated the eastern plateau, and expanding in alpine steppes to the northwest dominated the western and northern plateau. The NPP was projected to increase by 79% and 134% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The projected NPP generally increased about 200gC·m(-2)·yr(-1) in most parts of the plateau with a gradual increase from the eastern to the western region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the end of this century. PMID:26950617

  15. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province.

    PubMed

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:26140675

  16. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  17. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    PubMed Central

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:26140675

  18. Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than

  19. Paracoccus gahaiensis sp. nov. isolated from sediment of Gahai Lake, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojing; Xian, Wendong; Yang, Jian; Liu, Wen; Jiang, Hongchen; Li, Wenjun

    2016-04-01

    An aerobic, orange-pigmented, Gram-negative, coccoid bacterium, named CUG 00006(T), was isolated from the sediment of Gahai Lake, Qinghai Province, China. This organism was alkaline and grew optimally at pH 9 and 20 °C in the presence of 4 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain CUG 00006(T) contained Q-10 as the major isoprenoid quinone and C18:1ω7c as the main fatty acids. The DNA G + C content was 67.8 mol%. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CUG 00006(T) was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Paracoccus, with the similarities ranging from 93.5 to 97.9 %. In particular, strain CUG 00006(T) was closely related to P. marcusii DSM 11574(T) (97.7 %), P. haeundaensis KCCM 10460(T) (97.8 %), and P. carotinifaciens IFO 16121(T) (97.7 %). On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical characterization, strain CUG 00006(T) is described as a new species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus gahaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain CUG 00006(T) (=CCTCC M 2014217(T) = KCTC 42687(T)). PMID:26742764

  20. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided. PMID:27394329

  1. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26608724

  2. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng

    2010-01-01

    Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available phosphorus (avail. P), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn. PMID:20616981

  3. Genetic Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Host Insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  4. Correlates of consistent condom use among recently initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Consistent use of condoms is the most effective method of preventing STIs including HIV. However, recent evidence suggests that limited knowledge about HIV prevention benefits from male circumcision leads to inconsistent condom use among traditionally circumcised men. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of consistent condom use and identify its psychosocial correlates to inform future HIV prevention strategies among traditionally circumcised men in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study using interviewer administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 1656 men who had undergone initiation and traditional male circumcision in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Logistic regression was used to evaluate univariate and multivariate relationships of psychosocial correlates with consistent condom use. Results The mean age of the participants was 21.4 years. About 45% belonged to the amaXhosa ethnic group, followed by 15.1% of the amaMpondo, 11.6% of the amaHlubi, and 27.9% from other ethnic groups. A total of 72.3% reported having a main sexual partner and of those 44.8% indicated having other sexual partners as well. About 49% reported consistent condom use and 80% used free government issued condoms, varies among ethnic groups. A total of 35.1% indicated having tested for HIV. Of those who tested for HIV, 46% reported inconsistent condom use when having sex with their sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a positive association between consistent condom use and the general knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use with main and casual sexual partners, subjective norm towards condom use with the main sexual partner, perceived self-efficacy towards condom use, positive self-esteem, beliefs about traditional male circumcision and STI protection, attitude towards gender based violence, and cultural alienation. Conclusions

  5. Incidence of oncological pathologies 2002-2010 in the southwestern Piedmont area, province of Vercelli, neighbouring municipalities of former nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Salerno, C; Marciani, P; Vanhaecht, K; Palin, L A; Panella, M

    2016-01-01

    The Vercelli Province counts two former nuclear installations: a radioactive waste disposal area in Saluggia and a former nuclear power plant in Trino. This study takes also into account four other neighbouring municipalities, counting 20,000 total inhabitants. We studied the incidence of neoplastic pathologies in the 2002-2010 period. The data sources were Hospital Discharge Form (SDO), histological reports from the Registry of Hospital Charts (RHC) and Italy's National Statistics Institute (ISTAT) reports, and the Cancer Register of Turin. The research highlights the excesses for all type of cancers (SIR=1,11; IC 1,04-1,18), including the ones of nervous system (SIR=2,23 IC 1,47-2,98), leukaemia (SIR=1,94 IC 1,35-2,52), and bones (SIR=12,0 IC 9,22-14,7), according to different aggregation levels by age, sex and housing area. Considering such results, previous studies, and the environmental and occupational risk factors in the area, we believe that further epidemiological and environmental studies should be conducted in this area. PMID:27297197

  6. Comparative study of lifestyles of residents in high and low risk areas for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China; with special reference to allium vegetables.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, T; Gao, C M; Ding, J H; Liu, T K; Li, M S; Tajima, K

    1999-11-01

    There is a low risk area for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China, where people frequently consume raw allium vegetables. As a first step epidemiological study to clarify the factors involved in the low incidence of gastric cancer, we conducted a comparative study of the ecological factors in a high risk area (HRA), Yangzhong, and a low risk area (LRA), Pizhou, using a questionnaire. Subjects were selected from the general population according to age and sex, and comprised 414 residents of the HRA and 425 residents of the LRA. Ecological factors were compared for the two areas by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, age-adjusted. Smoking and drinking habits were found to be more common in the LRA. On the other hand, allium vegetables were consumed in the LRA much more frequently, with high consumption of raw vegetables fruit, tomatoes, kidney beans and soybean products. People who consumed garlic en masse 3 times or more per week were 82% of men and 75% of women in the LRA, and 1% of men and women in the HRA. The results of the survey suggest that frequent consumption of allium vegetables, in addition to other anticancer foods, may be a factor in low mortality for gastric cancer. PMID:10616262

  7. From Schistosomiasis Vector Habitats Identification to Human Transmission Risk Mapping, in the Poyang Lake Area (Jiangxi Province, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, T.; Huber, C.; Yesou, H.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (Bilharzias) is the most frequent disease after malaria in the world. This disease hit 200 million people, and threats 600 million people. In China, Schistosomiasis japonicum, a serious communicable parasitic disease, is endemic along the Yangtze River basin, including monsoon lakes. Risky transmission areas are conditioned by the S. japonicum vector’s presence and human activities and presence. On Poyang Lake, marshlands are the principal area of its development. The aim of this work is to answer : Where are areas suitable for vector’s disease development ? Where and what are the human activities the most exposed to disease transmission ? Where are urban areas with the higher level of disease transmission risk ? How data crossing can be useful for identification of areas with the higher transmission risk level ?

  8. Hydro-meteorological processes on the Qinghai - Tibet Plateau observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, Massimo; Colin, Jerome; Jia, Li; D'Urso, Guido; Foken, Thomas; Immerzeel, Walter; Jha, Ramakar; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Changming; Ma, Yaoming; Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Yan, Guangjian; Pelgrum, Henk; Porcu, Federico; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jiemin; Shen, Xueshun; Su, Zhongbo; Ueno, Kenichi

    2014-05-01

    The Qinghai - Tibet Plateau is characterized by a significant intra-annual variability and spatial heterogeneity of surface conditions. Snow and vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature and wetness change very significantly during the year and from place to place. The influence of temporal changes on convective events and the onset of the monsoon has been documented by ground based measurements of land - atmosphere exchanges of heat and water. The state of the land surface over the entire Plateau can be determined by space observation of surface albedo, temperature, snow and vegetation cover and soil moisture. Fully integrated use of satellite and ground observations is necessary to support water resources management in SE Asia and to clarify the roles of the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau in the Asian monsoon system. New or significantly improved algorithms have been developed and evaluated against ground measurements. Variables retrieved include land surface properties, rain rate, aerosol optical depth, water vapour, snow cover and water equivalent, soil moisture and lake level. The three years time series of gap-free daily and hourly evaporation derived from geostationary data collected by the FY-2D satellite was a major achievement. The hydrologic modeling system has been implemented and applied to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the headwaters of the major rivers in South and East Asia. Case studies on response of atmospheric circulation and specifically of convective activity to land surface conditions have been completed and the controlling land surface conditions and processes have been documented. Two new drought indicators have been developed: Normalized Temperature Anomaly Index (NTAI) and Normalized Vegetation Anomaly Index (NVAI). Case study in China and India showed that these indicators capture effectively drought severity and evolution. A new method has been developed for monitoring and early

  9. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  10. Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Duan, Song; Duan, Qixiang; Pu, Yongcheng; Yang, Yuecheng; Ding, Yingying; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. Method A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. Results In total, 455 (94.4%) out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03–7.43), ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06–4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34–7.62), higher education (OR1–6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99–3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09–5.06) and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67–4.32). About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16–25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22–49.60, OR26–35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06–7.35, OR36–45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57–7.58), hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00–3.97) and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19–7.58) were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. Conclusions High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading. PMID:23626712

  11. Magmatic conduit melt-fluid metallogenic system- A new Genetic Model for Xishimen Iron Deposit, Wuan area, Hebei province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SU, S.; Hou, J.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Xishimen Iron deposit is located in Wuan city, Hebei province, China. it is a typical skarn deposit, but some geological characteristics in the deposit cannot been explained by skarn model. We will try to reveal the genetic mechanism of the iron deposit¢s in this paper. Orebodys mainly occur along the boundary of diorite and metalimestone in the Xishimen iron deposit. Some orebodys intruded into diorites or limestones. There are vesicles in some massive ores. Magnetite from the lower part of orebody occur between diopside and tremolite as an intersititial minerals. Magnetites from upper part of the orebody are eqilibrium with calcite, apatite, Talc, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Magnetites coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite have more than 15000 ppm TiO2, and riched in SiO2. However, magnetites coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfides have 200 ppm- 400 ppm TiO2, and poored in SiO2. Magnetites coexisting with talc have highest Al2O3, MgO, and MnO. Magnetites coexisting with calcite and sulfide have lowest Al2O3, MnO and MgO. Trace element analysis results of magnetite show that magnetite coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite are riched in Ti and Ta, and depleted Nb and Y. Magnetite coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfide are usually have poor positive or no anomaly of Ti and Ta, and have poor positive anomaly of Nb, Hf, and Y. The analysis results of Fe isotope for ores and rocks in Xishimen iron deposit show that there is a negative correlation relationship between altitude and the value of Fe isotope. The heavy Fe isotopes of ores are richer in the lower part than in the upper part. The origin processes of Xishimen iron deposit are: (1) mafic-intermediate magma riched in iron reacted with limestone, and make the "iron magma" formation; (2) Fluids are added into the metallogenic system continuously, and "iron magma" was getting less density; (3) "iron magma" bearing fluids uplifting along magma conduit because of fluid superpressure

  12. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  13. A new frontier province offshore northwest Greenland: Structure, basin development, and petroleum potential of the Melville Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Hamann, N.E.

    1997-06-01

    In the Melville Bay area, offshore northwest Greenland, very large structures and sedimentary basins, which were predicted many years ago on the basis of magnetic and gravity data, have been confirmed by a recent reconnaissance seismic survey, with implications that are encouraging for petroleum exploration in the area. The Melville Bay area flanks a small ocean basin in Baffin Bay that is thought to have formed by oblique sea-floor spreading in the Eocene. There are two major, coast-parallel basins in the area. The inner basin, the Melville Bay Graben, is essentially a half graben with a maximum thickness of sediments exceeding 13 km. A complex fault-controlled ridge system separates this basin from the outer Kivioq Basin in which up to 7 km of sediments have accumulated. By analogy with onshore geology in the surrounding areas and well data from the continental shelves off southern west Greenland and Labrador to the south, it is expected that the first phase of rifting and sedimentation took place in the Early-middle Cretaceous, while a second phase of rifting took place in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene. Later, compression and inversion affected the northern part of the area, leading to the formation of large anticlinal structures. The existence of large tilted fault blocks and inversion anticlines provides grounds for anticipating the presence of large structural traps. Synrift sandstones and deeper water fans are expected to provide potential reservoirs, and correlatives of oil-prone source rocks known from the lower part of the upper Cenomanian-lower Maastrichtian Kanguk Formation in the Canadian Arctic may also have oil source properties in the Melville Bay area. Recent discoveries of live oil in the uppermost Cretaceous and lower Tertiary of onshore central west Greenland provide proof that oil has been generated in the region.

  14. Clostridium infection (jisizheng) in yaks in Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Changqing, Q; Xueli, Y

    2001-10-01

    Since the mid-1980s, outbreaks of a disease characterized by a sudden onset, acute deaths and extensive haemorrhages in the viscera and digestive tract of yaks have been prevalent in Qilian, Qinghai, China. The disease is known as jisiheng by local people. Virulent Clostridium perfringens type A and Clostridium haemolytica were isolated from yaks that had died of jisizheng. In 1996 and 1997, yaks were immunized with a polyvalent inactivated vaccine against C. perfringens and with an inactivated vaccine against C. haemolyticum, and this prevented the occurrence of jisizheng. PMID:11583378

  15. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  16. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  17. The Construction Features of Traditional Settlements in the Middle Area of Jiangxi Province Basing on the Analysis of Tangyin Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    Based on general investigations and utilizing GIS software, missing historical data was hypothesized. From the perspectives of social and economic development, this paper tries to find the logic behind the formation and development of traditional settlements. Using systematic examination, the features of the town's overall layout, courtyard shape and building materials appear. Applying comparative analysis, this paper indicated the similarities and differences between Tangyin town and the other areas of Jiangxi, and add them to the construction logic of the middle area in Jiangxi to make the following construction activities much in order.

  18. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns. PMID:27112022

  19. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  20. [Soil heterotrophic respiration and its sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-hua; Chen, Fang-qing; Wang, Yuan; Li, Jun-qing

    2011-03-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to study the annual dynamics of soil heterotrophic respiration and soil temperature and moisture in Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana forests in hilly areas of southeast Hubei Province, China. At the same time, laboratory experiment was performed to study the heterotrophic respiration rate along soil profile, and the sensitivity of surface soil (0-5 cm) heterotrophic respiration to soil temperature and moisture. Then, a model was established to valuate the potential effects of warming change on the soil heterotrophic respiration in study area. In L. formosana and P. massoniana forests, the soil heterotrophic respiration rate in 0-5 cm layer was 2.39 and 2.62 times, and 2.01 and 2.94 times of that in 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers, respectively, illustrating that soil heterotrophic respiration mainly occurred in 0-5 cm surface layer. The temperature sensitivity factor (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm layers was 2.10, 1.86, and 1.78 in L. formosana forest, and 1.86, 1.77, and 1.44 in P. massoniana forest, respectively. The relationship between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and temperature (T) well fitted exponential function R = alphaexp (beta3T), and that between surface soil heterotrophic respiration and moisture (W) well fitted quadratic function R = a+bW+cW2. Therefore, the relationship of surface soil heterotrophic respiration with soil temperature and moisture could be described by the model lnR = a+bW+cW2 +dT+eT2, which suggested that the response of soil heterotrophic respiration to soil moisture was depended on soil temperature, i.e., the sensitivity decreased with decreasing soil temperature. The calculation of the annual soil heterotrophic respiration rate in the two forests with the established model showed that the calculated respiration rate was a slightly higher in L. formosana forest but close to the measured one in P. massoniana forest, illustrating the applied

  1. [Annual Reports for the Academic Year 1980-81 from 49 States, the District of Columbia and 3 Canadian Provinces Focusing on Problems, Issues, Achievements and Other Areas of Interest to the Postsecondary Education Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berve, Nancy M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Annual reports are presented for the academic year 1980-1981 from 49 states (except Maine), the District of Columbia, and three Canadian provinces focusing on problems, issues, achievements, and other areas of interest to the postsecondary education community. Specific topics include the following: long-range plans for higher education,…

  2. Molecular characteristics of the ompA gene of serotype B Chlamydia trachomatis in Qinghai Tibetan primary school students.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Liang, Qingfeng; Wang, Mei; Hu, Ailian; Li, Xiuyuan; Yang, Benshan; Zhang, Mingxin; Wang, Ningli; Lu, Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    To study the molecular characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) of C. trachomatis from primary school students with trachoma residing in the Qinghai Tibetan area was sequenced and compared with the same serotype in GenBank. In Jianshetang Primary School and Galeng Central Primary School in the Galeng Tibetan Township of Qinghai Haidong Sala Autonomous County, scraped samples were collected from the upper tarsal conjunctiva and lower conjunctival sac of both eyes of 45 students with trachoma, stored at 4°C, and transported to Beijing Tongren Hospital by air within 24 h. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by real-time PCR. The ompA gene from the C. trachomatis-positive samples was amplified by nested PCR. The serotype was confirmed by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) BLAST search and homology analysis. The entire ompA gene sequence was compared with the corresponding gene sequences of serotype B strains available in GenBank. Of the 45 students aged 6-13 years with trachoma, 26 C. trachomatis-positive students were identified by the initial real-time PCR screening (average age, (9.09±1.63) years; sex ratio, 1.0), accounting for 57.78% (26/45). The cycle threshold values for real-time PCR were 16.79-37.77. Half (13/26) of C. trachomatis-positive students had a bacterial copy number of >10(5). The compliance rate of the ompA gene sequences with the C. trachomatis serotype B strains in GenBank was up to 99%. Two novel genetic mutations were found when the ompA gene was compared with those of the 11 serotype B strains in GenBank. The two non-synonymous mutations were located at (i) position 271 in the second constant domain, an adenine (A) to guanine (G) substitution (ACT→GCT), changing the amino acid at position 91 from threonine to alanine (Thr→Ala) in all 26 strains; and (ii) position 887 in the fourth variable domain, a cytosine (C) to thymine (T) substitution (GCA→GTA), changing the

  3. Environmental sustainability and scenarios of urbanization in arid area: a case study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Suocheng; You, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2004-11-01

    Northwestern China, located in the hinterland of the Asia-European continent, is composed of arid and semi-arid areas, with a very vulnerable natural environment and a long history of oasis economy. Implementation of the new policy of development of Western China resulted in both economic progress and environmental crisis. This article, using Wuwei City as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of energy, pollution discharge, transportation, food, industry and urbanization. Polestar language, the model developed and used by the Global Scenario Group, was applied to simulate the development of the study area. The results revealed that Wuwei city would reach a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional development patterns in the next ten to twenty years. Therefore, a sustainable scenario was recommended in the urbanization of Wuwei, and appropriate suggestions were also put forward to the policy makers.

  4. Ecology of Hantaan virus at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Lee, In Yong; Gu, Se Hun; Park, Yon Mi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Song, Jin-Won

    2009-12-01

    The Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) in the Republic of Korea consists of dirt roads, barren training areas, and forested hillsides adjacent to linear and broad expanses of tall grasses, herbaceous, and scrub vegetation. Of the six species of small mammals, the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, was the most frequently captured (96.1%). Apodemus agrarius capture rates varied from 17.7 to 33.2% during three trapping periods. Gravid females were observed during November-December 2006 (8.4%) and March 2007 (5.1%). In 2005, the overall seroprevalence of Hantaan virus (HTNV) was high (34.4%) and lower during surveys in 2006 (14.2%) and 2007 (13.8%). Seroprevalence was directly correlated with weight increase of A. agrarius. PMID:20836826

  5. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  6. Losses Assessment of Crops due to Typhoon Disaster in China Coastal Areas —— A Case Study of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, W.; Fang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability which quantifies the loss ratio under different hazard intensity is an important feature of the natural disaster system and has important significance to natural disaster risk assessment. Agriculture is an outdoor industry with high risk of meteorological disasters. The strong winds, heavy rain and storm surge are main typhoon hazard factors to crops. To provide a quantitative research method for the loss evaluation of crops due to typhoon disaster we first revised two vulnerability curves for crops under comprehensive intensity of typhoon based on the simulated hazard data and loss data related to historical typhoon events landing on China from 1949 to 2014;and then established a storm surge vulnerability matrix of crops regarding Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province as the study area ; finally, we put forward three storm surge fragility curves for crops representing different states of loss. The results can effectively describe the typhoon vulnerability for crops in China coastal areas so as to provide the input to post-disaster loss assessments and catastrophe modeling applications.

  7. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  8. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case. PMID:25555623

  9. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R.

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  10. High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in reservoir hosts in four districts of Khon Kaen Province, an opisthorchiasis endemic area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aunpromma, Surasit; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Papirom, Pittaya; Kanjampa, Prapan; Tesana, Smarn; Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn

    2012-03-01

    Khon Kaen, a northeastern province of Thailand, has been considered as one of the human opisthorchiasis endemic areas with continuing high prevalence. Unsuccessful eradication of the disease is probably from the culture of eating raw and undercooked fish of local residence and the parasitic persistency in animal reservoir hosts, such as cats and dogs. In cooperation with the other human opisthorchiasis control programs in an endemic area of 29 villages in Ban Haet, Ban Phai, Chonnabot and Muncha Khiri Districts, Khon Kaen, this study investigated the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection using a formalin-ether sedimentation method as the gold standard, and hematology and blood chemistry of the reservoir hosts in this endemic area. The results showed that cats had much higher prevalence (76 of 214, 35.51%) than dogs (3 of 821, 0.37%). Hematology between the infected and uninfected cats was not different. Complete blood count and biochemistry reflected some altered hepatic functions. However, only severely infected cats showed apparent clinical signs, including lethargy, diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharges. Moreover, the ultrasonogram of infected cats with very high egg per gram (>1500 EPG) showed apparent thickening of the gall bladder wall with hyperechoicity of hepatic parenchyma. This study suggests that cat is the most important animal reservoir of human opisthorchiasis, especially in this endemic area. It is also interesting that villages with infection are mostly located in the vicinity of Chi River and two large water reservoirs (Lawa and Nong Kongkaew Lakes), but people without infection were away from Chi River, on the south of Kudkhow Lake. Further investigation on this particular geofactor is essential for effective opisthorchiasis control programs. PMID:21843654

  11. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment. PMID:22864550

  12. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  13. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  14. Eco-Environmental Assessment and Analysis of Tonglvshan Mining Area in Daye City, Hubei Province Based on Spatiotemporal Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. M.; He, G. J.; Wang, M. M.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jiao, W. L.; Peng, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Liu, H. C.; Long, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI), Vegetation Index (VI), Water Network Density Index (WNDI), and Land Degradation Index (LDI). The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard "Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation" HJ/T192-2006 and the "Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion" SL 190-96. Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal analysis of the type and area of land

  15. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    points distributed over a large area around the canal and the results of numerical simulations, the main hydrological changes include: (1) Incorporation of new boundary conditions. The groundwater flow, previously controlled by the oscillating sea level and by the lagoon level, has been altered introducing a line of minimum potential along the canal. The water level in the canal oscillates according to the variations in the levels of the sea and the lagoon. (2) The gypsum bedrock that behaves as an anisotropic aquifer, is drained by a channel in which the flow, essentially controlled by the tidal regime, discharges two times a day towards the sea and towards the lagoon. (3) The canal that works as a drainage trench, has caused the lowering of the water table. The local distortion of the piezometric surface has modified the flow direction and increased the gradient and flow rate. At the flanks of the canal, the groundwater that used to flow towards the sea, now has been captured by the excavation and circulates towards the canal. The sense of this flow is influenced by the piezometric changes caused by the tidal variations. (4) As a consequence of the lowering of the water table (of the order of a few decimetres) near the banks of the canal, slow subhorizontal phreatic flows have been replaced by more rapid downward vadose flows. These hydrological changes have induced the reactivation-acceleration of internal erosion and collapse processes leading to the generation of a large number of sinkholes in the vicinity of the canal. The lowering in the water table involves an increase in the effective weight of the sediments previously situated in the saturated zone due to the loss of buoyancy. Additionally, downward vadose flows and more rapid water circulation in the saturated zone towards the canal favour the flushing out of the sediments filling voids and the downward migration of cover material towards the underlying paleokarst. Most likely the continuous oscillations of

  16. The activities of low level preesure system over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its links with evolution of plateau monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z.; Xun, X.; Bai, B.

    2015-12-01

    The activities of low pressure system (LPS) close to land-surface of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its links with plateau monsoon index (PMI) and intensity departure of surface heating (B-H) were analyzed based on monthly ECMWF reanalysis data and monthly B-H data. The result shows that the LPS was formed in the southwest of Qinghai Province in April. It moved southwest to Xizang Autonomous Region in May and then shifted to westward. After reached to most west point, the LPS turned back with attenuation and dissipated in October. The intensity of LPS was stronger in high PMI year than that in weak PMI year. The track of LPS located farther north and present less zonal fluctuation in high PMI year. The B-H was well correlated with PMI especially in dry seasons. And there is a time lag of 2 to 3 months. It means that the Plateau summer monsoon onset early and with high intensity at the beginning of the onset period when the thermal effects were strong in February.

  17. [Species Determination and Spectral Characteristics of Swelling Clay Minerals in the Pliocene Sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-wen; Chen, Jiang-jun; Fang, Qian; Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-lie

    2015-10-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted to deepen our research on specific species and spectral characteristics of swelling clay minerals in the Pliocene sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai province. XRD results show that swelling clay minerals are dominant clay minerals in the sandstones, which can be up to 97% in percentage. XRD patterns show 060 reflections of the samples occur both remarkably at 1.534 Å and 1.498 Å, indicating the samples contain physical mixtures of trioctahedral and dioctahedral swelling clay minerals, respectively. Further treatment of Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation shows the swelling clay minerals collapse to 9.3-9.9 Å with a partial expansion to -18 Å. This indicates the swelling clay minerals dominate montmorillonite and contain minor saponite. The montmorillonite shows no swelling after Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation because of Li+ inserting into the octahedral layers, which balances the layer charge caused by the substitution of Mg to Al. FTIR results show the samples are composed of a kind of phyllosilicate with absorbed and structural water, which is in agreement with the results of XRD. Absorbed peaks at 913, 842, 880 cm(-1), corresponding to OH associated with Al-Al, Al-Mg, and Al-Fe pairs, further indicates the minerals are dominant dioctahedron in structure. Meanwhile, absorbed peaks at 625 and 519 cm(-1), corresponding to coupled Si-O and Al-O-Si deformation, indicates parts of Si is replaced by Al in tetrahedron. The spectral characteristics of the samples are against the presence of beidellite and nontronite based on the results of XRD and FTIR, while demonstrating an,existence of montmorillonite. This study, to distinguish the specific species of swelling clay species in clay minerals, would be of great importance when using clay mineralogy to interpret provenance and climatic information. PMID:26904841

  18. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. PMID:21635640

  19. Mercury methylation in rice paddies and its possible controlling factors in the Hg mining area, Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Shang, Lihai; Yan, Haiyu; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Understanding mercury (Hg) methylation/demethylation processes and the factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production within the rice paddy ecosystem of Hg mining areas is critical to assess the risk of MeHg contamination in rice grain. Two typical Hg-contaminated mining sites, a current-day artisanal site (Gouxi) and an abandoned site (Wukeng), were chosen in this study. We qualified the in situ specific methylation/demethylation rate constants in rice paddy soil during a complete rice-growing season. Our results demonstrate that MeHg levels in rice paddy soil were a function of both methylation and demethylation processes and the net methylation potential in the rice paddy soil reflected the measured MeHg production at any time point. Sulfate stimulating the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was a potentially important metabolic pathway for Hg methylation in rice paddies. We suggest that bioavailable Hg derived from new atmospheric deposition appears to be the primary factor regulating net MeHg production in rice paddies. PMID:27176759

  20. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  1. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed. PMID:26661960

  2. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV. PMID:16293995

  3. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Dong, Shikui; Peng, Mingchun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world. The basin has been strongly affected by human activities, particularly by dam construction. This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China, where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed. To identify the vegetation composition and structure, we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010. We found that the forest, shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside. In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity. In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley. At high altitude, the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found. As a result of dam construction and operation, the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed. Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats. The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  4. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  5. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  6. Trends in precipitation recycling over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yipeng; Wang, Chenghai

    2014-09-01

    This study calculated the annual and inter-annual variations in the precipitation recycling ratio (PRR) on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP); and by using water mass balance equation; we evaluated the estimated evaporation in the area. The results indicate that the estimated evaporation relate strongly to surface air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. As temperatures on the QXP increase, the changes of PRR vary by regions within the plateau. Between 1979 and 2008, the PRR decreased in the western QXP, which is an arid area, but it increased in the other areas. The strongest increasing PRR trend is 3.1%/10 a in the northeastern QXP, but a decreasing trend, ranging downward to -2.5%/10 a, was observed in the western QXP. There is a significant seasonal change in precipitation recycling (PR) over QXP. The PR peak values occurred in July in all regions, and PR was very low (approaching 0.0) in winter half-year period. The monthly maximum PRR reached 0.62, which occurred in July over the southeastern QXP, where is a rich center of precipitation. These results imply that there is remarkable change of moisture resource of precipitation in last decades. On the QXP, large-scale moisture advances decrease with increased temperature, and the local moisture cycle is reinforced in wet regions.

  7. Crustal structure and tectonic provinces of the Riiser-Larsen Sea area (East Antarctica): results of geophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.; Grikurov, G.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Sand, M.; Golynsky, A.; Aleshkova, N.

    2008-06-01

    About 16,000 km of multichannel seismic (MCS), gravity and magnetic data and 28 sonobuoys were acquired in the Riiser-Larsen Sea Basin and across the Gunnerus and Astrid Ridges, to study their crustal structure. The study area has contrasting basement morphologies and crustal thicknesses. The crust ranges in thickness from about 35 km under the Riiser-Larsen Sea shelf, 26 28 km under the Gunnerus Ridge, 12 17 km under the Astrid Ridge, and 9.5 10 km under the deep-water basin. A 50-km-wide block with increased density and magnetization is modeled from potential field data in the upper crust of the inshore zone and is interpreted as associated with emplacement of mafic intrusions into the continental margin of the southern Riiser-Larsen Sea. In addition to previously mapped seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in the western Riiser-Larsen Sea, a linear succession from M2 to M16 is identified in the eastern Riiser-Larsen Sea. In the southwestern Riiser-Larsen Sea, a symmetric succession from M24B to 24n with the central anomaly M23 is recognized. This succession is obliquely truncated by younger lineation M22 M22n. It is proposed that seafloor spreading stopped at about M23 time and reoriented to the M22 opening direction. The seismic stratigraphy model of the Riiser-Larsen Sea includes five reflecting horizons that bound six seismic units. Ages of seismic units are determined from onlap geometry to magnetically dated oceanic basement and from tracing horizons to other parts of the southern Indian Ocean. The seaward edge of stretched and attenuated continental crust in the southern Riiser-Larsen Sea and the landward edge of unequivocal oceanic crust are mapped based on structural and geophysical characteristics. In the eastern Riiser-Larsen Sea the boundary between oceanic and stretched continental crust is better defined and is interpreted as a strike-slip fault lying along a sheared margin.

  8. Field relation, geochemistry and origin of the Xinglonggou volcanic rocks in Beipiao area, Liaoning Province (China): Reappraisal on the foundering of lower continental crust of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Su-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Our large scale geological mapping in the Beipiao area, western Liaoning Province, the North China Craton, shows that the exposed "Xinglonggou Formation" is not a monoclinal stratum, but a suit of strongly deformed volcanic rocks intruded by some small plugs. Consequently, two rock groups are categorized for the "Xinglonggou Formation" in the Beipiao area, according to their field relation, petrography, and geochemical characteristics. The group 1 rocks are blackish and fresh, and cut across the deformed group 2 volcanic rocks. Meanwhile, the group 1 rocks exhibit characteristics of higher magnesium number (Mg# ⩾ 60), calcium content (CaO > 5 wt.%), and Sr/Y ratio (>60), but lower potassium (K2O < 2 wt.%) and Rb contents (<40 ppm). Among these rocks, most of them have higher Cs but lower Li content. Geochemically, the group 1 rocks belong to high-SiO2 adakite (HSA). On the contrary, the group 2 is composed of intermediate and acid volcanic rocks, which are brownish or greenish and strongly folded. Compared with the group 1 rocks, they have higher potassium (K2O > 2 wt.%) and Rb contents, but lower Mg# (<60) and calcium content (most samples CaO < 5 wt.%); meanwhile, they have lower Sr/Y ratios (in general <60), and lower Cs but higher Li contents. According to their near zero ɛNd(t) value and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, as well as the enrichment of U and Th relative to LREE, neither the group 1 or the group 2 rocks result from the partial melting of the lower crust of North China Craton. The group 1 HSAs are generated by melting of the subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Pacific plate; otherwise, the group 2 rocks are derivatives of the magma originated from a slab-derived melt metasomatised mantle.

  9. Source identification of eight heavy metals in grassland soils by multivariate analysis from the Baicheng-Songyuan area, Jilin Province, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yuan; Guo, Jia; Chai, Sheli; Cai, Jing; Xue, Linfu; Zhang, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of the concentration, chemical speciation and source of heavy metals in soils is an imperative for pollution monitoring and the potential risk assessment of the metals to animal and human health. A total of 154 surface horizons and 53 underlying horizons of grassland soil were collected from the Baicheng-Songyuan area in Jilin Province, Northeast China, in which the concentrations and chemical fractionations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in grassland topsoil were 7.2, 0.072, 35, 16.7, 0.014, 15.2, 18.3 and 35 mg kg(-)(1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, and those averaged contents were lower than their China Environmental Quality Standard values for the Soils, implying that heavy metal concentrations in the studied soils were of the safety levels. The mobility sequence of the heavy metals based on the sum of the soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound and humic acid-bound fractions among the seven fractions decreased in the order of Cd 50.4%)>Hg (39.8%)>Cu (26.5%)>As (19.9%)>Zn (19.1%)>Ni (15.9%)>Pb (14.1%)>Cr (4.3%), suggesting Cd and Hg may pose more potential risk of soil contamination than other metals. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg had the similar lithogenic sources, however, Cd and Hg were more relevant to organic matter than other heavy metals, which was confirmed by the chemical speciation analysis of the metals. The study provides a base for local authority in the studied area to monitor the long term accession of heavy metals into grassland soil. PMID:25911049

  10. Prognostic Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma—A Population-Based Study in Golestan Province, Iran, a High Incidence Area

    PubMed Central

    Aghcheli, Karim; Marjani, Haji-Amin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Islami, Farhad; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Ghavamnasiri, Mohammad-Reza; Razaei, Ezzatollah; Khalilipour, Elias; Mohtashami, Samira; Makhdoomi, Yasha; Rajabzadeh, Rabea; Merat, Shahin; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Golestan Province in northern Iran is an area with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to investigate prognostic factors for ESCC and survival of cases in Golestan, on which little data were available. We followed-up 426 ESCC cases participating in a population-based case-control study. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard models. Median survival was 7 months. Age at diagnosis was inversely associated with survival, but the association was disappeared with adjustment for treatment. Residing in urban areas (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54–0.90) and being of non-Turkmen ethnic groups (HR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61–0.96) were associated with better prognosis. In contrast to other types of tobacco use, nass (a smokeless tobacco product) chewing was associated with a slightly poorer prognosis even in models adjusted for other factors including stage of disease and treatment (HR = 1.38; 95% CI 0.99–1.92). Opium use was associated with poorer prognosis in crude analyses but not in adjusted models. Almost all of potentially curative treatments were associated with longer survival. Prognosis of ESCC in Golestan is very poor. Easier access to treatment facilities may improve the prognosis of ESCC in Golestan. The observed association between nass chewing and poorer prognosis needs further investigations; this association may suggest a possible role for ingestion of nass constituents in prognosis of ESCC. PMID:21811567

  11. Prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--a population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran, a high incidence area.

    PubMed

    Aghcheli, Karim; Marjani, Haji-Amin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Islami, Farhad; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Ghavamnasiri, Mohammad-Reza; Razaei, Ezzatollah; Khalilipour, Elias; Mohtashami, Samira; Makhdoomi, Yasha; Rajabzadeh, Rabea; Merat, Shahin; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Golestan Province in northern Iran is an area with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to investigate prognostic factors for ESCC and survival of cases in Golestan, on which little data were available. We followed-up 426 ESCC cases participating in a population-based case-control study. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard models. Median survival was 7 months. Age at diagnosis was inversely associated with survival, but the association was disappeared with adjustment for treatment. Residing in urban areas (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.90) and being of non-Turkmen ethnic groups (HR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.96) were associated with better prognosis. In contrast to other types of tobacco use, nass (a smokeless tobacco product) chewing was associated with a slightly poorer prognosis even in models adjusted for other factors including stage of disease and treatment (HR = 1.38; 95% CI 0.99-1.92). Opium use was associated with poorer prognosis in crude analyses but not in adjusted models. Almost all of potentially curative treatments were associated with longer survival. Prognosis of ESCC in Golestan is very poor. Easier access to treatment facilities may improve the prognosis of ESCC in Golestan. The observed association between nass chewing and poorer prognosis needs further investigations; this association may suggest a possible role for ingestion of nass constituents in prognosis of ESCC. PMID:21811567

  12. The associations of heavy metals with crystalline iron oxides in the polluted soils around the mining areas in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui; Tan, Nianhao; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Juju; Liang, Xiaoliang; Qu, Mingkai; Feng, Xionghan; Qiu, Guohong; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In current selective sequential extraction (SSE) methods, heavy metals associated well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides are not well defined and considered, and usually fall into residual forms, which actually make their mobility and environmental risk underestimated. This study compared various fractions of heavy metals in samples of mining tailings and nearby soils under different land uses in Guangdong Province of China. Iron oxides in these soils were mainly Al-substituted goethites and/or hematites. Independent of the land uses, the percentages of various Cd fractions in the soils decrease in the order of well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated (27.2-91.2%) > residual (2.1-37.0%) > reducible FeMn oxides (3.2-45.7%) > exchangeable (1.0-28.2%) > organic-associated form (0-5.1%). Pb mainly existes in the residual fraction (25.9-74.5%), followed by crystalline iron oxyhydroxides-associated (0.4-69.0%) and reducible fractions (2.4-40.4%). Zn mainly exists in the residual fraction (25.4-85.9%), followed by the well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated fraction (6.4-55.0%). However, Cu mainly existes in the residual form and the fractionation of Cu varies obviously between samples. The association of these metals with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides in the soils decreases in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. These results suggest that in heavy-metal-polluted weathered soils in tropical and subtropical areas enriched with iron oxides, it is essential to assess potential bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals bound to well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides with appropriate procedures in the fractionation measurement. The modified Tessier method present here can be used to quantify the fractions of heavy metals in such areas. PMID:27427775

  13. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  14. Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Yu, Dong-Bao; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. Methodology Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. Principal Findings We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. Conclusions/Significance There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached. PMID:23936580

  15. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  16. Crustal thickening in Gansu-Qinghai, lithospheric mantle subduction, and oblique, strike-slip controlled growth of the Tibet plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B.; Tapponnier, P.; Bourjot, L.; Métivier, F.; Gaudemer, Y.; Peltzer, G.; Shunmin, Guo; Zhitai, Chen

    1998-10-01

    Fieldwork complemented by SPOT image analysis throws light on current crustal shortening processes in the ranges of northeastern Tibet (Gansu and Qinghai provinces, China). The ongoing deformation of Late-Pleistocene bajada aprons in the forelands of the ranges involves folding, at various scales, and chiefly north-vergent, seismogenic thrusts. The most active thrusts usually break the ground many kilometres north of the range-fronts, along the northeast limbs of growing, asymmetric ramp-anticlines. Normal faulting at the apex of other growing anticlines, between the range fronts and the thrust breaks, implies slip on blind ramps connecting distinct active décollement levels that deepen southwards. The various patterns of uplift of the bajada surfaces can be used to constrain plausible links between contemporary thrusts downsection. Typically, the foreland thrusts and décollements appear to splay from master thrusts that plunge at least 15-20 km down beneath the high ranges. Plio-Quaternary anticlinal ridges rising to more than 3000 m a.s.l. expose Palaeozoic metamorphic basement in their core. In general, the geology and topography of the ranges and forelands imply that structural reliefs of the order of 5-10 km have accrued at rates of 1-2 mm yr-1 in approximately the last 5 Ma. From hill to range size, the elongated reliefs that result from such Late-Cenozoic, NE-SW shortening appear to follow a simple scaling law, with roughly constant length/width ratio, suggesting that they have grown self-similarly. The greatest mountain ranges, which are over 5.5 km high, tens of kilometres wide and hundreds of kilometres long may thus be interpreted to have formed as NW-trending ramp anticlines, at the scale of the middle-upper crust. The fairly regular, large-scale arrangement of those ranges, with parallel crests separated by piggy-back basins, the coevality of many parallel, south-dipping thrusts, and a change in the scaling ratio (from ~5 to 8) for range widths

  17. Assessing environmental soil quality in rural areas : A base line study in the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands and reflections on soil monitoring network designs.

    PubMed

    van Gaans, P F; Vriend, S P; Bleyerveld, S; Schrage, G; Vos, A

    1995-01-01

    A base line study into the environmental quality of soils in the rural areas of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands, was performed. The polder-landscape in this area was developed in a complex history of floodings and land-reclamation. Samples from 67 sites, at a density of roughly one per 25 km(2), were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in addition to a physicochemical characterization by pH(KCl), dry solids, organic matter, and clay content. At about 2/3 of the sites samples were taken at more than one depth. Fluoride and pesticides were determined in partly overlapping selections of 30 samples. Four land use classes were distinguished (arable land, grass land, orchards, uncultivated), and samples were labelled by region within the province. Data evaluation was aided by a recursive statistical approach, whereby statistical tests confirm and strengthen geochemical reasoning. Single- and multivariate statistics were used both as exploratory tools and as a measure of significance and relevance of conditions and processes. In general the environmental quality of the soils is satisfactory. Exceedence of the legal standards for natural background values at more than one site occurs for Cd, Cu, Hg and the pesticides DDT/DDE, dieldrin and HCH, at most by a factor of three. High levels of Hg appear related to arable land use; enhanced levels of Cu are found in orchards. High Cd levels primarily seem to follow a regional or geological pattern; yet, a relation with arable land use and clayey soils cannot be excluded. Pesticides are not detected in grass land, incidence is highest in orchards as well as in uncultivated areas. DDT levels appear to be generally inherited from the past. Variation in soil type as described by the macro physico-chemical characteristics is essential in explaining the variation in concentration level of the potential contaminants. Variations with depth also appear largely related to concurrent variation in soil properties. For As

  18. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  19. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  20. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value <0.05). Only 4% of the vegetated area showed significant decrease trends, which were mostly in the central and southwestern plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  1. Aeolian environments and sand damage along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kecun; Qu, Jiaunjun; Han, Qingjie; An, Zhishan

    2016-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), with a total length of 1956 km, is the word's longest high-altitude railway. Located in the Tibet Plateau, the QTR is frequently damaged by windblown sand because of strong winds and abundant sand. Based on the detailed wind data, in situ observation of wind blown sand and field wind tunnel simulations along the QTR, the aeolian sand environment, involving sand-laden wind, drift potential, sand transport and their spatial variation were investigated. Sand-laden wind presents unidirectional characteristics along the QTR and its prevailing direction is westerly. The annual drift potential along the QTR reaches 970.54 Vector Units (VU), which belongs to a high-energy wind environment. In cold-high environments, sand transport rate increases with increasing wind velocity, but decreases exponentially with increasing height in the wind stream. As the altitude increases, the threshold velocity for sand movement linearly increases with altitude, and the sand transport per unit width decreases gradually. The results can be used to guide the design of sand-control structures both in the study area and in other areas that experience threats from windblown sand.

  2. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanzhong; Ma, Junwei; Yan, Hongxia; Ren, Yuqing; Wang, Beibei; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao

    2016-04-01

    Incidental oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway by which human intake contaminants in both soil and indoor dust, and this is especially true for children as they frequently exhibit hand-to-mouth behaviour. Research on comprehensive health risk caused by incidental ingestion of both soil and indoor dust is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the arsenic concentration and to characterize the health risks due to arsenic (As) exposure via soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province within central China. Soil and indoor dust samples were collected from schools and residential locations and bioaccessibility of arsenic in these samples was determined by a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). The total arsenic content in indoor dust samples was 1.78-2.60 times that measured in soil samples. The mean As bioaccessibility ranged from 75.4% to 83.2% in indoor dust samples and from 13.8% to 20.2% in soil samples. A Pearson's analysis showed that As bioaccessibility was significantly correlated with Fe and Al in soil and indoor dust, respectively, and activity patterns of children were utilised in the assessment of health risk via incidental ingestion of soil and indoor dust. The results suggest no non-carcinogenic health risks (HQ<1) or acceptable carcinogenic health risks (1×10(-6)areas were 1.59-1.95 times those for children in rural areas. The HQ and CR values for children three to five years of age were 1.40-1.47 times those for children six to nine years of age. The health risk accounting for bioaccessibility was only 50.8-59.8% of that obtained without consideration of bioaccessibility. PMID:26707184

  3. Assessing the Effect of an Integrated Control Strategy for Schistosomiasis Japonica Emphasizing Bovines in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Yu, Chuan-Hua; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Yan-Yan; Li, Ren-Dong; Qiu, Juan; Liu, Zong-Chuan; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; He, Hong-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). In contrast, there were no statistically significant reductions of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails from 2008 to 2011 in the control group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001) and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period. Conclusions/Significance The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405. PMID:23516656

  4. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  5. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas

  6. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  7. [Identification and conservation assessment of suitable habitats for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Li, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Dong-hua

    2014-12-01

    As a flagship and one of most endangered ungulates in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the habitat conservation of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is vital to sustain its long-term population existence. In consideration of key habitat factors of the Tibetan antelope (i.e., food, topography and water source) as well as human interference factors like roads and settlements, the habitat suitability was modeled, and potential and valid suitable habitats were identified for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Furthermore, the conservation proportion index and conservation efficacy index were developed to facilitate the conservation assessment of three national reserves (i.e., Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang) and their associated functional zones in the study area. The results showed that potential and valid area of suitable habitat across overall study area were 2.84 x 10(5) and 2.08 x 10(5) km2 respectively, with 16.1% of suitable habitat loss by human disturbance. At reserve level, the potential suitable habitats of Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang were 2.01 x 10(4), 3.13 x 104 and 1.26 x 10(5) km2, which however decreased by 12.9%, 10.2% and 21.1% human disturbance respectively, indicating a prominent habitat fragmentation especially in Qiangtang National Nature Reserve (NNR). Although three NNRs had captured nearly 2/3 of the potential/valid suitable habitats with favorable conservation efficacy, there were still obvious conservation gaps outside the existing reserve network. At the functional zone level, buffer and experimental zones also showed significant conservation proportion and efficacy besides the core zone. Our research highlighted the necessity to optimize the existing re serve system by filling the conservation gaps, restructuring the functional zones and safeguarding the potential refuge habitats for those endangered ungulates in face of climate change. PMID:25876398

  8. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  9. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed. PMID:27395671

  10. [Investigation and assessment of damage in earthquake in Yushu, Qinghai based on multi-spectral remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Tao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Wen-Liang; Wei, Cheng-Jie; Han, Yu

    2011-04-01

    The devastating Yushu Earthquake occurred in Qinghai Province, northwest China, with a magnitude of 7.1 on April 14, 2010, which has caused huge destructive losses. Most buildings along the seismic zone were ruined, especially the old and the basic civil structure houses completely destroyed. The earthquake also triggered geological disasters, such as landslides, collapses, debris flows, etc. In the present study, the remote sensing technique was used to assess and analyze the situation of the earthquake damage. There are four classes of feature which can be interpreted according to the remote sensing imageries: (1) the damage degree of buildings, like civilian homes, temples; (2) the field disasters of earthquake, such as ground fissures, landslides, collapses, debris flows, and earthquake subsidence; (3) the damage degree of structures, such as dam; (4) the damage degree of the lifeline, for example, the highway. The features can be obtained according to high spatial resolution of remote sensing imageries, through image processing and interpretation methods. Post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase should fully consider the regional seismotectonic background and the carrying capacity of resources and environment. With the assessment results of earthquake disaster remote sensing, at last, preliminary suggestions were proposed for the rehabilitation and reconstruction planning of Yushu earthquake. PMID:21714257

  11. Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. TTH0-4, a cold-active crude oil degrading strain isolated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosen; Chen, Tuo; Chang, Sijing; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiukun; Wu, Minghui; Wang, Yilin; Long, Haozhi; Chen, Ximing; Wang, Yun; Liu, Guangxiu

    2016-05-20

    Acinetobacter sp. strain TTH0-4 was isolated from a permafrost region in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. With its capability to degrade crude oil at low temperature, 10°C, the strain could be an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of crude oil pollution in cold areas or at cold seasons. We sequenced and annotated the whole genome to serve as a basis for further elucidation of the genetic background of this promising strain, and provide opportunities for investigating the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms and optimizing the biodegradative activity in cold environment. PMID:26988394

  12. Comparative phylogeography of five avian species: implications for Pleistocene evolutionary history in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Lei, F; Zhang, R; Lu, X

    2010-01-01

    Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the patterns of genetic diversity observed in extant species. In contrast to Europe and North America where the effects of recent glacial cycles on genetic diversity have been well studied, the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene for the Qinghai-Tibetan (Tibetan) plateau, a region where glaciation was not synchronous with the North Hemisphere ice sheet maxima, remains poorly understood. Here, we compared the phylogeographical patterns of five avian species on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau by three mitochondrial DNA fragments: the Tibetan snow finch (Montifringilla adamsi), the Blanford's snow finch (Pyrgilauda blanfordi), the horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), the twite (Carduelis flavirostris) and the black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros). Our results revealed the three species mostly distributed on the platform region of the plateau that experienced population expansion following the retreat of the extensive glaciation period (0.5-0.175 Ma). These results are at odds with the results from avian species of Europe and North America, where population expansions occurred after Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0.023-0.018 Ma). A single refugium was identified in a restricted semi-continuous area around the eastern margin of the plateau, instead of multiple independent refugia for European and North American species. For the other two species distributed on the edges of the plateau (the twite and black redstart), populations were maintained at stable levels. Edge areas are located on the eastern margin, which might have had little or no ice cover during the glaciation period. Thus, milder climate may have mitigated demographic stresses for edge species relative to the extremes experienced by platform counterparts, the present-day ranges of which were heavily ice covered during the glaciation period. Finally, various behavioural and ecological characteristics, including dispersal capacities, habitat preference and altitude specificity

  13. [Spatial and Temporal Variations in Spectrum-Derived Vegetation Growth Trend in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Wu, Xiao-dong; Yue, Guang-yang; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Qian; Nan, Zhuo-tong; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tong-hua; Shi, Jian-zong; Zou, De-fu

    2016-02-01

    Recently considerable researches have focused on monitoring vegetation changes because of its important role in regula- ting the terrestrial carbon cycle and the climate system. There were the largest areas with high-altitudes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), which is often referred to as the third pole of the world. And vegetation in this region is significantly sensitive to the global warming. Meanwhile NDVI dataset was one of the most useful tools to monitor the vegetation activity with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is a normalized transform of the near-infrared radiation (NIR) to red reflectance ratio. Therefore, an extended GIMMS NDVI dataset from 1982-2006 to 1982-2014 was presented using a unary linear regression by MODIS dataset from 2000 to 2014 in QTP. Compared with previous researches, the accuracy of the extended NDVI dataset was improved again with consideration the residuals derived from scale transformation. So the model of extend NDVI dataset could be a new method to integrate different NDVI products. With the extended NDVI dataset, we found that in growing season there was a statistically significant increase (0.000 4 yr⁻¹, r² = 0.585 9, p < 0.001) in QTP from 1982 to 2014. During the study pe- riod, the trends of NDVI were significantly increased in spring (0.000 5 yr⁻¹, r² = 0.295 4, p = 0.001), summer (0.000 3 yr⁻¹, r² = 0.105 3, p = 0.065) and autumn respectively (0.000 6 yr⁻¹, r² = 0.436 7, p < 0.001). Due to the increased vegeta- tion activity in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1982 to 2014, the magnitude of carbon sink was accumulated in this region also at this same period. Then the data of temperature and precipitation was used to explore the reason of vegetation changed. Although the trends of them are both increased, the correlation between NDVI and temperature is higher than precipitation in vegetation grow- ing season, spring, summer and autumn. Furthermore, there is significant spatial heterogeneity of the

  14. The Emergence and Maintenance of Vector-Borne Diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B.

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  15. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  16. Evolutionary diversifications of plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhong, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2014-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy. These mechanisms have driven spectacular radiations and/or species diversifications in various groups of plants such as Pedicularis L., Saussurea DC., Rhododendron L., Primula L., Meconopsis Vig., Rhodiola L., and many lineages of gymnosperms. Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP. Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade. This paper reviews recent evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in plants, in the context of rapid radiations, mechanisms of species diversifications on the QTP, and the biogeographic significance of the QTP in the broader context of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere biogeography. Integrative multidimensional analyses of phylogeny, morphological innovations, geography, ecology, development, species interactions and diversifications, and geology are needed and should shed insights into the patterns of evolutionary assembly and radiations in this fascinating region. PMID:24575120

  17. Cosmic markers, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the KT sections in the Anjar Area of the Deccan large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Gallet, Y.; Rocchia, R.; Féraud, G.; Robin, E.; Hofmann, C.; Bhandari, N.; Ghevariya, Z. G.

    2000-10-01

    Bhandari et al. [Bhandari et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 (1995) 433-436; Bhandari et al., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 307 (1996) 417-424] reported the discovery of iridium-bearing sediments sandwiched between basalt flows in the Anjar area (Kutch province, India). They concluded that the signature of the K/T impact had been recorded and that onset of volcanism in the Deccan traps preceded the K/T boundary, excluding the possibility of a causal connection. This paper reports complementary analyses of Anjar outcrops by a joint Indo-French team, where we focused on cosmic markers (iridium and spinels) in the intertrappean sediments and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the lava flows. Anomalous Ir concentrations (up to 0.4 ng/g) are confirmed, with up to three thin and patchy enriched layers which cannot be traced throughout the exposed sections. Despite careful search, no Ni-rich spinels were found. Eight basalt samples provided 40Ar/ 39Ar results, four on plagioclase bulk samples, four on whole rocks. Spectra for whole rocks all indicate some amount of disturbance, and ages based on plagioclase bulk samples seem to be consistently more reliable [Hofmann et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 180 (2000) 13-28]. The three flows underlying the Ir-bearing sediments are dated at ˜66.5 Ma, and two overlying flows at ˜65 Ma. Magnetic analyses (both thermal and by alternating fields) uncovered clear reversed primary components in the upper flows, and more disturbed normal components in the lower flows, with evidence for an additional reversed component. There are reports [Bajpai, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 37 (1996) 313-319; Bajpai, J. Geol. Soc. London 157 (2000) 257-260] that the intertrappean sediments contain uppermost Maastrichtian dinosaur and ostracod remains above the uppermost Ir-bearing level, and may not be mechanically disturbed. We propose the following scenario to interpret these multiple field and analytical observations. Deccan trap volcanism started within

  18. Deep geometry structure feature of Haiyuan Fault on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Gao, R.; Yin, A.; Kuang, Z.; Xiong, X.; Li, W.

    2012-12-01

    Because of incessant uplifting and pushing role of the active Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and pushed role, Cenozoic tectonic deformation and seismic activity is intense, several large deep fault zones distribute in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan area. The Haiyuan fault is a left strike-slip fault zone with the strongest activities and the largest scale among the arc and active fault zones of the northeastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is an important tectonic zone boundary faults and also an active faults controling earthquake activity. The CAGS carried out the research of the deep seismic reflection profiling with 300 km long across the northern margin of the West Qinling orogen,Linxia basin,the north Qilian and the southern margin of the Alxa block in 2009, supported by Crust Probe Project of China(Sinoprobe-02) and the Natural Science Foundation of China(No.40830316). The migration section were obtained. According to the section showing the different reflection characteristics, the deep geometry of the Haiyuan fault zone and the fine structure of the crust and upper mantle on both sides of fault. The results discolsed that the Haiyuan fault is not a simple steep or moderate, but its geometric shape changes with depth. The continuous reflection characteristics of the Moho under the Haiyuan fault show that Haiyuan fault is not an ultra-crust fault broke up the Moho directly. The research results provide seismological basis for studying the lithosphere deformation mechanism of the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  19. Multi-Scale Scratch Analysis in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its Geological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanyun; Yang, Wencai; Yu, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Multi-scale scratch analysis on a regional gravity field is a new data processing system for depicting three-dimensional density structures and tectonic features. It comprises four modules including the spectral analysis of potential fields, multi-scale wavelet analysis, density distribution inversion, and scratch analysis. The multi-scale scratch analysis method was applied to regional gravity data to extract information about the deformation belts in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can help reveal variations of the deformation belts and plane distribution features from the upper crust to the lower crust, provide evidence for the study of three-dimensional crustal structures, and define distribution of deformation belts and mass movement. Results show the variation of deformation belts from the upper crust to the lower crust. The deformation belts vary from dense and thin in the upper crust to coarse and thick in the lower crust, demonstrating that vertical distribution of deformation belts resembles a tree with a coarse and thick trunk in the lower part and dense and thin branches at the top. The dense and thin deformation areas in the upper crust correspond to crustal shortening areas, while the thick and continuous deformation belts in the lower crust indicate the structural framework of the plateau. Additionally, the lower crustal deformation belts recognized by the multi-scale scratch analysis coincide approximately with the crustal deformation belts recognized using single-scale scratch analysis. However, deformation belts recognized by the latter are somewhat rough while multi-scale scratch analysis can provide more detailed and accurate results.

  20. Granite, gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves in the Gejiu area, Yunnan Province, China: a case of two-stage mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Mao, Jingwen; Rusk, Brian G.

    2012-10-01

    Geochronological, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd, and zircon Hf isotopic analyses were carried out on the Jiasha Gabbro, mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) and host Longchahe Granite samples from the Gejiu area in the southeast Yunnan province, SW China, with the aim of characterizing their petrogenesis. Compositional zoning is evident in the gabbro body as the cumulate textures and mineral proportions in the gabbro interior are distinct from the gabbro margin. The Longchahe Granite largely comprises metaluminous quartz monzonite with distinctive K-feldspar megacrysts, but also contains a minor component of peraluminous leucogranite. The MME have spheroidal to elongated/lenticular shapes with sharp, crenulated and occasionally diffuse contacts with the host granite, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of mafic magma globules within the cooler host felsic magma. Field observations, geochronology, geochemistry, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions point to a complex petrogenesis for this granite-MME-gabbro association. Zircon 206Pb/238U ages determined by LA-ICP-MS for a mafic enclave, its host granite and the gabbro body are 83.1 ± 0.9 Ma, 83.1 ± 0.4 Ma and 83.2 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively, indicating coeval crystallization of these igneous rock units. Crystal fractionation processes can explain much of the compositional diversity of the Jiasha Gabbro. The geochemical features of the gabbro, such as high Mg# (up to 70) and Cr (up to 327 ppm), enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Ba, K2O) and LREEs, and depletion in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), together with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.708-0.709 and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.23 to -6.45), indicate they were derived from a mantle source that had undergone previous enrichment, possibly by subduction components. The Longchahe Granite has a large range of SiO2 (59.87-74.94 wt%), is distinctly alkaline in composition, and has Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i > 0.712, ɛNd(t) = -6.93 to -7

  1. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Qinghai vole, Plateau pika and Tibetan ground-tit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. Limited information on T. gondii genotypes has been reported in wildlife in China. The objective of this study was to carry out the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from wild animals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Methods Using PCR and multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology, we detected genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Qinghai vole, Plateau pika and Tibetan ground-tit in these regions. Results In total, 183 brain tissues of different wild animals, including 48 Qinghai vole (Microtus fuscus), 101 Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and 34 Tibetan ground-tit (Pseudopodoces humilis), were tested for T. gondii infection. 11 of these were found to be positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by PCR amplification. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers, including 9 nuclear loci (SAG1, 5’-and 3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2), and an apicoplast locus Apico. Six were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci, and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Four samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #10 and the other two samples were identified as two new genotypes (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates in wildlife on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. The results show that there is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through the wildlife in this region. PMID:24192458

  2. Monitoring Temporal Evolution of the Presence Intermediate Host of the Schistosomiasis and its Risk Transmission Based on Dragon Times Series in Poyang Lake Area Jiangxi Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Tiphanie; Lai, Xijun; Huber, Claire; Chen, Xiaoling; Uribe, Carlos; Huang, Shifeng; LaCaux, Jean-Pierre; LaFaye, Murielle; Yesou, Herve

    2010-12-01

    Earth Observation data were used for mapping potential Schistosomiasis japonica distribution, within Poyang Lake (Jiangxi Province, PR China), as well as transmission risk associated with fishing activities. Areas suitable for the development of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum, were derived from submersion time parameters and vegetation community indicators. Monthly maps showing the annual dynamic of potential O. hupensis presence areas were obtained from December 2005 to December 2008. Human potential transmission risk was handled through the mapping of settlements and the identification of the principal human activity sensitive to transmission: fishing in the central part of Poyang Lake. Finally, data crossing of the different parameters highlight the potential risk of transmission in most of the fishing nets areas.

  3. Role of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau in feedback mechanisms affecting the planetary circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Yi-Hui, D.

    1980-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau is of great importance in generating planetary long-waves which, in resonance with similar waves induced by the Rocky Mountains, lead to the familiar pattern of quasi-stationary Rossby waves observed on monthly-mean upper level pressure charts. Seasonal forcing of flow patterns also appears to be particularly strong in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau region. Recent investigations suggest that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau may also be involved in feedback mechanisms which control in an important way the interannual variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. It appears that the effects of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau on the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation over Asia are but one important manifestation of a network of feedback mechanisms, ranging from the El Nino problems along the Peruvian coast to droughts in the Sahel region. A better understanding of each of the mechanisms involved will lead us closer to successful long-range forecasting of some of the weather phenomena which have a considerable effect on local and regional economics.

  4. New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Liu, Liling; Zhang, Yi; Duan, Zhenhua; Tian, Guobin; Zeng, Xianying; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Licheng

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) (QH09) was isolated from dead wild birds (3 species) in Qinghai, China, during May–June 2009. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed that QH09 was clearly distinguishable from classical clade 2.2 viruses and belonged to clade 2.3.2. PMID:21291602

  5. Uplift mechanism of orogens inferred from GRACE temporal gravity changes - example of Qinghai-Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C. F.; Shum, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Orogenic areas are subject to uplift and horizontal deformation as observed by present-day global positioning system and repeated leveling measurements. Crustal mass is conservative and less dense than the mantle, thus the horizontal shortening must be accompanied by crustal thickening and horizontal extrusion. According to the level of isostatic compensation, the thickening is partitioned into topographic uplift and Moho deepening. We investigate the mass change induced gravity signal and discuss whether this signal could be detected using terrestrial or satellite gravity observations. An example is the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, for which we model crustal thickening and calculate the expected gravity signal. The predictions are compared with present-day gravity changes observed by GRACE and with published in situ absolute gravity rates. It is found that the crustal thickening signal cannot be neglected and that it contributes significantly to the observed signal. Those studies with focus on the glacier and hydrologic mass fluxes should be aware that, if neglected, the crustal signal could introduce a significant bias. The GRACE observations give a positive gravity rate over central Tibetan Plateau, unexplained by the hydrologic or cryospheric signals, and a negative rate over the Himalayas and at its foothill, which is attributable to a prolonged hydrologic drought and/or depletion of groundwater. Our model shows that the positive gravity rate could be explained by elevation uplift, and a stable or upwelling Moho. The negative gravity change signal is due primarily to the strong elevation-gradient at the foothill of the Himalayas, and to an uplift accompanied by crustal thickening and Moho lowering. Finally, we place constraints and requirements on future gravity missions, for the feasibility to more accurately observe this signal, and to separate it from the background hydrologic and cryospheric processes.

  6. Community perception of quality of (primary) health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mashego, T A B; Peltzer, K

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary) health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants). Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1) conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy), (2) technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes), (3) health care facility, (4) health care organisation, (5) drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment), and (6) waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients) and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action. PMID:16045107

  7. New Integrated Strategy Emphasizing Infection Source Control to Curb Schistosomiasis japonica in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: Findings from an Eight-Year Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Liu, Jian-Bing; Huang, Xi-Bao; Cai, Shun-Xiang; Su, Zheng-Ming; Zhong, Rong; Zou, Li; Miao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly the regions along the middle and lower reach of the Yangtze River in four provinces (Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Anhui). The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a new integrated strategy emphasizing infection source control to curb schistosomiasis in marshland regions. Methods In a longitudinal study, we implemented an integrated control strategy emphasizing infection source control in 16 villages from 2005 through 2012 in marshland regions of Hubei province. The interventions included removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands, providing farmers with mechanized farm equipment, improving sanitation by supplying tap water, building lavatories and latrines, praziquantel chemotherapy, controlling snails, and environmental modification. Results Following the integrated control strategy designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infection, the prevalence of human S. japonicum infection declined from 1.7% in 2005 to 0.4% in 2012 (P<0.001). Reductions were also observed in both sexes, across all age groups, and among high risk occupations. Moreover, the prevalence of bovine S. japonicum infection decreased from 11.7% in 2005 to 0.6% in 2012 (P<0.001). In addition, all the 16 villages achieved the national criteria of infection control in 2008. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the integrated strategy was likely effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. PMID:24587030

  8. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in roadside topsoil along Qinghai-Tibetan highway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Zhang, F.; Yan, X.; Gao, D.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid development of road construction and increase of vehicles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over last few decades, traffic source heavy metals have been continuously emitted into roadside soils and caused a growing concern on potential pollution of soils. In this study, a soil survey was conducted along the Qinghai-Tibet highway (Xining-Maduo-Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa), China, to investigate the status and influence factors of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in roadside topsoil. A total of 32 sampling sites, 144 topsoil (0~2 cm) samples were collected at different distances to the highway edge (0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m and 100m). Vehicle volume, soil types and road types have significantly impacts on concentrations of the four heavy metals. On the whole, heavy metal concentrations were higher in Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa (BNL) segment with higher traffic volume than Xining-Maduo-Budongquan (XMB) segment with lower traffic volume. The heavy metals concentrations also show higher levels for asphalt roads than gravel roads, and a sequence of severely degraded meadow soil (MS) > slightly degraded MS > desert soil > non-degraded MS. Besides, concentrations of all the four heavy metals show exponentially decreasing relationships with roadside distances. Compared to the background values of heavy metals in the soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, traffic source heavy metals pollution only exists within 10 m to the road edge in most segments. However, the maximum polluted distance can reach 30 m along the TMP segment. It should be noted that heavy metals pollution was more harmful to this high-altitude segment with fragile ecology. Keywords: Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn); Roadside soil; Qinghai-Tibet highway; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Utilization of the Local Government Health Insurance Scheme (JKA) for Maternal Health Services Among Women Living in Underdeveloped Areas of Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kesuma, Zurnila Marli; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2015-04-01

    Aceh province of Indonesia created its own health coverage scheme called Jaminan Kesehatan Aceh (JKA) to cover Aceh's populations who were not registered under insurance for the poor (Jamkesmas). This study aims to compare the utilization rate of maternal health care (MHC) services and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) before JKA, during the transition period, and after JKA had been established. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from June 2011 to July 2012. Utilization of MHC services and CPR during the 3 periods was assessed using a questionnaire. The Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used to examine the association between period and coverage. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine utilization and type of service, period of service, and type of scheme. Coverage of utilization of skilled birth attendants significantly improved among the JKA holders (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.89). JKA, thus, has shown its positive impact. PMID:24566605

  10. Cognitive Impairment and Risk Factors in Elderly People Living in Fluorosis Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mang; Gao, Yanhui; Cui, Jing; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Liu, Hongxu; Zhao, Lijun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-07-01

    Residents living in fluorosis areas generally experienced long-term exposure to excessive fluoride in drinking water. The adverse effects of high fluoride levels on the nervous system have been studied; however, the effect of fluoride exposure on cognitive functions of elderly people in fluorosis areas is rarely reported. This study was aimed to find out the potential risk factors of cognitive impairment among elderly people who lived in fluorosis areas of China. A total of 511 subjects, aged 60 years or above, were investigated in fluorosis areas of Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to examine cognitive functions of the study subjects. Based on the MMSE scores, the study subjects were divided into normal group and cognitive impairment group that consisted of mild, moderate, and severe groups. Multivariable logistic regression showed that a higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with increased age and decreased education levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that MMSE scores were negatively associated with serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels. However, both urinary fluoride and serum Hcy levels in the normal group were not the lowest among the four groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that urinary fluoride levels were positively correlated with serum Hcy (r s = 0.209, P < 0.01). Our study suggests that people with cognitive impairment in fluorosis areas have elevated serum Hcy levels, which was positively correlated with urinary fluoride concentrations. A certain low dose of fluoride intake may play a potential protective rather than harmful role in cognitive functions; however, high fluoride exposure is a potential risk factor for cognitive impairment. PMID:26606914

  11. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants <6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of

  12. [Coupling analysis of agro-ecolomic system in gully area of Loess Plateau in 1949-2008: a case study in Changwu County of Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Hao, Ming-de; Xu, Jin-peng

    2011-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the coercing and dynamic evolution relationships between agro-economic system and agro-ecological system, and by using modified entropy method, the weight of each evaluation index for the agro-ecolomic system in Changwu County of Shaanxi Province was determined, and, by employing coupling degree model, the coupling processes of agro-ecolomic system in the gullyarea of Loess Plateau were investigated. From 1949 to 2008, the agro-ecolomic system in the County experienced three stages of "traditional extensive agriculture", "agricultural mechanization", and "agricultural pre-modernization". In corresponding to the implement of national macro policies, the coupling degree of the agro-ecolomic system reached two peaks standing for utmost increasing phase and three valleys standing for coordinate development phase. Periods 1955-1961 and 1984-1992 were the utmost increasing phases of the coupling degree; periods 1962-1965 and 1981-1983 were the rapid transition periods responding to the national-wide policies controlling; while periods 1949-1954 and 1966-1980 were the low-level coordinated development phases. Since 1993, the system had been in the harmonious phase by a spiral development. At present, the system had a potential risk of changing from the harmonious phase to the utmost development phase. Appropriate agricultural policies and better external environment could promote the stable development of the agro-ecolomic system on a harmonious level; otherwise, a retrogressive system might be expected. PMID:21657035

  13. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Bao, Pengjia; Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae) is an important primitive local breed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions. In this study, its complete mitochondrial genome sequence has been assembled and characterized from high-throughput Illumina sequencing data. This genome is 16 322 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding D-loop or control region. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (33.73% A, 25.79% C, 13.19% G, and 27.29% T) with an overall A + T content of 61.02%. The gene arrangement and the composition are similar to most other vertebrates. These data would contribute to our better understanding its population genetics and evolutionary history. PMID:26478258

  15. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P < 0.05) differences while other OCPs show no significant differences between historical cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied. PMID:26645233

  16. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake. PMID:26805936

  17. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake. PMID:26805936

  18. Analysis on development situation and tendency of international Qinghai-Tibet Plateau studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the hotspots of the international earth science studies. The relative research papers have proliferated especially since 21st century. By using the the latest bibliometric indicators, the statistical analysis of the quantities and qualities was carried out for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau literature indexed by SCIE during 1900 and 2012. It focused on the published years, journals, countries, cities, research institutes, international cooperation, and subjects. Some statistical results were displayed and deeply analyzed by using the tools of mapping knowledge domain (MKD) and geographic information system (GIS). The results of the Bibliometric analysis indicate that the publication and citation of QTP researches have a jump after entering the 21st century. China, USA, India, Canada and France are the main coutries engaged in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau studies. Knowledge mapping results show that USA, UK and France have longer academic influential power of QTP researches, which indicates that these countries begin to study QTP early and the papers have longer permanent impacts. On the other hand, China, India and Japan have higher academic influential power in recent years, which indicate that these countries have more publications and higher impacts recently. The disciplines of QTP researches mainly focus on the geology, geochemistry &geophysics, environmental sciences &ecology, and so on. The spatial analysis indicates that the differences of the disciplines are emphasized by different countries. The above analysis results is hoped to integrate the new knowledge and reveal the development tendency of the QTP researches.

  19. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake.

  20. Hydrological Features on Subalpine Forest Zone in the East of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Cheng, G.; Guo, W.

    2008-12-01

    The Hengduan mountain chains of China is situated on the east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with area of more than 400,000 km2. Mountains and rivers run through in north-south direction, and are collocated side by side on east-west. Elevation difference between ridges and valleys has great disparity, normally of 1000-2500m, so the vertical zones of vegetation are very distinct. Subalpine coniferous forest zone, mainly composed of fir (Abies) and spruce (Picea), is on altitude of 2800-4200m, which is a chief component of the forested area in southwest China, and an important region for water conservation of several international rivers inlcuding Nujiang River and Lancangjiang River, as well as the world-famous Changjiang River. Thus, it has both theoretical and practical significance to study hydrological process and laws of forest in this region. The study area is located at the Gongga Mountain, on the east edge of the Hengduan mountain chains. Elevation of the main peak is 7556m, and elevation difference between ridge and valley on the eastern slope is 6400m. An ecological observation station was built at altitude of 3000m on the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain in 1988, mainly for alpine ecology and forest hydrology research. Based on the analysis of 20- years observation data from this station, it is revealed that hydrological process of forest in this area has several features as follows: (1) Canopy interception of primitive fir (Abies) forest is obviously greater than other tree species, and interception rate is 30-40%. Maximal canopy interception of one-time precipitation of primitive fir forest is commonly 2-5mm. According to observation data of canopy interception, a conceptual model of canopy interception of fir forest is established: R=1.69[(1-exp(-0.41P))+0.19P (P is precipitation in mm); (2) Natural valid moisture holding capacity in layer of moss-decayed wood and leaves beneath trees is up to 5.6mm. Porosity in soil surface layer and non-capillary porosity

  1. The developmental trend and influencing factors of aeolian desertification in the Zoige Basin, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangyin; Dong, Zhibao; Lu, Junfeng; Yan, Changzhen

    2015-12-01

    The Zoige Basin is located in the northeastern region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and covers an area of 19,400 km2. At a mean altitude of 3500 m, the basin is highly sensitive to global environmental change and human disturbance due to its high elevation and fragile cold environment. The process of aeolian desertification in the basin can be clearly recognized in Landsat images that show the development of sand sheets and dunes over time. To monitor the spatial and temporal changes of aeolian desertification in the Zoige Basin, we analyzed Landsat images recorded in 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Results showed that aeolian desertification increased rapidly from 1975 to 1990, was stable from 1990 to 2000, decreased slightly from 2000 to 2005, and decreased sharply from 2005 to 2010. Increasing temperature, overgrazing, rodent damage, and drainage of wetlands were considered the key driving factors of the expansion of aeolian desertification. A number of political measures were initiated in the 1990s to slow desertification, but the countermeasures of grazing prohibition, enclosures, and paving straw checkerboard barriers were not implemented until around 2005. These measures resulted in a dramatic recovery of aeolian desertified land between 2005 and 2010. Based on the cause analysis, anthropogenic factors were identified as the dominant driving force for both development and recovery of aeolian desertified land.

  2. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  3. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.

  4. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr Bruun; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Mengjing; Yan, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated PCDD/Fs and high-(tetra-to octa-) chlorinated PCDD/Fs were measured. High PCDD/F levels were detected, with total concentrations of 15,108 ± 6323 pg/g for the 27 PCDD/F congeners and 15,104 ± 6324 pg/g for the low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs were only 3.1 ± 4.4 pg/g and the corresponding international toxicity equivalency (I-TEQ) was 0.11 ± 0.22 pg I-TEQ/g. Given their higher vapor pressures and lower boiling points, low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs, were predominantly gaseous, whereas high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were predominantly solid, indicating that there is a higher potential for long-range transport of low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Overall, because of their high LRAT potential, low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs may pose a greater risk to local ecosystems in cold, remote areas than high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. PMID:27174827

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Caspian Basin, Middle Caspian Basin, North Ustyurt Basin, and South Caspian Basin Provinces, Caspian Sea Area, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 19.6 billion barrels of crude oil, 243 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 9.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the Caspian Sea area, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  6. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  7. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Farmyard manures: the major agronomic sources of heavy metals in the Philippi Horticultural Area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, Marÿke; Müller, Francuois; Raitt, Lincoln; Aalbers, Johannes; Cyster, Lilburne; Brendonck, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal toxicity in agro-ecosystems is a global problem. Recently, it has been indicated that the soils used for agriculture and the fresh produce grown on these soils in the Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) contains heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations thereof in South Africa. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and vegetables produced in the PHA, as well as to determine the major agronomic sources of these metals in this area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 6.6, 6.6, and 46 mg/kg, respectively. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the vegetables also exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The biggest agronomic contributors of these heavy metals to the soils in the PHA were found to be the farmyard manures. Knowing what the major sources of these heavy metals are, it is important to determine ways to mitigate the inputs thereof, as well as to remove existing concentrations from the soils without contaminating the groundwater resources in the area. PMID:26508018

  9. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  10. Expediting support for the pregnant mothers to obtain antenatal care at public health facilities in rural areas of Balochistan province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Ghaffar, Najma; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick; Mureed, Sheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, and compare relative importance of, factors associated with antenatal care (ANC) utilization in rural Balochistan, toward framing a policy to increase such utilization. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 513 pregnant women in Jhal Magsi District, Balochistan, in 2011. A standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were evaluated with generalized linear models (Poisson distribution and log link). Results: Prevalence of any ANC was only 14.4%. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were all important determinants of ANC utilization. Reinforcing factors were clearly most important, husband’s support for ANC was more important than support from other community members. Among predisposing factors, higher income, education, occupation, and better knowledge regarding benefits of ANC were positively and statistically significantly associated with ANC However increased number of children showed negative association. Complications free pregnancy showed positive significant association with ANC at public health facility among enabling factors. Conclusion: It is very important to increase antenatal care utilization in the study area and similar areas. Policy to achieve this should focus on enhancing support from the husband. PMID:26150867

  11. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance. PMID:24954235

  12. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  13. Mantle heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean granite-greenstone belts - Evidence from Nd isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake area, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal evolution in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario is studied in terms of geochemical characteristics. The Nd isotope data are examined for heterogeneity of the Archean mantle, and the Sm/Nd depletion of the mantle is analyzed. The Nd isotope systematics of individual rock suites is investigated in order to understand the difference between crust and mantle sources; the precursors and petrogenetic processes are discussed. The correlation between SiO2 content and Nd values is considered. Rapid recycling of crustal components, which were previously derived from depleted mantle sources, is suggested based on the similarity of the initial Nd isotopic composition for both mantle-derived and crustally-derived rocks.

  14. The role of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the evolution of Tibetan biotas.

    PubMed

    Favre, Adrien; Päckert, Martin; Pauls, Steffen U; Jähnig, Sonja C; Uhl, Dieter; Michalak, Ingo; Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra N

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity is unevenly distributed on Earth and hotspots of biodiversity are often associated with areas that have undergone orogenic activity during recent geological history (i.e. tens of millions of years). Understanding the underlying processes that have driven the accumulation of species in some areas and not in others may help guide prioritization in conservation and may facilitate forecasts on ecosystem services under future climate conditions. Consequently, the study of the origin and evolution of biodiversity in mountain systems has motivated growing scientific interest. Despite an increasing number of studies, the origin and evolution of diversity hotspots associated with the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) remains poorly understood. We review literature related to the diversification of organisms linked to the uplift of the QTP. To promote hypothesis-based research, we provide a geological and palaeoclimatic scenario for the region of the QTP and argue that further studies would benefit from providing a complete set of complementary analyses (molecular dating, biogeographic, and diversification rates analyses) to test for a link between organismic diversification and past geological and climatic changes in this region. In general, we found that the contribution of biological interchange between the QTP and other hotspots of biodiversity has not been sufficiently studied to date. Finally, we suggest that the biological consequences of the uplift of the QTP would be best understood using a meta-analysis approach, encompassing studies on a variety of organisms (plants and animals) from diverse habitats (forests, meadows, rivers), and thermal belts (montane, subalpine, alpine, nival). Since the species diversity in the QTP region is better documented for some organismic groups than for others, we suggest that baseline taxonomic work should be promoted. PMID:24784793

  15. Lake Qinghai sediment geochemistry linked to hydroclimate variability since the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhangdong; An, Zhisheng; Yu, Jimin; Li, Fuchun; Zhang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Geochemistry of basin sediments from semi-arid regions is valuable to understand past hydroclimatic changes. Here, we investigate the links of sedimentary geochemistry (Rb, Sr, Ca/Zr, TOC, and %CaCO3), carbonate mineralogy and ostracod shell δ18O of Lake Qinghai, a basin proximal to major dust production centers at mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, to changes in depositional conditions and hydroclimate during the past 32 ka. Surface lacustrine sediments are characterized by low-Rb, high-Sr, low-Rb/Sr, high-%CaCO3 and high-Ca/Zr values, in contrast to the chemical compositions of eolian loess (high-Rb, low-Sr, high-Rb/Sr, low-%CaCO3, and low-Ca/Zr). A direct comparison of soluble Ca and Sr in two short cores with instrumental water discharge data suggests that lacustrine precipitates in Lake Qinghai are dominated by authigenic aragonite formed under Ca2+-limited water conditions, and that the accumulation rate of aragonite dominantly depends on solute fluxes into the lake during the rainy seasons (late May to September). Our high-resolution down-core records show that sediments during the last glacial (∼32-19.8 ka) had high-Rb, low-Sr, low-%CaCO3, and low-Ca/Zr, indicating eolian dust (loess) accumulation in a desiccated basin under dry glacial conditions, further supported by grain size and pollen results. This type of sedimentation was maintained during the last deglacial (∼19.8-11.5 ka), but interrupted by episodic lacustrine precipitates with high-Sr, high-%CaCO3, high-Ca/Zr, and low-Rb. At ∼11.5 ka, sedimentary Rb/Sr, Ca/Zr, %CaCO3 and TOC show dramatic and permanent changes, implying an abrupt shift in the atmospheric circulation at the onset of the Holocene in the Lake Qinghai region. Lacustrine precipitates have persisted throughout the Holocene with a maximum during the early to mid-Holocene (∼10.5-8.0 ka). Since ∼8.0 ka, the gradual and significant decreases in aragonite and Sr accumulations in tandem with increasing dust deposit

  16. Middle-Late Devonian radiolarians from Klaeng District, Rayong Province, southeastern Thailand: Geotectonic significance of the Rayong area as a continental margin of the Sibumasu Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2015-05-01

    A fine clastics-siliceous succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet, approximately 20 km southwest of Klaeng, Rayong area, southeastern Thailand was examined based on lithology, radiolarian biostratigraphy, and geological correlation. In the study section, thinly bedded chert layers are intercalated with black carbonaceous shale, light-colored tuffaceous shale, brown glassy tuff, and quartz-rich sandstone layers. A horizon of the chert in the section yielded poorly preserved radiolarians, however, several forms including Palaeoscenidium cladophorum Deflandre, Stigmosphaerostylus cf. pusilla (Hinde), and Entactiniidae gen. et spp. indet. were identified. This fauna is probably referable to the Middle-Late Devonian. The study section had been assigned to various stratigraphic units, such as Silurian-Devonian or Carboniferous-Permian, due to a poor fossil occurrence. However, the occurrence of the Devonian radiolarians in this study provides concrete evidence for the sedimentary age of the succession, and supports assignment to the Silurian-Devonian. Although the study succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet is coeval with the Devonian part of the Fang chert, northern Thailand, the lithological assemblage is dissimilar, and the post-Devonian radiolarian chert is absent. These lithological, chronological, and stratigraphic results indicate that the depositional environment of the study section was close to the continental margin, such as a continental slope or rise.

  17. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-08-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature-disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature-disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes ( I2= 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  18. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  19. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature–disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature–disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes (I2 = 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  20. Thermokarst lake ang its age in Beiluhe Basin, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanju, L.; Fujun, N.

    2013-05-01

    LIN Zhanju, NIU Fujun State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China 730000 The Beiluhe Basin with an altitude of 4,600 m in elevation lies in the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) . This region is under cold and arid climate condition. The mean annual air temperature in the basin is -3.8 °C and the mean annual ground temperature ranges from -1.8 to -0.5 °C. The ground surface, generally sparse in vegetation, is covered by fine sands with gravels. Permafrost, characterized by high ice-content is continuous in the basin and the thickness ranges from 20 to 80 m, with an active layer of 1.8 to 3.0 m in thickness. Many thermokarst lakes can be found within the basin. The mean area is 8500 m2 and the water depth varies from 0.5 to 2.5 m. We select a thermokarst lake to measure its age. This lake has an approximate area of 15,000m2 and the shape is elliptical with the major axis of about 150m and a minor axis of about 120 m. It belongs to the closed perennial type and has water depths up to 2m. The average ice thickness is about 0.45 to 0.5m over the entire cold season. In March 2006, a 50-cm-long sediment core was collected from a borehole at the lake centre by the ice platform. Then, the core was separated into the 1-cm-thick slices, and put into the dedicated sample bags to enclosing and saving. The samplings were sent to the Environmental Change and Surface Processes Lab, Tibetan Plateau Research Institute, CAS to test. The environmental 137Cs and 210Pb dating techniques were adopted to estimate its age. 137Cs is produced by the nuclear tests of artificial radionuclides. It spreads with the atmospheric circulation and accumulates within the sediment beneath lake-bottom. Therefore, based to the characteristics that the 137Cs exists in the sediments may calculate the average deposition rate of the sediments and furtherly infer the lake age

  1. Concentration of organochlorine in egg yolk and reproductive success of Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1758) at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keithmaleesatti, S; Thirakhupt, K; Pradatsudarasar, A; Varanusupakul, P; Kitana, N; Robson, M

    2007-09-01

    Contaminant analyses in animal eggs have illustrated the benefit of wildlife as indicators of xenobiotic contamination in natural habitats. In 2002, concentrations of 16 organochlorine insecticides were measured in egg yolk and the reproductive success of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, was studied in a population at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area Bang Pahan District, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand. Only 4,4'-dichloro diphenylethane (4,4'-DDE) was detected in the yolk of all samples (n=12) at the concentrations ranging from 33.4 to 116.0 ng/gwetwt. Mean eggshell thickness (n=24) was 0.261+/-0.005 mm. Relationships between the concentrations of 4,4'-DDE and eggshell thickness as well as the reproductive success at all stages were not found (P>0.05). Rather, major factors potentially influencing the decline of reproductive success observed during the field study may include strong wind, predators, intraspecific and interspecific competitions. PMID:17081607

  2. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  3. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  4. An application of mathematical models to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control (Chaco Area - Salta Province - Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, J. B.; Antón, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Ríos, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behaviour. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and five alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three multicriteria decision methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are fully described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the Graph of

  5. An analysis of risk factors of non-fatal drowning among children in rural areas of Guangdong Province, China: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drowning is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children, yet non-fatal drowning remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore potential modifiable risk factors of non-fatal drowning among children in rural areas of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was first conducted to obtain non-fatal drowning cases, and 7432 students in grades three to eight from 17 schools participated in the cross sectional survey. Of these, 805 students reported that they experienced non-fatal drowning in the previous year. Then 368 cases were selected randomly to participate in a 1:1 matched case-control study. Each drowning case was matched by one control with the same sex and similar age (the gap less than 2 years) who was selected randomly from the same class. Results Boys were more likely to be involved in non-fatal drowning. Non-fatal drowning most often happened in the afternoon (65.1%) and natural bodies of water were the most common sites of drowning (71.1%). Swimming, diving and playing in natural waters were the leading activities that preceded non-fatal drowning. The significant risk factors for non-fatal drowning were swimming in natural waters without adult supervision (OR = 3.40, 95% CI: 1.92-6.03), playing in or beside natural waters (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.17-3.70) and poor swimming skills (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.14-6.62). However, the following variables were protective factors: supervisor aged 30 years or over (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.49) and no water activities (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.70). Conclusions The reduction in dangerous water activities, swimming training and enhancement in supervision among children might decrease the risk of non-fatal drowning. PMID:20334694

  6. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control for the Chaco Area in Salta Province (Argentine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, J. B.; Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behavior. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and six alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three Multicriteria Decision Methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, the MATHCAD8 algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the

  7. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  8. Identification and Characterization of Chlamydia abortus Isolates from Yaks in Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaocai; Cao, Xiaoan; Fu, Baoquan; Chao, Yilin; Cai, Jinshan; Zhou, Jizhang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the yak population has exhibited reproductive disorders, which are considered to be associated with Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) in Qinghai, China. In this study, a total of 9 aborted fetuses (each from a different herd) and 126 vaginal swab samples from the 9 herds were collected and analyzed. C. abortus DNA was detected from all of the 9 aborted fetuses and 30 of the 126 vaginal swab samples (23.81%) from yak cows in the selected herds. Four C. abortus strains were isolated from embryonated egg yolk sacs inoculated with foetal organ suspensions. The isolated C. abortus strains were further identified, which showed identical restriction profiles with the C. abortus reference strain using AluI restriction enzyme in the RFLP test. Moreover, the isolated C. abortus strains and C. abortus-positive vaginal swab samples were genotyped by multiple loci variable number tandem repeat analysis and all belonged to the genotype 2 group. These findings suggested that C. abortus played a substantial role in yak abortion in Qinghai, China. PMID:26060818

  9. Rock magnetism of the offshore soils of Lake Qinghai in the western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Ao, Hong; Wang, Lijuan; Sun, Xiaoyan; An, Zhisheng

    2016-05-01

    Lake Qinghai is the largest lake in China and situated in an important climate-sensitive zone on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, making it an ideal place to study the environmental evolution of the northwest China as well as the interplay between the Asian monsoon and the westerlies in late Quaternary. In this study, detailed rock magnetic measurements were carried out on the offshore soils of Lake Qinghai. The dry grassland samples have higher magnetic susceptibility than that of the wet grassland samples, which suggests a higher concentration of magnetic minerals in the dry grassland and lower concentration of magnetic minerals in the wet grassland near the lake edge. The high concentration of the superparamagnetic (SP) magnetic minerals related to pedogenesis may also contribute to the high magnetic susceptibility of the dry grassland. The low magnetic susceptibility of the wet grassland may result from the conversion of strongly to weakly magnetic minerals and/or the dissolution of magnetic minerals. In addition, the Hm/(Gt+Hm) value has a positive correlation with the water content, thus can be taken as an effective proxy for the soil moisture.

  10. Tahyna Virus Infection, a Neglected Arboviral Disease in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjuan; Cao, Yuxi; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Jinglin; Li, Minghua; Jiang, Suangying; Wang, Xuewen; Xing, Shiyou; Feng, Linghui; Wang, Zhiqun; Shi, Yan; Zhao, Shencang; Wang, Huanyu; Wang, Zhiyu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tahyna virus (TAHV) was first isolated from mosquitoes collected in the suburbs of Geermu city in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China in 2007. Since then, TAHV antibodies have been detected in local livestock in Geermu, Qinghai. To determine whether the disease caused by TAHV was present in local residents, an investigation was conducted in the summer of 2009. During this investigation, ward inspections were conducted in rural clinics, and clinical information and specimens were collected from patients who complained mainly of acute fever. The collected samples were tested by serological and molecular methods. The results showed that four samples were positive for TAHV immunoglobulin M and had four-fold or higher levels of TAHV-neutralizing antibody titers between convalescent-phase and acute-phase, and that TAHV nucleotide sequences were detected in two acute sera. Clinical features of TAHV infection commonly included fever, accounting for 100%. Among all other symptoms, the one with the highest frequency was pharyngitis (80%), followed by malaise, inappetence, arthralgia, headache, and drowsiness. Follow-up surveys revealed that all cases recovered in 2–5 days after onset, and no serious or deadly cases were observed. This is the first time that the disease caused by TAHV infection has been reported in China. TAHV infection is another known mosquito-borne arboviral disease in China. PMID:24745971

  11. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region. PMID:26666501

  12. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-12-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region.

  13. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region. PMID:26666501

  14. Spatial variability of CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes in alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tomomichi; Hirota, Mitsuru; Tang, Yanhong; Wada, Eitaro

    2011-10-01

    The intra- and inter-site spatial variability of methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) fluxes were investigated in three alpine ecosystems at Haibei station on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in summer 2005 and in sixteen alpine ecosystems with various vegetations across the QTP in summer 2006, respectively. The magnitude of average CH 4 emissions from wetlands was at least 100 times larger than average CH 4 uptake by grassland, suggesting that the entire QTP is likely to be a source of methane in summertime because of a significant fractional area of wetlands (˜ 2.2%) on the plateau. Intra-site investigation, with sixteen chambers, revealed a significant negative relationship of CH 4 emissions with the C/N ratio of aboveground biomass and soil pH in the alpine wetland when all chambers were considered. Moreover, soil oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) had a remarkably strong influence on CH 4 emissions for nine chambers above the water level, resulting in a negative exponential relationship. For N 2O flux in alpine meadows, a negative relationship with both soil pH and livestock dung biomass was observed. Aboveground plant biomass and soil pH were important variables overall in wetlands. Inter-site investigation found positive and negative relationships between CH 4 flux and soil biomass to 5 cm depth in nine grassland and seven wetland sites, respectively. N 2O flux showed a moderately strong negative exponential relationship with the C/N ratio of surface soil in the grassland sites. In the wetlands, soil pH was negatively correlated with N 2O flux, perhaps due to both reduced N 2O release from suppressed nitrification and denitrification.

  15. Using Psinsar to Detect Thermokarst-Induced Surface Subsidence in Eboling Mountain on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Lin, H.; Zhang, T.; Cao, B.

    2015-12-01

    Thermokarst, a process that characterizes landforms caused by thawing of ice-rich permafrost, is a key indicator of permafrost degradation. Surface dynamics of thermokarst processes on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) of China, is still poorly quantified or understood. It is also challenging to detect and measure surface subsidence due to loss of subsurface ice over a large area. In this study, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) technique is used to retrieve surface subsidence located at Eboling Mountain, near the northern edge of the QTP. Persistent Scatterer (PS) refers to stable natural or man-made object with good coherence in temporal domain. Based on the assumption that the residual phase of nearby PS is smaller than , we can retrieve the unwrapped phase associated with the sparsely irregular data. Using 17 L-band ALOS-1 PALSAR images taken from 2006 to 2011, we find linear deformation trends of up to 50 millimeters per year and seasonal subsidence of up to 80 millimeters over the area where thermokarst gullies are present (location: 38.01° N ,100.90° E , Figure 1), associated with thermokarst development and seasonal thawing of active layer, respectively. Furthermore, to the northwest and northeast of the Eboling thermokarst area, there are several small areas with large subsidence trends, which may also be related to thermokarst processes. This study demonstrates that the PSInSAR technique has the ability to map and quantify thermokarst-induced subsidence spanning multiple years using ALOS-1 PALSAR images. Yet as the thermokarst processes are much more complex in nature than a simple subsidence trend, more efforts are required (1) to validate the PSInSAR results with in situ measurements, (2) to better separate thermokarst-induced subsidence from seasonal ground elevation changes by including winter PSInSAR data and accounting for frost heave processes, and (3) to quantify potential aliasing problem due to the sparse

  16. Saline Playas on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as Mars Analog for the Formation-Preservation of Hydrous Salts and Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Sobron, P.; Mayer, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    - & multication-sulfates, carbonates, and chlorites. Halophiles were isolated from the collected evaporative salt samples from Da Langtan. They were cultured on modified growth medium (MGM) under different salinity conditions, and eight strains of halobacteria showed different growth curves. 16S rRNA gene sequences for these eight strains suggested that the halophiles from Da Langtan had high homology with some species of genera of Virgibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Halobacillus, and Ter-ribacillus. In conclusion, the climatic conditions and salt mineralogy within the lacustrine deposits at Da Langtan playa, northwest corner of the Qaidam basin on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, indicate that this area can be an excellent analog site for studying the precipitation sequence and the subsequent dehydration/degeneration of Martian salts. The finding of hylophyles in this hyperarid environment boosts the importance of exploring salty regolith in future surface explorations to Mars (MSL and ExoMars) in the search for similar biosignatures.

  17. Design and Build of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway considering the Impacts of Warming Climate and Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.; Jin, H.; Cheng, G.; Wu, Q.; Lai, Y.

    2005-12-01

    During the period from 1960 to 2000, an 1°C increase of air temperature has been observed along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) traversing 632 km of warm and ice-rich permafrost through the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Correspondingly, mean annual ground temperatures (MAGTs) of warm (>-1 °C) permafrost on average increased about 0.3 to 0.5°C during 1970s-1990, while that of colder permafrost had increased by 0.1 to 0.3°C. During 1996-2004, ground temperatures at the permafrost table were increasing at the rates of 0.01-0.08°C a-1, and the permafrost table was lowering at the rates of 2.6 to 6.6 cm a-1; and the ground temperatures at depths of 6 to 8 m were warming at the rates of 0.02 to 0.05°C a-1. Consequently, the strengths of permafrost as the foundation of the QTR would be weakened if proper engineering measures were not taken. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the road construction in permafrost regions from Alaska, Canada and Russia, and northeastern China, and taking into consideration of possible climatic warming along the QTR during the next 100 years, the design and construction of the QTR adopted the principle of``cooling the roadbed'' because most of the permafrost along the route is too deep to be thawed, too thermally sensitive to climatic warming and too critical to have appreciable thaw settlements. About 550 km of QTR is in continuous permafrost zone, 82 km is in discontinuous permafrost zone; 275 km is in warm permafrost areas, and 110 km of permafrost is ice-rich. The QTR is designed for safe operations during the next 100 years during which a warming of 2.2 to 2.6°C by 2050 is projected. Without engineering measures to keep ground frozen or maintain the settlement within the acceptable limits, thaw settlement in the foundation soils, and induced environmental instability would threaten the integrity and safety of QTR operation. However, only increasing therma resistance, such as increasing fill thickness or

  18. Provenance of lateritic bauxite deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen area, Northern Guizhou Province, China: LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Huang, Zhilong; Fan, Hongpeng; Ye, Lin; Jin, Zhongguo

    2013-07-01

    The provenance of the large and super-large scale bauxite deposits developed in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen (WZD) alumina metallogenic province in the Yangtze Block of South China is poorly understood. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from bauxite ores and the underlying Hanjiadian Group in the WZD area provide new constrains on the provenance of the WZD bauxite and provide new insight on the bauxite ore-forming process. The ages of the detrital zircons in the bauxites and the zircons in the Hanjiadian Group are similar suggesting that the bauxites are genetically related to the Hanjiadian sediments. The detrital zircon populations of the four samples studied show four primary age peaks: 2600-2400 Ma, 1900-1700 Ma, 1300-700 Ma and 700-400 Ma. The age distribution of detrital zircons indicates that they are probably derived from various sources including Neoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Paleoproterozoic, Archean and some minor Paleozoic sources. The most abundant age population contains a continuous range of ages from 1300 to 700 Ma, ages consistent with subduction-related magmatic activities (1000-740 Ma) along the western margin of the Yangtze Block and the worldwide Grenville orogenic events (1300-1000 Ma). Thus, it is suggested that the main provenances of the WZD bauxite and the Hanjiadian Group are the Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western Yangtze Block and the Grenville-age igneous rocks in the southern Cathaysia Block. In addition, this work verifies that the global Grenville orogenic events and subduction-related magmatic activities associated with the Yangtze Block had a significant influence on the formation of the WZD bauxite deposits.

  19. Actinobacterial Diversity in the Sediments of Five Cold Springs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Li, Xiaoyan; Huang, Liuqin; Jiang, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    The actinobacterial diversity was investigated in the sediments of five cold springs in Wuli region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The actinobacterial communities of the studied cold springs were diverse and the obtained actinobacterial operational taxonomic units were classified into 12 actinobacterial orders (e.g., Acidimicrobiales, Corynebacteriales, Gaiellales, Geodermatophilales, Jiangellales, Kineosporiales, Micromonosporales, Micrococcales, Nakamurellales, Propionibacteriales, Pseudonocardiales, Streptomycetales) and unclassified Actinobacteria. The actinobacterial composition varied among the investigated cold springs and were significantly correlated (r = 0.748, P = 0.021) to environmental variables. The actinobacterial communities in the cold springs were more diverse than other cold habitats on the Tibetan Plateau, and their compositions showed unique geographical distribution characteristics. Statistical analyses showed that biogeographical isolation and unique environmental conditions might be major factors influencing actinobacterial distribution among the investigated cold springs. PMID:26648925

  20. Origin and character of loesslike silt in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pewe, T.L.; Tungsheng, Liu; Slatt, R.M.; Bingyuan, Li

    1995-01-01

    Retransported, tan, loesslike silt is widespread in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. The silt occurs mainly in the lowlands and lower slopes and is absent on steep slopes and active flood plains. The silt covers most alluvial fans and is interbedded with the sand and gravel of the fans. It is well exposed in the agricultural fields on low terraces in the valleys and in the steep-walled scarps of dissected valley fill. The silt is primary loess on the low hill tops; however, the poorly to well-stratified loesslike silt on the lower slopes and in valley bottoms of the major river valleys is retransported loess. It probably was originally deposited by winds blowing across broad vegetation-free flood plains.

  1. Effects of Climate Change on Autotrophic Microbial Communities in Lake Qinghai on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Z.; Schadt, C. W.; Zhou, J.; Dong, H.; Yao, S.; Zhang, C.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Qinghai is located at the northeastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau and at the confluence of the East Asian monsoon, the Winter Monsoon, and the West Indian Monsoon. The goal of this study was to determine how climate change might have affected the microbial communities in the lake ecosystem. A sediment core was taken from the lake at a water depth of about 15 meters. A top sample (0-6 cm depth) and a bottom sample (36-40 cm depth) were studied using a functional-gene microarry method to determine the microbial community patterns that may be influenced by paleoclimatic variations. Based on a mineralogical study, the top sample was deposited within the past 100 years under a humid climate condition and the bottom sample was deposited around 700 years BP under a little ice age climate condition. In both samples, the Calvin-cycle genes were predominant accounting for greater than 90% of total CO2 fixation genes in each sample. Acetyl CoA genes were about the same (4-5%) in the two samples; whereas, the rTCA-cycle genes were twice as high in the top sample (3.6%) as in the bottom sample (1.6%). Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301, two photoautotrophic organisms, were only found in the bottom sample. Other RubisCO genes were found in both samples but had different hybridization intensities; some of them were related to Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodospirillum rubrum, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. The presence of photoautotrophic DNA in the bottom sediment suggests that fossil microorganisms for primary production might have been preserved for the past 700 years in Lake Qinghai sediments. The distinct patterns of gene distribution between these two samples indicate that climate change might have contributed to variation in functional diversity for CO2 fixation in the past 700 years.

  2. The Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and 4.6 g N m-2 yr-1, respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m-2 yr--1 and 6.7 g N m-2yr-1, respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0–40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0–20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China. PMID:25706724

  3. The long-term trends (1982-2006) in vegetation greenness of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Cuizhen; Ji, Lei; Li, Jing; Wang, Kun; Dai, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased rate of annual temperature in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau exceeded all other areas of the same latitude in recent decades. The influence of the warming climate on the alpine ecosystem of the plateau was distinct. An analysis of alpine vegetation under changes in climatic conditions was conducted in this study. This was done through an examination of vegetation greenness and its relationship with climate variability using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite imagery and climate datasets. Vegetation in the plateau experienced a positive trend in greenness, with 18.0 % of the vegetated areas exhibiting significantly positive trends, which were primarily located in the eastern and southwestern parts of the plateau. In grasslands, 25.8 % of meadows and 14.1 % of steppes exhibited significant upward trends. In contrast, the broadleaf forests experienced a trend of degradation. Temperature, particularly summer temperature, was the primary factor promoting the vegetation growth in the plateau. The wetter and warmer climate in the east contributed to the favorable conditions for vegetation. The alpine meadow was mostly sensitive to temperature, while the steppes were sensitive to both temperature and precipitation. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to vegetation growth in the alpine region, the rising temperature coupled with reduced precipitation in the south did not favor vegetation growth due to low humidity and poor soil moisture conditions.

  4. Late Pleistocene and Holocene aeolian sedimentation in Gonghe Basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Variability, processes, and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Mingrui; Jin, Yanxiang; Liu, Xingxing; Song, Lei; Li, Hao; Li, Fengshan; Chen, Fahu

    2016-01-01

    Although stratigraphic sequences of aeolian deposits in dryland areas have long been recognized as providing information about past environments, the exact nature of the environmental processes they reflect remains unclear. Here, we report the results of a detailed investigation of eight outcrop sections in the Gonghe Basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Measurements of sediment grain-size and chemical composition indicate that the deposits are primarily of aeolian origin, consisting of interbedded, well-sorted sand, silty sand, loess and/or palaeosol; however, their occurrence varies from site to site. Fossil dune sands mainly occur in or close to the currently stabilized or semi-stabilized dune fields, whereas loess is distributed along the downwind marginal areas. This pattern of basin-scale differentiation was controlled mainly by spatial variability of sediment supply due to the antecedent sedimentary patterns within the basin. Together with previously-published optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, 24 new OSL dates are used to elucidate the history of aeolian activity and its relationship to climatic changes. There is no apparent relationship between past dune activity and downwind loess deposits. Deposition of silty sand probably occurred during past phases of windy, dry and cold climate in the Late Pleistocene. However, climatic factors alone cannot explain the occurrence of silty sand deposition. This is because the deposition of silty sand was always preceded by episodes of fluvial deposition prior to river incision, thereby indicating the importance of an 'activated' sediment supply associated with fluvial processes. Deposition of well-sorted sand occurred episodically, not only during the Late Pleistocene, but also during the early- to mid-Holocene. Vegetation conditions, controlled either by the occurrence of intervals of moisture deficit during the Late Pleistocene or by changes in the balance between precipitation and

  5. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Proterozoic metaclastic-sedimentary rocks in Hainan Province of South China: New constraints on the depositional time, source area, and tectonic setting of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Hu, Guocheng; Yu, Liangliang; Wu, Chuanjun; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cai, Jianxin; Shan, Qiang; Hou, Maozhou; Chen, Huayong

    2015-12-01

    The Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, located at Hainan Province of South China, is well known for high-grade hematite-rich Fe ores and also two Precambrian host successions, i.e. the Shilu Group and the overlying Shihuiding Formation. This district has been interpreted as a banded iron formation (BIF) deposit-type, but its depositional time, source area and depositional setting have been in debate due to poor geochronological work. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating aided by cathodoluminescence imaging has been carried out on both the Shilu Group and Shihuiding Formation. Most of the zircon grains from both the successions are subrounded to rounded in morphology and have age spectra between 2000 Ma and 900 Ma with two predominant peaks at ca. 1460-1340 Ma and 1070 Ma, and three subordinate peaks at ca. 1740-1660 Ma, 1220 Ma and 970 Ma. The similar age distribution suggests the same depositional system for both successions. Linked to the geological and paleontological signatures, the Shihuiding Formation is better re-interpreted as the top, i.e. Seventh member of the Shilu Group, rather than a distinct Formation. The youngest statistical zircon age peaks for both successions, i.e. ca. 1070-970 Ma may define the maximum depositional time of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. At least two erosional sources are required for deposition of the studied detrital zircons, with one proximal to provide the least abraded zircons and the other distal or recycled to offer the largely abraded zircons. The predominance of rounded or subrounded zircons over angular zircons probably implies a relatively stable tectonic setting during deposition. Given the Precambrian tectonics of Hainan Island, a retro-arc foreland basin is proposed for the deposition of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. In comparison with those from the South China and other typical Grenvillian orogens, the detrital zircon age populations reveal that Hainan Island had crystalline basement similar to neither the Yangtze

  6. Late Miocene - Pliocene exhumation of the Qinghai Nan Shan (Northeastern Tibetan Plateau) constrained by adjacent Chaka basin magnetostratigraphic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Yuan, D.; Craddock, W.; Zhang, P.; Zheng, D.; Zheng, W.; Molnar, P.; Lease, R.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy from the Chaka basin in northeastern Tibet suggests that sedimentation began near 10 Ma, and sedimentary facies suggest that the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan immediately north developed at that time, tens of millions of years after India and Eurasia collided. A fining-upward sequence and provenance analysis indicate a growing transport distance for southeastward flowing paleo-drainages from ~10 Ma to 6.4 Ma. The disappearance of granite gravel at 7.4 Ma, eroded from the southern Qinghai Nan Shan to the north, indicates that the paleo-Qinghai Nan Shan temporarily became isolated from the Chaka basin, potentially by burial or partial burial of the lacustrine sediment. A change in paleocurrent direction, from south-southeastward to southwestward flow, along the mapped section at 6.4 Ma agrees with the reappearance of granite clasts provided by the southern Qinghai Nan Shan. Following this re-exhumation signal within the basin deposits, a coarsening-upward architecture, together with enhanced granite gravel input into the Chaka basin, indicates the decrease in transport distance from 6.4 Ma to ~3.0 Ma, which might represent increased relief and/or horizontal shortening during that period, even until present. Finally, by preliminary comparison of landscape characteristics for four nearby basin sections in northeastern Tibet, we suggest that the temporal variations of conglomerate deposition might reflect slightly different responses to regional climate change due to differences of transport distances and/or in relief. The onsets of conglomerate deposition at 4.2 Ma in Chaka basin, 3.6 Ma in Guide basin, and at 3.6 - 4.5 Ma in Linxia basin precede that at 2.5 Ma in Qaidam basin perhaps due to shorter transportation distances between ranges and the first three basins and higher local relief than those for the much wider Qaidam basin.

  7. Seperating Long-term Hydrological Loading and Tectonic Deformation Observed with Multi-temporal SAR Interferometry and GPS in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, G.; Lin, H.

    2014-12-01

    From 2000 till present, most endorheic lakes in Tibetan plateau experienced quick increasing. Several largest lakes, gathered several meters depth water during one decade. Such massive mass increasing will lead to elastic and visco-elastic deformation of the ground. Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is one the most active tectonic places in the world; monitoring its ground deformation is essential, when loading effect is a nuisance item. Due to the sparse distribution of GPS sites and most are roving sites, it is hard to distinguish tectonic component from mass loading effect. In this research we took Selin Co Lake located at Nujiang-Bangoin suture zone and evaluated long time ground deformation at hundred kilometers scale by multi-temporal SAR interferometry and simulate the ground deformation by loading history evaluated by multi mission satellite altimetry and optical images observation. At Nujiang-Bangoin suture zone, where GPS presented the maximum ground subsidence in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of 3.6mm/a which was found at the shore of Selin Co Lake from 1999 to 2011, when it experienced water level increasing of 0.7m/a. A model of elastic plate lying over Newtonian viscous half-space matches well with the results of multi-temporal SAR interferometry and GPS observations. We concluded that near Selin Co Lake area, ground deformation is composed by both tectonic and hydrological loading part. As SAR image coverage is much smaller than tectonic scale, we contribute the deformation detected by InSAR to loading effect. After evaluating and removing the hydrological loading effect, we founds that Nujiang-Bangoin suture zone did not experience quick subsidence, but only limited to 0.5mm/a. Selin Co Lake's quick volume increasing caused 3mm/a subsidence rate to the nearest GPS site. The Second nearest site showed the 1.4mm/a subsidence totally, which were composed by 1.05mm/a hydrological loading effect and the rest was tectonic. We also found that Young's Modulus is the most

  8. Otolith microchemistry of modern versus well-dated ancient naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii: Implication for water evolution of Lake Qinghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.

  9. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration in alpine ecosystems in the NE of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Si-Yi; Ma, Yu-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between surface energy flux, evapotranspiration and soil water were poorly understood in the alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a sensitive and vulnerable region to global climate change. For the first time, we continuously measured surface energy flux and soil water content (SWC) and estimated ET using bowen ratio energy balance method in the Qinghai Lake watershed, located in the northeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between 2012 and 2013. The three ecosystems were Kobresia meadow (KMd.), Potentilla fruticosa shrub (PFSh.) and Achnatherum splendens steppe (ASSt.). Results indicated that there was a good negative correlation between ecosystem Bowen ratios and SWC in the growing season for the three ecosystems. Annual ET at KMd. and PFSh. was 16% and 3% less than local annual precipitation, while that at ASSt. was 26% larger than annual precipitation. Average annual ET was 507.9, 493.2 and 413.7 mm at PFSh., KMd. and ASSt., respectively. Fluctuations of daily ET at alpine ecosystems were primarily controlled by solar radiation, especially in the growing season, whereas, at ASSt. where precipitation and SWC was limited, ET was also controlled by water supply.

  10. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  11. Recent changes in glacial area and volume on Tuanjiefeng peak region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km(2) (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was -0.15% a(-1) from 1966 to 1995, -0.61% a(-1) from 1995 to 2000, -0.20% a(-1) from 2000 to 2006, and -0.45% a(-1) from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was -7.3±1.5 m (-0.21±0.04 m·a(-1)) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×10(8) m(3) from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved. PMID:24015174

  12. Recent Changes in Glacial Area and Volume on Tuanjiefeng Peak Region of Qilian Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km2 (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was −0.15% a−1 from 1966 to 1995, −0.61% a−1 from 1995 to 2000, −0.20% a−1 from 2000 to 2006, and −0.45% a−1 from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was −7.3±1.5 m (−0.21±0.04 m·a−1) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×108 m3 from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved. PMID:24015174

  13. Chloroplast phylogeny and phylogeography of Stellera chamaejasme on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Hong; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang

    2010-12-01

    Historic events such as the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Q-T Plateau) and climatic oscillations in the Quaternary period greatly affected the evolution and modern distribution of Sino-Tibetan flora. Stellera chamaejasme, a perennial herb with flower color polymorphism that is distributed from the mountainous southeastern Q-T Plateau (Hengduan Mountains, H-D Mountains) to the vast platform of the Q-T Plateau and the adjacent plain of northern China, provides an excellent model to explore the effects of historic events on the origination and variation of species. In this study, we conducted a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study using three chloroplast sequences (trnT-L, trnL-F and rpL16) in 26 populations of S. chamaejasme and 12 outgroups from the Thymeleaceae. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock estimation revealed that the monophyletic origin of S. chamaejasme occurred ca. 6.5892 Ma, which is consistent with the radical environment changes caused by the rapid uplift of the Q-T Plateau ca. 7 Ma. Intra-specific differentiation of S. chamaejasme is estimated to have occurred after ca. 2.1 Ma. Twelve haplotypes were revealed from combined trnL-F and rpL16 sequences. High genetic diversity (h(T)=0.834) and population differentiation (N(ST)=0.997 and G(ST)=0.982) imply restricted gene flow among populations and significant geographical or environmental isolation. All populations from the vast plain of northern China were dominated by one haplotype (H1), and the same haplotype was fixed in most populations from the high elevation platform of the western and northern Q-T Plateau. In contrast, the majority of the haplotypes were found in the relatively narrow area of the H-D Mountains, in the southeastern distribution of S. chamaejasme. The contrasting haplotype distribution patterns suggested that the H-D Mountains were either a refugium for S. chamaejasme during the Quaternary climatic oscillations or a diversification center of this species. The present

  14. Crust-mantle density distribution in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau revealed by satellite-derived gravity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Honglei; Fang, Jian; Braitenberg, Carla; Wang, Xinsheng

    2015-04-01

    As the highest, largest and most active plateau on Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a complex crust-mantle structure, especially in its eastern part. In response to the subduction of the lithospheric mantle of the Indian plate, large-scale crustal motion occurs in this area. Despite the many previous studies, geodynamic processes at depth remain unclear. Knowledge of crust and upper mantle density distribution allows a better definition of the deeper geological structure and thus provides critically needed information for understanding of the underlying geodynamic processes. With an unprecedented precision of 1-2 mGal and a spatial resolution better than 100 km, GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission products can be used to constrain the crust-mantle density distribution. Here we used GOCE gravitational gradients at an altitude of 10km after reducing the effects of terrain, sediment thickness variations, and Moho undulations to image the density structures of eastern Tibet up to 200 km depths. We inverted the residual satellite gravitational gradients using a least square approach. The initial density model for the inversion is based on seismic velocities from the tomography. The model is composed of rectangular blocks, having a uniform density, with widths of about 100 km and variable thickness and depths. The thickness of the rectangular cells changes from10 to 60km in accordance with the seismic model. Our results reveal some large-scale, structurally controlled density variations at depths. The lithospheric root defined by higher-density contrast features from southwest to northeast, with shallowing in the central part: base of lithosphere reaches a depth of180 km, less than 100km, and 200 km underneath the Lhasa, Songpan-Ganzi, and Ordos crustal blocks, respectively. However, these depth values only represent a first-order parameterization because they depend on model discretization inherited from the original seismic

  15. Review of risk factors for human echinococcosis prevalence on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China: a prospective for control options

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Echinococcosis is a major parasitic zoonosis of public health importance in western China. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Health estimated that 380,000 people had the disease in the region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly co-endemic with both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). In the past years, the Chinese government has been increasing the financial support to control the diseases in this region. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significant risk factors of the diseases by reviewing studies done in the region in the past decade to help policymakers design appropriate control strategies. Review Selection criteria for which literature to review were firstly defined. Medline, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Google Scholar were systematically searched for literature published between January 2000 and July 2011. Significant risk factors found by single factor and/or multiple factors analysis were listed, counted, and summarized. Literature was examined to check the comparability of the data; age and sex specific prevalence with same data structures were merged and used for further analysis. A variety of assumed social, economical, behavioral, and ecological risk factors were studied on the Plateau. Those most at risk were Tibetan herdsmen, the old and female in particular. By analyzing merged comparable data, it was found that females had a significant higher prevalence, and a positive linearity relationship existed between echinococcosis prevalence and increasing age. In terms of behavioral risk factors, playing with dogs was mostly correlated with CE and/or AE prevalence. In terms of hygiene, employing ground water as the drinking water source was significantly correlated with CE and AE prevalence. For definitive hosts, dog related factors were most frequently identified with prevalence of CE or/and AE; fox was a potential risk factor for AE prevalence only. Overgrazing and deforestation

  16. The Quaternary evolutionary history, potential distribution dynamics, and conservation implications for a Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic herbaceous perennial, Anisodus tanguticus (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Wan, Dong-Shi; Feng, Jian-Ju; Jiang, De-Chun; Mao, Kang-Shan; Duan, Yuan-Wen; Miehe, Georg; Opgenoorth, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed about the Quaternary evolutionary history of plant species on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), yet only a handful of studies have considered both population genetics and ecological niche context. In this study, we proposed and compared climate refugia hypotheses based on the phylogeographic pattern of Anisodus tanguticus (three plastid DNA fragments and nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions from 32 populations) and present and past species distribution models (SDMs). We detected six plastid haplotypes in two well-differentiated lineages. Although all haplotypes could be found in its western (sampling) area, only haplotypes from one lineage occurred in its eastern area. Meanwhile, most genetic variations existed between populations (F ST = 0.822). The SDMs during the last glacial maximum and last interglacial periods showed range fragmentation in the western area and significant range contraction in the eastern area, respectively, in comparison with current potential distribution. This species may have undergone intraspecific divergence during the early Quaternary, which may have been caused by survival in different refugia during the earliest known glacial in the QTP, rather than geological isolation due to orogenesis events. Subsequently, climate oscillations during the Quaternary resulted in a dynamic distribution range for this species as well as the distribution pattern of its plastid haplotypes and nuclear genotypes. The interglacial periods may have had a greater effect on A. tanguticus than the glacial periods. Most importantly, neither genetic data nor SDM alone can fully reveal the climate refugia history of this species. We also discuss the conservation implications for this important Tibetan folk medicine plant in light of these findings and SDMs under future climate models. Together, our results underline the necessity to combine phylogeographic and SDM approaches in future investigations of the Quaternary

  17. Changes in active-layer thickness and near-surface permafrost between 2002 and 2012 in alpine ecosystems, Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingbai; Hou, Yandong; Yun, Hanbo; Liu, Yongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012, daily soil temperature measurements were made at 10 sites within five alpine ecosystems in the Beiluhe area of the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Changes in freeze-thaw occurrence, active-layer thickness and near-surface permafrost temperature in barren, desert grassland, alpine steppe and alpine meadow ecosystems indicate that alpine ecosystems are sensitive to climate variability. During this time, the average onset of spring thawing at 50-cm depth advanced by at least 16 days in all but the barren alpine settings, and the duration of thaw increased by at least 14 days for all but the desert grassland and barren ecosystems. All sites showed an increase in active-layer thickness (ALT) and near-surface permafrost temperature: the average increase of ALT was ~ 4.26 cm/a and the average increase in permafrost temperatures at 6 m and 10 m depths were, respectively, ~ 0.13 °C and ~ 0.14 °C. No apparent trend in mean annual air temperature was detected at the Beiluhe weather station. However, an increasing trend in precipitation was measured. This suggests that the primary control on the ALT increase was an increase in summer rainfall and the primary control on increasing permafrost temperature was probably the combined effects of increasing rainfall and the asymmetrical seasonal changes in subsurface soil temperatures.

  18. Black carbon aerosol in winter northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China: the source, mixing state and optical property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Y.; Huang, R.-J.; Cao, J. J.; Tie, X. X.; Ni, H. Y.; Zhou, Y. Q.; Han, Y. M.; Hu, T. F.; Zhu, C. S.; Feng, T.; Li, N.; Li, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol at high altitudes of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has potential effects on the regional climate and hydrological cycle. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted at Qinghai Lake (~ 3200 m above sea level) at the edge of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during winter using a ground-based single particle soot photometer (SP2) and a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX). The average concentration of refractory BC (rBC) and number fraction of coated rBC were found to be 160 ± 190 ng m-3 and 59 % for the entire campaign, respectively. Significant enhancements of rBC loadings and number fraction of coated rBC were observed during a pollution episode, with an average value of 390 ng m-3 and 65 %, respectively. The mass size distribution of rBC particles showed log-normal distribution, with a peak diameter of ~ 187 nm regardless of the pollution level. Five-day backward trajectory analysis suggests that the air masses from north India contributed to the increased rBC loadings during the campaign. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model combined with the fire counts map further proves that biomass burning from north India is an important potential source influencing the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the pollution episode. The rBC mass absorption cross section (MACrBC) at λ = 532 nm was slightly larger in clean days (14.9 m2 g-1) than during the pollution episode (9.3 m2 g-1), likely due to the effects of brown carbon and the uncertainty of the MACrBC calculation. The MACrBC was positively correlated with number fraction of coated rBC during the pollution episode with an increasing rate of 0.18 (m2 g-1) %-1. The number fraction of coated rBC particles showed positive correlation with light absorption, suggesting that the increase of coated rBC particles will enhance the light absorption. Compared to rBC mass concentration, rBC mixing sate is more important in determining absorption during the pollution

  19. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  20. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  1. Constraints on water chemistry by chemical weathering in the Lake Qinghai catchment, northeastern Tibetan Plateau (China): clues from Sr and its isotopic geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhangdong; Yu, Jimin; Wang, Sumin; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yuewei; You, Chen-Feng

    2009-12-01

    Lake water, river water, and groundwater from the Lake Qinghai catchment in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China have been analyzed and the results demonstrate that the chemical components and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the waters are strictly constrained by the age and rock types of the tributaries, especially for groundwater. Dissolved ions in the Lake Qinghai catchment are derived from carbonate weathering and part from silicate sources. The chemistry of Buha River water, the largest tributary within the catchment, underlain by the late Paleozoic marine limestone and sandstones, constrains carbonate-dominated compositions of the lake water, being buffered by the waters from the other tributaries and probably by groundwater. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios with cation concentrations places constraint on the Sr-isotopic compositions of the main subcatchments surrounding Lake Qinghai. The relative significance of river-water sources from different tributaries (possibly groundwater as well) in controlling the Sr distribution in Lake Qinghai provides the potential to link the influence of hydrological processes to past biological and physical parameters in the lake. The potential role of groundwater input in the water budget and chemistry of the lake emphasizes the need to further understand hydrogeological processes within the Lake Qinghai system.

  2. Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil hydraulic properties over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Quanjiu; Chen, Yingying; Joswiak, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryAlpine meadow soil is an important ecosystem component of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the alpine meadow soil is undergoing serious degradation mainly due to global climate change, overgrazing, human activities and rodents. In this paper, spatial sequencing was chosen over time succession sequencing to study the changes of soil hydraulic properties under different degrees of alpine meadow degradation. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and Gardner α both at the surface and at 40-50 cm depth were investigated in the field using tension infiltrometers. Soil physical and chemical properties, together with the root index at 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layer depths were also analyzed. Pearson correlations were adopted to study the relationships among the investigated factors and principal component analysis was performed to identify the dominant factor. Results show that with increasing degree of degradation, soil sand content increased while soil Ks and Gardner α as well as soil clay content, soil porosity decreased in the 0-10 cm soil layers, and organic matter and root gravimetric density decreased in both the 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layers. However, soil moisture showed no significant changes with increasing degradation. With decreasing pressure head, soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reduced more slowly under degraded conditions than non-degraded conditions. Soil Ks and Gardner α were significantly correlated (P = 0.01) with bulk density, soil porosity, soil organic matter and root gravimetric density. Among these, soil porosity is the dominant factor explaining about 90% of the variability in total infiltration flow. Under non-degraded conditions, the infiltration flow principally depended on the presence of macropores. With increasing degree of degradation, soil macropores quickly changed to mesopores or micropores. The proportion of total infiltration flow through macropores and mesopores significantly decreased with the most

  3. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time. PMID:26053874

  5. High methane emissions from a littoral zone on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huai; Wu, Ning; Yao, Shouping; Gao, Yongheng; Zhu, Dan; Wang, Yanfen; Xiong, Wan; Yuan, Xingzhong

    The littoral zones of lakes have been regarded as hotspots of methane (CH 4) fluxes through several studies. In the present study, we measured CH 4 fluxes in six kinds of littoral zones of Huahu Lake on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the peak growing season of 2006 and 2007. We found that CH 4 efflux (ranging from -0.1 to 90 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1) from the littoral zones of this lake was relatively high among those of boreal and temperate lakes. Our results also showed that emergent plant zones ( Hippuris vulgaris and Glyceria maxima stands) recorded the highest CH 4 flux rate. The CH 4 flux in the floating mat zone of Carex muliensis was significantly lower than those of the emergent plant zones. CH 4 fluxes in the floating-leaved zone of Polygonum amphibium and bare lakeshore showed no significant difference and ranked last but one, only higher than that of the littoral meadow ( Kobresia tibetica). Plant biomass and standing water depths were important factors to explain such spatial variations in CH 4 fluxes. No significant temporal variations in CH 4 fluxes were found due to the insignificant variations of physical factors in the peak growing season. These results may help in our understanding of the importance of the littoral zone of lakes, especially the emergent plant zone, as a hotspot of CH 4 emission.

  6. Interplay between the Westerlies and Asian monsoon recorded in Lake Qinghai sediments since 32 ka

    PubMed Central

    An, Zhisheng; Colman, Steven M.; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Xiaoqiang; Brown, Eric T.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Cai, Yanjun; Huang, Yongsong; Lu, Xuefeng; Chang, Hong; Song, Yougui; Sun, Youbin; Xu, Hai; Liu, Weiguo; Jin, Zhangdong; Liu, Xiaodong; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Yu; Ai, Li; Li, Xiangzhong; Liu, Xiuju; Yan, Libin; Shi, Zhengguo; Wang, Xulong; Wu, Feng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Dong, Jibao; Lu, Fengyan; Xu, Xinwen

    2012-01-01

    Two atmospheric circulation systems, the mid-latitude Westerlies and the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), play key roles in northern-hemisphere climatic changes. However, the variability of the Westerlies in Asia and their relationship to the ASM remain unclear. Here, we present the longest and highest-resolution drill core from Lake Qinghai on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP), which uniquely records the variability of both the Westerlies and the ASM since 32 ka, reflecting the interplay of these two systems. These records document the anti-phase relationship of the Westerlies and the ASM for both glacial-interglacial and glacial millennial timescales. During the last glaciation, the influence of the Westerlies dominated; prominent dust-rich intervals, correlated with Heinrich events, reflect intensified Westerlies linked to northern high-latitude climate. During the Holocene, the dominant ASM circulation, punctuated by weak events, indicates linkages of the ASM to orbital forcing, North Atlantic abrupt events, and perhaps solar activity changes. PMID:22943005

  7. A less or more dusty future in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingqi; Yu, Zhitong; Dong, Hailiang; Chen, Huei-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Dust plays an important role in climate changes as it can alter atmospheric circulation, and global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycling. Many studies have investigated the relationship between dust and temperature in an attempt to predict whether global warming in coming decades to centuries can result in a less or more dusty future. However, dust and temperature changes have rarely been simultaneously reconstructed in the same record. Here we present a 1600-yr-long quantitative record of temperature and dust activity inferred simultaneously from varved Kusai Lake sediments in the northern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, NW China. At decadal time scale, our temperature reconstructions are generally in agreement with tree-ring records from Karakorum of Pakistan, and temperature reconstructions of China and North Hemisphere based on compilations of proxy records. A less or more dusty future depends on temperature variations in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, i.e. weak and strong dust activities at centennial time scales are well correlated with low and high June–July–August temperature (average JJA temperature), respectively. This correlation means that stronger summer and winter monsoon should occur at the same times in the northern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25335792

  8. Hydrological and solute budgets of Lake Qinghai, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Zhangdong; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Yi; Shi, Yuewei

    2009-12-04

    Water level and chemistry of Lake Qinghai are sensitive to climate changes and are important for paleoclimatic implications. An accurate understanding of hydrological and chemical budgets is crucial for quantifying geochemical proxies and carbon cycle. Published results of water budget are firstly reviewed in this paper. Chemical budget and residence time of major dissolved constituents in the lake are estimated using reliable water budget and newly obtained data for seasonal water chemistry. The results indicate that carbonate weathering is the most important riverine process, resulting in dominance of Ca 2+ and DIC for river waters and groundwater. Groundwater contribution to major dissolved constituents is relatively small (4.2 ± 0.5%). Wet atmospheric deposition contributes annually 7.4–44.0% soluble flux to the lake, resulting from eolian dust throughout the seasons. Estimates of chemical budget further suggest that (1) the Buha-type water dominates the chemical components of the lake water, (2) Na+, Cl-, Mg 2+ , and K+ in lake water are enriched owing to their conservative behaviors, and (3) precipitation of authigenic carbonates (low-Mg calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) transits quickly dissolved Ca 2+ into the bottom sediments of the lake, resulting in very low Ca 2+ in the lake water. Therefore, authigenic carbonates in the sediments hold potential information on the relative contribution of different solute inputs to the lake and the lake chemistry in the past.

  9. Influences of sand accumulation on crushed-rock embankment along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ruiping; He, Zhilin; Zong, Yumei; Zhang, Kecun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-04-01

    The crushed-rock embankment, which is widely used in the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), has been proven to have active cooling effects and can effectively protect the stability of embankment in permafrost regions. However, with the increasing of desertification in Tibetan Plateau, the crushed-rock embankments along the QTR have suffered from sand filling or burial seriously, and the influences of sand accumulation on the crushed-rock embankment have not been effectively resolved so far. Therefore, this paper simulated the ground temperature variation in the case of the crushed-rock embankment filled and buried by sand through the indoor experiment. The results show that the bare crushed-rock has good cooling effect on its underlying embankment, but after filled or buried by sand, its cooling effect will significantly reduce or even disappear, and the thicker the sand layer, the higher the ground temperature of frozen soil. In the long term, the sand accumulation could be a serious and potential threat to embankment of the QTR. In order to ensure the stability of the crushed-rock embankment and safe operation of the QTR, it is necessary to set up comprehensive sand-protecting system along the railway as soon as possible.

  10. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li’an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P < 0.001) with lake salinity instead of geographic distance. This suggests that lake salinity is more important than geographic distance in shaping the microbial diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions. PMID:27113678

  11. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P < 0.001) with lake salinity instead of geographic distance. This suggests that lake salinity is more important than geographic distance in shaping the microbial diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions. PMID:27113678

  12. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  13. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  14. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  15. Environmental controls on soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in the high-altitude arid western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau permafrost region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Fang, Hongbing; Zhao, Yuguo; Smoak, Joseph M.; Pang, Qiangqiang; Ding, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    While permafrost in the circum-Artic has great influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks, this might not be the case in low-latitude arid permafrost regions. We test this hypothesis in the western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) permafrost region. Fifty-nine soil profiles were analyzed to examine the SOC and TN distribution and the controlling factors in western QTP, which is a desert steppe ecoregion. Mean stocks of SOC (5.29 kg m-2) and TN (0.56 kg m-2) for the top 200 cm in this area were lower than those of the east QTP and circum-Arctic regions. The SOC and TN stocks under vegetative cover with permafrost conditions were significantly higher than those of desert conditions. The SOC and TN stocks for the layers of different depths were related to the content of clay, silt, and moisture. Although the active layer thickness (ALT) had a significant negative correlation to soil moisture, the ALT explained little or no variance in the SOC and TN stocks. The results showed that in the vast permafrost regions of the western QTP, the SOC and TN stocks are very low, and the main controlling factors for the SOC and TN are soil texture, moisture, and vegetation type. The SOC pool in this area may not be as vulnerable to degradation associated with climate warming and thus not emit greenhouse gases at the same rate as other permafrost regions. The different response of the SOC in this region should be considered in carbon cycling models.

  16. The conductivity structure and dynamic characteristics of Southern-Ningxia arcstructure belt, north-east edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, G.; Wang, G.; Chen, J.; Zhou, J.; Yin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt is the forward region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau that with the extension to northeast , it's tectonic deformation is the remoted effect which caused by the uplifting of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the compressional basin-mountain range system which formed in the cenozoic did not suffer too much change, so Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt become an ideal place for the geologists and geophysicists to study plateau uplifting mechanis. For the above reasons,many experts carried out a large number of geophysical investigations in this arcstructural belt, and these research made animportant contribution for us to know the deep structure of Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt,but limited to the instrument accuracy and data processing technology,the results had poor resolusion. so we need urgently to carry out high-precision geophysical exploration in Southern-Ningxia,to provide technical support for studying dynamic mechanism and deep structure around the epicenter. we arranged two magnetotelluric sounding profile which across the major tectonic units, the average measurement pitch is 2km,and observation time for each measuring point is more than 12 hours, using the latest 2D NLCG inversion technique with topography for the inversion of measured data, then obtain 2D electrically structure figures with the depth of 30km,which clearly revealed the typical electrical strucure and dynamics characteristics of the study area: The middle&upper crust showing the structural styles of "chunky" totally, the low-impedance&high-conductivity layers in the mid-upper crust of the study area intermittent exist,which shows structural styles of southwest deeper and northeast shallower, we can also infer that low-impedance&high-conductivity layers always termination on the edge of the high impedance ,or intersection with the detachment layers that under the thrust nappes; The low-resistivity zone caused by focal fracture of Haiyuan earthquake neither steep

  17. Nitrous oxide fluxes from the littoral zone of a lake on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Wang, Meng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Yongheng; Peng, Changhui

    2011-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes were measured in six littoral mirco-zones of Lake Huahu on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the peak growing season of years of 2006 and 2007. The weighted mean N(2)O flux rate was 0.08 mg N m(-2) h(-1) (ranged from -0.07 to 0.35 mg N m(-2) h(-1)). The result was relatively high in the scope of N(2)O fluxes from boreal and temperate lakes. Emergent plant zones (Hippuris vulgaris and Glyceria maxima stands) recorded the highest N(2)O flux rate (0.11 ± 0.24 and 0.08 ± 0.17 mg N m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Non-vegetated lakeshore recorded the lowest N(2)O flux (0.03 ± 0.11 mg N m(-2) h(-1)), lower than that from the floating mat zone of Carex muliensis (0.05 ± 0.18 mg N m(-2) h(-1)), the floating-leaved plant zone of Polygonum amphibium (0.07 ± 0.11 mg N m(-2) h(-1)), and the wet meadow (0.07 ± 0.15 mg N m(-2) h(-1)). Standing water depths were important factors to explain such spatial variations in N(2)O fluxes. Significant temporal variations in N(2)O fluxes were also found. Such temporal variation in N(2)O flux in the littoral zone may be dependent on the interaction of water regime and thermal conditions, instead of the latter solely. These results showed the importance of the littoral zone of lake, especially the emergent plant zone, as a hotspot of N(2)O fluxes in such grazing meadows. PMID:21327481

  18. Alkenone temperature and salinity: An evaluation of long chain C37 alkenone in Lake Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Liu, Z.; Fu, M.; An, Z.

    2007-12-01

    In recently years, the alkenone unsaturation index (Uk'37=C37:.2/(C37:2+ C37:3)) has been used to reconstructed paleo-temperature for lacustrine sediments. However, few studies have addressed whether the relative abundance of the C37:4 alkenone to the total C37 production (C37:4 percent) can reflect surface salinity changes in lake systems. Here we present the distribution of C37 long chain alkenone of modern lake sediments in Qinghai Lake, Qing-Tibet Plateau, to evaluate significance of abundance change of long chain C37 alkenone as an indicator of lake paleo-enviromental evolution. A group of surface sediments from different locations in the lake have been analyzed in this study. The results of long chain C37 alkenone from 28 surface sediments analyses shown relative abundance of C37:4 alkenone to total C37 production (C37:4 percent) change from 14.5 to 48.6 percent and the abundance of C37:4 alkenone is increasing with decreasing salinity of lake water. For the salinity lake in land, we suggested the relative abundance of C37:4 alkenone in lake sediments may be a indicator of paleo-silinity; We have also found that Uk'37 values are weakly correlated with salinity and C37:4 percent changes, implying that potential minor contributions of temperature and salinity effects to C37:4 percent and Uk'37 respectively cannot be excluded in this study. However, since these contributions are weak, we suggest that the C37:4 percent proxy can be used to reconstruct paleo-salinity changes at a regional scale, especially in lake systems, while Uk'37 remains as a powerful tool for reconstructions of paleo-temperature changes in the lake systems.

  19. Indehiscent sporangia enable the accumulation of local fern diversity at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indehiscent sporangia are reported for only a few of derived leptosporangiate ferns. Their evolution has been likely caused by conditions in which promotion of self-fertilization is an evolutionary advantageous strategy such as the colonization of isolated regions and responds to stressful habitat conditions. The Lepisorus clathratus complex provides the opportunity to test this hypothesis because these derived ferns include specimens with regular dehiscent and irregular indehiscent sporangia. The latter occurs preferably in well-defined regions in the Himalaya. Previous studies have shown evidence for multiple origins of indehiscent sporangia and the persistence of populations with indehiscent sporangia at extreme altitudinal ranges of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Results Independent phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using DNA sequences of the uniparentally inherited chloroplast genome and two low-copy nuclear genes confirmed the hypothesis of multiple origins of indehiscent sporangia and the restriction of particular haplotypes to indehiscent sporangia populations in the Lhasa and Nyingchi regions of the QTP. In contrast, the Hengduan Mountains were characterized by high haplotype diversity and the occurrence of accessions with and without indehiscent sporangia. Evidence was found for polyploidy and reticulate evolution in this complex. The putative case of chloroplast capture in the Nyingchi populations provided further evidence for the promotion of isolated but persistent populations by indehiscent sporangia. Conclusions The presented results confirmed the hypothesis that indehiscent sporangia promote the establishment of persistent population in different regions of the QTP. These results are consistent with the expectations of reproductive reassurance by promotion of self-fertilization that played a critical role in the assembly of populations in isolated locations and/or extreme habitats. PMID:22929005

  20. Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil hydraulic properties over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Alpine meadow is one of widespread vegetation types of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It is undergoing degradation under the background of global climate change, human activities and overgrazing. Soil moisture is important to alpine meadow ecology for its water and energy transfer processes, therefore soil hydraulic properties become key parameters for local eco-hydrological processes studies. However, little research focus on the changes and it's mechanisms of soil hydraulic properties during the degradation processes. In this study, soil basic and hydraulic properties at 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layer depths under different degraded alpine meadow were analyzed. Pearson correlations were adopted to study the relationships among the investigated factors and principal component analysis was performed to identify the dominant factor. Results show that with increasing degree of degradation, soil sand content increased while soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) as well as soil clay content, soil porosity decreased in the 0-10 cm soil layers, and organic matter and root gravimetric density decreased in both the 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layers. For soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, it reduced more slowly with decreasing pressure head under degraded conditions than non-degraded conditions. However, soil moisture showed no significant changes with increasing degradation. Soil Ks was significantly correlated (P = 0.01) with bulk density, soil porosity, soil organic matter and root gravimetric density. Among these, soil porosity is the dominant factor explaining about 90% of the variability in total infiltration flow. Under non-degraded conditions, the infiltration flow principally depended on the presence of macropores. With increasing degree of degradation, soil macropores quickly changed to mesopores or micropores. The proportion of total infiltration flow through macropores and mesopores significantly decreased with the most substantial decrease observed for

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  2. Characterization of the prokaryotic diversity through a stratigraphic permafrost core profile from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2016-05-01

    Permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the most sensitive regions to climate warming, thus characterizing its microbial diversity and community composition may be important for understanding their potential responses to climate changes. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic diversity in a 10-m-long permafrost core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene. We detected 191 and 17 bacterial and archaeal phylotypes representing 14 and 2 distinct phyla, respectively. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum, while archaeal communities were characterized by a preponderance of Thaumarchaeota. Some of prokaryotic phylotypes were closely related to characterized species involved in carbon and nitrogen cycles, including nitrogen fixation, methane oxidation and nitrification. However, the majority of the phylotypes were only distantly related to known taxa at order or species level, suggesting the potential of novel diversity. Additionally, both bacterial α diversity and community composition changed significantly with sampling depth, where these communities mainly distributed according to core horizons. Arthrobacter-related phylotypes presented at high relative abundance in two active layer soils, while the deeper permafrost soils were dominated by Psychrobacter-related clones. Changes in bacterial community composition were correlated with most measured soil variables, such as carbon and nitrogen contents, pH, and conductivity. PMID:27033516

  3. Spatial-temporal differences in climate change at different altitudes, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Jin, Heling; Sun, Liangying; Su, Zhizhu; Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Shuang; Miao, Yunfa

    2014-09-01

    The history of climate change and related driving mechanisms of the Gonghe Basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, was reconstructed in the Holocene epoch, based on the comprehensive analysis of multi-proxies consisting of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, and geochemical elements from eolian and peat deposits at different altitudes. The results indicate that Holocene climate change at different altitudes is both consistent and different: a synchronous record of an increased warm-humid phase (10.0-8.5 ka) and a cold phase around 8.2 ka in the Early Holocene; an optimal warm-humid condition in marginal mountains of the Gonghe Basin in the Mid-Holocene; and a gradual decline in temperature and humidity in the Late Holocene. The Gonghe Basin interior in the Mid-Holocene was relatively arid, with increased moisture in the Late Holocene. On this basis, we compared our results to the paleoclimatic record in the low-latitude Asian monsoonal region, which indicates that, in addition to the Asian summer monsoonal strength having influenced regional climate change, the upward and subsidence motion of airflow over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau induced by topographic conditions, evaporation, and the feedback effect by the substrate was also influential. The latter was especially important for spatial-temporal differences in Middle and Late Holocene climatic changes at different altitudes.

  4. Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuhua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Bo; Ding, Yongjian

    2014-07-01

    Permafrost plays a critical role in soil hydrology. Thus, the degradation of permafrost under warming climate conditions may affect the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous space-for-time studies using plot and basin scales have reached contradictory conclusions. In this study, we applied a process-based ecosystem model (DOS-TEM) with a state-of-the-art permafrost hydrology scheme to examine this issue. Our results showed that 1) the DOS-TEM model could properly simulate the responses of soil thermal and hydrological dynamics and of ecosystem dynamics to climate warming and spatial differences in precipitation; 2) the simulated results were consistent with plot-scale studies showing that warming caused an increase in maximum unfrozen thickness, a reduction in vegetation and soil carbon pools as a whole, and decreases in soil water content, net primary production, and heterotrophic respiration; and 3) the simulated results were also consistent with basin-scale studies showing that the ecosystem responses to warming were different in regions with different combinations of water and energy constraints. Permafrost prevents water from draining into water reservoirs. However, the degradation of permafrost in response to warming is a long-term process that also enhances evapotranspiration. Thus, the degradation of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (releasing carbon) cannot be mainly attributed to the disappearing waterproofing function of permafrost.

  5. Temperature signal instability of tree-ring δ13C chronology in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Xiaohong; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju; Zhang, Xuanwen; Qin, Dahe

    2016-04-01

    Tree ring δ13C as a climate proxy is widely used for palaeoclimate research, however, its temporal stability response to the climate change remains unclear under more than one limited factors on tree growth. Here, we used a millennium tree-ring δ13C chronology combining two annual-resolution δ13C chronologies since 1800 from long-lived Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii) to assess its instability of the climate signal in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Tree-ring δ13C chronologies were strongly correlated with the regional mean April to August temperature from 1956 to 2008, but the associations were absent within the period 1901 to 1955 values in the CRU TS dataset. Comparison of the millennium-long δ13C series with reconstructed Asian temperatures also demonstrated that the δ13C chronology exhibited climate signal temporal instability. Substantial oscillations were revealed using a frequency-dependent analysis and 51-year running correlation analysis from the millennium-long tree-ring δ13C and δ18O series. Dual-isotope approach indicated that stomatal limitations created a statistical significant positive correlation between tree-ring δ13C and δ18O, but photosynthetic rate may be dominant when the correlations were not significant. Our results suggest that tree-ring δ13C series in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is responded instability to temperature variations in the past 1000 years.

  6. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China. PMID:21442998

  7. Distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications of brGDGTs-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, Y.; Hou, J.; Chen, L.; He, J.-S.

    2015-06-01

    The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGT) are useful proxies for the reconstruction of mean annual air temperature (MAT) and soil pH. Recently, a series of 6-methyl brGDGTs were identified which were previously co-eluted with 5-methyl brGDGTs. However, little is known about 6-methyl brGDGTs in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we analyze 30 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP, among which 6-methyl brGDGTs were the most abundant components (average 53 ± 17% of total brGDGT). The fractional abundance of 6-methyl brGDGTs showed a good correlation with soil pH, while the global MBT'5ME calibration overestimates MAT in the QTP. We therefore proposed a MBT5/6 index including both 5- and 6-methyl brGDGTs, presenting a strong correlation with MAT in QTP: MAT = -20.14 + 39.51 × MBT5/6 (n = 27, r2 = 0.82; RMSE = 1.3 °C). Another index, namely IBT (isomerization of branched tetraether), based on carbon skeleton isomerization of the 5-methyl to 6-methyl brGDGTs, is dependent on soil pH: pH = 6.77 - 1.56 × IBT (n = 27; r2 = 0.74, RMSE = 0.32). Our study suggests that changing the position of methyl group of brGDGTs may be another mechanism for some soil bacteria to adapt to the ambient pH change in addition to the well-known cyclization.

  8. Language Planning from below: The Case of the Xhariep District of the Free State Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Theodorus

    2010-01-01

    The Xhariep District is the largest district municipality of the Free State Province of South Africa, covering 26% of the total land surface of this province. It comprises three local municipalities, namely Letsemeng, Kopanong and Mohokare and contains a total of 17 towns. The District is a multilingual area, with Afrikaans (37.1%) and Sotho…

  9. CO_{2} and CH_{4} emission patterns of alpine peatland on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haijun; Hong, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Though covering only 3% of the Earth's land surface, peatlands contain more than 600 Pg C, which is equivalent to one third of the world's soil organic carbon pool. Peatlands are sensitive to climate change, and remain an important carbon sink and CH4 source. There were 4.6×109 m2 peatlands developed in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (average 3400 m above sea level), while 69% of them are intact peatlands. These peatlands climatologically located in the overlapping area of East Asian summer monsoon and Indian Ocean summer monsoon, thus are more sensitive to the global change. However, little is known about the carbon emission patterns of those peatlands and how they react to climate change. For assessing the magnitude of diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH4 flux, Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange (NEE) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and identifying the dependence of these fluxes on environmental factors, from August 2012 to May 2015, an eddy covariance tower with open-path CH4 and CO2 analyzer, and a LI-8100 automated soil flux system were established in Hongyuan Peatland, which is a typical intact alpine peatland in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. During growing season, there was a clear sinusoid-like diurnal pattern in ER with peaks occurred at 14:00 and valleys occurred at 10:00, the NEE peak values occurred between 12:00-15:00, and the diurnal peaks and valleys in CH4 fluxes appeared at approximately 17:00 and 1:00, respectively. Daily mean NEE were negetive values and daily mean ER were above 1 μmol CO2/m2/s, the lowest NEE is -4.65 μmol CO2/m2/s, and the largest ER was 5.78 μmol CO2/m2/s, and they all appeared in July; daily mean CH4 fluxes varied between 0.05-0.25 μmol CH4/m2/s with peak value appeared in June and July. While during non-growing season, NEE, ER and CH4 fluxes varied at a relatively low level and showed no clear diurnal patterns, daily mean NEE and ER are between 0 to 1 μmol CO2/m2/s, and daily mean CH4 fluxes are

  10. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  11. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  12. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  13. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  14. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  15. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Never Smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an Area of High Incidence of Esophageal Cancer – a Cross-Sectional Study with Repeated Measurement of Urinary 1-OHPG in Two Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Strickland, Paul; Phillips, David H.; Pourshams, Akram; Fazel-Tabar Malekshah, Akbar; Godschalk, Roger; Jafari, Elham; Etemadi, Arash; Abubaker, Salahadin; Kamangar, Farin; Straif, Kurt; Møller, Henrik; Schüz, Joachim; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference = 0.40). In winter, red meat intake (β = 0.208; P = 0.03), processed meat intake (β = 0.218; P = 0.02), and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (“null” genotype: β = 0.228; P = 0.02) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA + GA genotypes: β = –0.256; P = 0.008) showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (> weekly versus never: β = 0.203; P = 0.04), second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β = 0.254; P = 0.01), and GSTM1-02 “null” genotype (β = 0.198; P = 0.04) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT + TT versus CC: β = –0.218; P = 0.03) showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs. PMID:22655262

  16. Occurrence of greigite in the Pliocene sediments of Lake Qinghai, China, and its paleoenvironmental and paleomagnetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chaofeng; Bloemendal, Jan; Qiang, Xiaoke; Hill, Mimi J.; An, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Lake Qinghai in North China is the largest interior plateau lake in Central Asia and is climatically sensitive. An almost continuous 626 m long sediment core was drilled in an infilled part of the southern lake basin of Lake Qinghai. The magnetic susceptibility record reveals the presence of two distinct peaks within an interval of fine-grained lacustrine sediments of Lower Pliocene age. We selected a depth interval of approximately 40 m spanning the magnetic susceptibility peaks for detailed rock magnetic and geochemical analyses in order to identify the magnetic mineralogy responsible and to assess its possible paleoenvironmental and paleomagnetic implications. Rock magnetic, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) analyses reveal that the main magnetic carrier is greigite (Fe3S4). The greigite is of early diagenetic origin and formed in an inerval of high lake level and inferred relatively warm, humid climate. The greigite-enriched zones are separated by an interval of relatively high total sulfur and organic carbon content, and we infer that in the adjacent greigite-bearing zones, the lower concentrations of sulfur and organic carbon, and high levels of reactive iron, arrested the process of pyritization resulting in the preservation of the greigite on a time scale of several million years. The greigite zones contain narrow intervals of normally magnetized sediments which may be previously unrecognized cryptochrons within the Gilbert Chron, or alternatively they may reflect the continued formation of greigite long after the age of deposition of the surrounding sediment matrix.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk surface sediments in Lake Qinghai

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments have been suggested as indicators of weathering intensity by increasing work. However, the geochemistry of Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments is variable between different lakes. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of Rb/Sr ratios, as well as those of other major elements in surface sediments of Lake Qinghai. We find that the spatial pattern of Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk sediments correlates well with that of the mass accumulation rate, and those of the terrigenous fractions, e.g., SiO2, Ti, and Fe. The temporal variations of Rb/Sr ratios also synchronize with those of SiO2, Ti, and Fe of each individual core. These suggest that Rb/Sr ratios of the surface sediments are closely related to terrigenous input from the catchment. Two out of eight cores show similar trends between Rb/Sr ratios and precipitation indices on decadal scales; however, the other cores do not show such relationship. The result of this study suggests that physical weathering and chemical weathering in Lake Qinghai catchment have opposite influence on Rb/Sr ratios of the bulk sediments, and they compete in dominating the Rb/Sr ratios of lake sediments on different spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is necessary to study the geochemistry of Rb/Sr ratio of lake sediments (especially that on short term timescales) particularly before it is used as an indicator of weathering intensity of the catchment. PMID:20615264

  18. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and three stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, and stx2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk. PMID:27047483

  19. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and three stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, and stx 2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk. PMID:27047483

  20. The Impact of Educators' Skills and Training on the Delivery of Music in the Learning Area Arts and Culture within Two Districts of the Gauteng Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopper, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article is the documentation of a sub-research question of a larger empirical study that employed quantitative methods to identify variables that are impacting on the delivery of music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa extrapolated from questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that educators lack specialisation in…

  1. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  2. The 3D crustal structure of Northeastern Tibetan area from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Anhui

    2015-04-01

    The Northeastern Tibetan region is located in the border area of three sub-plates in China, i.e. the Tibetan plateau, North China block and Xinjiang block. Effected simultaneously by the extrusion driven by the India-Eurasia plat collision and the blockage of the Ordos basin, this area has complex geology, strong tectonics activities and suffered from several large historic earthquakes, such as the Haiyuan earthquake (M8.6) in 1920, the Gulang earthquake (M8.0) in 1927. To enhance our understanding of the crustal structure and the interaction between different tectonic blocks of this region, we conduct a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic study by using the arrival time date recorded by regional seismic network. We used 101101 P and 103313 S wave arrival times from 11650 local earthquakes during 1970 to 2013 recorded by 154 permanent seismic stations of the local Seismic Network, installed over five provinces in China, i.e. Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Neimenggu. We first established a 1D primary crustal model from LITHO1.0, an updated crust and lithospheric model of the Earth by weighted averaging. To better performer ray tracing, our inversion involved three discontinuities (including the Moho) with depth variation over the mantle derived from LITHO1.0. Detailed three-dimensional seismic velocity (Vp and Vs) structures of the crust of the Northeastern Tibetan are determined with a horizontal resolution of about 35 km and a depth resolution of 6-20 km. The Poisson's ratio (σ) structure was also estimated after obtained Vp and Vs structures. We detected low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust and relative high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the Longmenshan faults zone, which are in good agreement with the results of most previous geophysical studies. Our results revealed clear different velocity variation beneath both sides of different tectonic blocks. In addition, we found the correlation between our tomographic result and previous

  3. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  4. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, P. ); Burgisser, H. ); Yassin, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  5. Seasonal incursion of Indian Monsoon humidity and precipitation into the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from tree ring δ18O values with intra-seasonal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaomin; Liu, Xiaohong; Evans, Michael N.; Wang, Wenzhi; An, Wenling; Xu, Guobao; Wu, Guoju

    2016-06-01

    Incursion of the Indian Monsoon flow onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is an important regional moisture-delivery mechanism, but the causes of intra-seasonal and longer-term variations are poorly understood. We observed a clear intra-seasonal cycle in the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of Smith fir (Abies forrestii var. georgei) growing at two different altitudes (high-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°42‧E, 4200 m a.s.l.; low-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°43‧E, 3800 m a.s.l.) on a SE-facing slope in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Mechanistic modeling suggests that δ18O of precipitation, which in turn depends on relative humidity and precipitation amount, is important in controlling the intra-seasonal tree-ring isotopic cycle, and we speculate that the same controls also operate on interannual and longer time scales. If so, multi-century δ18O records with intra-seasonal resolution may enable us to infer long-term variations in the incursion of the Indian Monsoon onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Thermal impacts of engineering activities and vegetation layer on permafrost in different alpine ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingbai; Zhang, Zhongqiong; Gao, Siru; Ma, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Climate warming and engineering activities have various impacts on the thermal regime of permafrost in alpine ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Using recent observations of permafrost thermal regimes along the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway, the changes of such regimes beneath embankments constructed in alpine meadows and steppes are studied. The results show that alpine meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can have a controlling role among engineering construction effects on permafrost beneath embankments. As before railway construction, the artificial permafrost table (APT) beneath embankments is not only affected by climate change and engineering activities but is also controlled by alpine ecosystems. However, the change rate of APT is not dependent on ecosystem type, which is predominantly affected by climate change and engineering activities. Instead, the rate is mainly related to cooling effects of railway ballast and heat absorption effects of asphalt pavement. No large difference between alpine and steppe can be identified regarding the variation of soil temperature beneath embankments, but this difference is readily identified in the variation of mean annual soil temperature with depth. The vegetation layer in alpine meadows has an insulation role among engineering activity effects on permafrost beneath embankments, but this insulation gradually disappears because the layer decays and compresses over time. On the whole, this layer is advantageous for alleviating permafrost temperature rise in the short term, but its effect gradually weakens in the long term.

  7. Distributions of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications of GDGT-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, Y.; Hou, J.; Chen, L.; He, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) based on the distribution of bacteria-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are useful proxies for the reconstruction of continental paleotemperature and soil pH. Several calibrations of the MBT-CBT index have been proposed based on global and regional soils and lake sediments. However, little is known about the distribution and applicability of GDGTs proxies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we investigated 33 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP. Redundancy analysis showed that soil pH was the most important factor affecting GDGT distributions, followed by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual air temperature (MAT). The branched-isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index, an indicator for estimation of soil organic matter in aquatic environments, varied from 0.48 to 1 and negatively correlated with soil pH (r2 = 0.38), suggesting that the BIT index should be used with caution in the QTP. A transfer function of the CBT index-soil pH was established to estimate paleo-soil pH in the QTP: pH = 8.33-1.43 × CBT (r2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.27 pH unit). The local calibration of MBT-CBT index presented a weak, still significant correlation with MAT (r2 = 0.36) mainly owing to the additional influence of MAP (r2 = 0.50). Combining our data with previously reported GDGTs for Chinese soils resulted in a new calibration of MBT/CBT-MAT: MAT = 2.68+26.14 × MBT-3.37 × CBT (r2 = 0.73; RMSE = 4.2 °C, n = 164). The correlation coefficient and residual error of this new transfer function is comparable with global calibrations, suggesting that MBT-CBT paleotemperature proxy is still valid in the QTP.

  8. Effects of highway runoff on streamflow and water quality in the Sevenmile Creek basin, a rural area in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, July 1981 to July 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of water-quality data from streams that receive stormwater runoff from a segment of Interstate Highway 85 in North Carolina indicated increased levels of many constituents compared to levels in nearby undeveloped basins. Additional data collected from a network of dry and wet atmospheric deposition collectors, lysimeter samples, soil surveys, wind measurements, and road sweepings helped define the general sources and migration of chemical substances near the highway. The eight study basins, located in a rural area in the Piedmont of North Carolina, had a combined area of 17.5 square miles and drained a 4.8-mile-long segment of the interstate. The average traffic flow along this section was 25,000 vehicles per day. During storm runoff, streamflow in basins traversed by the highway rose and fell more rapidly than that in the undeveloped basins. This more rapid response is due to the impervious, paved area of the basins and the manmade drainage systems designed to rapidly move water off the highway. Alkalinity, specific conductance, and concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride were greater at the highway stations than in the undeveloped basins as a result of highway salting for control of ice. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved and total nitrogen peaked at the beginning of each storm event. The data indicated that, for the study basins, highway runoff had little or no effect on suspended sediment, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. However, the pH at all stations decreased during stormflow because the rainfall drained off by the streams had pH values less than 5.7. High metals concentrations were found in the soils within 100 feet of the highway and in the soil water infiltrating the soil zone. Chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc concentrations in the streams near the highway generally were above the maximum levels recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the protection of aquatic life. Lead and

  9. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. PMID:26458759

  10. Satellite-marked waterfowl reveal migratory connection between H5N1 outbreak areas in China and Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, D.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Yan, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Hou, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Zhao, D.; Perry, W.M.; Palm, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus (n = 14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (n = 11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  11. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  12. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Youquan; Xie, Hui; Meng, Qiong; Jin, Dong; Yu, Bo; Sun, Hui; Lu, Shan; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx1 and stx2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96%) stx1 and/or stx2-positive samples, 85 (61.59%) were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and 5 stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, stx2c, stx2d and stx2g) were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP) were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC. PMID:23776496

  13. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  14. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  15. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    different geohazards in urban and rural areas. These works will be recorded in monthly reports. Informations will be disseminated through a specific program of activities (audiovisual broadcasts, monthly reports posted to internet, conferences, workshops, etc.).

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ruilin; Wei, Kuangrong; Xia, Liang; Xu, Yanjun; Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province by analyzing the cancer data of selected population-based cancer registries in Guangdong province in 2012. Methods Eight of nine population-based cancer registries submitted cancer data to the Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Guangdong CDC), whose data met the data quality criteria were included for analysis. The statistics of selected registries, stratified by areas, gender, age and cancer types, were used to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province according to the population data in Guangdong province. Segi’s population and the national census population in 2000 were used for calculating the age-standardized rates (ASR). Results A total of 15,084,942 people, accounted for 17.47% of all population in Guangdong province, were covered in 8 selected population-based cancer registries in 2012. The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 72.84% and 0.87%, respectively, and the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio was 0.56. It was estimated that there were 211,300 new cancer cases and 117,300 cancer deaths. The incidence crude rate (CR), the ASR by Chinese standard population (ASRC) and by world standard population (ASRW), and the accumulated rate (AR) (0.74 years) were 250.20/100,000 (265.39/100,000 in males, 234.29/100,000 in females), 207.04/100,000, 201.34/100,000 and 22.91%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The incidence CR and ASRC were 267.25/100,000 and 221.43/100,000 in urban areas, and 215.51/100,000 and 178.77/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The death CR, ASRC, ASRW and AR (0.74 years) were 148.44/100,000 (190.95/100,000 in males, 105.06/100,000 in females), 103.73/100,000, 102.44/100,000 and 11.68%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The death CR and ASRC were 164.57/100,000 and 105.46/100,000 in urban areas

  17. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  18. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  19. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  20. Characterization of the life cycle of the tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis under field conditions in Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Li, Tuo; Yu, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Xiao-He; Zuo, Chun-Wei; Wang, Rong-Rong; Li, Ning-Xin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing-Ze

    2016-05-01

    The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis Hoogstraal is found uniquely in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of Tibet and Gansu of China. Not much is known of this tick. Therefore, in this study we investigated the life cycle of H. tibetensis under field conditions from March 2014 to March 2015 in Damxung County, north Lhasa City in Tibet (Autonomous Region in China). The results of the study demonstrated that the tick H. tibetensis requires an average of 177.8 days (range 129-202 days) to complete a life cycle, with rabbits supplied as hosts in the field plot. Under natural lighting and climate conditions, the feeding period of females was an average of 7.7 days, and the pre-oviposition period was 9.4 days, followed by 28.2 days for oviposition. The premolting period of nymphs lasted 52.7 days, which was the longest life cycle phase. The average weight ratio of engorged to unfed females was 58.2. Additionally, there was a highly positive correlation between the weight of engorged and the number of the eggs that were laid (r = 0.83, P < 0.05). The reproductive efficiency index and reproductive fitness index in females were 5.1 and 4.7, respectively. PMID:26873779

  1. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau. PMID:26176705

  2. Climate Change-Induced Range Expansion of a Subterranean Rodent: Implications for Rangeland Management in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Su, Junhu; Aryal, Achyut; Nan, Zhibiao; Ji, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances, both human-induced and natural, may re-shape ecosystems by influencing their composition, structure, and functional processes. Plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi) is a typical subterranean rodent endemic to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which are considered ecosystem engineers influencing the alpine ecosystem function. It is also regarded as a pest aggravating the degradation of overgrazed grassland and subject to regular control in QTP since 1950s. Climate change has been predicted in this region but little research exists exploring its impact on such subterranean rodent populations. Using plateau zokor as a model, through maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) and sustainable habitat models, we investigate zokor habitat dynamics driven by the future climate scenarios. Our models project that zokor suitable habitat will increase by 6.25% in 2050 in QTP. The predication indicated more threats in terms of grassland degradation as zokor suitable habitat will increase in 2050. Distribution of zokors will shift much more in their southern range with lower elevation compare to northern range with higher elevation. The estimated distance of shift ranges from 1 km to 94 km from current distribution. Grassland management should take into account such predictions in order to design mitigation measures to prevent further grassland degradation in QTP under climate change scenarios. PMID:26406891

  3. Key evidence of the role of desertification in protecting the underlying permafrost in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shengbo; Qu, Jianjun; Lai, Yuanming; Xu, Xiangtian; Pang, Yingjun

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the temperature of underlying permafrost decreases after the ground surface is covered with sand. No significant conclusions have yet been drawn that explain why this happens, because the heat transfer mechanism effects of the sand layer on the underlying permafrost remain unclear. These mechanisms were studied in the present work. We found that the upward shortwave radiation flux of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ground surface with a sand layer covering was higher than that of the surface without sand; thus, the atmospheric heat reflected by the sand layer is greater than that reflected by the surface without sand. Therefore, the net radiation of the surface with the sand layer is lower than that of the surface without sand, which reduces the heat available to warm the sand layer. Because sand is both a porous medium and a weak pervious conductor with poor heat conductivity, less heat is conducted through the sand layer to the underground permafrost than in soil without the sand deposition layer. This phenomenon results in a decrease in the ground temperature of the permafrost under the sand layer, which plays a key role in protecting the permafrost.

  4. Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Wang, Lin-Lin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants. PMID:25998558

  5. Evolutionary origin and demographic history of an ancient conifer (Juniperus microsperma) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hui-Ying; Li, Zhong-Hu; Dong, Miao; Adams, Robert P.; Miehe, Georg; Opgenoorth, Lars; Mao, Kang-Shan

    2015-01-01

    All Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) endemic species are assumed to have originated recently, although very rare species most likely diverged early. These ancient species provide an excellent model to examine the origin and evolution of QTP endemic plants in response to the QTP uplifts and the climate changes that followed in this high altitude region. In this study, we examined these hypotheses by employing sequence variation from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA of 239 individuals of Juniperus microsperma and its five congeners. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that J. microsperma diverged from its sister clade comprising two species with long isolation around the Early Miocene, which corresponds to early QTP uplift. Demographic modeling and coalescent tests suggest that J. microsperma experienced an obvious bottleneck event during the Quaternary when the global climate greatly oscillated. The results presented here support the hypotheses that the QTP uplifts and Quaternary climate changes played important roles in shaping the evolutionary history of this rare juniper. PMID:25977142

  6. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau. PMID:26176705

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity Provides Insight into Microbial Pathways and Stress Responses in the Saline Qinghai Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  8. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  9. Responses of Bacterial Communities to Simulated Climate Changes in Alpine Meadow Soil of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Junpeng; Li, Jiabao; An, Jiaxing; Liu, Wen-tso; Lin, Qiaoyan; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, microbial responses to climate warming or cooling remain poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict the consequences of future climate changes. To address this issue, it is critical to identify microbes sensitive to climate change and key driving factors shifting microbial communities. In this study, alpine soil transplant experiments were conducted downward or upward along an elevation gradient between 3,200 and 3,800 m in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau to simulate climate warming or cooling. After a 2-year soil transplant experiment, soil bacterial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The results showed that the transplanted soil bacterial communities became more similar to those in their destination sites and more different from those in their “home” sites. Warming led to increases in the relative abundances in Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, while cooling had opposite effects on bacterial communities (symmetric response). Soil temperature and plant biomass contributed significantly to shaping the bacterial community structure. Overall, climate warming or cooling shifted the soil bacterial community structure mainly through species sorting, and such a shift might correlate to important biogeochemical processes such as greenhouse gas emissions. This study provides new insights into our understanding of soil bacterial community responses to climate warming and cooling. PMID:26116682

  10. Influences of alpine ecosystem degradation on soil temperature in the freezing-thawing process on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongchang; Wang, Genxu; Liu, Guangsheng; Li, Taibing; Ren, Dongxing; Wang, Yibo; Cheng, Huiyan; Wang, Junfeng

    2009-05-01

    The alpine ecosystem is very sensitive to environmental change due to global and local disturbances. The alpine ecosystem degradation, characterized by reducing vegetation coverage or biomass, has been occurring in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which alters local energy balance, and water and biochemical cycles. However, detailed characterization of the ecosystem degradation effect is lack in literature. In this study, the impact of alpine ecosystem degradation on soil temperature for seasonal frozen soil and permafrost are examined. The vegetation coverage is used to indicate the degree of ecosystems degradation. Daily soil temperature is monitored at different depths for different vegetation coverage, for both permafrost and seasonal frozen soils. Results show that under the insulating effort of the vegetation, the freezing and thawing process become quicker and steeper, and the start of the freezing and thawing process moves up due to the insulating effort of the vegetation. The influence of vegetation coverage on the freezing process is more evident than the thawing process; with the decrease of vegetation coverage, the integral of frozen depth increases for seasonal frozen soil, but is vice versa for permafrost.

  11. Responses of Bacterial Communities to Simulated Climate Changes in Alpine Meadow Soil of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Rui, Junpeng; Li, Jiabao; Wang, Shiping; An, Jiaxing; Liu, Wen-tso; Lin, Qiaoyan; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-09-01

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, microbial responses to climate warming or cooling remain poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict the consequences of future climate changes. To address this issue, it is critical to identify microbes sensitive to climate change and key driving factors shifting microbial communities. In this study, alpine soil transplant experiments were conducted downward or upward along an elevation gradient between 3,200 and 3,800 m in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau to simulate climate warming or cooling. After a 2-year soil transplant experiment, soil bacterial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The results showed that the transplanted soil bacterial communities became more similar to those in their destination sites and more different from those in their "home" sites. Warming led to increases in the relative abundances in Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, while cooling had opposite effects on bacterial communities (symmetric response). Soil temperature and plant biomass contributed significantly to shaping the bacterial community structure. Overall, climate warming or cooling shifted the soil bacterial community structure mainly through species sorting, and such a shift might correlate to important biogeochemical processes such as greenhouse gas emissions. This study provides new insights into our understanding of soil bacterial community responses to climate warming and cooling. PMID:26116682

  12. Diversity and community structure of fungi through a permafrost core profile from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    While a vast number of studies have addressed the prokaryotic diversity in permafrost, characterized by subzero temperatures, low water activity, and extremely low rates of nutrient and metabolite transfer, fungal patterns have received surprisingly limited attention. Here, the fungal diversity and community structure were investigated by culture-dependent technique combined with cloning-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of sediments in a 10-m-long permafrost core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. A total of 62 fungal phylotypes related to 10 distinct classes representing three phyla were recovered from 5031 clones generated in 13 environmental gene libraries. A large proportion of the phylotypes (25/62) that were distantly related to described fungal species appeared to be novel diversity. Ascomycota was the predominant group of fungi, with respect to both clone and phylotype number. Our results suggested there was the existence of cosmopolitan psychrophilic or psychrotolerant fungi in permafrost sediments, the community composition of fungi varied with increasing depth, while these communities largely distributed according to core layers. PMID:24920339

  13. Contrasting water use pattern of introduced and native plants in an alpine desert ecosystem, Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huawu; Li, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Zhiyun; Chen, Huiying; Zhang, Cicheng; Xiao, Xiong

    2016-01-15

    Plant water use patterns reflect the complex interactions between different functional types and environmental conditions in water-limited ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the water use patterns of plants in the alpine desert of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau remain poorly understood. This study investigated seasonal variations in the water sources of herbs (Carex moorcroftii, Astragalus adsurgens) and shrubs (Artemisia oxycephala, Hippophae rhamnoides) using stable oxygen-18 isotope methods. The results indicated that the native herbs (C. moorcroftii, A. adsurgens) and one of the shrubs (A. oxycephala) mainly relied on water from the shallow layer (0-30 cm) throughout the growing season, while the introduced shrub (H. rhamnoides) showed plasticity in switching between water from shallow and deep soil layers depending on soil water availability. All studied plants primarily depended on water from shallow soil layers early in the season. The differences of water use patterns between the introduced and native plants are closely linked with the range of active root zones when competing for water. Our findings will facilitate the mechanistic understanding of plant-soil-water relations in alpine desert ecosystems and provide information for screening introduced species for sand fixation. PMID:26519579

  14. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea Community along a Stratigraphic Permafrost Profile from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongpeng; He, Hao; Hu, Fei; Su, Xin; Zhu, Youhai

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying the thawing permafrost expected to result from the climate change, microbial decomposition of the massive amounts of frozen organic carbon stored in permafrost is a potential emission source of greenhouse gases, possibly leading to positive feedbacks to the greenhouse effect. In this study, the community composition of archaea in stratigraphic soils from an alpine permafrost of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was investigated. Phylogenic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the community was predominantly constituted by Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The active layer contained a proportion of Crenarchaeota at 51.2%, with the proportion of Euryarchaeota at 48.8%, whereas the permafrost contained 41.2% Crenarchaeota and 58.8% Euryarchaeota, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. OTU1 and OTU11, affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A within Crenarchaeota and the unclassified group within Euryarchaeota, respectively, were widely distributed in all sediment layers. However, OTU5 affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A was primarily distributed in the active layers. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands from the 16S rRNAs of methanogenic archaea showed that the majority of methanogens belonged to Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales affiliated to Euryarchaeota and the uncultured ZC-I cluster affiliated to Methanosarcinales distributed in all the depths along the permafrost profile, which indicated a dominant group of methanogens occurring in the cold ecosystems. PMID:25525409

  15. Climate Change-Induced Range Expansion of a Subterranean Rodent: Implications for Rangeland Management in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junhu; Aryal, Achyut; Nan, Zhibiao; Ji, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances, both human-induced and natural, may re-shape ecosystems by influencing their composition, structure, and functional processes. Plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi) is a typical subterranean rodent endemic to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which are considered ecosystem engineers influencing the alpine ecosystem function. It is also regarded as a pest aggravating the degradation of overgrazed grassland and subject to regular control in QTP since 1950s. Climate change has been predicted in this region but little research exists exploring its impact on such subterranean rodent populations. Using plateau zokor as a model, through maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) and sustainable habitat models, we investigate zokor habitat dynamics driven by the future climate scenarios. Our models project that zokor suitable habitat will increase by 6.25% in 2050 in QTP. The predication indicated more threats in terms of grassland degradation as zokor suitable habitat will increase in 2050. Distribution of zokors will shift much more in their southern range with lower elevation compare to northern range with higher elevation. The estimated distance of shift ranges from 1 km to 94 km from current distribution. Grassland management should take into account such predictions in order to design mitigation measures to prevent further grassland degradation in QTP under climate change scenarios. PMID:26406891

  16. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats. PMID:27348421

  17. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-01-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants. PMID:26906946

  18. Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Wang, Lin-Lin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants. PMID:25998558

  19. Refugia Persistence of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by the Cold-Tolerant Bird Tetraogallus tibetanus (Galliformes: Phasianidae)

    PubMed Central

    An, Bei; Zhang, Lixun; Liu, Naifa; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Most of the temperate species are expected to have moved to lower altitudes during the glacial periods of the Quaternary. Here we tested this hypothesis in a cold-tolerant avian species Tibetan snowcock (Tetraogallus tibetanus) using two segments of mitochondrial gene (a 705bp Cytochrome-b; abbrev. Cyt-b and an 854 bp Control Region; abbrev. CR) and eight microsatellite loci by characterizing population differentiation and gene flow across its range. Combined (Cyt-b + CR) datasets detected several partially lineages with poor support. Microsatellite data, however, identified two distinct lineages congruent with the geographically separated western and central regions of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The phylogeographic patterns that we observed might be explained by a combination of vicariance events that led to local isolation of T. tibetanus during warm periods and range expansions and population intermixing during cold periods. The results of this study add to our knowledge of population differentiation and connectivity in high altitude mountain ecosystems. PMID:25822918

  20. Evolutionary origin and demographic history of an ancient conifer (Juniperus microsperma) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hui-Ying; Li, Zhong-Hu; Dong, Miao; Adams, Robert P; Miehe, Georg; Opgenoorth, Lars; Mao, Kang-Shan

    2015-01-01

    All Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) endemic species are assumed to have originated recently, although very rare species most likely diverged early. These ancient species provide an excellent model to examine the origin and evolution of QTP endemic plants in response to the QTP uplifts and the climate changes that followed in this high altitude region. In this study, we examined these hypotheses by employing sequence variation from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA of 239 individuals of Juniperus microsperma and its five congeners. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that J. microsperma diverged from its sister clade comprising two species with long isolation around the Early Miocene, which corresponds to early QTP uplift. Demographic modeling and coalescent tests suggest that J. microsperma experienced an obvious bottleneck event during the Quaternary when the global climate greatly oscillated. The results presented here support the hypotheses that the QTP uplifts and Quaternary climate changes played important roles in shaping the evolutionary history of this rare juniper. PMID:25977142

  1. Effects of stratified active layers on high-altitude permafrost warming: a case study on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xicai; Li, Yanping; Yu, Qihao; Shi, Xiaogang; Yang, Daqing; Roth, Kurt

    2016-07-01

    Seasonally variable thermal conductivity in active layers is one important factor that controls the thermal state of permafrost. The common assumption is that this conductivity is considerably lower in the thawed than in the frozen state, λt/λf < 1. Using a 9-year dataset from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in conjunction with the GEOtop model, we demonstrate that the ratio λt/λf may approach or even exceed 1. This can happen in thick (> 1.5 m) active layers with strong seasonal total water content changes in the regions with summer-monsoon-dominated precipitation pattern. The conductivity ratio can be further increased by typical soil architectures that may lead to a dry interlayer. The unique pattern of soil hydraulic and thermal dynamics in the active layer can be one important contributor for the rapid permafrost warming at the study site. These findings suggest that, given the increase in air temperature and precipitation, soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil architecture in those thick active layers must be properly taken into account in permafrost models.

  2. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  3. The Kanin-Timan-Pechora province of Late Devonian intraplate magmatism (position and size)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the distribution of basalts, dolerites, and tuffs in the Kanin-Timan-Pechora large igneous province was completed by generalization of data of geological surveys and analysis of the data of deep drilling. The province appears like a nonisometric ellipse and extends northwestward for a distance of nearly 850 km at the width of 250-500 km. Its area is nearly 285 000 km2. The area of the volcanic rocks is about 85 500 km2. The volume of eruptive material alone could be equal to 1000-1200 km3. The age of formation of the traps corresponds to the late period of activity of the process and was less than 7 mln. y. The formation of the province was result of the action of short-lived and low intensity plumes. But it was one of the episodes of the Late Devonian superplume event in the East European platform. The province is separated by an amagmatic area from neighboring magmatic provinces of the same age. The distance between borders of the provinces is 200-400 km.

  4. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  5. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  6. 3-D movement mapping of the alpine glacier in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by integrating D-InSAR, MAI and Offset-Tracking: Case study of the Dongkemadi Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Sun, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) movements of the Dongkemadi Glacier in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over 2007-2010 are fully determined by using L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) ascending and C-band Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) descending acquisitions. In order to yield an optimal 3-D solution, a variance component estimation (VCE) algorithm is applied to weigh the D-InSAR and MAI measurements derived from PALSAR data and the Offset-Tracking measurements from ASAR data under the scheme of weighted least squares adjustment. By exploiting the InSAR measurements themselves to determine the weights iteratively, the presented approach results in an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter per year for all the three velocity vectors. The horizontal component shows that the four main tributary streams in the Dongkemadi Glacier are all flowing from the central area of the glacier to its surroundings, along the steepest slope descent direction and with a rate up to about 5 m/yr. The glacier thickening or thinning is resolved from the vertical component by subtracting the down-slope movement. A number of interesting accumulation and ablation areas are also detected, with vertical variations of 1-2 m/yr, as a result of the horizontal glacier movement or the existence of concave terrain. This can be used as a good indication of the ice dynamics and the location of the subglacial water in the alpine glacier.

  7. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  8. Application of the empirical orthogonal function to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Gunardi, Utami, Herni; Nurjani, Emilya; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Aluicius, Irwan Endrayanto; Christiawan, Titus

    2016-02-01

    We consider the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province, Indonesia. The EOF is one of the important methods to study the dominant pattern of the data using dimension reduction technique. EOF makes possible to reduce the huge dimension of observed data into a smaller one without losing its significant information in order to figures the whole data. The methods is also known as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which is conducted to find the pattern of the data. DIY Province is one of the province in Indonesia which has special characteristics related to the rainfall pattern. This province has an active volcano, karst, highlands, and also some lower area including beach. This province is bounded by the Indonesian ocean which is one of the important factor to provide the rainfall. We use at least ten years rainfall monthly data of all stations in this area and study the rainfall characteristics based on the four regencies of the province. EOF analysis is conducted to analyze data in order to decide the station groups which have similar characters.

  9. Lessons from malaria control to elimination: case study in Hainan and Yunnan provinces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi-Gui; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Li, Mei; Feng, Xin-Yu; Tang, Lin-Hua; Wang, Shan-Qing; Yang, Heng-Lin; Gao, Qi; Kramer, Randall; Ernest, Tambo; Yap, Peiling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Reduction patterns of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria transmission and the role of an integrated strategy of case management and vector control are compared between different ecological zones. The epidemiology of malaria in Hainan and Yunnan provinces was disparate, even though distinct malaria control strategies have been adapted to different situations based on risk group, vector behaviours, local health infrastructure, and environmental conditions. The island Hainan appears to be victorious in eliminating malaria. However, there is still a long way to go to prevent the reintroduction of malaria in Hainan province and eliminating malaria in the border areas of Yunnan province. This review of the experiences and challenges from malaria control to elimination in Hainan and Yunnan provinces of southern China will provide a basis for the future elimination of malaria in the whole country. PMID:25476881

  10. Louisianian province demonstration report. EMAP-estuaries: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Brooks, G.T.; Heitmuller, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The report summarizes the Louisianian Demonstration Project conducted by the Estuaries Resource Group of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program initiated by EPA to integrate efforts of governmental agencies in evaluations of status and trends of ecological resources of the U.S. The Louisianian Province represents a single biogeographic area corresponding to the Gulf of Mexico. The demonstration project was conducted during July and August 1991, using a probability-based sampling design to evaluate the condition of Gulf of Mexico estuarine resources. The assessment is preliminary and its findings should be confirmed by subsequent years of sampling in the Louisianian Province, which extends from Rio Grande, Texas, to Anclote Anchorage, Florida.

  11. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  12. Evaluation of the hydrological contributions of permafrost to the thermokarst lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuzhong; Wu, Qingbai; Yun, Hanbo; Jin, Huijun; Zhang, Zhongqiong

    2016-05-01

    Considering the widespread distribution of thermokarst lakes and their significant influence on the hydrological cycle in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), it is necessary to study their hydrological regimes, which are responding to ongoing climate-induced permafrost thaw. In this paper, water isotopic tracers were used to assess the temporal and interannual hydrological variations and the hydrological processes of two thermokarst lakes (TL-A and TL-B) associated with thawing permafrost in Beiluhe Basin on the QTP. The isotopic results revealed significant differences between the two thermokarst lakes: the TL-A showed more positive isotopic values and small fluctuations than TL-B did. This can be attributed to the hydrological discrepancies between them. Based on the water isotopic mass balance (IMB) model and estimated evaporation, the contributions of permafrost melt water and precipitation to the thermokarst lakes were determined. In both 2011 and 2012, the contributions of thawing permafrost water to thermokarst lakes were of significance, as high as 61.3%. The modeled isotopic composition of input water (δI), and the relationships between climatic factors and lake water isotopes were evaluated. Results suggested that the two lakes originated from multiple sources and confirmed the modeling process well. It also indicated that thawing of permafrost significantly affected the development and hydrological regime of thermokarst lakes on the QTP. It is necessary to emphasize the significant impact of thawing permafrost on the thermokarst lakes on the QTP. Findings demonstrate that ongoing permafrost thaw may have major implications for thermokarst landscapes as climate change continues.

  13. Spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation remote sensing phenology and its response to climatic factors on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, S.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the MODIS MCD12Q2 remote sensing phenology product, we analyzed spatiotemporal variations of vegetation green-up, maturity, senescence and brown-off dates, and their relation to spatiotemporal patterns of air temperature and precipitation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). From 2001 to 2012, phenological time series at about 11.7%~15.1% pixels indicate significant linear trends (P<0.1) with strong spatial consistency. Namely, pixels with significant phenological advancement and growing season lengthening are mainly distributed in the middle and eastern parts of the QTP, while pixels with significant phenological delay and growing season shortening are mainly distributed in the western and southern parts as well as the eastern edge of the QTP. Similar spatial patterns for positive and negative linear trends of the minimum and maximum EVI, and the time-integrated EVI during the growing season were detected in the above two regions, respectively. With regard to climatic factors, mean annual temperature shows an increased trend over the QTP except for the eastern edge, whereas annual precipitation displays an increased trend in the middle and eastern parts but a decreased trend in the western and southern parts as well as the eastern edge of the QTP. These findings suggest that phenological advancement, growing season lengthening, and vegetation activity enhancement in the middle and eastern parts might be attributed to coincident temperature and precipitation increase. By contrast, phenological delay, growing season shortening, and vegetation activity reduction in the western and southern parts as well as the eastern edge might be caused by opposite changes of temperature and precipitation, and strong evaporation induced water shortage. Furthermore, a partial correlation analysis indicates that green-up, maturity, and brown-off dates were influenced by preceding temperature and precipitation, while senescence date was affected by preceding precipitation.

  14. Reproductive ecology of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), a hermaphrodite perennial characterized by herkogamy and dichogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuan-wen; He, Ya-ping; Liu, Jian-quan

    2005-05-01

    The combined occurrence of both herkogamy and dichogamy in a hermaphrodite species has been considered to strongly favour outcrossing. In this study, we investigated in detail the reproductive ecology of Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), a hermaphrodite perennial endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In a series of observations and experiments over four consecutive years, we examined whether the combination of dichogamy and herkogamy in individual flowers completely prevents geitonogamous pollen transfer in this species. The mode of floral development clearly indicates that autonomous self-pollination is completely avoided through herkogamy and dichogamy in individual flowers. This implication was confirmed by the breeding experiments, since no seed was produced when flowers were isolated. However, this gentian proved to be highly self-compatible when geitonogamous selfing was artificially induced. Many flowers opened simultaneously on individual plants, the ratio of male to female phase flowers was close to 2:1 in each inflorescence at the full anthesis phase, and they were randomly distributed amongst the upper, middle and lower parts of each stem's inflorescence. On average, Bombus sushikini Skorikov, the most frequent visitor and only legitimate pollinator of G. straminea, visited nearly two flowers per inflorescence, and four flowers per plant. Among the pollinators' foraging bouts, the proportions of geitonogamous visits to inflorescences or flowers within an individual plant were 29% and 37%, respectively. Therefore, despite the strict dichogamous and herkogamous characteristics of the individual flowers, geitonogamous selfing might still prevail in G. straminea because of the size of its floral displays and the continuous visiting behavior of B. sushkini.

  15. Pore Effect on the Occurrence and Formation of Gas Hydrate in Permafrost of Qilian Mountain, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Lu, H.; Lu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Gas hydrates were found in the permafrost of Qilian Mountain, Qinghai- Tibet Plateau, China in 2008. It has been found that gas hydrates occur in Jurassic sedimentary rocks, and the hydrated gases are mainly thermogenic. Different from the gas hydrates existing in loose sands in Mallik, Mackenzie Delta, Canada and North Slope, Alaska, USA, the gas hydrates in Qilian Mountain occurred in hard rocks. For understanding the occurrence and formation mechanism of gas hydrate in hard rcok, extensive experimental investigations have been conducted to study the pore features and hydrate formation in the rocks recovered from the hydrate layers in Qilian Mountain. The structures of sedimentary rock were observed by high-resolution X-ray CT, and pore size distribution of a rock specimen was measured with the mercury-injection method. Methane hydrate was synthesized in water-saturated rocks, and the saturations of hydrate in sedimentary rocks of various types were estimated from the amount of gas released from certain volume of rock. X-ray CT observation revealed that fractures were developed in the rocks associated with faults, while those away from faults were generally with massive structure. The mercury-injection analysis of pore features found that the porosities of the hydrate-existing rocks were generally less than 3%, and the pore sizes were generally smaller than 100 nm. The synthesizing experiments found that the saturation of methane hydrate were generally lower than 6% of pore space in rocks, but up to 16% when fractures developed. The low hydrate saturation in Qilian sedimentary rocks has been found mainly due to the small pore size of rock. The low hydrate saturation in the rocks might be the reason for the failure of regional seismic and logging detections of gas hydrates in Qilian Mountain.

  16. Net exchanges of methane and carbon dioxide on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhenong; Zhuang, Qianlai; He, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Xudong; Song, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that affects the global climate system. Knowledge about land-atmospheric CH4 exchanges on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is insufficient. Using a coupled biogeochemistry model, this study analyzes the net exchanges of CH4 and CO2 over the QTP for the period of 1979-2100. Our simulations show that the region currently acts as a net CH4 source with 0.95 Tg CH4 y-1 emissions and 0.19 Tg CH4 y-1 soil uptake, and a photosynthesis C sink of 14.1 Tg C y-1. By accounting for the net CH4 emission and the net CO2 sequestration since 1979, the region was found to be initially a warming source until the 2010s with a positive instantaneous radiative forcing peak in the 1990s. In response to future climate change projected by multiple global climate models (GCMs) under four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, the regional source of CH4 to the atmosphere will increase by 15-77% at the end of this century. Net ecosystem production (NEP) will continually increase from the near neutral state to around 40 Tg C y-1 under all RCPs except RCP8.5. Spatially, CH4 emission or uptake will be noticeably enhanced under all RCPs over most of the QTP, while statistically significant NEP changes over a large-scale will only appear under RCP4.5 and RCP4.6 scenarios. The cumulative GHG fluxes since 1979 will exert a slight warming effect on the climate system until the 2030s, and will switch to a cooling effect thereafter. Overall, the total radiative forcing at the end of the 21st century is 0.25-0.35 W m-2, depending on the RCP scenario. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for both CH4 and CO2 in quantifying the regional GHG budget.

  17. Effects of Warming on CO2 Fluxes in an Alpine Meadow Ecosystem on the Central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Gao, Qingzhu; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Yan; Li, Yawei; Cao, Xujuan; Wan, Yunfan; Li, Yue; Danjiu, Luobu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze CO2 fluxes under conditions of climate change in an alpine meadow on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we simulated the effect of warming using open top chambers (OTCs) from 2012 to 2014. The OTCs increased soil temperature by 1.62°C (P < 0.05), but decreased soil moisture (1.38%, P < 0.05) during the experiments. The response of ecosystem CO2 fluxes to warming was variable, and dependent on the year. Under conditions of warming, mean gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) during the growing season increased significantly in 2012 and 2014 (P < 0.05); however, ecosystem respiration (ER) increased substantially only in 2012 (P < 0.05). The net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) increased marginally in 2012 (P = 0.056), did not change in 2013(P > 0.05), and increased significantly in 2014 (P = 0.034) under conditions of warming. The GEP was more sensitive to climate variations than was the ER, resulting in a large increase in net carbon uptake under warming in the alpine meadow. Under warming, the 3-year averages of GEP, ER, and NEE increased by 19.6%, 15.1%, and 21.1%, respectively. The seasonal dynamic patterns of GEP and NEE, but not ER, were significantly impacted by warming. Aboveground biomass, particularly the graminoid biomass increased significantly under conditions of warming. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and aboveground biomass were the main factors that affected the variation of the ecosystem CO2 fluxes. The effect of warming on inter- and intra-annual patterns of ecosystem CO2 fluxes and the mechanism of different sensitivities in GEP and ER to warming, require further researched. PMID:26147223

  18. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem. PMID

  19. Analysis of the seasonal ozone budget and the impact of the summer monsoon on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Hou, Xuewei; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in ozone (O3) and the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon at Mount Waliguan (WLG) in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (TP) and in the surrounding regions were analyzed for 1997-2007 using a global chemical transport model coupled with O3 tagging simulations. The model-simulated O3 and its precursors agreed well with observed values. An O3 budget analysis combined with O3 tagging results implied that photochemistry over the TP and long-range transport of O3 from East Asia, Europe, and Africa were responsible for the surface O3 summer maximum at WLG. In June, the contribution of O3 from the TP was 11.8 ppbv, and the total contribution of O3 transport from eastern China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Europe, and Africa was 22.7 ppbv. At 400 mb, the O3 exports from the stratosphere, Europe, Africa, and the Americas seemed to be the main sources of O3 at WLG. The contributions to surface O3 from deep convection process and lightning-induced photochemistry at WLG were both low in summer and are unlikely to be the key processes or contributors for the O3 peak. At several mountain sites in southeast East Asia, the increasing summer monsoon index was related to a decreasing trend for O3 from spring onward at Mount Tai and Mount Huang. At Mount Hua and WLG, regional O3 accumulated over the monsoon's northernmost marginal zone under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon and TP thermal circulation; this is most likely a key reason for the O3 summer maxima.

  20. Stable carbon isotopic evidence of methane consumption and production in three alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tomomichi; Yamada, Keita; Tang, Yanhong; Yoshida, Naohiro; Wada, Eitaro

    2013-10-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil CH4 consumption and production in alpine ecosystems, we for the first time examined the stable carbon isotope ratio of CH4 (δ13C-CH4) at three major grassland vegetation types, alpine meadow, alpine shrub, and alpine wetland, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The alpine meadow and shrub showed net CH4 absorption in their vertical profiles of CH4 concentration in summer, but a difference in their processes. Whereas the alpine shrub was dominated by CH4 consumption in its soil profile, CH4 production in the alpine meadow could slightly cancel consumed CH4 in shallow soil from -0.3 to -0.1 m. This potential CH4 production can be attributed to the relatively wet soil type of that ecosystem, which might allow methanogenesis to act in moist soil lumps in the shallow layer. The alpine wetland differed in methane production, consumption, and transport pathways between hummock and hollow plots. In summer, both plots were enriched in 13C-CH4 in dissolved CH4 in soil pore water, suggesting that CH4 production was conducted mainly by acetate fermentation. In autumn, CH4 production was shifted toward CO2/H2 reduction. Furthermore, in hummocks, plant-mediated transport of CH4 by vascular plants appeared to perform passive CH4 flow from deep soil to atmosphere, which allowed the produced CH4 to bypass the oxidation zone in shallow soil. In hollows, however, CH4 produced in shallow soil was subject to simultaneous oxidation. The fractional oxidation rate on gross CH4 production in hollows was estimated by simple mass balance model at 7-17% in summer and 35-36% in autumn.

  1. The impacts of climate change and human activities on biogeochemical cycles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Fang, Xiuqing; Gao, Yongheng; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Gang; Tian, Jianqing; Kang, Xiaoming; Piao, Shilong; Ouyang, Hua; Xiang, Wenhua; Luo, Zhibin; Jiang, Hong; Song, Xingzhang; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Guirui; Zhao, Xinquan; Gong, Peng; Yao, Tandong; Wu, Jianghua

    2013-10-01

    With a pace of about twice the observed rate of global warming, the temperature on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Earth's 'third pole') has increased by 0.2 °C per decade over the past 50 years, which results in significant permafrost thawing and glacier retreat. Our review suggested that warming enhanced net primary production and soil respiration, decreased methane (CH(4)) emissions from wetlands and increased CH(4) consumption of meadows, but might increase CH(4) emissions from lakes. Warming-induced permafrost thawing and glaciers melting would also result in substantial emission of old carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and CH(4). Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission was not stimulated by warming itself, but might be slightly enhanced by wetting. However, there are many uncertainties in such biogeochemical cycles under climate change. Human activities (e.g. grazing, land cover changes) further modified the biogeochemical cycles and amplified such uncertainties on the plateau. If the projected warming and wetting continues, the future biogeochemical cycles will be more complicated. So facing research in this field is an ongoing challenge of integrating field observations with process-based ecosystem models to predict the impacts of future climate change and human activities at various temporal and spatial scales. To reduce the uncertainties and to improve the precision of the predictions of the impacts of climate change and human activities on biogeochemical cycles, efforts should focus on conducting more field observation studies, integrating data within improved models, and developing new knowledge about coupling among carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles as well as about the role of microbes in these cycles. PMID:23744573

  2. Evolution of permafrost on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau since the end of the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H. J.; Chang, X. L.; Wang, S. L.

    2007-06-01

    The present distribution of permafrost on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (QTP) is largely a relict of the permafrost formed during the late Pleistocene. It has been degrading and shrinking in areal extent under the fluctuating climates, with a general trend of warming, during the Holocene. The major criteria for the occurrence of relict permafrost include the remnants of ancient buried permafrost, relict permafrost tables, thawed sandwiches (taliks), thick-layered ground ice, and periglacial phenomena such as pingo scars, cryoturbations, primary sand and clayey silt wedges, ice wedge casts, aeolian sand dunes and loesses, thick layers of peat, and humic soils. On the basis of 14C dating of soils, comprehensive analyses, and comparisons of the spatiotemporal distribution of relict and modern permafrost and periglacial phenomena, the evolution of permafrost and periglacial environments since the late Pleistocene was divided into seven stages: (1) the cold period at the end of the late Pleistocene (35,000 to 10,800 years B.P.); (2) the period of significant climatic change during the early Holocene (10,800 to ˜8500-7000 years B.P.), (3) the Megathermal period in the middle Holocene (˜8500-7000 to ˜4000-3000 years B.P.), (4) the cold period in the late Holocene (˜4000-3000 to 1000 years B.P.), (5) the warm period in the later Holocene (1000 to 500 years B.P.), (6) the Little Ice Age (500 to 100 years B.P.), and (7) the recent warming period (100 years B.P. to present). The conditions for permafrost development, distribution, and the paleoclimates and paleoenvironments are discussed for each stage.

  3. Mapping vegetation cover and biomass on the Qinghai-Tibet-Plateau using hyperspectral measurements and multispectral satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hanna; Lehnert, Lukas W.; Wang, Yun; Reudenbach, Christoph; Nauss, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Pastoralism is the dominant land-use on the Qinghai-Tibet-Plateau (QTP) providing the major economic resource for the local population. However, the pastures are highly supposed to be affected by ongoing degradation whose extent is still disputed. This study uses hyperspectral in situ measurements and multispectral satellite images to assess vegetation cover and above ground biomass (AGB) as proxies of pasture degradation on a regional scale. Using Random Forests in conjunction with recursive feature selection as modeling tool, it is tested whether the full hyperspectral information is needed or if multispectral information is sufficient to accurately estimate vegetation cover and AGB. To regionalize pasture degradation proxies, the transferability of the locally derived models to high resolution multispectral satellite data is assessed. For this purpose, 1183 hyperspectral measurements and vegetation records were sampled at 18 locations on the QTP. AGB was determined on 25 0.5x0.5m plots. Proxies for pasture degradation were derived from the spectra by calculating narrow-band indices (NBI). Using the NBI as predictor variables vegetation cover and AGB were modeled. Models were calculated using the hyperspectral data as well as the same data resampled to WorldView-2, QuickBird and RapidEye channels. The hyperspectral results were compared to the multispectral results. Finally, the models were applied to satellite data to map vegetation cover and AGB on a regional scale. Vegetation cover was accurately predicted by Random Forest if hyperspectral measurements were used. In contrast, errors in AGB estimations were considerably higher. Only small differences in accuracy were observed between the models based on hyper- compared to multispectral data. The application of the models to satellite images generally resulted in an increase of the estimation error. Though this reflects the challenge of applying in situ measurements to satellite data, the results still show a

  4. Continuous but diverse advancement of spring-summer phenology in response to climate warming across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Zhoutao; Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Fan, Deqin; Zhang, Donghai

    2016-04-25

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is more vulnerable and sensitive to climate change than many other regions worldwide because of its high altitude, permafrost geography, and harsh physical environment. As a sensitive bio-indicator of climate change, plant phenology shift in this region has been intensively studied during the recent decades, primarily based on satellite-retrieved data. However, great controversy still exists regarding the change in direction and magnitudes of spring-summer phenology. Based on a large number (11,000+ records) of long-term and continuous ground observational data for various plant species, our study intended to more comprehensively assess the changing trends of spring-summer phenologymore » and their relationships with climatic change across the QTP. The results indicated a continuous advancement (–2.69 days decade–1) in spring-summer phenology from 1981 to 2011, with an even more rapid advancement during 2000–2011 (–3.13 days decade–1), which provided new field evidence for continuous advancement in spring-summer phenology across the QTP. However, diverse advancing rates in spring-summer phenology were observed for different vegetation types, thermal conditions, and seasons. The advancing trends matched well with the difference in sensitivity of spring-summer phenology to increasing temperature, implying that the sensitivity of phenology to temperature was one of the major factors influencing spring-summer phenology shifts. Besides, increased precipitation could advance the spring-summer phenology. As a result, the response of spring-summer phenology to temperature tended to be stronger from east to west across all species, while the response to precipitation showed no consistent spatial pattern.« less

  5. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:26983198

  6. Changes in reference evapotranspiration over an agricultural region in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cungui; Shen, Yanjun; Liu, Fenggui; Meng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as an estimate of the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, has been receiving extensive attention in researches on hydrological cycle. Sensitivity of ET0 to major climatic variables has significant applications in climatology, hydrology, and agrometeorology and is also important to improve our understanding of the connections between climatic conditions and ET0 variability. In this study, we used the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate ET0 and adopted a nondimensional sensitivity coefficient formula to analyze sensitivities of ET0 to four climatic variables based on daily meteorological data from eight meteorological sites in the Huangshui River basin and surrounding areas during 1961-2010. The results indicated that (1) strong correlations with R 2 up to 0.76 exist between observed E pan and calculated annual ET0; (2) ET0 had a decreasing trend in the Huangshui River basin (HRB) during 1961-2010; (3) Spatially, distribution of ET0 was largely correlated with altitude, for instance, the average annual ET0 was larger in low-altitude areas than in high-altitude areas; (4) ET0 was more sensitive to actual vapor pressure in high-altitude areas while it was more sensitive to temperature in low-altitude areas; and (5) ET0 showed a decreasing trend and was consistent with the decreases in net radiation and wind speed at seasonal and annual time scales in HRB during 1961-2010. Sensitivity analysis of ET0 to major climatic variables revealed that temperature was primarily responsible for changes in ET0 in the growing season while actual vapor pressure was the dominating factor causing changes in ET0 in the nongrowing season. However, annual averaged ET0 was more sensitive to actual vapor pressure ( R 2 = 0.63), indicating that actual vapor pressure was possibly the primary climatic variable that causes changes in annual ET0.

  7. An analytical method about anomalies on the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters-taking 2 M =7 earthquakes occurring in Qinghai as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Heqing; Yang, Mingzhi

    2014-05-01

    Based on the random field theory, a new method of the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters has been proposed. This method is that the natural perpendicular function development has been used on the random field function of seismic activity first. And then the synthetical variables constituted of the linear combination of four seismic activity parameters, i.e. the seismic strain release E-, the average distance between each two earthquakes D, the average time interval between each two earthquakes T , and the earthquake occurrence rate N have been studied. Though the analysis on the synthetical variables about the field, the seismic activity anomalies before large earthquakes have been drew. As the examples, the Gonghe M=7.0 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 1990 and the Yushu M=7.1 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 2010 have been discussed. The results have showed that before the two M=7 earthquakes, the main synthetical variables have all showed obvious abnormal variations, displaying better corresponding relationship with these two earthquakes. The synthetical variables of seismic activity field can focus on the slight differences which are included in each original variable. And the abnormal variations showed from the synthetical variables are as obvious as possible. The authors think that the synthetical variable method is possibly an effective analytic technique. Key words: seismic activity field; natural perpendicular function development; synthetical variables; anomaly; Earthquake example

  8. The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to Warming and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by environmental variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global warming, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Warming and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to warming or grazing. Warming and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but warming with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by warming and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to warming and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global environmental change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741

  9. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to warming and grazing differs between soil and roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by environmental variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global warming, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Warming and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to warming or grazing. Warming and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but warming with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by warming and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to warming and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global environmental change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741

  10. Early middle Miocene tectonic uplift of the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau evidenced by geochemical and mineralogical records in the western Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaowen; Hong, Hanlie; Abels, Hemmo A.; Li, Zhaohui; Cao, Kai; Yin, Ke; Song, Bowen; Xu, Yadong; Ji, Junliang; Zhang, Kexin

    2016-04-01

    The Tarim Basin in western China has been receiving continuous marine to lacustrine deposits during the Cenozoic as a foreland basin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Clay mineralogy and geochemical proxy data from these sedimentary archives can shed light on climate and tectonic trends. Here we report on an abrupt mineralogical and weathering shift at 17 Ma ± 1 Myr in the Miocene Qimugan section in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The rapid shift involves decreasing trends of chemical weathering indices, Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr ratios, and of minor and immobile elements with respect to upper crust composition as well as increasing trends of Na/Al and Na/Ti ratios, smectite, chlorite, and calcite contents. We ascribe these trends to changing source rocks due to uplift of the northern part of the QTP leading to exposures of younger intrusive bodies and older gneisses, schists, and carbonate-rich rocks. These uplifts potentially caused regional aridification reducing chemical weathering. The dating is indirect via magnetostratigraphically dated ostracod biostratigraphy and detrital zircon chronology and currently not good enough to compare the shift accurately in time with the onset of the global middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO) at 16.5 Ma. Nevertheless, regional tectonics seem to have dominated over global climate as the warmer MMCO is expected to have increased weathering indices and decreased Na/Al and Na/Ti, rather than the observed reverse trends.

  11. Quaternary climate and environmental changes have shaped genetic differentiation in a Chinese pheasant endemic to the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gu, Langyu; Liu, Yang; Que, Pinjia; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-04-01

    The geological complexity generated by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the resulting habitat heterogeneity have functioned together with climatic oscillations in the Quaternary to have a profound impact on the patterns of genetic diversity and demography of the fauna in this region. To understand the effect of the climatic and environmental shifts of the Quaternary on intraspecific genetic patterns and evolutionary history, we investigated the population genetic structure of the blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), an endemic bird inhabiting the easternmost region of the plateau. Our phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and eight autosomal microsatellites reveals that the blue eared pheasant is subdivided into four distinct subpopulations: a central group (Huzhu and Taizi Mountains), a southern Zoige group, a southernmost Wanglang group and the northernmost Helan Mountain group. These groups are likely to have diverged in the Pleistocene, corresponding to geological changes and the interglacial-glacial climate oscillations that occurred at the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These subpopulations thus represent major conservation units, especially for the isolated Helan subpopulation. Our findings provide evidence of population divergence driven by complex Quaternary climate and environmental changes and, once more, highlight the importance of phylogeographic studies for conservation endeavours. PMID:23280367

  12. Relationships between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Roadside Topsoil and Distance to Road Edge Based on Field Observations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Gao, Dan; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) in roadside topsoil in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and evaluated the potential environmental risks of these roadside heavy metals due to traffic emissions. A total of 120 topsoil samples were collected along five road segments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The nonlinear regression method was used to formulize the relationship between the metal concentrations in roadside soils and roadside distance. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was applied to assess the degrees of heavy metal contaminations. The regression results showed that both of the heavy metals’ concentrations and their ecological risk indices decreased exponentially with the increase of roadside distance. The large R square values of the regression models indicate that the exponential regression method can suitably describe the relationship between heavy metal accumulation and roadside distance. For the entire study region, there was a moderate level of potential ecological risk within a 10 m roadside distance. However, Cd was the only prominent heavy metal which posed potential hazard to the local soil ecosystem. Overall, the rank of risk contribution to the local environments among the eight heavy metals was Cd > As > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Zn > Cr. Considering that Cd is a more hazardous heavy metal than other elements for public health, the local government should pay special attention to this traffic-related environmental issue. PMID:23439515

  13. Salinity control on the ratio of archaeol to caldarchaeol in highland lakes of the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications for paleosalinity proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C.; Jiang, H.; Dong, H.; Lu, H.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    The ratio of archaeol to caldarchaeol has been proposed recently as an index for paleosalinity reconstruction, which is principally based on archaeal core lipids (CLs) from coastal salt pans [Turich C. and Freeman K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157]. Here we examined possible relationships between salinity and the ratio of archaeol to caldarchaeol (referred to as ACE') in both CLs and polar lipids (PLs) from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments of lakes and surrounding soil on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our results show that ACE' values were positively correlated with salinity in all samples; however, CL ACE' values were systematically higher than PL ACE' values in both lake water and soil, probably due to unequal degradation kinetics of intact polar (IP) archaeol and IP caldarchaeol. On the other hand, surface sediment ACE' values from both CLs and PLs were lower than SPM ACE' values, probably due to enhanced production of caldarchaeol relative to archaeol in the sediment. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of archaeol to caldarchaeol reflects changes in salinity in diverse environments on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; however, a good understanding of degradation kinetics of polar archaeol and caldarchaeol and in situ production of caldarchaeol and archaeol in soil and the aquatic system is needed before the proposed salinity proxy can be used in paleosalinity studies of terrestrial environments.

  14. An improved model for soil surface temperature from air temperature in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guojie; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Li, Ren; Wu, Tonghua; Xie, Changwei; Pang, Qiangqiang; Cheng, Guodong

    2016-06-01

    Soil temperature plays a key role in hydro-thermal processes in environments and is a critical variable linking surface structure to soil processes. There is a need for more accurate temperature simulation models, particularly in Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (QXP). In this study, a model was developed for the simulation of hourly soil surface temperatures with air temperatures. The model incorporated the thermal properties of the soil, vegetation cover, solar radiation, and water flux density and utilized field data collected from Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (QXP). The model was used to simulate the thermal regime at soil depths of 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm and results were compared with those from previous models and with experimental measurements of ground temperature at two different locations. The analysis showed that the newly developed model provided better estimates of observed field temperatures, with an average mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and the normalized standard error (NSEE) of 1.17 °C, 1.30 °C and 13.84 %, 0.41 °C, 0.49 °C and 5.45 %, 0.13 °C, 0.18 °C and 2.23 % at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depths, respectively. These findings provide a useful reference for simulating soil temperature and may be incorporated into other ecosystem models requiring soil temperature as an input variable for modeling permafrost changes under global warming.

  15. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  16. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

  17. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  18. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  19. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura Edith

    2013-03-01

    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  20. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  1. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  2. Wetland landscape pattern evolvement character and its driving mechanism based on TM images of Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chunfang; Xu, Kai; Wu, Chonglong; Deng, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi

    2007-06-01

    Wetland, as an ecosystem with special functions, is the transitional areas between water and land in the earth, which has the richest biology diversity in nature, and is one of the most important surviving environments of human beings. Based on analysis of the terrain maps, remote sensing images, statistic data of wetland of Hubei province from 1985 to 2005, and with the technology of Remote Sensing (abbr. RS) and Geographic Information System (abbr. GIS), the wetland landscape spatial database and attribute database of Hubei province are set up using ARCGIS software of the year of 1985, 1995 and 2005.At the same time, according to fractal geometry and landscape ecological methodology and the theories, we can quantitatively analyze the form characters, evolution rules, and change factors of the wetland landscape pattern of Hubei provinces by calculating its diversity index, dominance index, equality index, fragmentation index, isolation index and fractal dimension, and so on. As a result, the wetland's form characters and evolution process of Hubei province are compared and analyzed; its time-spatial evolution character and mechanism during the past 20 years are demonstrated. And various natural and social factors, human activities, and driving forces which exert a significant impact on the evolution of Hubei province wetland are anatomized here. In the end, some advice will be given that human beings should adjust land-use structure in lake districts, reasonably develop, recover and reconstruct positive ecoenvironment, and promote its sustainable development in Hubei province according to its ecological environment characteristics.

  3. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  4. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm). PMID:22126029

  5. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  6. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  7. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  8. Evaluating ecosystem service change in Jiangxi Province of China based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Huang, Xianjing; Ma, Yuandan

    2009-10-01

    The function and services of ecosystem are important components of the life-support system in the planet, as well as the basic elements for sustainable development of environment and society. In this study, the change of ecosystem function and services in Jiangxi Province of China were estimated by employing the classification and economic parameters from Costanza et al. The types and area of terrestrial